Anda di halaman 1dari 133


An Innovation in
Cable Bolt Monitoritzg
Drew Anvvyll, B.Eng., P.Eng
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
iMcGill University, Montreal
August 1996
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and
Research in Partial Fulfilrnent of the Requirements of the Degree of
Master of Engineering
(') E. W. Drew Anwyll
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McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
The Cable Bolt Grotrt Displacernent Meter A bstract
Doi g and fi-oss for thei expertise.
Linai- joi- his nssislnnce in rhe Ir<borarory.
.L/rrlcolin ami Ferri for theN patience.
Karen for everything.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLEOFCONTENTS iv
TABLE OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter One INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . .
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 - 1 Cable Bolt Definition 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
t Fundamentals
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enibedment Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radial Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grout Column Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress Changes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cable inclination and Discontinuiiy Orientation
Geological Fracturing and Blocky Rock Masses .
Rock-Support Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prepinning or Pre-reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Cable Boit Failure ~echani sm 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 ktechanisms oi the bond 14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. 1 Modifications and Iiinovations 15
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1 Grout Modifications 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.2 Cable Modifications 20
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Cable Bolt Design Philosophy 28
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Applications for Stope Cable Bolting 31
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.1 Cable Bolting Practice for Open and Conventional Stope Backs . . . . . . . 31
1.6.2 Cable Bolting Practice in Open Stope Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Chapter Two INSTRUMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.1.1 Measuring And Operating Principies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.2 Common Instrumentation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.2.1 LoadCel l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.2.2 StressCells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.2.3 Extensometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.4 Sloughmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.2.5 Cable Bolt Strain Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.2.6 Time Domai n Reflectometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.2.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.3 Instrumentation Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Chapter Three CABLE BOND MECHANISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.1 introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.2 Thick-Walled Cylinder Aiialysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.3 Interface h.\echanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.3.1 Interface Fracturing and Plastic Crout Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.3.2 Axial Bond Fiiilure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Chap ter Four The CABLE BOLT GROUT DISPLACEMENT METER . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.1 introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.2 Operating Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.2.1 Potentiometer Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.2.3 Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.2.4 Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.2.5 Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.2.6 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.2.7 Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.2.8 Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.2.9 Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.3.1 Failure Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Cable Loading Conditions 79
4.3.3 Bond Slip Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.4 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Chap ter Five TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2Purpose 92
5.2.1 Axial Pull Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.2.2 Shear Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.3 Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.4 Experiniental Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5 - 4 1 Testing Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Testing Arrangement 94 Axial Pull Testing Shear Testing
5 A2. 3 iL\odiiicalions Resulting irom Tesring
5.5 Results drid Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Axial (Grout Anchored Sensors Sample Set:TAIII) Tesiing 101 Discussion
5.5.2 Axial (Cable Anchored Sensors - Sample Set: TAlV ) Testing
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Discussion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Shear Testing 110 Discussion
Table 2-1: Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 5-1: Axial Testing Sample Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Table 5-2: Shear Testing Sample Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
v i i
Figure 1: Ernbedment length for a vertical cable in a jointed rock mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Figure 2: Effect o i shear resistance on cable inclination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Figure 3: Tvpical Stope Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Figure 4: Blockv ground resulting i n short embedment length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Figure 5: Ground reaction curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Figure 6: Rock-beam created over supported opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 7: Pre-pinning in cut R fiIl mining application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Figure 8: Idedistic representation oi major components in bonding mechanism . . . . . 13
Figure 9: Possible beneiits of Type 30 Portland versus Type 10 Portland . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 10: Cable Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 1 1 : Comparative pull-out resistance of birdcage & standard bolts . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figure 12: Cost versus diameter for composite bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Figure 13: Stress-strain curves for various composite bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Figure 14: Cost versus tensile strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 15: Enipirical-type cable bolt design curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Figure 16: Open stope back support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 1 7: lnterlaced back support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 18: Hdnging wall support svstem wi th h/w support drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 19: biiincloling I~oltin; of hanging wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1
Figure 20: Typical Iianging ~ a l l support systeni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 2 1 Hmging wall beam i n cross-section with cable bolt "pins" at sublevels . . . . . 35
Figure 22: Combination blasthole and cable bolt boreholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Figure 23: Fan drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Figure 23: Average cable boliing cost distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Figure 25: Typical rod extensometer arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Figure 26: Multi-point wire extensometer with tape extensometer monitoring . . . . . . . . 48
Figure 27: A Cb\ M installed on a TBE rock bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Figure 28: Sloughnieter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Figure 29: Thick walled cylinder analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Figure 30: Elastic-plastic profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Figure 31: A simplified cable bolt profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Figure 32: Grout column failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Figure 33: Chl e bolt Load-Displacement Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Figure 34: the Cable-GDhl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Figure 35: Potentiometer calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Figure 36: Failure profile as determined by multiple Cable-GDM installations in a C&F
stopeback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Figure 3 7: Load-displacemen t curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Figure 38: Ceneral Arrangement of Cable-GDM Prototype 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 39: Photo Prototype 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Figure 40: Prototype testing arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 41 : Cable-GDbl Prototype 2 with acquisition computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Figure 42: Axial testing arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Figure 43: Shear testing arrangement in RDP Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Figure 44: Axial pull testing sample configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Figure 45: Axial testing sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Figure 46: Shear testing sample arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Figure 47: Shear testing sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Figure 48: Axial test T h 111-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Figure 49: Axial test TA 111-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Figure 50: Axial test TA 111-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Figure 51 : Calibration curve for prototype 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Figure 52: Axi al test TA IV-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Figure 53: Axi d test TA IV-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Figure 54: Axial test TA IV-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Figure 55: TS 1-1 Shear testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Figure 56: TS 11-1 Shear testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Figure 57: TS 111-1 Shear testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
McGill University - Deparnent of Mining and Me t d ~ r g i c d Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
McGill Unieersity - Department of Mining and MetdllurgrgrcaZ Engineering
Chapter 1
The use of artiiicial support has become an essential component of
underground operations. Since the introduction in the earlv 1970's of cable holt
supports, the face of mi ni ng has been permanentlv altered. It was in cut-and-iill
mining where cable bol i ound their initial use. Cable bolts created saier working
conditions, by using a technique known as prepinning. This increased productivitv by
allowing multiple Lits to be taken in the mining cycle without extensive rehabilitation.
Cable bolting in open stope mining has allowed for the large open spans that are
necessary while still maintaining acceptable dilution values. LIrithout this suppon
manv current operations woul d not be practical, particularlv at increasing depths.
1. 1. 1 Cable Bolt Definition
Cable bolting i s a technique used to fortin rock masses. In underground
applications it is mainly used i n the reiniorcing oi stope walls and backs, stope pillars,
raises, drawpoints and haulage drifts. The purpose o i the support svstem i s to maintain
the quality of the rock mass by not allowing the displacement oi discontinuities. Cable
bolting is not rneant to support the rock, but to create a seli-supporting rock mass.
The conventional cable bolt support sytem in mi ni ng consists of an
untensioned steel cable whi ch i s inserted in a cement grouted borehole. The term
grouted strand or flexible tendon i s sometimes used. Canadian mining operations
typically use a seven strand, i 6 mm !5/8"1 diameter cable, iixed in a nole xi t h a
cernent grout. Hole lengths can va? irom 5m to 40m. on a pattern irom 2 x 2m to 4 x
McGiZZ University - Department of Mining and MetzIIzrgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
To address the effectiveness of cable boit ing, the fundamental componen ts
involved in the support system must be considered dong with the intended purpose of
the support system. The purpose oi the cables are to reinforce a rock mass by
transierring the force resulting from ground movement (due to discontinuity
displacement) to the cable. The cable wi l l resist ground movement and dilation
because o i its resistance to tensile strain.
The iollowing i s a listing of the parameters that iundamentally influence the
eiiectiveness oi cable boit supports.
Cable: - type of cable tendons (steel or cornpositej
- surface finish and roughness
- sutiace condition !rustingi
- sutiace area and external shape
- number of strands per cable
- t ende strength
- percent elongation
- Young's Modulus
- cable weight
G fou t: - water-cernent ratio
- compressive strength
- type o i cemen t
- grout additives kand, gravel etc.,
- chernical admixtures
- grout bleeding and particle sedimentat ion properties
- pumpabil itvhorkabi l ity
McGill Uni vmi t y - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
Installation: - rnethod of installation
- type of grout pump (grout quality and rnixing procedures)
- presence and condition of breather tube
- use of piates and grips (or strapping)
- use of birdcaging or buttons
- pre-tensioning of cables
- effective cable length
- number of cables per hole
External factors:
- embedrnent length (discontinuity or joint spacing)
- radial stiffness and grout column confinement
- ground-support interaction
- intersection angle of cable and discontinuities
- relative discontinuity movement (Le.- is the cable resisting
discontinuity dilation or shear)
- stress changes i n the surrounding rock rnass
To establish the effects of the individual parameters, laboratory or in situ pull
testing has been performed. By keeping all variables constant except those that are
being tested, the effea of individual factors can be estabiished.
Some information concerning the more important variables i s described below:
1.2.1 Embedment Length
The ern bedment length i s determined by the distance between discontinuities
along the length of the cable bolt as seen in figure 1. In underground situations i t i s
based upon the interpretation of the joint spacing or fracture frequency. The longer
the embedrnent length then the greater i s the cable bolt capacity. The relationship is
McGill University - Department of Mining and MetallurgtgtcrzI Engineering
In trodtrction Chapter 1
linear, however it i s not di r edy proportional (Reichert et al., 1991); indicating that the
capacity of a bolt with an ernbedment length of 500mm i s not equal to twice that of
one with an embedment length of 250mm. Additionally, the relationship i s different
for each rock mass. The critical embedment length refers to the minimum length of
embedment in which cable failure was observed.
cbl e b o l t
figure 1 Embedment length ior a vertical cable i n a jointed rock mass
1.2.2 Radial Stiffness
The radial stiffness of a rock mass i s a representation of the rock's resistance to
interna1 radial deformation. This characteristic is specific to each rock mass (a function
of the rock's elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and hole diameter) and i s known to
change with rock quality and degree of fracturing. Radial stiffness values for a rock
mass wi l l affect the radial confinement of the grout.
1.2.3 Grout Column Confinement
Cable bolts a d much like a frictional support (when failure takes place at cable-
grout interface) and as such, radial confinement or grout column confinement greatly
affects bond capacity, (Kaiser et al., 1991 ). That is, with greater confinement there wi l l
be greater resistance to pull out. This i s seen i n cable testing; when bolts are tested
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
under tri-axial loading or confined conditions the cable capacity i s seen to increase
over that of non-confined pu1 1-out tests.
Using this premise, the bond stress would also be affected by the change in
surrounding rock mass stresses, specifically those perpendicular to the cable.
1.2.4 Stress Changes
An aspect of cable bolt capacity that i s now being investigated industry wide, i s
the effect of the change in cable confinement and the change in underground field
stresses. This i s of interest both in laboratory pull-out testing and the operation of
cable bolts in the underground environment. Kaiser et al. (1 991) have been using this
concept to establish a cable bolt design methodology. The theory i s based upon two
key ideas:
1) An increase in field stress increases the interface pressure thereby
improving the bond strength and bolt capacity. The converse i s also
true; a reduction in field stresses will have detrimental effects on bolt
capac i ty.
The change in pressure at the steel-grout interface caused by a change in
field stress i s a function of the rock to grout elastic modulus ratio. The
relationship i s such thai a poor quality rock mass (low modulus) will
result in a greater change to interface pressure than a higher quality rock
mass caused by the same change in field stresses.
As a result of the above notions, the greatest effects (both negative and positive)
on bolt capacity wi l l be observed in poor qua1 ity rock masses - precisely where cables
are most required and generally used. Further implications of this require that the
timing of the bolt installation be such that stress reductions are minimal, (Kaiser et al.
1991); i f this condition cannot be met and bond strength i s extremely compromised,
then cable buttons or bird-caging will be required to increase the bond strength.
Moreover, cable length should be selected to enable the cables to reach ground where
stress changes wi l l not be detrimental.
McGiU University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Introdtrction Cha~ter 1
1.2.5 Cable inclination and Discontinuity Orientation
Cable bolts are used to prevent the dilation and/or the shearing movement of
discontinuities. The inclination of the cable with respect to the discontinuities along
with the forces, acting to cause failure have a significant effea on the cables success.
