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TOPICAL EXERCISE (STRUCTURE)

6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY:The Electrochemical Series

Diagram 1.1 shows the apparatus set-up for an experiment of Set I, Set II and Set III to
construct the electrochemical series based on the potential difference between two
different metals in a voltaic cell.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan susunan radas satu eksperimen bagi Set I, Set II dan Set III untuk
membina siri elektrokimia berdasarkan beza keupayaan antara dua logam berbeza dalam
sel voltan.

Diagram / Rajah 4.1


(a)

Record the voltmeter readings in the spaces provided in Diagram 1.1.


Rekod bacaan voltmeter dalam ruang yang disediakan dalam Rajah 1.1.
[3 marks]

TOPICAL EXERCISE (STRUCTURE)

(b)

(c)

6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY:The Electrochemical Series

State the variables for this experiment:


Nyatakan pembolehubah bagi eksperimen ini:
(i)
Manipulated variable
Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan:

(ii)

...............................................................................................................................
Responding variable
Pembolehubah bergerak balas:

(iii)

...............................................................................................................................
Fixed variable
Pembolehubah dimalarkan:

...............................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
State one hypothesis for this experiment.
Nyatakan satu hipotesis untuk eksperimen ini.
........................................................................................................................................

(d)

........................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
State the operational definition for the construction of electrochemical series in this
experiment.
Nyatakan definisi secara operasi bagi pembinaan siri elektrokimia dalam eksperimen
ini.
........................................................................................................................................

(e)

........................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
Based on the voltmeter readings in Diagram 1.1, arrange copper, zinc, magnesium
and lead, starting with the most electropositive metal.
Berdasarkan bacaan voltmeter dalam Rajah 1.1, susunkan kuprum, zink, magnesium
dan plumbum, bermula dengan logam yang paling elektropositif.
........................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(f)

Diagram 1.2 shows the result of the experiment for Set II after 20 minutes.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen bagi set II selepas 20 minit.

Diagram/Rajah 1.2

TOPICAL EXERCISE (STRUCTURE)

(i)

6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY:The Electrochemical Series

State the colour change of copper(II) nitrate solution in Diagram 1.2.


Nyatakan perubahan warna bagi larutan kuprum(II) nitrat dalam Rajah 1.2.
...............................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(ii)

State the inference based on the answer in 1(f)(i).


Nyatakan inferens berdasarkan jawapan dalam 1(f)(i).
..............................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(iii)

State the relationship between the change in the size of copper electrode with
time.
Nyatakan hubungan antara perubahan saiz elektrod kuprum dengan masa.
..............................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(g)

Metal X is placed between magnesium and zinc in the electrochemical series.


Predict the voltage produced if magnesium in Set II is replaced by metal X.
Logam X terletak di antara magnesium dan zink dalam siri elektrokimia.
Ramalkan voltan yang terhasil jika magnesium dalam Set II digantikan dengan logam
X.
................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(h)

The following half-equations show the reaction that occcurs at the lead electrode and
copper electrode in Set III.
Balance the equations by writing the number of electrons in the boxes provided.
Write the ionic equation.
Berikut adalah setengah persamaan menunjukkan tindak balas yang berlaku pada
elektrod plumbum dan elektrod kuprum dalam Set III.
Seimbangkan persamaan dengan menulis bilangan elektron dalam petak yang
disediakan.
Tuliskan persamaan ion.
At lead electrode:
Pada elektrod plumbum

Pb

At lead electrode:
Pada elektrod plumbum

Cu2+

Pb2+

Cu

Ionic equation
Persamaan ion
......
[3 marks]

TOPICAL EXERCISE (STRUCTURE)

(i)

6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY:The Electrochemical Series

Table 1 shows the information about pairs of metals and its positive terminal in voltaic
cells.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan maklumat berkenaan pasangan logam dan terminal positifnya
dalam sel voltan.
Pair of metals
Positive terminal
Pasangan logam
Terminal positif
Silver and copper
Silver
Argentum dan kuprum
Argentum
Iron and copper
Copper
Ferum dan kuprum
Kuprum
Tin and copper
Copper
Stanum dan kuprum
Kuprum
Gold and copper
Gold
Aurum dan kuprum
Aurum
Table 1
Jadual 1
Classify silver, iron , tin and gold into metals which are more electropositive than
copper and metals which are less electropositive than copper.
Kelaskan argentum, ferum, stanum dan aurum kepada logam-logam yang lebih
daripada kuprum dan logam-logam yang kurang elektropositif daripada kuprum.
Metals
which
are
more
electropositive than copper
Logam yang lebih elektropositif
daripada kuprum

Metals which are less electropositive


than copper
Logam yang kurang elektropositif
daripada kuprum

[3 marks]
2

Diagram 2 shows two beakers containing copper plates immersed in different solutions.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan dua buah bikar yang mengandungi logam kuprum dicelupkan ke
dalam dua larutan yang berbeza.

