Anda di halaman 1dari 13

9/29/2007

@MFR2007 1
ORE MINERALS EXPLORATION
Handout - 5 @ Rosana, MF 2007
Mainly water
Always brines dissolved salts : Always brines dissolved salts :
NaCl, KCl, CaSO4, CaCl2
Salinity ranges from + 3.5 wt% to 10x
salinity of seawater
Such brines capable to dissolve : Au, Ag,
@MFR2007 2
p , g,
Cu, Pb, Zn
High temperatures increase the
effectiveness of brines to dissolve metals
Magmatic
Ground water
Seawater
Meteoric water
@MFR2007 3
Meteoric water
Regional
metamorphism
Moves upwards of hydrothermal solution
Cool & dissolved minerals precipitate
Continuous over large period of time
Convection cell is required to maintain constant
precipitation
Upward movement slow precipitation over wide area, may not form an
ore body
@MFR2007
4
Rapid movement rapid cooling & precipitation over limited area, form
an ore body
Boiling, rapid pressure decrease, reaction with wall rock, mix with
seawater rapid precipitation and concentration, may form an ore
deposit
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 2
In 1962, oil drilling struck a 350
o
C brine at 1.5 km depth
As brine flowed upward and cooled, deposited siliceous
Over 3 months, + 8 tons precipitated contain 20 wt% Cu
and 8 wt % Ag
In 1962, oil drilling struck a 350
o
C brine at 1.5 km depth
As brine flowed upward and cooled, deposited siliceous
Over 3 months, + 8 tons precipitated contain 20 wt% Cu
and 8 wt % Ag
Imperial Valley,
southern
California and 8 wt % Ag and 8 wt % Ag California
In 1964, oceanographers discovered a series of hot,
dense brines at the bottom of Red Sea
The sediments at the bottom, contain ore minerals as
chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena
Red Sea is a stratabound mineral deposit is the making
In 1964, oceanographers discovered a series of hot,
dense brines at the bottom of Red Sea
The sediments at the bottom, contain ore minerals as
chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena
Red Sea is a stratabound mineral deposit is the making
Red Sea
@MFR2007 5
In 1978, deep-sea submarines, at 21
o
N, found 300
o
C hot
spring along oceanic ridge, 2500 m bsl
Precipitated a blanket of sulphide minerals around the
vents
This analogue of VMS deposit
In 1978, deep-sea submarines, at 21
o
N, found 300
o
C hot
spring along oceanic ridge, 2500 m bsl
Precipitated a blanket of sulphide minerals around the
vents
This analogue of VMS deposit
East Pacific Rise
Porphyry
deposits
Epithermal
deposits
Skarn
Volcanogenic
Massive
S l hid
@MFR2007 6
Skarn
deposits
Sulphide
(VMS)
deposits
@MFR2007 7
8 @MFR2007
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 3
Intrusionrelated:intermediatetofelsic
igneousrocktypes;hypabyssal,usually
pophyrytic p p y y
Largetonnage(minimum20Mtat0.1%
copper)
Lowgrade
l d ll f ( ) Includesomeorallof:copper(Cu),
molybdenum(Mo),gold(Au),silver(Ag)
9
@MFR2007
Miningofperipheralpreciousmetal
depositsledtodiscoveryofporphyries
Porphyrieswerenotimportantuntil
engineeringadvancesallowedbulk
mining
Suchlowgradedepositswerenot
profitableuntilfrothflotationwas
developed developed
Earlydepositsminedwereall
supergeneenrichedores
10
@MFR2007
Cu-
Mo-Ag
Cu-
Au Ag
Mo +/-
W
Au
only
Au-Ag W
11 @MFR2007
C Copperreserves
Goldreserves
12 @MFR2007
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 4
Generalkindsofgranites igneousderivedvs.