For gravity failures, bolts should be vertical to maximize the cable's tensile strength
acting against gravity (Potvin et al, 1988). Where shearing of a joint i s expected to
I 1 I 1 1 I I I
1 I I
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Rei nf or cement Angle 8
Figure 2 Effect of shear resistance on cable inclination (After Fuller, 1983)
take place, Fuller (1 983) established that cables should be designed to intersect at an
angle of between 15 and 30 degrees i n the same direction as the shearing plane, figure
2. For the situation of slabbing and buckling, discontinuities in the rock mass wi l l
tend to dilate and as such, the bolts should be oriented at 90 degrees to prevent this
McGilZ University - Department of Mining and Met ahrgi cal Engineering
Introdtrction Chapter 1
rnovement by attempting to clamp the layers together. The accepted strategy for cable
bolt orientation i s to align the cable so that its maximum strength i s in the direction of
the resultant driving force. Typical failures can be seen in figure 3.
Gravity Failure
Figure 3 Typical stope failures
1.2.6 Geological Fracturing and Biocky Rock Masses
It i s found that where conditions are most adverse, the success of bolting has
also been found to be the most unsatisfactory. Problems in supporting blocky or
highty fractured ground have been evident. Upon consideration this i s not however
unexpected. In a blocky rock mass cables will have a shorter embedment length,
figure 4a, due to the close spacing of discontinuities or joints. As a result adequate
boit capacity cannot be generated. A progressive failure', as seen in figure 4b, i s the
Blocks at the exposed face release from the cable (due to lack of bond strength),
thereby allowing subsequent blocks to do the sarne.
McGill University - Department of Mining and Met&rgtgtcaZ Engineering
In trodgctio n Chapter 1
result. The condition of ' blockiness' i s further exacerbated in both high stress and l ow
stress zones. In high stress areas, typically stope backs', the excessive stress levels
may induce further fracturing along existing discontinuities and geological structures.
In low stress areas or zones of relaxation (stope walls), the lack discontinuity
confinement wi l l al l ow bedding planes, joints, and other structures to open-up
shor t embe
Figure 4 (a) Blocky ground resulting in short ernbedment length; (b) typical
progressive-type fai l ure i n block ground
While stope backs are usually more highly stressed then stope walls in the
Canadian Shield mining applications, this condition i s however dependant
upon the in situ stress ratio,
McGill Uni umi t y - Depattment of Mining and MetalZ~rgical Engineering
Introduction C hapter 1
resulting i n a dilation of the rock unit and an overall loss of competency.
1.2.7 Rock-Support Interaction
The Ground Reaction Curve, figure 5, is ohen used to explain interaction of
support and a rock mass. The curve indicates that i t i s difficult to prevent primary rock
relaxation (without the use of pre-reinforcement or prepinning) but the quicker the
support i s placed then the more effective it wi l l tend to be. lmmediately upon rnining,
the rock mass wi l l relax and tend to dilate towards the opening. This dilation wi l l
cause joints and fractures to open, resulting in a weakened rock mass forming a
ground arch. The aim of any support i s to form a beam structure (or a zone of
competent rock) above the opening (figure 6), thereby creating a self-supporting rock
mass. It should be noted that it is possible to create a support system that allows
limited radial yield and as such would be too rigid. A support that i s too rigid will
develop excessive loading, causing the failure of the support and subsequently the
gr& arch for-
and rock relaxation
1 /-
tao s t i f ~ Ope' /' - - REACTI ON
, e vi
McGill University - Department of Mi nkg and Metallurgical Engineering
In trodrrction Chapter 1
Figure 6 Rock-beam created over supported opening
excavated rock mass. In strong rock under high stress, rock expansion must be
allowed to take place and the support must yield without failure. The philosophy to
install cable supports as soon as possible i s still however correct.
1.2.8 Prepinning or Pre-reinforcement
The concept of prepinning arose from the use of cable bolts in cut-and-fiIl
rnining applications. When 12m cable bolts were used and the cut height was 2m,
four or five cuts could be taken before it was necessary to re-support the stope (figure
7). The main advantage of this was that the upper lifts would already be supported
prior to their excavation. As such, the pre-reinforcing would not allow shear
displacement or dilation of existing discontinuities to occur. Furthermore, blasting
M CWI I unzverszty - uepartment oJ Mznzng and Metallurgrgrcal Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
quality would be improved because the surfaces adjacent to blasts would have a
greater resistance to dilation due to the cable supports.
H/ W ORE c
( i f t +5
i i f t +4
i i t +3
Iif t +z
i i f t +1
stope back
bol t s
Figure 7 Prepinning in cur 6 i i ~ rninlng ~ppl i car~ons
The application of pre-reinforcement in open stoping operations i s often limited
because of the lack of access. This concept can however be applied in certain
instances. The bolting of an overcut prior to the opening of the stope, will in effect act
to prepin the back. As a result, the effeds of the sudden change in stress (caused bv
the change in opening geometry) will be minimized by a pre-reinforced back, (Potvin
et al. 1988). Prepinning i s also a useful concept in stope-wall support. The stress
condition of large hanging walls i s generally in a state of relaxation. The low coniining
stress will allow discontinuities to dilate and as such, structurally defined failures wi l l
become more pronounced. The prepinning of the hanging wall will attempt to
maintain the confinement of the exposed wall in a state similar to that prior to
excavation, and resist discontinuity dilation. Furthermore, large stope blasting can
severely damage weak walls; clearly, the pre-reinforced wal l would not be effected as
McGiZZ University - Department of Mining and Metdurgticrrl Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
detrimentallv as an unsupported wall would be.
1.2.9 Dynamic Loading
Dvnamic or impulse loading o i a suppon svstem can be experienced as a result
oi either blasting or a seismic event. LVhile the two circumstances are not identical,
the eifects are similar. The peak particle velocity experienced bv a rock mass i s the
main criterion for assessing the damage potential, {Hedlev, 1988). To prevent or lim i t
the damage resulting irom the dvnamic loading conditions, a support system must
' stretch' and vield in an effort to ' absorb' the load. A stifi support, such as a
composite birdcage bolt would be ineifective. Support systems must be able to yield
to rnaintain competency. To accornplish this a cable bolt can be de-bonded dong its
length; while this does reduce the eiieaive length, the cable then becornes less stiff
and i t i s less likefy that axial movernent will result in complete bond failure.
The eiiect that a large stope blast has on a cable bolted rock mass is Jargel!
unknon-n. Cable bolts wi l l lose some o i their supporting ability because of blast
vibrations. The extent to which this occurs has vet to be established. This i s due to a
lack of appropriate cable bolt monitoring technologv and general lack oi access o i
In mining applications. the majority o i cable bolt iailures occur at the steel-
grout interiace. These cable bolt iailures are generally seen in the iorm oi bolts
hanging irom stope backs or hanging walls with the grout having been stripped irom
them apparentlv i n a type of progressive iailure. In rare instances, cables are seen to
be unravelled at their ends indicating that forces were being transierred to the cable
cirom the surrounding rock mass movements, and that the cable itseli was bearing
sorne o i the load at the time o i iailure. It i s the exceptional case that the cable bolt
itseli wi l l tail i n tension.
In the earlv h i s t o ~ oi cable bolting the majority o i these iailures were related to
inexperience and poorly installeci bolts resulting in weak cable-grout bond. \trith
McGilZ University - Department of Mining and Met dhgi cal Engineming
Introduction Chapter 1
experience and research i n bolt failure mechanisms the success of cable bolting has
been greatly irnproved. However, as noted by Kaiser et al. r 1991 ), "there are s t i l l
situations where cables seem to loose their capacitv during mining, and i n these cases
the cables do not provide the expected and needed ground support." This indicates
that there are st i l l some unknowns i n the ' support design equation' and study of the
cable bolt failure mechanism must be iurther advanced.
Presently, the assumed process (or the conceptual understanding, of cable bolt
bond-failure mechanism i s as iollows:
i) axial loading o i the cable bolt;
iii formation of hoop stresses i n grout (caused by axial cable loading and
iacilitated by cable-grout bondi;
ii i ) radial fracturing of grout (due to hoop stresses);
iv) generation oi ' wedges' in the grout due to fracturing;
v) dilation of the grout-wedges.
This forms the basis for the understanding of the cable bolt's support
characteristics. The action o i the cable's roughness (macroscopic and to a lesser extent
microscopici and the ' wedging-action' of the grout column iorm the principal
resistance to cable pull-out; i t is this action that gives the cable bolt i ts irictional-
support properties and allows i t to rnaintain good suppon resistance even aiter
appreciable displacement.
1.3.1 Mechanisrns of the bond
It i s known that there are three components that constitute the cable-grout
interface bond: adhesion, friction and mechanical interlock (figure 8). Adhesion i s on
the rnicroscopic scale. It refers to the physical, molecular ' gluing' o i the steel and
grout resulting from the roughness of the steel and van der Waals' molecular attraction.
This adhesion i s considered to disappear when the slightest amount of slippage occurs.
The frictional nature o i the support i s a result of a ' weging' action caused by grout
McGiZZ Uniaemty - De pume nt of Mining and MetaZZurgzgzcd Engineering
introduction Chapter 1
di lation. This component i s greatly dependant upon confinement pressures. The final
component, mechanical interlock, pertains principally to the shear and compressive
strength of the grout. The grout is forced to move against the macroscopic
irregularities along the cable. The twisting and the surface characteristics of the cables
wi l l therefore affect this interlocking resistance. The relationship between bond
resistance and bolt slippage wi t h regards to these components was idealistically
represented by Littlejohn and Bruce (Part 1. 1975). See Figure 8.
Figure 8 idealistic representation or major components in bonding mechan ism M e r Littlejohn
and Bruce, 7 975 pt.1)
There are various modifications that have been made to the conventional cable
support. These modifications have been made to the grout. the cable and the
installation procedures.
Modifications of the grout are based generally upon the optimization of the
compressive strength, workability, and quality of the mixture.
McGa University - Department of Mining and Me t a ~~~r g z ~c a ~ Engineeeng
Introduction C hapter 1
Cable innovations have involved the use of multiple cables per hole, the
coating of the strand with an epoxy, the un-twisting of the cable strands (known as a
birdcage cable bolt), crimped cable (known as Garford bolts), the addition of buttons
or wedges on the cable, and the use of a composite material i n place of the
conventional steel cable.
Changes to the installation procedures have seen the use of pre-tensioned and
untensioned cables, and different placement methods that do and do not require the
use of breather tubes (a tube placed i n the hole allowing air to escape and also to act
as an indication of when the hole i s filled). Al l of these modifications are attempts to
increase the efficiency of the cable bolt, whi l e st i l l maintaining the econornic aspects
and benefits of the support.
1 -4.1 Grout Modifications
Failures occurring i n underground cable bolt installations are generally due to
shear failure at the cable-grout interface; it i s rare to see failures due to broken cables.
It i s for this reason that the quality and composition of the grout material and its
interaction with the cable i s of prime interest. Adjustrnents have been made in the
fol lowing areas: the water-cement ratio, the type of cernent, the chem ical admixtures,
and the general grout mix composition and additives.
A) Water-Cernent Ratio:
To optimize the water-cernent ratio, a balance must be reached between
strength properties and the ability to pump the product. By decreasing the ratio, the
strength of the grout wi l l increase but the ability to pump it wi l l decrease beyond a
certain water-cernent ratio. The benefits of using high water-cement ratios are: the
pumping problems wi l l be minimized and the mixing of the grout wi l l be more
consistent (this i s dependant upon the grout-pump). Conversel y, the compressive
strength wi l l be reduced i n a high water-cement ratio grout and the increased water
McGiZZ University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
-- - --
wi l l induce water bleeding and cernent particle sedimentation.' A thick grout (low
water-cernent ratio) will be difficult to pump and the variability i n strength due to the
particular mixing system may pose quality control problems. (Reichert et al., 199 1 )
However, pull tests indicate that the strength of a grout with water-cernent ratio of 0.3
versus a ratio of 0.45 i s increased by approximately 78 percent. (Goris, 1990).
lncreased strength i s not the only benefit. A thick grout wi l l remain in the hole and
wi l l not necessarily need extensive packing at the hole collar. Additionally, the
possibility of grout bleeding into fissures and cracks i s reduced with thick grout. And
finally, if excessive water i s added to a thick mixture, the loss in strength wi l l not be as
severe as in a thinner (high water-cernent ratio) grout. The thickest grout that can be
easily pumped and properly mixed will represent the optimal water-cernent ratio. This
is generally between the ratio of 0.35 and 0.10. (Reichert et al., 1991).
