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CHEMISTRY SN2311P51 Page 1

TASK 1

















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CHEMICAL BONDING
Though the periodic table has only 118 or so elements, there are obviously more
substances in nature than 118 pure elements. This is because atoms can react with
one another to form new substances called compounds. Formed when two or more
atoms chemically bond together, the resulting compound is unique both chemically
and physically from its parent atoms.
The element sodium is a silver-colored metal that reacts so violently with water that
flames are produced when sodium gets wet. The element chlorine is a greenish
colored gas that is so poisonous that it was used as a weapon in World War I. When
chemically bonded together, these two dangerous substances form
the compound sodium chloride, a compound so safe that we eat it every day. These
are example of common table salt;


In 1916, the American chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis proposed that chemical
bonds are formed between atoms because electrons from the atoms interact with each
other. Lewis had observed that many elements are most stable when they contain
eight electrons in their valence shell. He suggested that atoms with fewer than
eight valence electrons bond together to share electrons and complete
their valence shells.
While some of Lewis' predictions have since been proven incorrect (he suggested
that electrons occupy cube-shaped orbitals), his work established the basis of what is
known today about chemical bonding. We now know that there are two main types of
chemical bonding; ionic bonding and covalent bonding.

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IONIC (ELECTROVALENT) BONDING
In ionic bonding, electrons are completely transferred from one atoms of one element
to the atoms of another element. In the process of either losing or gaining negatively
charged electrons, the reacting atoms form ions. The oppositely charged ions are
attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, which are the basis of the ionic bond.
Sodium chloride is an example of a substance with ionic bonds. The electronic
configuration of the sodium atom and chlorine atom are;

3s
11
Na: 2.8.1 or 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1

17
Cl: 2.8.7 or 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5
3s 3p


In the formation of sodium chloride, the lone electron in the 3s orbital of sodium is
transferred to the half-filled 3p orbital of the chlorine atom. The sodium atom becomes
the Na
+
ion while the chlorine atom becomes the Cl
-
ion.

Na Na
+
+ e
-
Cl + e
-
Cl
-

(2.8.1) (2.8) (2.8.7) (2.8.8)


The Na
+
and Cl
-
ions attract one another to form sodium chloride. Ionic bonds
are formed.












Na
Cl
-

Ionic bond

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The example of reaction of sodium with chlorine:

sodium (on the left) loses
its one valence electron to
chlorine (on the right),
resulting in

a positively charged sodium ion
(left) and a negatively charged
chlorine ion (right).
The reaction of sodium with chlorine
(Concept simulation - Reenacts the reaction of sodium with chlorine)

Notice that when sodium loses its one valence electron it gets smaller in size, while
chlorine grows larger when it gains an additional valence electron. This is typical of the
relative sizes of ions to atoms. Positive ions tend to be smaller than their parent atoms
while negative ions tend to be larger than their parent. After the reaction takes place,
the charged Na
+
and Cl
-
ions are held together by electrostatic forces, thus forming
an ionic bond. Ionic compounds share many features in common:
Ionic bonds form between metals and non-metals.
In naming simple ionic compounds, the metal is always first, the non-metal
second (e.g., sodium chloride).
Ionic compounds dissolve easily in water and other polar solvents.
In solution, ionic compounds easily conduct electricity.
Ionic compounds tend to form crystalline solids with high melting temperatures.

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Ionic bonding summary
Metal atoms reacting with non-metal atoms
Transfer of electrons from the metal to the non-metal atoms
Ions with full outer shells formed
Oppositely charged ions are attracted together into a giant structure
by electrostatic attraction
Overall;










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Dot and Cross Diagram (Lewis Diagram)
Only electrons in thee valences shell of an atom are involved in chemical reactions,
we need only to concentrate on the valence shell configuration.
The electrons in the valence shell of an atom can be represented by dots or crosses
in what is known as the Lewis diagram as shown below.


EXAMPLE OF LEWIS ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
Electronic
configuration
2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7
Lewis diagram


Group number 1 2 13 14 15 16 17

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Dot-and-cross diagrams
You need to be able to draw dot-and-cross diagrams to show the ions in some
common ionic compounds.