sedimentaryderivedmagmas y g
Importanceofoxidationstate(roughlyequivalentto
oxygencontentofmagma)
13 @MFR2007
Relativelyshallowemplacement twotofour
kilometers
Compositionrangesfromgranodiorite toquartz
monzonite
Mineralizationgenerallyfollowsseveralpulsesof
magmatism
Acompanying oxidationcapleachedofsulphides with
secondaryenrichmentMany depositsareassociatedwith y y p
convergentplateboundariesandareasofandesitic
volcanism,formingalongthedestructiveplatemargins
andabovethesubduction zones;afewformatcontinent
continentcollisionzonesorinislandarcregimes
14 @MFR2007
Withintheframeworkofthevolcanicislandarc,
comefromawayorallochtothonous terranes and y
CircumPacificMesozoictoCenozoicdeposits
Orogenic beltsandcontinetal margins
Postamalgamation(construction)depositsarelinked
toacontinentalarcandtheintrusionareinvaried
hostrocks
15 @MFR2007
Inthesimplestcase,zonesfromshellsoutwardfrom
theassociatedintrusion
Inmanydepositsmultipleoverprintingeventsare
recorded
Youngereventsoverprintandmaydestroyoldergeologic
features
Alterationassemblagesareinfluencedbythe
compositionoftherockbeingaltered compositionoftherockbeingaltered
16 @MFR2007
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 5
Propylitic
fringe zone
silicic core
zone zone
Potassic inner
zone
Phyllic middle
zone zone
Argillic variois
zones
17 @MFR2007 18 @MFR2007
Quartz flooding replacement and quartz
veins;
Quartz flooding replacement and quartz
veins;
Siliceous
veins;
May alter all rock components
veins;
May alter all rock components
Siliceous
Near-magmatic conditions, all rock
components may alter
Key minerals orthoclase biotite or
Near-magmatic conditions, all rock
components may alter
Key minerals orthoclase biotite or Key minerals orthoclase-biotite, or
orthoclase-chlorite or orthoclase-biotite-
chlorite and quartz, intermediate plagioclase
Ass min : sericite, anhydrite, apatite. Ore min
: mg, cpy, bn, py (high temp alt)
Key minerals orthoclase-biotite, or
orthoclase-chlorite or orthoclase-biotite-
chlorite and quartz, intermediate plagioclase
Ass min : sericite, anhydrite, apatite. Ore min
: mg, cpy, bn, py (high temp alt)
Potassic
19 @MFR2007
Generally fringes other alteration; quartz and potassic
feldspar are stable
Mineralogy: plagioclase replaced by albite, epidote,
montmorillonite, and carbonate, mafic minerals (hornblende
and biotite mainly) replaced by chlorite and epidote
(sometimes actinolite or tremolite)
Generally fringes other alteration; quartz and potassic
feldspar are stable
Mineralogy: plagioclase replaced by albite, epidote,
montmorillonite, and carbonate, mafic minerals (hornblende
and biotite mainly) replaced by chlorite and epidote
(sometimes actinolite or tremolite)
Propylitic
Ass min : apatite, hm, anh, ankerite. Ore min :< py, cpy Ass min : apatite, hm, anh, ankerite. Ore min :< py, cpy
Intermediate conditions
Mineralogy: quartz, sericite, pyrite (generally)
Ass min : chl, ill, rutile. Ore min : cpy (< 0.5 vol %), py (~ 10%)
as veinlet and diss grains
Intermediate conditions
Mineralogy: quartz, sericite, pyrite (generally)
Ass min : chl, ill, rutile. Ore min : cpy (< 0.5 vol %), py (~ 10%)
as veinlet and diss grains
Phyllic
Variablwintensity
Mineralogy: quartz, kaolinite (lesser montmorillonite), chlorite
Adv argillic : (>>kao, diaspore, qtz ~amorph, andalusite,
corundum). Ore min : py (dom), cpy and bn.
Variablwintensity
Mineralogy: quartz, kaolinite (lesser montmorillonite), chlorite
Adv argillic : (>>kao, diaspore, qtz ~amorph, andalusite,
corundum). Ore min : py (dom), cpy and bn.
Argillic
20 @MFR2007
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 6
Generally, siliceous, potassic and prophylitic, phyllic
th illi than argillic
But the order often varies and the cycle may repeat
These are dynamic, evolving systems
21 @MFR2007
How: Dioritic to granitic intrusions cool just
beneath volcanoes (and hence are associated
with porphyritic rocks) with porphyritic rocks).
The Cu (?Au) is concentrated in the water within
the crystallizing magma. During the final stages
of crystallization, the water can explosively boil
(because the pressure is released), which
fractures the intrusion and surrounding rock,
depositing the Pyrite and Cu Sulphides
(Chalcopyrite) in veins and fractures
22 @MFR2007
(Chalcopyrite) in veins and fractures.