B) Type of Cernent:
In the majority of operations, normal (type 10) Portland Cernent i s used for bolt
grout, however in certain instances high-early strength (type 30) cernent i s used. Cable
bolting i s often on the "critical path" of the production cycle and as such, the support
of the cables must be realized as quickly as possible. It i s for this reason that a high-
early strength grout i s util ized. Additional ly, because the type 3 0 Portland achieves
higher strength in a shorter period of time than type 10 Portland, the cable support wi l l
resist rock dilations and displacements more rapidly.
The Ground Reaction Curve in figure 9 can be used to explain the benefits of a
high-early strength grout. The curve indicates that i t i s difficult to prevent primary rock
relaxation but the quicker the support placed the more effective i t wi l l tend to be. In
comparing the two different grouts - type 1 0 Portland will be stronger than type 30
afler 28 days (approximately 20% stronger), but its curing time i s longer. Type 30 will
Grout bleeding and particie sedimentation i s a process by which cernent particles in the grout
settle and the water rises. This process starts when the grout i s placed and wiIl continue until
the mixture has stiffened (2-4 holirs). The conventional steel strand cable bolt will act as the
plurnbing system or a wick ior the water. The water will rise to the top where a column o i
water will surround the cable bolt. This wi l l reduce both the shear stress significantly and the
effective length of the support. (Goris, 1990)
Mc GiZZ University - Department of Mining and Metalhrgical Engineering
Introdtictio n Chapter 1
have greater short-term strength (because of its rapid curing time) and wi l l therefore
prevent the dilation of the rock mass quicker than type 10 Portland. The choice of
type 30 over type 10 Portland i s sacrificing final strength for early strength. The choice
could be the diiference between the "proper" support reaction curve and one that i s
" too delayed".
round arch Forning
Figure 9 Possible beneiits oi Type 30 Portland versus Type 10 Portland
C) Chemical Admixtures:
Chemical additives referred to as admixtures, can added to the cernent grout in
order to enhance characteristics, either prior to setting or after setting. The admixtures
are used to prevent shrinkage, permit a reduction in water-cernent ratio while ensuring
fluidity, ccelerate or retard setting, and to prevent bleeding. Some of the more
common cernent admixtures are noted below: (Littiejohnand Bruce, Part 2, 1973)
McGill University - Department of Mining and MetdZurgical Engineering
Intrud~ction Chapter 1
Admixture Chernical
Acceierator Calcium Chloride
Retarder Calcium Lignosulphonate
Tartaric acid May affect set strength
Fluidifier Detergen t
Expander Aiuminum powder
Anti-bleed Alurninum Sulphate
Accelerates set
and hardening
AIso increases
Entrains air
Up to 15%
Entrains air
Additionally, wi t h the use of appropriate admixtures, the grout can be tailored
so as to increase penetration into the discontinuities. This wi l l act to effectively
increase the rock qua1 ity and further strengthen the overall rock mass (Hassani et al.,
1 99 1 ). Admixtures must be used carefully; for example: too much of a retarder may
result in a grout that takes excessively long to cure or may not cure at all. However, as
a general rule these admixtures are rather expensive and are typically not used in day-
today cable bolting.
D) Grout Composition and Additives:
It i s generally accepted that by increasing the uniaxial compressive strength of a
grout, the pu Il-out resistance or bond strength i s also increased. Brown ( 1 970)
suggested that i n the conventional cable bolt, "the shear strength of grout bears a direct
relationship to the square root of its compressive strength." One way to increase the
strength of a grout i s to add an aggregate to the mixture. Experimentation has
indicated that a superior cable bolting grout can be made using an aggregate-grout
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
In trodtrction Chapter 1
mixture (similar to a shotcrete) without sacrificing workability, (Rajaie, 1990). Other
atternpts to increase grout quality entai l the use of fibre-reinforcement (similar to
shotcrete applications) and other products that would increase the flexural, tensile or
compressive strengths of the mix.
1.4.2 Cable Modifications
As mentioned above, the strength of a cable support i s greatly dependant upon
the behaviour of the grout-cable interface. Fuller (1 983) noted, "al l fully bonded
rein forcement relies on the bonding properties to transfer displacemen ts and loads
between the rock mass and the reinforcing member." Both the grout properties and
the cable properties wi l l affect overall bond strength characteristics. While i t i s the
grout that appears to be the ' weak link of the chain', modifications to the cable can
attempt to increase the strength of this bond to allow for the optimization of the overall
cable support mechanism. The variations on the conventional cable bolt are
addressed below:
A) Strand Surface:
The surface condition of the cable has a great influence on the shear forces
developed along the grout-strand interface. Pull-out testing of conventional cable bolts
indicated that surface rust, surface indentations and general surface state substantialiy
affected the bond strength, (Fuller and Cox, 1975). It was noted that grease on a strand
did not allow for an adequate bond to develop between the strand and the grout,
thereby reducing the bond strength or pull-out load. Light surface rust and
indentations on the strand, on the other hand, allowed for a better bond to form. Thus,
resulting in an increase in the bond strength due to an increase in the shear resistance
(friction) between the strand and grout, (Goris and Conway, 1987).
Other surface conditions were examined to discover their effect on bond
strength. Epoxy-coating was initially used to provide a corrosion resistant coating but
McGill Univenity - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineenhg
In trodtrction Chapter 1
- --
it was noted in pull-out testing that the strength of these cables exceeded that of
conventional cables by over 30% (Goris and Conway, 1987). In addition, the coated
cable also reduced the degree of grout bleeding. The cost of epoxy-coated cable bolts
i s approximately double that of bare cables, so epoxy coating i s unlikely to become a
bond enhancement measure. However, epoxytoating rnay find a practical application
in composite bolts.
8) SteelButtonsonCables:
Buttons or fittings can be clamped along the length of the cable. These steel
fittings are sleeves that are fit around a cable and increase the pull-out resistance,
(figure 10). A button wil l typical ly have an outside diameter of between 20 and 32
mm (compared to 16mm of the cable) and a length of approximately 40 mm. These
form an 'edge' in the cable and create a bearing surface inside the grout column. It i s
known that initial resistance to slippage between the cable and the grout i s a result of
the bond between the two; once displacement has taken place, secondary resistance i s
a result of friction at the interface. I t i s the i s bearing surface that acts to increase this
secondary friction and functions to resist the shear at the grout-cable interface. (A
wedge acts in a similar manner but tends to tighten upon the cable as axial
displacement occurs.) Preliminary testing of steel buttons indicated that the ioad
carrying capacity could be increased by as much as 2 19% over that of the
conventional cable bolt. (Goris and Conway, 1987)
Goris and Conway (1 98 7) also suggested that the spacing and location (wi th
regards to discontinuities) of buttons i s important in their effectiveness. Through their
laboratory pull tests, it was observed that when the button embedment exceeded a
certain length, then the shear force along the interface was great enough to cause the
button to slip along the strand. When the embedment length was reduced beyond a
minimum limit, then the bunon displaced a section of grout into the opening and
resulted in pull-tests that were inferior to conventional cable bolts over large
displacements. (This simulated the situation where a button was placed near a
McGilZ University - Department of Mitling and MetalZurgical Engineering
In trodztction Chapter 1
discontinuity in the rock mass.) In each situation, the bunons di d help to increase the
cables average maximum load-carrying capacity. Consequentl y, they concl uded that
the placement of the buttons was crucial to the success.
SL I f '
C 1
Figure 10 Cabie buttons: a means oi increasing pull-out resistance
The use of buttons on cables i s generally accepted to increase the effectiveness
of cable bolting but they may require the use of larger holes, and are generally more
difficult to install and grout. Buttons have been found to be a slightly more expensive
alternative and as such are not commonly used in Canadian mines.
C) Modified Cable Geometries - Birdcage, Garford & Nutcase:
As mentioned previously, the standard cable bolt consists of seven distinct
McGiZZ Univtnity - Department of Mining and Metdurgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
wires twisted into a strand; a cable bolt with a modified cable geornetry refers to on
which has its strands untwisted, unlaced, crimped or in some was changed. Examples
of these are the birdcage, the nutcase and the Gatiord bolts.
The birdcage cable bolt consists of the same cable wi th the outer six wires
rotated away from the central core-wire. The birdcage bolt consists of nodes (the point
where the wires are rejoined) and antinodes (the poi nt where the ' weave' i s most
open). The open weave allows grout to iullv penetrate the core of the cable between
nodes resulting in al1 wires being i d l ~ bonded. This allows the grout to penetrate into
the anti-nodes and also increases the suriace contact area.
The Nutcase cablebolt i s similar to the birdcage cablebolt. The diiierence i s
that there is a nut placed in the anti-node. This nut prevents the open strands from
squeezing together and pulling out o i the hole.
The Catiord bol t i s on that has had its ends pushed together, therebv making a
crimp in the strands of the cable. The e6ea oi this cable geornetry i s the sirnilar that ii
the birdcage except the anti-node size can better be controlled.
The variables associated with these modiiied geometries are: anti- node size,
node size, node spacing and length o i cable that has this modiiied geometry'.
In open stope mi ni ng application where stabi l ity is oi paramount importance,
modiiied-geometv bolting i s often considered the best support alternative. Laboratory
testing has indicated that the birdcage cable bolt capacitv can exceed that of the
conventional bolt thaving the same tensile strength) significantly, figure 1 1. In
practice, these modiiied cables are more l ikeiv to fail tension than conventional
bolting. (Tende iailures in conventional bolting i s very rare). This indicates that the
load (resulting i rom rock mass displacement, i s being transierred ro the steel cables
and not iailing at the grout-steel interiace. This suggests that the grouttable interface
no longer limits the effeciveness o i the cable bolt i t i s the tensile strength of the steel.
The entire length oi the cable does not have to be modiiied
two meters oi the cable nearest t he cllar will be birdcaged
in some situations, onlv the iirn
McGill Universify - Department of Mining and Metahrgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
50 tonne Copacit y cablebolts
500m enbedment length
Figure 11 Comparative puli-our resistance oi b~rdcage & standard bolrs ctypical examplesi
In order to optimize the modifieci cable strength, the nodal spacing must be
designed wi th respect to rock mass properties and certain geological factors (ior
example: rock strength, discontinuity spacing and ground characteristic line per rock-
support interaction curve.)
Birdcage, nutcase and Gariord cable bolts are st i l l in their iniancy in Canada
and the US; however where thev have been implemented thev have been iound to be
superior to conventional cables and as such, they wi l l likely find greater acceptance i n
the near future. Present limitations lie i n the economic supplv. consistent
manufacturing andor on-site preparation i n the aaual "birdcaging" oi conventional
D) Composite Cable Bolts:
A composite can be deiined as a combination o i di fierent materials used to
create a single distinct material. In a composite cable bolt the elements that comprise
the unit generally consists of glass, carbon or Kevlar fibres to be used as the support
McGiZZ Unioersity - Department of Mining and Metclllurgt'cal Engtgtneen3tg
In troductian Chapter 1
rnaterial and a glue for the binding matrix. The carbon and Kevlar fibre composites are
far too expensive for practical usage in the mining indusv so it is the iibreglass or
polyglas composite that will likely be found in future cable bolting applications. .4
cost comparison of ten ditierent composite materials of various diameters is presented
in Figure 12.
Figure 12 Cost versus dianerer for composite bolts (Aiter Hassan~, 1991 J
The mechanical properties oi fibreglass are similar i o that oi prestressed steel.
The stress-strain relationships between the bvo materials i s however strikinglv diiferent:
The steel stress-strain curve consists o i a linear elastic zone followed by a non-linear
plastic zone ending in ductile failure; composites, having a lower modulus o i elasticity
than steel (approximately a quarter that of steel) have a completely linear stress-strain
curve ending i n brittle failure, (Hassani and Khan, 1991 ), figure 13.
McGill University - Deparnent of Mining and Metalhrgical Engineering
In traduction Chapter 1
Figure 13 Stress-strain curves for various composite bolts (Aiter Hassani, 1991)
The composite cables bolts can be either in the birdcage (also known as laced)
or the standard (unlaced) configuration. The critical embedrnent length associated
wi th a laced fibreglass cable ( 1 27 mm node spacing) i s 432 mm at 24 tonnes.