(a)

(i)

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
Predict whether displacement reaction occurs in Set I and Set II.
Ramalkan sama ada tindak balas penyesaran berlaku dalam Set I dan Set II.
Set I:.....................................................................................................................
Set II:.....................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

TOPICAL EXERCISE (STRUCTURE)

(ii)

6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY:The Electrochemical Series

State one observation for the dispalcement reaction that occurs in (a)(i).
Nyatakan satu pemerhatian bagi tindak balas penyesaran yang berlaku di (a(i).
...............................................................................................................................

(iii)

(b)

(c)

...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
Write the ionic equation for the displacement reaction that occurs in (a)(i).
Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas penyesaran yang berlaku di (a)(i).

...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
Based on your answer in (a)(i), arrange copper, lead and silver in the order of
increasing electropositivity.
Berdasarkan jawapan anda di (a)(i), susunkan kuprum, plumbum, dan argentum
dalam tertib penambahan keelektropositifan.
.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
If copper is replaced with zinc in Set I, state whether zinc can displaced lead from
lead(II) nitrate solution. Explain your answer.
Jika kuprum digantikan dengan zink, nyatakan sama ada zink boleh menyesarkan
plumbum daripada larutan plumbum(II) nitrat. Jelaskan jawapan anda.
.......................................................................................................................................

(d)

.......................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
State two uses of the electrochemical series.
Nyatakan dua kegunaan siri elektrokimia.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

Diagram 3 shows a Daniell cell. The voltage is 1.10 V.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan satu sel Daniell. Voltan sel ialah 1.10V.

Diagram 3
Rajah 3
(a)

What is the use of the porous pot?


Apakah kegunaan pasu berliang?
.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

TOPICAL EXERCISE (STRUCTURE)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY:The Electrochemical Series

Mark the electron flow by using an arrow in Diagram 3.


Tandakan arah aliran elektron dengan menggunakan anak panah dalam Rajah 3.
[1 mark]
Which metal electrode is the negative terminal ?
Elektrod logam manakah yang merupakan terminal negatif?
.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
Write the half-equation for the reaction that occurs at the positive terminal.
Tuliskan setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di terminal positif.
.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
State one observation in this experiment.
Nyatakan satu pemerhatian dalam eksperimen ini.
.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
In a separate experiment,the zinc strip and zinc sulphate solution are replaced with
the pairs of metal and solutions in Table 3.The voltmeter readings are recorded as
follows:
Dalam eksperiman yang lain,kepingan zink dan larutan zink sulfat digantikan dengan
pasangan logam dan larutan dalam Jadual 3. Bacaan voltmeter direkodkan seperti
berikut:
Metal
Solution
Voltage(V)
Voltan(V)
Logam
Larutan
Magnesium
Magnesium sulphate
2.72
Magnesium
Magnesium sulfat
Iron
Iron(II) sulphate
0.78
Ferum
Ferum sulfat
Aluminium
Aluminium sulphate
2.00
Aluminium
Aluminium sulfat
Table 3
Jadual 3
(i)
Referring to the voltage values in Table 3, arrange magnesium, iron, copper and
aluminium in increasing order of their positions in the electrochemical series.
Dengan merujuk kepada nilai voltan dalam Jadual 3, susunkan magnesium,
ferum, kuprum dan aluminium dalam tertob menaik untuk kedudukan logam
dalam siri elektrokimia.

(ii)

...............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
Calculate the voltage of the cell if the copper and copper(II) sulphate solution
are replaced with magnesium and magnesium sulphate solution while the zinc
and the zinc sulphate solution are maintained.
Hitung nilai voltan sel sekiranya kuprum dan larutan kuprum(II) sulfat digantikan
dengan magnesium dan larutan magnesium sulfat sementara zink dan larutan
zink sulfat dikekalkan.

[2 marks]