Sodium chloride, NaCl


Sodium ions have the formula Na
+
, while chloride ions have the formula Cl
-
.











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Magnesium oxide, MgO

Magnesium ions have the formula Mg
2+
, while oxide ions have the formula O
2-
.

Calcium chloride, CaCl
2


Calcium ions have the formula Ca
2+
. Chloride ions have the formula Cl
-
.
Two chloride ions needed to show because two chloride ions are needed to balance the
charge on a calcium ion.


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A dot and cross diagram for an ionic compound shows the number of electrons present
in the outer shell of the atoms from which the compound was made.

For example, the dot and cross diagram for sodium chloride shows that the outer shell
of the sodium E.C. (Na) = 2, 8, 1) is empty when it has been converted to a sodium ion
E.C. (Na
+
) = 2, 8). It also shows that the outer shell of the chlorine E.C. (Cl) = 2, 8, 7)
contains eight electrons when it has been converted into a chloride ion E.C. (Cl
-
) =
2, 8, 8). Here are two more examples of dot and cross diagrams for ionic compounds.

Calcium and Fluorine

Aluminium and Oxygen

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1. Note the use of round brackets to indicate when 2 or 3 ions of one type are
needed to balance the charges and form a neutral compound.
2. Also note the use of dots to indicate the number of electrons that were originally
present in the outer shell of the non-metal atom and crosses to indicate the
number of electrons that have been transferred from the metal atom (or atoms) to
fill the outer shell of the non-metal.
















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FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF IONIC BONDS
1. Ionisation Energy
In the formation of an ionic bond, electrons are transferred from one atom to another
to form cations and anions.
The formation of cations involves the absorption of energy:
M(g) M
n+
(g) + ne
-
H = positive
H is called the ionisation energy.
The ionisation energy of an element increases from the left to the right across a period
and decreases down a group in the Periodic Table.
Ionisation energy increases
Ionisation energy
decreases

Generally, elements on the left of the periodic table (group 1, 2 and 13) tend to form
cations, and this tendency increases lower down the respective groups.





2. Electron Affinity
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
K
Rb
Cs
Fr

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Anions are formed when atoms receive electrons.
X (g) + ne
-
X
n-
(g) H = negative
The H is called the electron affinity. Electron affinity is a measure of the relative
strength of an atom to accept electrons.
The smaller the atomic size and/or the higher the nuclear charge, the stronger is the
attraction for electron. Hence, the electron affinity is higher (or more negative) higher
(or more negative).
Generally, elements in Groups 15, 16 and 17 have a greater tendency to form anions.
This tendency decreases down the group.
3. Lattice Energy
The lattice energy is t he energy released when 1 mol of an ionic solid is formed from
its gaseous ions. For example, sodium chloride and magnesium oxide:
Na
+
(g) + Cl
-
(g) NaCl (s) H = -788 kJ mol
-
1
Mg
2+
(g) + O
2-
(g) MgO (s) H = -3889 kJ mol
-
1
The lattice energy is always negative. It is a measurement of the strength of the
electrostatic force between the oppositely-charged ions in the ionic solid.




COVALENT BONDING

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Covalent chemical bonds involve the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two
atoms, in contrast to the transfer of electrons in ionic bonds. Such bonds lead to stable
molecules if they share electrons in such a way as to create a noble gas configuration
for each atom.
Hydrogen gas forms the simplest covalent bond in the diatomic hydrogen molecule. The
halogens such as chlorine also exist as diatomic gases by forming covalent bonds. The
nitrogen and oxygen which makes up the bulk of the atmosphere also exhibits covalent
bonding in forming diatomic molecules.
There are atoms which do not form ions when they combine with one another to form
new species, especially if this involves the combination of atoms of the same element,
or between atoms of non-metal. For example, the combination of chlorine atoms to form
the chlorine molecule, Cl
2
.
Cl + Cl Cl
2

In this case, the chemical bond is formed through sharing of electrons between the two
chlorine atoms.
Sharing Electrons
A covalent bond forms when two non-metal atoms share a pair of electrons. The
electrons involved are in the highest occupied energy levels - or outer shells - of the
atoms. An atom that shares one or more of its electrons will complete its highest
occupied energy level.
Covalent bonds are strong - a lot of energy is needed to break them. Substances with
covalent bonds often form molecules with low melting and boiling points, such as
hydrogen and water.