Conventional steel cables wi l l fail at the grout-cable interface at 10 tonnes at this
embedment length. (Mah, et al., 1991 and Goris, 1990) The axial performance of
fibreglass cables i s cornpetitive wi t h steel cables but i n shear strength, the composite i s
inferior, (Mah et ai., 199 1 ).
Laboratory testing has indicated that the performance of fibreglass cable bolts
often exceeds that of its steel counterpart. After laboratory and site testing, Mah et al.
(1 991 ) concluded:
fibreglass cable bolts are a prospective alternative to steel for regional
McGill University - Department of Mining and Met al l zqt kl Engineering
Introdtrction Chapter 1
support in continuous hard rock mining. The axial performance has
been compared t o steel cable bolts and an improved bond strength is
Hassani et al. (1 991 ) further noted that:
Polyglas [bolts] could sustain the small de formations which occur
immediately upon excavation without breaking. Moreover, due to this
property it is less likely rhat local failures (caused by joint, fissures, etc.)
in the immediate vicinity ( 7 - 3 metres) of the tunnel opening would
The financial viability of fibreglass cable bolting has not been established on
large scale production usage. Figure 14 represents the relative cost versus tensile
strength of some of these composites, (Hassani and Khan, 1 991 ).
Ext ern
(9.5 on daJ
(18.0 nn da.>
C25.0 nn dio.)
Figure 14 Cost versus tensile strength (After Hassani and Khan, 1991)
McGiU University - Depa>tment of Mining and Metalhrgical Engineenkg
In traduction Chapter 1
Any design procedure consists of the following conceptual stages:
1 ) problem definition;
2) establ ishing the objectives;
3) determining a possible solution;
4) evaluation of the prospective solution and ensure objectives have been
Following this design philosophy, the design of an effective cable bolt support
system requires that a series of logical steps take place. Page and Laubscher ( 1 990)
Mining engineers are often in the situation where they must make educated
guesses. They have to be inventive but are less likely to make fundamental
errors if they follow a number of clear steps in reaching a design decision.
Defining the problem in a support design is relatively easy; i t requires collecting
information concerning the stope geometry and ground conditions and determining
what i s i t that necessitates the cable bolting.
Geometry of the stope - Establish the areas in the stope that are to be supported
and determine the amount of access that i s available in each case. In back
support, if the area i s totally silled-out there i s no access problem; i f this i s not
the situation and there are multiple access drifts, the access for cable bolting
will be limited and uniform coverage will be more difficult. Hanging wall
bolting i s often difficult because of the distance between drilling drifts.
Ground conditions - This requires assessment of ground conditions and geology
in the stoping area. This involves a thorough understanding of the site by
knowing i) the location of the different rock masses and associated contacts, ii)
the location, orientation and spacing of geological structures (faults, joints,
bedding, and foliation), iii) and the general stress environment. This i s most
McGiZl U n i d t y - Department of Mining and MetallurgrgrcaZ Engineering
In trodtrction Chapter 1
easily facilitated by the use of a rock rnass characterization system'.
Failure mode - Determine, based upon the ground conditions. how the rock
mass will fail (gravity, shear, toppling, buckling etc). Determine if the failure
likely to be control led by structure, by stress, or by a combination of the two.
Determine the area and volume of the potential failure zone as defined by the
criticai structures.
Once the problem i s defined then the objectives can be set. The objectives are
to represent what the support i s supposed to do and to what extent.
Opening and required support life - The expected l ife of the opening or stope
must be addressed to determine how long the cable support must remain
effective. If the support i s meant for long-term, i t is desirable for the support to
be repairable and/or upgradable without requiring support removal or extensive
rehabilitation work. (Page and Laubscher, 1 990)
Suitability or appropriateness - The type of cable support system used should be
suitable to the ground conditions. For exarnple, the load transfer capability of a
birdcage cable bolt i s efficient thereby having large load carrying capacities, but
may not be required for al1 support applications. The stiffness of the support (in
regards to the ground reaction curve) should also be suited to rock mass
Potential support effectiveness - This involves the evaluation of the
repercussions i f support failure were to occur; and to what extend would a rock
mass failure (or dilution) be critical and limit the ' success' or life of the stope.
The realization that the support mechanisrn may not necessarily be optimal but
wi l l suit the application.
Reasons for cable bolting - The reason for systematic cable bolting should be
analyzed. For example i s i t to be designed as a preventative measure or i s i t a
necessi ty.
There are two basic systems used ior open stope mining applications, the Mining Rock Mass
Rating, MRMR (based on the CSlR Geomechanics system created by Bieniawski (1 973) and
adapted by Laubscher (1 975, 1977, 1984, 1990)) and the Modified Mathews Method (an
adaptation of Barton's NGI or Q system by Mathews et al. and later by Potvin et al.)
McGiZZ Unierersity - Department of Mining and Metdhrgifal Engineering
In trodtrction Chapter 1
Figure 15 Empirical-type cable bolt design curve. Based upon stiffness & ernbedment length with
0.3 w:c grout mixture (After Reichert et al., 1991)
Often iri industry, engineers neglect to consider clearly the problem defin ition
and i ts objectives; the only phase that ever gets attempted in any serious capacity i s
the design phase. The previous steps are disregarded or considered only in passing.
The situation i s however, that without the preceding steps, i t i s unlikely that bolting
design wil l ever be optimized. Canadian operations have typically used a ' trial and
error' approach to cable bolt density requirernents (Potvin et al., 1988) indicating that
there i s little standardization or consistent design procedure.
To address or suggest an actual design flow chart for cable bolt design could
not be dealt with adequately within the scope of ihis report. Other authors of recent
have produced interesting guidelines for the improvement of cable bolting systems.
Based upon laboratory and field testing Reichert, Bawden and Hyett have
suggested an empirical-type of design chart. This chart, (figure 151, plots radial
sti ffness (representative of the rock mass properties) versus em bedmen t l ength. The
authors suggested that for rock masses plotting above the solid line, optimal design i s
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgial Engineering
l n tro dtt &on Cha~ter 1
possible and any resulting inadequacies are probably a result of quality control.
Conversel y, rock masses ploning below the curve are below the cri tical ern bedmen t
length and optimal results wi l l not be possible; cable bolt modifications wi l l be
necessary to increase bond capacity.
Through a more theoretical approach (as mentioned previously) Kaiser et al.
(1 990) have suggested a new cable bolt design methodology using the relationship
between changes in field stresses and cable bond capacity as a basis.
While neither of these two systems constitute a complete set of guidelines for
cable bolt design, they do account for significant and essential concepts.
The ' essentials' of a cable bolt design require the cable pedormance and
properties be used to establish the bolting pattern, density, orientation and bolt length.
This design of these aspects i s greatly complicated by the fact that there i s no clear
notion of how a rock mas reacts to cable bolting.
The main objective of systematic cable bolting i s the pre-reinforcement of rock
masses. In stope operations stope boundaries, hanging wal ls, backs, pi1 lar, draw
points, and weakness zones are the typical sites for systernatic cable bolting. The
applications used specifically in regards to stope stability, that is, back and wall
stability, will be reviewed.
In practice there are various techniques and patters used for cable bolting. No
single technique has found universal appeal in al l situations; individual systems should
be designed according to the failure mechanism expected and the rock rnass
1.6.1 Cable Bolting Practice for Open and Conventional Stope Backs
The practice for back bol ting i s general ly dependant upon the access avai lable.
One of the more common techniques i s to use a uniform distribution of parallel cable
bolts across the back (figure 1 6a). This i s not possible when small temporary pi1 lars
are left or the stope i s not silled-out cornpletely (figure 16b & c). The practice of
"hedgehog" i s also common (figure 16c); in this technique, cable bolts are fanned
above the drift and into the walls. This creates a larger bolted area. In addition to
McGiU University - Department of Mining and MetaZZurgical Engineering
Introdzction Chapter 1
these methods, it is common to have cable bolts oriented to intercept joint sets or
fracture zones at favourable inclinations. Potvin, Hudyma and Miller (1 988) noted that
one mine site was employing an ' interlaced support pattern' (figure 17). Subsequent,
cable bolt rings would be inclined in different directions, that is, one row had bolts
inclined at 76 degrees in one direction and the next row would be inclined in the
opposite direction. The purpose of this was again to intercept discontinuities at more
favourable angles and create a more stable back.
Figure 16 Open stope back support. (a) silled-out stope allowing ior total back access. (b) 51 (ci not
completely silled-out; al l owi ng for timited access i or support
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
In trodtcction Chapter 1
stope boundories
! !
- ----------
--;=- 71-
Figure 17 lnrerlaced back support
1.6.2 Cable Bolting Practice in Open Stope Walls
The exposed surface of a hanging wall between access levels in an open stope
can often exceed 30 m. This implies that a uniform cable bolt coverage i s practically
impossible. Some techniques have however been used in attempts to cover complete
hanging walls prior to opening in an attempt at prepinning the stope wall. One
method involves the cable bolts to be installed from drifts rvnning parallel to the
supported wall (figure 18). It requires a considerable arnount of drifting along with a
considerable amount of drilling. For these reasons, its use i s often limited by cost and
as such i s only occasionally used in Canada.
' Mandolin' bolting is another method that attempts to pre-pin and support the
complete span of the hanging wall of a stope. In this method bolts are installed
parallel to the stope boundaries for the entire length of the exposed wall (figure 19).
This technique has been experimented with in different operations and very limited
success has been acheived. Theoretically, however, i t wil l create a "flexible, yielding
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgzgzcal Engtgrnehng
Introduction Chapter 1
support which i s able to withstand high deformation; effective especially when rock i s
highlv fractured or stressed".'
Figure 18 Hanging wal l suppon sysrem ivith h/w suppon driit
Figure 19 Mandoling bolting of hanging d l
CI plcn view d>isonetric vie^
Looking S
Lppalainen,P. and J..hrikainen, 3lechanized abl e bolring in nopine and tunnellin? at rhe P y h d m i Mine,
13th World Mining Congres, Stockholm Sa-eden, 1987, p795
MCWU unzwrsi t y - ikpartment oj Mining and MetaZZurgzicrZ Engineering
Introduction C hapter 1
Typically, the hanging wall of an open stopes i s supported locally at the sub-
levels (figure 20). This method attempts to ' pin' the wall at these locations (figure 21 ).
Figure 20 Typical hanging wall support system
Figure 21 Hanging wall beam in cross-section with cable bolt "pins" at sublevels
McGill Uniuersity - Department of Mining and Metahrgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
Other methods used in wall support can be seen below (figure 22, 23). These
are examples of operations trying to obtain better results from the . standard'
Figure 23 Fan drilling: An artempt at hanging wall pre-reiniorcement (aiter Fuller.1983)
Figure 22 Combination blasthole and cable bolt boreholes. An alternative method for hanging
wall pre-reinforcement. This technique is used in the Zincgruvan mine, Sweden.
McGfl University - Departmmr of Mining and Metall~rgical EngWlewing
Introduction Chapter 1
Hanging wall failure i s likely the largest source of open stope dilution and i t i s
normally found that i t i s in hanging walls that cables are the least efficient.
The aspect of economics must be briefly discussed when addressing cable
bolting because the two are so closely tied. Cable bolting, along wi t h mechanization,
have been the two largest contributors to recent advances i n mi ni ng practices. These
advances have brought about significant financial and economic beneiits. As
rnentioned previously, the cable bolting of open stope walls and backs has allowed
larger spans to remain open for longer periods thereby permitting the use of bulk
mining methods for many operations. Also, cable bolting has enabled stoping to
proceed i n otherwise untenable situations.
Aauai cost information for cable bolting is dependant upon labour and material
costs but typically would be i n the area of seven dollars per foot or $350 for a 50'
( 1 5m) hole. The distribution of cable bolting costs can be seen i n figure 24. The
nurnbers account solely for the cost of cable bolting, the benefits of the bolting, as in
the situation mentioned below, are often much harder to assess.