The fluids can also react with limestone,
precipitating massive Pyrite and Chalcopyrite
skarn deposits
Often with
Occur as
veins, coating
fractures and
disseminated
Often with
associated
gangue
minerals: qtz,
ca, ser, chl,
etc
Totally within
the host
intrusion
Partially in the
stock and
partially in the
host rock
23 @MFR2007
Sulphides :
Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2)
Bornite (Cu5FeS4)
Molybdenite (MoS2)
Pyrite (FeS2)
Oxides :
Hematite (Fe2O3)
Magnetite (Fe3O4)
Chalcocite
Malachite
Azurite
Chrysocolla
Ferrimolybdenite
24 @MFR2007
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 7
Low grade core g
Bornite > chalcopyrite zone +/- molybdenite
Chalcopyrite > bornite zone
Chalcopyrite + pyrite zone
Pyrite dominant fringe
Exterior base and precious metal deposit Exterior base and precious metal deposit
25 @MFR2007
Intrusions
f f
May be
from zones of
melting or
scavenged
during
emplacement
Country rock
May be
dissolved in the
magma or
moved in fluids,
for example in a
chloride brine
Country rock
leached,
transported, re-
deposited
26 @MFR2007
Cooling of the
host fluid
Dilution of the
host fluid
Pressure
changes such
as could be
caused by
venting to the
surface
Boiling of the
host fluid
Chemical
reactions with
the wall rock
27 @MFR2007
Ass with emplacement and cooling of
melt
(i) Fase heat transfer and zoned alteration
(ii) Fase exsolution of magmatic fluids
@MFR2007 28
Late stage cooling & metal deposition
Post mineral phyllic, argillic,
advanced argillic overprint
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 8
Retrogradesequence
@MFR2007 29
Prograde sequence
Paragenetic sequence in porphyry Cu-Au systems
@MFR2007 30
Cu-Mo : quartz bearing ; granodiorite, granite
Cu-Au : quartz-free : diorite, monzonite, syenite
31 @MFR2007
Composite
(clusters of
coeval
intrusions)
Porphyritic
Hi h ili
Quartz
monzonite to
High silica,
alkali-rich (Na
and K)
granite
32 @MFR2007
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 9
Country rock generally altered to biotite hornfels
Mineralization fracture-controlled breccias Mineralization fracture-controlled, breccias
common
Multiple episodes of mineralization
Generally early barren veins, MoS2-bearing
veins, then late weakly mineralization to barren
veins
33 @MFR2007
Metallic
minerals
Common
gangue
minerals
Molybdenite
MoS2
Molybdenite
MoS2
Pyrite FeS2 Pyrite FeS2
Quartz Quartz
Flourite Flourite
Marginal or
peripheral
tungsten, tin,
copper, lead and
zinc
Marginal or
peripheral
tungsten, tin,
copper, lead and
zinc
34 @MFR2007
Alteration
adjacent to
veins
Alteration in
the granitic
host rocks
Potassic Potassic
Phyllic Phyllic
Calcite Calcite
Zeolite Zeolite
Albitic Albitic
Argillic Argillic
Chalcedony
(silica)
Chalcedony
(silica)
Clay Clay
35 @MFR2007
Gold Bismuth
Tellurium Arsenic
36 @MFR2007
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 10
Detailed knowledge of their tectonic setting, geology,
alteration patterns, and geochemistry
Sophisticated genetic models incorporating these
features will be used to design and control future features will be used to design and control future
exploration program
37 @MFR2007
Dykes and granitic rocks with
porphyritic textures p p y
Breccia zones with angular or locally
rounded fragments; look for
sulphides between fragments or in
fragments
Epidote and chlorite alteration
38 @MFR2007
Quartz and sericite alteration
Secondary biotite alteration especially if partly
bleached and altered
Fractures coated by sulphides, or quartz veins with
sulphides. To make ore, fractures must be closely
spaced; generally grades are better where there are spaced; generally grades are better where there are
several orientations (directions)
Geochemical soil or stream silt sampling, copper is
the best pathfinder element
39 @MFR2007
Grasberg Mine
Grasberg, Iran J aya
2.5 Bt @1.1%Cu; 1.1 g/t Au
@MFR2007
40
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 11
@MFR2007 41 @MFR2007 42
@MFR2007 43
Batu Hijau, Sumbawa
1.5 Bt @ .45%Cu; 0.31 g/t Au
@MFR2007 44
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 12
Tonalite ~Diorite of Tertiary age
@MFR2007 45
D vein
A family
vein
JA6 (Bench 330)
Bornite-Digenite
dominant
Bornite & Chalcopyrite
@MFR2007 46
Chalcopyrite
dominant &
trace of Pyrite 1 cm
75 micron
A veins in Potassic B veins in Potassic A-veins in Potassic B-veins in Potassic
Cu-sulphides +Au veinlets
@MFR2007 47
D-veins in Ch overprint
Cu-sulphides +Au veinlets
and disseminations
Ty with clasts, no A-B veins
Cu-Au veinlets
Au-Cu ore
400 mRL
0 mRL
200 mRL
400 mRL
Ultimate Pit
200 mRL
@MFR2007 48
0 250
Meters
Au>=0.5<1.0g/t
Au>=1.0g/t
WeatheredZone
Au>=0.2<0.5g/t
-200 mRL
-400mRL
9/29/2007
@MFR2007 13
To be contin e To be continue
49 @MFR2007