Lewis Dot Structures:

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Lewis dot structures are shorthand to represent the valence electrons of an atom. The
structures are written as the element symbol surrounded by dots that represent
the valence electrons. The Lewis structures for the elements in the first two periods of
the periodic table are shown below.


Lewis Dot Structures






Lewis structures can also be used to show bonding between atoms. The
bonding electrons are placed between the atoms and can be represented by a pair of
dots or a dash (each dash represents one pair of electrons, or one bond). Lewis
structures for H
2
and O
2
are shown below.

H
2
H:H
or
H-H
O
2










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A dot and cross diagram for a covalent compound shows the arrangement of the
electrons in the outer shells of all the atoms present in the compound. For example;
Methane, CH
4



Phosphorus trichloride








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In organic chemistry there are double and triple bonds as well as single.
Bond Type Number of electrons
shared
Single
2
Double
4
Triple
6

(SINGLE BOND)
Example for Hydrogen, H
2
:

So a representation of hydrogen:
H - H





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(DOUBLE BOND)
Example for Oxygen, O
2
:

So a representation of oxygen:
O=O

(TRIPLE BOND)
Example for Nitrogen, N
2
:


So a represent of nitrogen:



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General Properties of Covalent Compounds
The bonds holding the atoms together in the covalent molecule are strong covalent
bonds. However the forces holding the molecules together are usually the Weak Van
Der Waals forces. Therefore, most covalent compounds are either gases or liquids at
room conditions or they are solids with low melting points.
There are also covalent compounds which are solids of extremely high melting points.
For example, silicon dioxide, SiO
2
(melting point: 1710C). This is because silicon
dioxide does not exist as simple discrete molecules. It has giant covalent structure.
In order to melt silicon dioxide, all the covalent bonds holding the atoms together have
to be broken completely. This requires a lot of energy, and account for the high melting
point of silicon dioxide.













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Comparison of Properties Ionic and Covalent Compounds



Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds
Crystalline solids (made of ions) Gases, liquids, or solids (made of molecules)
High melting and boiling points Low melting and boiling points
Conduct electricity when melted Poor electrical conductors in all phases
Many soluble in water but not in
non-polar liquid
Many soluble in non-polar liquids but not in
water




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Steps to Drawing a Lewis Structure
Pick a Central Atom
Start your structure by picking a central atom and writing its element symbol. This atom
will be the one with the lowest electronegativity. Sometimes it's difficult to know which
atom is the least electronegative, but you can use the periodic table trends to help you
out. Electronegativity typically increases as you move from left to right across the
periodic table and decreases as you move down the table, from top to bottom. You can
consult a table of electronegativities, but be aware different tables may give you slightly
different values, since electronegativity is calculated.
Once you have selected the central atom, write it down and connect the other atoms to
it with a single bond. You may change these bonds to become double or triple bonds as
you progress.

Count Electrons
Lewis electron dot structures show the valence electrons for each atom. You don't need
to worry about the total number of electrons, only those in the outer shells. The octet
rule states that atoms with 8 electrons in their outer shell are stable. This rule applies
well up to period 4, when it takes 18 electrons to fill the outer orbitals. 32 electrons are
required to fill the outer orbitals of electrons from period 6. However, most of the times
you are asked to draw a Lewis structure; you can stick with the octet rule.





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Place Electrons around Atoms
Once you have determined how many electrons to draw around each atom, start
placing them on the structure. Start by placing one pair of dots for each pair of valence
electrons. Once the lone pairs are placed, you may find some atoms, particularly the
central atom, don't have a complete octet of electrons. This indicates there are double
or possibly triple bonds. Remember, it takes a pair of electrons to form a bond. Once
the electrons have been placed, put brackets around the entire structure. If there is a
charge on the molecule, write it as a superscript on the upper right, outside of the
bracket.
Lewis Structures for Ions of Elements;
The chemical symbol for the element is surrounded by the number of valence
electrons present in the ion. The whole structure is then placed within square
brackets, with a superscript to indicate the charge on the ion.
Atoms will gain or lose electrons in order to achieve a stable, Noble Gas (Group
VIII), electronic configuration.
Negative ions (anions) are formed when an atom gains electrons.
Positive ions (cations) are formed when an atom loses electrons.
Charge
on Ion
1+ 2+ 3+ 4+ 4- 3- 2- 1-
No.
electrons
gained
or lost
1e lost 2e lost 3e lost 4e lost
4e
gained
3e
gained
2e
gained
1e gained
Example H
+