Figure 24 Average cable bolt costing distribution for a 50'- 2" diameter hole (labour costs
assuming 73 'Iman-shift)
Mc GilZ University - Department of Mining and Metdurgical Engineering
Introduction Chapter 1
In the case of the Hemlo gold camp, in Ontario, three operations are mining the
same deposit. The property lines are well defined and are not to be crossed. In the
event that one operations infringes the on the other's property, restitution rnust be
made for the value of the ore. This also must occur in the event of a boundary stope-
wall failure. In some instances, where stope grades exceed 36 gramdtonne (1 odton),
a 100 tonne failure' (approxirnately 30 cubic rnetres) could cost a Company in excess
of $35,000. The need for ground and wall control i s evident. The cost of extensive
cable bolting to prevent such an occurrence i s greatly overshadowed by the cost of
wall failure.
The use of cable bolting i s virtually universal in Canadian hardrock mining; it i s
an economic and practical advantage necessary for many operations. It i s however
essential for an engineer to be fully versed in the fundarnentals of cable bolting and
recognise the effects of al1 the components. The issues that are of critical importance
are as follows:
1) understanding of fundamental elements of cable bolting;
2) the concept of bond strength;
3) awareness of cable bol ting innovations and modifications;
4) grout and installation qua1 ity;
the lack of a universal consensus on cable bolt design criterion.
The larger question, still to be answered is: what effect does systematic cable
bolting have on the rock mass and rock mass movements? It i s known that in poor
quality or blocky ground the cable bolt i s often found to be noi as effective as
anticipated. This i s a consequence of not knowing the true interaction of the rock
mass and cable bolt. The major dilemma is that ' we cannot see into a rock mass'.
But, if through theoretical investigations or instrumentation the movement of rock
masses can be determined, the success of bol ting could be positive1 y assessed thereby
qualifying a cable bolting design.
A 100 tonne failure could be illunnted by a 5 cm s h b peelingoff a 15m x 35m stope wdl.
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgicai Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
The purpose of a monitoring system i s to determine the behaviour and
reactioiis of a rock mass undergoing changing conditions. In this section the
con~nionly available rock mechanics monitoring equipment wi i l be reviewed and
the application and usefulness of the instrument will be addressed. In observing the
implementation of these monitoring systems, limitations and ' gaps' in the field will
become evident. The purpose of this i s to justify the need for a new monitoring
instrument, the Cable-Grout Displacement Meter, or at least its possible usefulness.
There are three main reasons why mining operations find i t necessary to use
rock mechanics instrunientation: (i) research - to learn about the conditions in a
specific mining environment, (i i) practical reasons concerning the continued day-to-
day production - being able to foresee or predict adverse conditions both to safety
and production, and (iii) production optimization and advancement - to allow for
back-andl ysis and a process whereby operations can learn from both past m istakes
and successes.
More specifically, instrumentation i s used to determine:
- when adverse conditions become critical and become a safety concern;
- the behaviour of a rock mass under certain conditions;
- the source or' failures in a specific mining design;
- the reason for the success of a specific mining plan;
- how to improve present mining practices.
In most of the "real Me" mining situations, instrumentation systems will be
desigiied and eniployed to monitor the assumed prevailing failure niechanism.
When the possibility of failure i s high and the magnitude of the assumed failure i s
excessive some form oi support system will be implemented. This support i s
McGill University - Department of Mining and Mefaflurgical Engineering
lnstrumen ta tion Chapter 2
intendecl to prevent or lessen the severity of the anticipated failure. This point
highlights the relationship between rock mechanics instrumentation and rock
2.1.1 Measuring And Operating Principles
ik\onitoring instrumentation can take many iorms, [rom the simple, relatively
inexpensive extensorneter to the elaborate, quite costly microseismic network.
Instrunients can be short-term or long-term. The specific selection of the instrument
i s defined by the application. For example the stability of a main haulage drift or pit
wall would be concern over the long-term and as such an expensive monitoring
systeni could be justiiied. Ahernately, the situation of an open stope hanging cvall,
which is reyuired to remain stable for no more than six months, would necessitate a
shorter-terrn, less costlv instrumentation system.
The niajority o i popular rock mechanics instrumentation used are verv
simple and are based upon elementary operating principles. Instrument sensors are
build on a iew straight-ionvard systems: basic mechanical, electrical and io a lesser
extent, optical and pneumatidhydraulic operating principles.
i\\echanically based systems, typically used to measure movements or
displdcenients, relv on the monitoring of the niechanical movement o i linked
coniponents. These =Ire usually the most reliable systems because of their simplistic
designs. Thev do not however lend themselves to reniote or continuous reading
without complicating the system. lncluded in this category are tape, wire and rod
extensorneter, each of which wi i l be discussed below.
E lecirical systems use the measurernent of resistance. capacitance or
inductance as the basis for the monitoring instrument. Capacitance has been used
to measure, very precisel y, sniall-range displacenien ts. Inductance-based sensors
have been used for stable, linear transducers. For example, the sensor at the head
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Instrumenta tion Chapter 2
of mechanical rod extensometer can use an inductance based gauge. However, the
niajoritv oi electriwl ly basecl instruments use resistance-based gauges. Unl i ke
mechnical systems, electrical-resistance systems easily can lend themselves to
remote, continuous monitoring devices. They are however considered not as
durable in the adverse conditions of a mine and perhaps less appropriate to long-
term instrumentation systems.
The vibrating wire systems can be considered a cross between the
mechanical and electrical systems. Vibrating wire instruments are simple (resulting
i n durability) as in the mechanically based systems and easily monitored remotely
and continuouslv as with the electrically based systems. Vibrating wire instruments
measure the irequency of a wire as a means of determining the tension i n that wire.
This i s possible because of the proportionality of wire tension to the square of i t s
natural irequency. This type of system i s commonly iound in load cells and stress
measurement gauges.
Optical t~asecl systems, using electronic distance measuring devices, EDMs,
are enective in nieasuring nlovernents, very accurately, over long distances. These
systenis are iound to t ~ e very worthwhile in the surface environments but are not
often iound practical in underground conditions.
Pneumatic/hvdraulic bases systems are commonly used to measure fluid
pressure (pore water pressure, gas levels, oil pressure, etc.). In some instances,
pressure plates and pressure cells are based upon pneumatidhydraulic principles.
Fluid tmed systenis are used widely in tailings pond dyke monitoring, soi1
mechaiiics and backiill-type pore pressure applications but are not common in
underground rock mechanics instrumentation.
There i s also currently interest in the utilisation of technologies found outside
the rnining industry. These technologies are presently unproven in the mining
world Ilut their potential applications are highly promising and their acceptance is
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
imminent. One such technology i s that of tirnedomain reflectometry or pulse
reilect ion
The pro's and con's associated with each of the above mentioned
technologies are unique and as such, can be used to create a vast number of
di iieren t instruments. Some o i the more common rock rnechanics instrumentation
and the technologies involved wi l l be discussed below.
2.2.1 Load Cells
There are many different types o i load cells, each uniquely designed to
monitor the loading of an individual support member. The load cell could be
installecl on a mechanical rock bolt or on a timbered crib-set. Monitoring can be as
straiglit ionvard as the qualitative deterioration oi a timber squeeze block, reading
o i an analogue dial or as elaborate as a microprocessor controlled data logger.
Load cell monitoring i s based on one of three technologies: vibrating wire, strain
gauge or ultrasonic techniques.
While the load cells are closely related to stress-change monitoring devices,
the locicl cells are simple, short term devices. These are typically used to monitor
the lodciing of a support meniber or the deiormation rate and deterioration oi
grouncl conditions. Udd, et al., ( 1 987) noted that:
load cells, for example, are necessary i i one cvislies to measure the
loads transmitted to supporting members, or if the deilections to be
monitored result from deformations rather h a n displacements across
fracture planes.
Ciltrasonic systems are different from the vibrating wire and strain gauge load
monitoring devices. In one such system, i t utilises no "cell" to monitor load; the
systeni uses the support itseli, i n this cases a rock bolt, to determine the load. A
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgicai Engineering
lnsfrum en tation Chapter 2
pulse i s generated bv a transducer at the bol t head. The change i n the pulse's
reilected signal irequency or the pulse travel time to determine the tension in the
support member. This svstem is solely a comparative system, i t can be used t o
establish if a bolt i s taking increased load. It i s similar to a miner hitting the head o i
a rock boit to hear i f it i s pinging or taking load.
Load cells or load cell-instrumented support systems are generally used for
short term applications. Thev are also used in situations where relative or typical
loading conditions are desired.
2.2.2 Stress Cells
The stress cell i s much l i ke the load cell. The operating principle of this
device i s tvpically the same as the load cell, either vibrating wires or strain gauges.
These devices differ irom the load cells onl y i n their application; the stress cells are
used to nionitor rock masses stresses and Joad ceils are used to monitor the transfer
of locling to support svstems. Stress cells do not measure the stress i n a rock mass.
i n iact, they measure the change i n the stress of that rock mass. bi ore correctly,
stress cells are actudlly strain cells; thev measure the strain whi ch is used to
calculdte the stress knowing the elastic properties of the instrument according to
Hooke's Law.
The basic principle behind the vibrating wi re gauge is that any wire under
tension wi l l have a characteristic or resonant frequency (an exaniple of this i s a
guitar string or any other stringed instrument) whi ch is dependant upon the length
of the ivire and the strain of the wire. The vibrating wire stress cell determines
change in stress by the variation i n irequency due to the change in length of a
vibrating wire. The wire, o i a known rnodulus o i elasticity, i s excited and the
vibration period (or resonant frequency) of the wi re i s rneasured. The frequency of
the wire is directlv proportional to the wire strain and applied load. The gauge i s
McCll University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
lnstrumen ta tion Chapter 2
excited hv either plucking the wire rnagnetically or a irequency pulse. Vibrating
wire jauges c m onl y determine stress changes uniaxialiv but more than one can
easily he employed at one site i n order to determine biaxial loading conditions.
.An example oi a vibrating wire stress gauge is the Herget Borehole
Defornidtion Gauge developed by CANMET). The instrument consists of a circular
ring containing the vibrating wire and exci t at i ~n mechanism. The device is iixed in
a borehole by means o i wedges and is set up to measure hole deiorrnation. The
cost ior the complete installation oi one of these instruments, including readout
unit, i c approximatelv 53000.
Vibrating wi re cells (i n al1 their difierent formsi, that monitor stress changes
were hund to be the second most common instrument used in underground hard
rock niines.
.A commonly used strain gauge-based instrument i s the CSlRO Triaxial -
Hol l o\ ~ inclusion Cell. The instrument consists of three strain gau, oe rosettes on a
sot% deiormable cell. The CSlRO cell i s glued to the walls o i a borehole and
oriented in the direction of the principal stresses.
Stress cells are used to determine conditions in a broader sense. Where the
load cell i s used to determine the loading of an individual support svstern, the stress
cell i i used to determine the conditions causing the loading on the support systems.
2.2.3 Extensometer
The estensometer is perhaps the most common iorm of rock mechanics
instrumentation used and arguabl y the most useiul. Extensometer can be descri bed
as dny device or instrument that measures the displacernent between two points.
The cliiierent iorms i n common use i n mining applications are: tape extensometer.
borehole <rod and wire, estensometer, convergence meters and ground movement
monitors. Each o i these, along with their applications, wi l l be described below:
McGill University - Department of Mning and Metallurgical Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
The tape extensometer i s simplv a precision tape measure used to determine
the nia\ ement between iixed points located on rock suriaces. The tape
extensonieter consisting of a ruled invar wire or tape that i s stretched between t wo
points dnd measurements (under a constant tension) can be read precisely to a
fraction oi a millimetre. The tape extensometer is used tvpicallv to measure the
movement or convergence oi drin walls.
Two eve-bolts are simplv iixed i n the walls as anchor points to allow the tape
to be stretched between these two sites. This distance is then rneasured on a
regular basis. Eye-boit o r anchor sites, i i appropriatelv oriented, can be used to
deterniine the stresses surrounding the opening. , vul t i pl e iixed-points can be set i n
the drift walls to determine the total convergence or closure of the opening. This
iorm oi extensometer is very inexpensive, the initial requirement is the purchase o i
the tape extensometer instrument itseli.
.\nother conimon i orm o i the extensometer i s the rod extensometer. The rod
extensometer i s a type oi borehole extensometer. b\ul ti pl e rods are anchored
within boreholes at known, iised distdnces dong the length o i the hole. The rods
are iree to move asially and this movement i s nieasured either autornarically or
manually. .\utomdtic readings involve electrical sensors or transducers. klanual,
mechanical readings are taken using a micrometer. Readings wi l l give an indication
oi nhere alon., the length oi the borehole movement i s taking place in addition to
the magnitude oi the niovement. Rod extensometers can be in excess o i 100 rn
long with up to eight anchor points per borehole. The rod extensometer i s
employed to monitor inaccessible sites. For example, i t is often used to monitor the
wall niovenient o i open stopes irom a remote or by-pass drih, figure 23. Rod
extensometer c m be used to monitor long-range, large-scale movements. These
movenients c m be used to determine the regional zone of influence or a large
opening in addition to monitoring oi sites that woul d be oiherwise be impossible.