Group
I
+

(Alkali
metals)
Group
II
2+

(alkali
earth
metals)
Group
III
3+

Group
IV
4+

Group
IV
4-

Group
V
3-

Group
VI
2-

Group VII
-

(Halogens)
H
-

(hydride)
Lewis
Structure
(electron
dot
diagram) OR H
+
OR Li
+

OR
Be
2+

OR B
3+
OR C
4+



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The Lewis structure of:

(A) Nitrate ion, NO
3
-




(B) Sulphate ion, SO
4
2-








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(C) Carbonate ion, CO
3
2-


(D) Cyanide ion, CN
-















-
C

N

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The Shape Molecules and Ions
The shape of a molecule is determined by the number of groups of electrons around the
central atom. The 'groups' might be a non-bonding single electron, a non-bonding or
bonding pair of electrons, a double pair of bonding electrons or triple pair of bonding
electrons etc. The electron 'groupings' repel to minimise the potential energy of the
system i.e. to make the A-B-C angle as wide as possible.
The dot and cross diagrams (ox) are presented in 'Lewis style'. In the diagrams the
central atom is denoted by X and attached surrounding bonded atoms by Q. The bond
angle is therefore based on angle between the atoms Q-X-Q.
This is known as The VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION THEORY
MODEL (VSEPR theory, valence shell electron pair repulsion). It has an important 'sub-
rule' which affects the precise bond angle.
Any lone pairs of non-bonding electrons on the central atom X, are closer to X than
bond pairs because there is no Q atom attracting/sharing the lone pair electron charge.
This will increase the repulsion between a lone pair of electrons on X and any other
bonding/non-bonding on X.
The result is two-fold: In terms of electron pair repulsion: lone pair-lone pair > lone pair-
bond pair > bond pair-bond pair.
As the lone pair - 'other pair' repulsion increases, the angle between these pairs
increases, so the Q-X-Q angle will be slightly reduced compared to what might be
expected from the 'simple' geometry of the shape.




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Shape Bonds Lone pairs Total regions
of electrons
Bond angle (o)
approximate
Example
Tetrahedral
4 0 4 109.5


Pyramidal
3 1 4 107


Bent
(angular)
2 2 4 105


Trigonal
(triangular)
3 0 3 120

linear

2

0

2

180









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1. Linear shape, BeCl
2


Two electron pairs around the central atom
The only simple case of this is beryllium chloride, BeCl
2
. The electronegativity difference
between beryllium and chlorine isn't enough to allow the formation of ions.
Beryllium has 2 outer electrons because it is in group 2. It forms bonds to two chlorines,
each of which adds another electron to the outer level of the beryllium. There is no ionic
charge to worry about, so there are 4 electrons altogether - 2 pairs.
It is forming 2 bonds so there are no lone pairs. The two bonding pairs arrange
themselves at 180 to each other, because that's as far apart as they can get. The
molecule is described as being linear.





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2. Trigonal Planar shape, BF
3


Three electron pairs around the central atom
The simple cases of this would be BF
3
or BCl
3
. Boron is in group 3, so starts off with
3 electrons. It is forming 3 bonds, adding another 3 electrons. There is no charge, so
the total is 6 electrons - in 3 pairs.
Because it is forming 3 bonds there can be no lone pairs. The 3 pairs arrange
themselves as far apart as possible. They all lie in one plane at 120 to each other.
The arrangement is called trigonal planar.

In the diagram, the other electrons on the fluorines have been left out because they
are irrelevant.


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3. Tetrahedral shape, CH
4


Four electron pairs around the central atom
There are lots of examples of this. The simplest is methane, CH
4
.
Carbon is in group 4, and so has 4 outer electrons. It is forming 4 bonds to hydrogen,
adding another 4 electrons - 8 altogether, in 4 pairs. Because it is forming 4 bonds,
these must all be bonding pairs.
Four electron pairs arrange themselves in space in what is called
a tetrahedral arrangement. A tetrahedron is a regular triangularly-based pyramid. The
carbon atom would be at the centre and the hydrogen at the four corners. All the bond
angles are 109.5.