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgicdl Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
A major disadvantage related to long extensorneter i s the cosi; a six-point, 70
m rod extensorneter can be as much as CAN$10,000.
Figure 25 Typical rod extensometer arrangement
The wire extensometer i s based upon the same principle as the rod
extensonieter. In this type oi borehole extensometer, wires replace the rods. .As
with the rods, the ends of the wires are anchored at known points in a borehole.
Movement along the length of the borehole i s interpreted identically to the rod
extensometer. One torm of the wire extensometer, designed by the Mining
Eniorcement and Safety Administration, MESA (in United States) is the wire-type sdg
meter tised to monitor strata displacenient. The wire extensorneter is not as robust
as the rod extensometer and readings are not as simplea so i t i s not as commonly
hldinly due to the tact that a wire must always be under the same tension when taking i ndi vi dual
readings; this problem does not exist with a rod extensometer.
McGN University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
lnstrum enta tion Chapter 2
found in underground mining applications any longer.
Brady and Brown i 1 985) describes a method that combines the wire
extensometer and the tape extensometer, figure 26. Here the convergence of points
away trom the opening can be determined to better understand the stress acting on
the opening.
Figure 26 iL\ulti-point w ire extensometer wi th tape extensometer monitoring (Aiter Brady and Brown
Another form of extensometer i s the Ground Movement Monitor, GMM. It i s
a single point, potentiometer-Sased, extensometer which i s coupled to a standard
threaded-both ends rock bol t. The extensometer consists of a l inear potentiometer
fixed to the hole collar and threaded on the end of a bolt', figure 27. The
instrument i s designed to be read rernotely via electrical connections. The length
The rock bolt does not support the rock at ai l , i t simply acts as an anchoring mechanism for the CMM.
MeCiIl University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Instrumentation Chaeter 2
over which the GMM i s effective i s dependant upon the length of the rock bolt.
The reading of the CMM requires oniy an ohm meter or any simple multi-meter.
Figure 27: A Chihi instdllrd on a TBE rock bolt
The GMM i s best suited to monitoring local satety conditions that involve
separation of a single, known, critical or potentially unstable joint or fracture
surface. The ideal application i s for monitoring the rate of movement in shallow
rock masses, typically less than 3-5 m.
The cost oi the GMM instrument i s in the area of CAN$400, with installation
taking approximately one half hour (requiring the drilling of the bolt hole); this
makes the GMM an inexpensive instrument. The potentiometer can also be easily
recovered and reused.
The major disadvantage to the CMM i s that the mounting bracket i s attached
MeCiIl University - Departmen t of Mining and Me tallurgical Engineering
lnstrumen ta fion Chapter 2
to the col lar and i f any of this surface i s loose, the reading wi l l be ineffective. The
eiiectiveness of the GMM i s also limited because only one anchor can be used per
hole, the location o i the movement i s unknown dnd any displacement over the
anchor length i s cumulative. But when the limitations of the GMMs are
understood, the instrument can be used by underground miners to monitor ground
movenient of a critical site and determine i f i t i s within acceptable limits.
2.2.4 Sloughrneter
The sloughnieter i s a device use to determine when and how much
slougtiing i s taking place. It i s a simple instrument consisting of several lead wires
incased i n plastic tubing. The individual wires, each of a specific length, are
attachecl to a common return wire, figure 28. When the surface fails, the strands are
broken and the circuit becomes open; so by testing the continuity of the individual
circuits, the location of the sloughing can be determined. The sloughmeter i s only a
few meters long and i s used in specific sites where sloughing or caving i s expected
to take place. This instrument was designed to monitor the sloughing taking place
i n ore passes but niore recently i t has also found applications i n monitoring caving
zones md other sites that may be dangerous or inaccessible.
..;':'. .'. 7= ... ,
'; -'. ....
- .
. .
. - . .:
. . . . . --
- - - - - . ,
- - . =. , =, -
.- . a - -
' 1 I I I
.;.\ :'-d -! . - - . <
Figure 28: The Sloughmeter
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
2.2.5 Cable Bolt Strain Gauge
Since d cable bolt i s grouted along i ts entire length, the tension in the cable
wi l l Vary depending upon the movement of the surrounding rock rnass being
supported. Because of this variation i n tension, short strain gauges are not an
effective means to monitor the cable strain. In order to solve this problem a few
different fornx of cabie bolt strain gauges have been designed. The majority of
these gauges consist of a nickel-chromiurn wire (used because of i t s high strain and
elongdtion, l ow temperature sensitivity and high speciiic resistance) fixed to the bolt
over a length of one to four metres. The change i n resistance of this wire i s
correlated to the change in tension of the cable i t i s attached to.
The form this instrument takes in Canada i s the TENSMEG (TENSion
MEasuriiig Gauge). As mentioned above the instrument measures the loading on a
cable holt by monitoring the variation i n resistance of a thin wire that is attached
axiallv to the bolt. When the bolt i s tensioned, i t i s presumed that the wire wi l l
stretch thereby affecting its resistance. This change in resistance i s then equated to
the change i n cable tension. The wires are wound helically into the cable bolt
giving CI gauge-monitoring length of 0.15 metre (short gauge), 0.70 metre (standard
gaugei or 1 to 3 nietres (long gauge). Multiple Tensmegs can be installed on one
cable, giving the loacling at various locations and an idea of the overail load
di stri hti on.
The concept behind the Tensmeg appears very promising and has been used
successiully in many applications. The problem that exists i s that the loading on a
cable bolt i s not necessarily constant and i s often cornplex; cables can be both i n
various states oi loading depending upon the location of discontinuities. This oiten
makes i t diificult to arrive at practical interpretations due to the Tensmeg's
enigm'itic readings.
McGi l l University - Departm en t of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
2.2.6 Time Domain Reflectornetry
Tinie domain reflectometry (TDR) i s a technology initiallv devised to detect
the l owti on oi breaks in power transmission lines. In the field of rnining
instrumentation, the technology has an application in the interpretation of rock mass
behaviour. TDR i s based on the interpretation o i a reflected signal pulse, (voltage,
radio, light etc.), as a means to determine the detormation of a wave guide
(meaning the CO-axial cable, fibre optic cable or steel bolt). This forrn of monitoring
i s solelv dependant upon the interpretation of the signal. In a rock mass monitoring
situation, movement i s determined by analyzing the response of an electrical pulse
sent dong a CO-axial cable that i s grouted in a borehole. The pulse reflection i s
affected by the geometry and the deformation of the cable. In observing the signal
response, the signature will consist of many individual reflections each associated
wi t h an individual deiormation. From these responses both the type of deformation
( t ende or shear deiormation) and magnitude can be determined.
To provide more accurate deformation locating, the CO-axial cable i s
crirnpecl. These crimps, dong with their known reflected signals, act as references
(or beiich marks) ior determin ing the cable defects. Without reference crimping,
O'Connor ( 1 99 1 ) notes that, accuracy is on the order of 2% of the distance from the
tester to the cable defects that a defect at a distance of 30 m can only be located
wi thi n 0.6 ni of its actual position. I f reference crimps are made every 1.2 m, the
accurdcy with which defects can be located becornes 2.4 cm.
The data acquisition i s done either rnanually wi th a TDR cable tester wi th
strip recorder' or with a personal computer with the appropriate interface module.
The identical technology is available in the field of fibre optics. lnstead of
the ultraiast rise tinie voltage pulse a light pulse i s used.
Tektronix Metaliic TDR's for Cable Testing. Application Note 22W-6342, Beaverton,
McCill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgicaf Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
In an adaptation of the TDR technology, the CO-axial cable (or fibre optics
cable) could be attach or incorporatecl in a cable boit tboth composite and steel).
This would then allow for the continuous (i.e. the compiete iength of the cable
boli), real-iirne monitoring of a cable bolt.
2.2.7 Summary
- < htvp
- rasil\ rnontrorrd ~ n d
i nr~rpretrd bv under-
ground wrirkeri;
- himplts and waight
rc i n v d
- limited use ror long-
term monitoring
- not rasily rnunitored
- - - -
- uwci ro rnoniror I d r ~ r e t ait> or rrgiiindl arra'
- long-trrm nlonitciring
- typic-dlly uwd r i i rnonitcir critic-JI pilldrs and hmgi ng
- wpport monitoring
- Iirnired u w ior long-term rnrinitoring
- rnonitor stress iirlds. brith chang~ dnd dbwlute
- useiul in "z~l i br~t i ng" or checking numericd rnc~drl-
- uced to monitcir rhtk 4oughrng or ore pd5w5 and
cdving zone3
- ciin pntentially be inccirpor~ted direc-tiv intci wpport
TABLE 2-1: Instrumentation
McGiil University - Departm en t of Mining and Metaliurgicd Engineering
Instrumentation Chapter 2
Rock mechanics instrumentation systems are subject to the harsh conditions
present in rnining operations. These conditions are moist, dirty and potentially
corrosive, iurthermore, an instrument must endure vibrations due to passing
equipnient and stope blasting along with the possibility of malicious damage.
Because of these difiicult conditions, instrumentation must be robust and sturdy
while still being a precision measuring device. Quality i s always at a price.
The cost oi purchasing an instrument i s often overshadowed by the cost
required to install the instrument. For example, the installation of a CSlRO triaxizl
cell i s oiten a cornplicated aifair. The installation requires a reamed diamond drill
hole. The cost and time required in moving the drill to the site, drilling the hole,
rearning the hole, cleaning the hole, then iinally installing the cell must be
considered. In manv cases the total installation costs exceeds the cost of the
instrument bv 5 to 10 times the amount.
The costs (ds of 1991 in CANB) for some instruments can be seen below:
Instrun~ent A~r>rox.Cost Additional eauipment costs
20ni tape extensometer $2084 none
borehole iissuronieter (LVDT) $ '7 957 readout unit: > B 1000
i poten t iometer) 6 1 300 readout unit: >S1000
5 point roc1 extensonieter (Som) $1325 manual monitoring (micrometer):
remote electrical monitoring:
> $ I O0 0
readout unit: < 5500
thermistor unit i readout +
electrical cable: $400-83000
$495 readout unit + electrical cable:
pressure plate load cell ( i Ot ) $890
Herget stress cell ( 3" ) 6908
CSlRO triaxial ce1 l
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
fnstrum enta tion Cha~ter 2
- -. - -- -
$300 datalogger readout + electrical
cable - cable bolt: CS2750
5400 rock bolt - multi-meter: <5100
> $10,000 expertise req u i red ior
L sing one, or a combination of the above mentioned rock niechanics
instrunientation systems, the majoritv o i the monitoring requirements oi todavs
mines c m be achieved. There are however many aspects of mining that are still
largely uncertain, speciiically those concerning the eiiectiveness of support svstems.
For exmiple, the questions: "how effective i s the support svstem?", "whv i s this type
o i support system Mi ng?" and "why is the rock mass behaving in a certain
manner!" are oiten being asked; the answers are arguably inadequate and based
typically upon expert speculation. The reason for this deiiciency is a result oi the
fact thdt i t i s practically impossible to "see-into" a solid rock mas. Furthermore, to
examine the true or deiinitive behaviour o i a rock mass (let alone a supported rock
massi reacting to largelv unknown external forces cannot be done effectively wi t h
existing instrumentation.
\ Wh the present day rock mechanics monitoring svstems the relationship
between instrumentation and suppon i s not suitablv addressed. .Ai stated above,
instrunientation wi l l be used where rock mass stability i s a concern but coinciding
wi th ground control problem, rock support wi l l also be used. As to date,
instrumentation has tvpically dealt wi th either monitoring the support system (load
ce115 and strain gauges, or monitoring the ground conditions (stress cells and
extensometer). Instrumentation has been insufiicient in determ ining the
relatioilship between rock support and rock mass movements.
McGill University - Department of Mining and MetallurgicaI Engineering
lnstrumen ta tion Chapter 2
\en+ and innovative instrumentation must be created to address the existing
shorttoniings i n prezent da) monitoring systems. in the i ol l owi nj sections a new'
instrunient. ior monitoring the displacernent o i a rock mass axialiy aloag the length
o i cable bolts n-il1 be developed. The purpose o i this instrument is to attempt to
ansmer t he above questions regardin3 support eiiectiveness and better understand
the bei i a~i our of d ~upport ed rock mas.
The nar d new not actually accurate: as \\dl be seen below, the new instrument i s actuallv
more of an innovative way to applv older instrumentation.
McGilZ Univmity - Dcpmnmt ofMining and MptaIIurgicaI Engineering
The Cable Bolt- Grout Displacement Metm Cbapter 3
McCill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism
Chap ter 3
The purpose behind an analysis of the mechanics of cable bolting i s to examine
the forces and the controlling factors involved in cable bolting. The forces leading to
the frictional attributes of the cable bolt will be investigated using a thick walled
cylinder analysis in addition to conventional force mechanics. The concepts of bond-
slip and bond stress distribution will be discussed.
The general solution of the thick-walled cylinder problem presumes a long
cylinder with axially restrained ends whose cross section i s circular, see figure 29. The
stress in the grout column or the walls of the cylinder are the pressures being sought.
cylinder walls
' The following analysis is from the reference Popov, 1976
5 8
McGiII University - Departmen t of Minhg and Metallurgicd Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism
Chap ter 3
The equations for radial and tangential stresses, O, and al, (assuming plane
strain, ,=O) in terrns of radial (gr) and tangential (3 strain are as follows:
and since,
then equation (1) and (2) can be expressed in terms of radius and radial displacement,
r and u, (where E i s the elastic modul us and v is Poisson's ratio):
O =
E & u
[(1 -v)--v -1
(1 - v) (1 -2v) dr r
McCill University - Departmen t of Mining and MetallurgicaI Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism Chapter 3
NOW from static equilibrium, summing the forces in the radial direction,
The solution of the differential equation resulting from the substitution of (5) and
(6) into (7) is as fol iows:
where u is the radial displacement and A, and A, are determined from the faa thai the
pressures at the inside, pi and outside, p, boundaries will be equal to the radial stresses.
These values are given by,
Now, the general equation for the radial and tangential stresses at any point in
an elastic cylinder can be obtained.
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism Chapter 3
These equations are sufficient for the solution of a thick-walled pipeline where
the internal pressure can be measured easily and the cylinder wi l l act elastically. For
the situation of the cable boli, i t i s more difficult. The internal pressure cannot be
measured definitively and furtherrnore, the grout cylinder will typically exhibit an
elastic-plastic failure.
For this situation, the solution to the plastic, thick-walled cylinder i s based upon
the yielding condition:
as hypothesized from the Mohr's circle assuming O, and O, are the principal stresses and
a, i s the yield point of the grout. The solution of the radial and tangential stresses, are
obtained through the solution of the basic differential equation written in the form:
O= u*Lnr- C ( 14
Thus, the stress distribution functions for the fully plastic state in terms of the radial
distance, r where r, i s the outside diameter are:
O; a*h(r/ r) (15)
McGill University - Departmen t of Mining and Metdlurgical Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism
Chapter 3
oyJ,(l -h(r/r)) (1 6 )
The true situation for the failure of the cable boit 'system' i s best to be
exarnined as an elastic-plastic behaviour. As such, the cross section of the cable
bolt/thick-walled cyl i nder wi l l be seen to have t wo regions, a zone of plastic
deformation and a zone of elastic deformation, figure 30. In the plastic region, (inner
radius ri and outer radius r,), at the elastic-plastic interface, radius r,), the radial and
tangential stresses are given by:
The stress distribution i n the elastic region can be found as i n equation ( 1 1) and (1 2) .
McGilI University - Department of Mining and MetalIurgical Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism Chap ter 3
Obviously, it i s the contact surface between the cable bolt and the grout that
results in the shear resistance and the frictional properties of the cable bolt. The
behaviour of these two surfaces, that of the cable's surface and that of the ' infilling'
grout's surface, along with the source of the frictional resistance are largely unknown.
Friction force i s simply defined as:
where N i s the normal component, p i s the coefficient of friction and @ is the angle of
friction. The frictional force of the interface can also be expressed in terms of a shear
Where T i s the shear strength or resistance and o i s the stress normal to the bolt surface.
To analyze the cabie bolt using these formulae rnay seem to over-simplify the
problem. It can however be used to explain the development of the cable bolt
system's frictional properties.
By drawing a ' free-body diagram' for the cable bolt/grout system, it woul d be
understandable to theorize that the normal component i s a result of confining pressure.
This would suggest that by increasing the confinement, (N or a), the frictional force
would also increase thereby increasing the pull-out resistance. This i s found to be the
case; the converse i s also true to an extent. Pull-out testing under tri-axial loading wi l l
increase the bond capacity of a cable bolt, but when the confinement i s zero the pull-
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism
Chapter 3
out load is not zero. This indicates that while the confinement i s a contributing factor
in the equation, other forces appear also to contribute to the shear resistance.
3.3.1 Interface F raduring and Plastic Grout Failure
It i s necessary to look at the surface profile of the cable bolt for the source of
resistance. Since the adhesional strength of the interface i s relatively insignificant, and
becomes separated even after a very srnall displacement, (Aydan, et al. 1990) the
resistance must be due to the movement or failure of the grout on the steel asperities.
In observing figure 31 it can be seen that there are two ways in whi ch the
interface can exhibit relative displacement. In figure 32a, the grout remains intact and
' rises' over the cable asperities and the grout column wi l l tend to dilate. In the other
case, figure 32b, the grout does not ' rise' over the cable asperities, but instead, the
' leading edge' of the grout will crush under the compressive load. The aaual situation
i s likely to be a combination of the two events, figure 32c. Aydan, et al. (1 990) noted
I f this overriding is constrained, then the material starts io fracture in the
vicinity of the interfaces wi thi n a finite zone.
McGiIl University - Department of Mining and Metallurgicaf Engineering
Cable Bond Mechankm
Chapter 3
Figure32:Grout column falure
Through observational and numerical studies by Avdan et al. (1990). the
interface fracturing was classified into three distinct types of cracks.
Radial fracturing can be observed originating at the tip of the asperities and
continuing out radially into the grout. This tension crack agrees with the expected
fracturing in the thick-walled cylinder analysis.
Low-angle fracturing. due to the shearing of the grout between asperities i s the
variety of crack that i s dominant in the iailure of the interface.
The third type of cracking, as predicted irom numerical rnodelling, i s seen in the
vicinity of the bearing surface of the grout, inclined at an acute angle to the cable
asperity. This shear cracking i s due to the fact that the shear strength of the grout i s less
then the compressive strength.
The formation and orientation of these fractures are dependant upon the
geometric configuration of the cable bolt, the material properties of the grout and the
external forces acting on the cable bolt system. In situations where the normal loading
i s sufficiently high, the dilation will be marginal thereby reducing the radial fracturing.
In this situation the asperities of the grout, being kinematically constrained, can result
in the crushing of the grout interface under increased shear loading.
McGiIl University - Departnzent of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism Chapter 3
3.3.2 Axial Bond Failure
It can be argued that because the bond characteristics for bars and cable bolts
are both frictional, the behaviour of cables can be likened to that of the reinforced-
concrete bar. There has been little research done on the distribution of loading along
the length of the cable bolt, however, much work has been completed on the bond
distribution dong the grouthteel interiace of prestressed steel and reiniorced concrete.
And as such, the work on the bond stress distribution oi reinforcement bars i s often
extrapolated to cable bolting applications.
boad Displacement Cuve(
In observing the loaddisplacement curve of a cable bolt, figure 33, it i s possible
to speculate on the behaviour of the interface and the cable's bond stress
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metdlurgical Engineering
Cable Bond Mechanism Chapter 3
characteristics. Initially, the cable wi l l load progressively from the loaded end or
proximal and decrease to the distal or far-end. This loading wi l l result a progressive,
incremental failure of the interface starting at the proximal end and developing axially
through the embedment length of the cable. The incremental failure is the complete
los5 of the cablelgrout adhesion and the gradua1 ' over-riding' of grout over the cable
asperities. This explains the elastic aspects of the cable bond.
lmmediately following this stage, "first slip"' occurs and the grout inclusions are
just beginning to fail. Littlejohn and Bruce, (1 975) note that this occurs when the
"maximum intensity of the bond resistance has trave!led nearly the full length of the
specimen". The maximum intensity o i bond resistance can be explained as a transition
region where the interface conditions are changing (that is, the adhesion has already
been lost and the cracking of the grout i s just beginning). It is in the region following
the first-slip that the maximum strength is achieved by the cable bolt indicating that
there i s an increase in the load-transfer capabilities of the interface. In this stage,
noticeable slip has occurred and resistance i s a result of the increased plastic failure of
the grout, again progressively from proximal to distal ends. It can be surmised that i t
i s the plastic failure of the grout that contributes most signiiicantly to the increased
in terface load-transfer capacity and as such bond capacity. Add i t ional resistance i s
created by the interlocking and wedging of broken grout fragments and grains. In
observing the Load-Displacement Curve, it i s seen that the slope of the cuve i s positive
and decreasing. After the ultimate strength of the cable bolt has been achieved, the
sole source for the pull-out resistance i s from the, previously rnentioned. grout
fragments and grains.
- -
'Littlejohn and Bruce (july, 1975) p43
McCill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgicaf Engineering
Cable Bond Medranism
Chapter 3
Similar explanations (or at least speculation) of the cable bolt interface
characteristics, as mentioned above, have been conceived by various other researchers.
Whether the behaviour of interface i s as mentioned above or not, some of the basic
postulations remain appropriate. For example, the anaivsis of the thick-walled cylinder
does address the significance of normal or confinement pressures and can be used in
the analysis of cable bolt systems.
In understanding the actions of the grout column, the surrounding rock mas5
and the cable loading i t allows for the important factors oi the cable bolt svstem to be
monitored. Bv monitoring the factors aiiecting a system , the svstem itseli c m be
assessed and better understood.
The iailure of the grout column i s a critical cornponent that must be understood
and monitored if there i s to be further understanding of the cable bolting svstem.
McGill University - Department of Mining and MetalIurgid figineering
The Cable Bo& Grout Displacement Meter Chapter 4
Cable Boit Crout Displacement Meter
McGfl University - Department of Mhhg and Metau~gid Engi7eerhg
Cgble Boit Grour Displacement Meter
Chapter 4
Nothing has enhanced the stabil ity of large openings more than systematic cable
bolt support systems. Still, failures do occur. This is largely due to the fact that there
i s no clear understanding of the interaction between regional rock mass movements
and cable bolting mechanics. Rock mechanics instrumentation is such that there i s
presently no single device that can be used to address this interaction. This
necessitates the development of an instrument that can begin to monitor this
relationship. The developrnent of the Cable Bolt Grout Displacement hleter, wi l l
attempt to address this topic.
LVhile advanced and "Black Box" technology may some day have a place i n
mi ni ng instrumentation, (as i s the case of time domain reflectometry), the simpler
technologies, such as associated with wire and rod extensometer and Ground
hlovement h\onitors, wi l l remain the cheapest and most widely accepted forms of
instrumentation. Based on this design philosophy, a prototype, the Cable Boit Grout
D isplacement Meter was constructed.
The origin of the Cable Bolt Grout Displacement Meter, Cable-CDM, had its
basis in the improvement and adaptation of existing rock mechanics instrumentation.
Simply stated, the Cable-GDhl i s a multi-point wire extensometer that mon itors the
movement of the grout column surrounding a cable bolt.
The CableCDhl was designed with two basic ideas in mind, ensure that i t i s (i)
inexpensive and (ii) easily monitored. This immediately eliminates the use of
expensive instrumentation and com pl icated data acquisition "boxes" (such as i nvolved
in fibre-optical time-domain reflectometry or vibrating wire). Instead, the technology
used i n the popular Ground hiovement hioniton was employed: potentiometers.
Potentiometers can successfully be used and will guarantee achievement of both of the
initial goals.
It should be noted here that the components for the prototype were selected in
order to easily and inexpensively determine the usefulness of the device. The accuracy
McGiU University - Deparment of Mkhg and Metdutp'cral EngineeriBg
Cable Bdt Grout Displacement Meter Chapter 4
of the prototype was not a main concern. For the field-prototype accuracy must be
improved. This i s easily facilitated by employing higher quality potentiometers.