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4. Trigonal Bipyramid shape, PF
5


Five electron pairs around the central atom
A simple example: Phosphorus(V) fluoride, PF
5

(The argument for Phosphorus(V) chloride, PCl
5
, would be identical.)
Phosphorus (in group 5) contributes 5 electrons, and the five fluorines 5 more, giving 10
electrons in 5 pairs around the central atom. Since the phosphorus is forming five
bonds, there can't be any lone pairs.
The 5 electron pairs take up a shape described as a trigonal bipyramid - three of the
fluorines are in a plane at 120 to each other; the other two are at right angles to this
plane. The trigonal bipyramid therefore has two different bond angles - 120 and 90.


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TASK 2


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EXPERIMENT REPORT
IONIC AND COVALENT BOND



Ahmad Ferdaus
4/21/2011


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EXPERIMENT: Ionic and Covalent Bond
Aim : To compare properties of ionic and covalent bond.
Materials : Magnesium chloride crystal, MgCl, sodium sulphate crystal, NaSO
4
,
hexane, diethyl ether, distill water and liquid Cyclohexane.
Apparatus : Watch glasses, dropper, test tubes and spatula.
Procedure : A) Melting and Boiling Points
1. Half spatula of magnesium chloride crystals, sodium sulphate crystal
are placed into two different watch glasses. The physical states of
each substance are recorded.
2. Three drops of diethyl ether and hexane are placed separately into
two different watch glasses. The physical states of each substance are
recorded.
3. All the watch glasses are left aside for 5 to 10 minutes. All the
changes recorded.
4. Inferences regarding volatility, melting and boiling points are made
based on the observations.

B) Solubility in Water and Organic Solvents
1. A quarter spatula of Magnesium Chloride crystal are placed in a test
tube.
2. 5 cm
3
of distilled water is added to test tube.
3. The mixture in the test tube is shaken well.
4. All the changes are recorded.
5. Steps 1 to 4 are repeated using liquid cyclohexane to replace
distilled water.
6. Steps 1 to 5 are repeated 5cm
3
diethyl ether to replace Magnesium
Chloride crystals.

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Results/Observation:

(a) Melting and Boiling Points
Substances
Observation
Before
After
5 minute 10 minute
Magnesium Chloride
crystals
White solid White solid liquid
Sodium sulphate crystals White powder White powder
Diethyl ether Colourless liquid Gas (volatile)
Hexane Colourless liquid Gas (volatile)


(b) Solubility in Water and Organic Solvents
Substances Solubility in water
Solubility in
cyclohexane
Magnesium chloride
Diethyl ether







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Discussion:
Ionic bond
Ionic bond is a reaction of metal atoms with non-metal atoms that mean it is a bonding
with different type of charge positive and negative. When these two of atoms react, the electrons
from metal would transfer to the non-metal atoms. Then, ions with full outer shells formed
Besides, oppositely charged ions are attracted together into a giant structure by a stronger
electrostatic force attraction. Because of that, the amount of heat that needed to overcome this
bonding is greater. Ionic compound also has some of their properties which are non-volatile, high
melting points and high boiling points.
Furthermore, ionic compound soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvent such as in
cyclohexane. The double layer would form when this compound placed into organic solvent.
Covalent bond
Covalent bond is a reaction of non-metal atoms with non-metal atoms, so there has no
charge involved. The sharing of electron will occurs among these two atoms to form a compound
thats called as covalent compound.
When these two atoms shared electron together, the force between them would formed
which called as electrostatic attraction. Hence, the small amount of heat is needed to overcome
this bonding. The covalent bond is a volatile and has lower melting and boiling points.
Besides, covalent compound soluble in organic solvent such cyclohexane but insoluble in
water.

Conclusion:
Ionic compound has a high melting and boiling points and also soluble in water but insoluble in
organic solvent. Whereas covalent compound has low melting and boiling points and also
soluble in organic solvent but not in water.

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TASK 3