The CableGDM i s designed to be a multi-point wire extensometer used to
monitor rock movements immediately surrounding a cable bolt, figure 34. The
multiple wires, passing through protective plastic tubing are anchored in the grout
column at known depths. By monitoring the displacement of these wires relative to
the cable bolt's hote collar the movement of the rock mass can be ascertained. LVhile
the wires are anchored in the grout column and not the rock mass itself, it i s still
possible to rnonitor ground movements because of the prevail ing cable bolt failu re
mechanism. The failure mechanics of the cable bolting system indicate that failure will
occur not at the grout/rock interface but at the cable/grout interface. It can then be
assumed that the grout will remain i n contact with the surrounding rock mass
regardless of the condition of the cable/grout interface. By having multiple anchors
located al! along the axis of the cable bolt, it may be possible to understand the
displacement distribution and the movement of the supponed ground. So, similar to
the operation of the Ground illovement h\onitor, the Cable-GDh\ is ideally suited to
monitor the opening of displacements in a rock mass.
kleasuring the displacement of the monitoring wires i s done using linear track
potent iometers. Potentiometers were chosen because readings can be taken very easi ly
without an expensive read-out unit. The simple nature of potentiometer monitoring
is one of the reasons for the operational success of the Ground hlovement hlonitors.
The monitoring can be accompl ished with an inexpensive multi-meter while stil l
maintaining the possibility for an automatic data acquisition system.
McGill University - Deparunent of A45hg and MeraLlurgcai Engheering
Csble Bolr Grout Displacement Meter
Chapter 4
Figure 34: The Cable-GDbl, a wire extensometer monitoring cable bolt grout
d isplacement
accu racy:
precis ion:
To determine the practical application and limitations of any measuring
instrument the inherent errors and uncertainties must be fully understood and
accounted for. The terms associated with uncertainty and errors , as defined by Carson
( 1 988) are defined below:
con for mance: ensuring that the measuring instrument does not affect the
property being measured.
the degree of "corredness" or how close to the real value
i s the instrument measuring; measured in terms of
absolute value: + 1 mm or a percentage of full scale, (FS):
+ 1 O/O .
refen to the reproduci bil ity of a measurement; measured
in terms of significant figures: I 1 .O0 indicating a higher
precision than + 1.0
McGiU University - Depamnent of Mnhg and MetaUugical Engu7ee~g
Cable Bok Grout DispIacement Meter
Chapter 4
resolution: the smallest scale that can be measured.
sens i t i vi ty: a measure of output response to a given input; measured
in terms of output scalehput scale, for example rnV/mm.
linearity: the error incurred when the calibration curve i s assumed
to be linear: measured in terms of percent of full scale.
hysteres is: the measure of the difference between values for load ing
and unloading.
noise: the random variation (or loss of precision) due to external
error: the deviation of the measured value to the true value; can
be a result of any of the previously mentioned factors.
4.2.1 potentiorneter Calibration
The purpose of using the CableCDhl prototype instrument is to determine the
displacement of the anchor points. For this to be possible the potentiometer signal,
voltage or resistance, must be converted to the displacement of the potentiometer
wiper arm. For calibration the Cable-GDhi prototype was attached to a portable
computer with an analog-to-digital, (A-D) card. The displacement of the
potentiometerJs wiper arm was measured with a micrometer and the signal reading was
recorded from the computer. A number of points, (exceeding 200 points) were used
to construct a calibration curve for each potentiometer. The calibration curves for each
potentiometer can be seen in figure 35. From the calibration of the potentiometers, the
terms associated with uncertainty and error can be discussed.
McGill Universiv - Departmenr of ML.rug and Metdurgi'cd EnNeeMg
Cable Bolr Grour DispIacement Meter
Chap ter 4
Figure 35: Poten t ionieier cdlibrdtion
4.2.2 Resolution
Resolution i s defined as the srnallest division on the instrument readout scale.
The readout scale (a function of the A-D card) i n the experiments was based upon a
numerical value between -2048 and + 2047 (-1 0 volts to + 10 volts). The resolution
for the readout scale i s therefore V204.8 volts. This i s a rnisleading representation of
the actual instrument. To better represent the resolution, it i s better to note the
resolution in terms of what is being measured, namely the wiper arm displacement.
Through the calibration curve, the resolution was determined to be 0.0 1 mm; th i s was
the smal lest increment for the digital m icrometer dis play.
4.2.3 Sensitivity
The sensitivity of an instrument refers to the amount of output response
produced when an input quantity is applied. The greater the sensitivity, the higher the
McGiU Universiv - Department of Mining and Met durgi d Engineering
Cable Boft Grout Dispfacemenr Meter
Chap ter 4
output range. The A-D card was set to rnonitor -1 0 volts to + 10 volts equating to a
signal reading from -2048 to +2047. The potential across the potentiometer was O to
5.02 volts having a throw of 52mm. This results i n the prototype having a sensitivity
of 19.2 per millimetre (signal readingmm).
4.2.4 Linearity
The calibration curve, figure 35, indicated that the potentiometer is by no means
linear; three distinct sections can be seen. These individual sections do however
approach linearity. The greatest error being approximately 4% FS (full-scale for that
The lack of linearity i s due to the quality of the potentiometers used. With
higher priced units, the linearity can be greatly improved. (On a field prototype unit
the quality of the potentiometers should be improved so as to reach 4% l inearity full
scale with no linearity losses at the scale limits.)
1.2.5 Hysteresis
LVhen the potentiorneters are displaced cyclically, there is a svstematic error
created known as hysteresis. This is not to be confused with an error of precision, as
a measurement will be repeatable for a specific loading condition, however, hysteres is
is the error in precision between different loading conditions. In a field application,
hysteresis will become evident when a rock mass' discontinuities changes from dilation
to closure. This error is a result of the "slack" in the potentiometers wiper arm and the
lack of tension in the monitoring wire. To alleviate this problem springs were attached
to the wiper a m to prevent the "slacking" or back-lah of the arm and place a constant
tension on the monitoring wire. This also insures that the monitoring wire i s being
measured at a constant tension.
McGiU Universiiy - Department ofki khg and Metdurg3Ica.f EnMeenhg
Ca bie Boit Gro ut Displacemen t Merer Chapter 4
4.2.6 Noise
Noise i s a form of random error resulting from outside interference. Noise
interference affect both precision and accuracy. It was not possible to determioe any
sources of noise and as such it was not considered a problem in the design of the
prototype. In monitoring a potentiometer continuously, a hot-spot may form between
the wiper arm and the wirewound element; this wi l l affect the stability of the
potentiometer. However since the instrument i s not designed for cont in uous readou t,
intermittent readout wi l l not affect the resistance readings.
4.2.7 Accuracy
The accuracy of the instrument i s evaluated during calibration and is
mathematically equal to the error. The greatest error is due to the systematic error
caused by the inaccurate calibration curve. The maximum error occurs at, or near the
end of the linear approximation lines. Because there is a significant change in the
slope of the curves, approximations at these regions will be the tvorst. In these regioni,
at potentiometer displacement of 19 to 22 mm, the calculaied error can be as high as
4.4 mm. In other regions the accuracy was a maximum of 0.7 mm.
While this apparent lack of accuracy appears to be a serious limitation of the
instrument, it is however easily rectified in one of two ways: replace the potentiometers
or create a better cal ibration curve. Potentiometers are made having different qua1 ities
- the higher the quality, the more expensive'. The purpose of the experimentation \vas
to determine if the concept behind of the prototype could be used to determine joint
dilation. As such the accuracy, or lack of accuracy was not of critical concern. To
improve the calibration curve for the potentiometers woul d reduce this error but the
existing curve was judged appropriate for the scale of the experimentation.
* The cost of a preision, linear B-taper potentiometcr costs approximarcly CANS700. The cost of ille
potentiometers used in the expriment were $0.37.
McGa University - Depamnent of Ml?lg and Metcrll~g3~cai Engheerlg
Cable Mt Grour Dispiacement Meter
Chapter 4
4.2.8 Precision
Precision i s the "closeness of approach of each of a number of similar
measurements to the arithmetic mean". This is principally a function of the precision
of the potentiometer. The quality of the potentiometer i s again an issue here - the
higher the quality, the greater the precision. The precision for the potentiometers used
were however adequate. The precision was on the scale of 0.03 mm i n each of the
middle calibration ranges and higher in both of the other ranges. Precision could be
greatly improved by replacing the linear track potentiometen with more expensive
track potentiometers or the more precise rotary potentiometers.
4.2.9 Conformance
Conformance refers to the ability of an instrument to monitor without affecting
the property being monitored. This i s a crucial component for any instrument. For
example a strain gauge must not affect the "ability" of a rock mass to deform thereby
making an accurate measurement impossible.
In the situation of the Cable-GDhi, conformance may be a issue. From the
research done by Goris (1 990), testing shows that the condition of a breather tube (that
is filled with grout or empty) in a grout column will affect the strength of the cable bolt.
Since the monitoring wires are contained in a tube identical to a grout breather tube
the same condition wi l l apply. The monitoring tube, analogous to the empty breather
tube, wi l l adversely affect the strength of the support. LVhile the Cable-GDhi wi l l
likely affect the ultimate strength of a cable bolt marginally', the knowledge gained
by this instrument wi l l greatly out-weigh the detrimental aspects of i t s possible non-
the miount of l os of strength can tic consiclerccl to tie of the ~driic niagn~tudc d\ an CI I ~I I Y 11rcuth~r
tube, ree Goris, ( 1 9901
McGU University - Depanment of m g and MeraUurgiCd Enginee-
- -
Cabfe Boh Grou t Disp 1 . cemen t Meter
Chap ter 4
By addressing the limitations of the prototype Cabl eGDM in terms of these
basic aspects, future devel opments based upon the prototype can eas il y be mod i fied
or upgraded as deerned necessary.
The Cabl eCDhi i s basically a multi-point extensometer. As such, it can be used
simply to monitor the displacement of rock masses immediately surrounding a cable
bolt as any other sort of extensorneter would; this further eliminates the need of
additional instrumentation installations. If this was the sole use of this new device i ts
development and production would be justified. As the rock mechanics monitoring
field is now, there is limited instrumentation available that can sufficieotly appraise the
interaction between support systems and rock mass movements.
4.3.1 Failure Profile
The Cable-GDbt was designed specifically for this application. By using
multiple or even a single Cable-GDR\ strategically placed in a systematical ly bolted
stope back, the profile of rock rnass movements could be examined over the life of the
opening: critical discontinuities could be identified, blasting and other external effects
could be better appraised, and failures could be foreseeable and operations could
adjust min ing appropriately.
Figure 36: Failure profile as determined by multiple CdbleGDM installations in d C&F stope h c k
McGill UmNversity - Depanment of Mihi2g and MeraUurgrgrcai E h g h e e ~ g
Cable Bolr Grout Displacemenr Meter
Chap ter 4
Furthenore, the supporting action of cable bolts could be assessed in terms of
the height of the ground arch or the extent of the zone of relaxation above a stope
back. The ground arch is the zone immediately above an open ing's roof-l ine where
the rock mass (resulting from the dilation of discontinuities) will be potentially
unstable. Defining the profile of back movements, as suggested above, will i n effect
delineate the ground arch, figure 36. This will allow comparison of the theoretical arch
height, (as defined by modelling or altemate means) to that of the actual situation; this
will give a measure of the support system's effectiveness. h toreover, thii could be used
to compare different suppon configurations and patterns.
4.3.2 Cable Loading Conditions
The Cable-GDh4 i s not limited to the determination of rock mass movements,
in special situations it rnay be used to estimate the cable loading conditions also. This
application i s by no means an attempt to act as a load cell or strain gauge. But it can
be used to estimate the loading of a cable bolt with regards to a typical load-
displacement curve. Knowing the cable embedment length, representative
displacement curve (for a given embedment and confinement) and by measuring the
cable displacement an estimation of the loading condition can be done, figure 37.
Furthermore, by determining the load-displacement condition the effectiveness of the
cable can also be estimated.
The success of this use of the CableCDhi i s limited by the uncertainty of the
loaddisplacement curve. It i s not possible to know if the correct curve has been
estimated; only after there have been many curves estimated wi l l the correct curve be
realized. There have been attempts to use laboratory testing to suggest actual field
resul ts (Reichert et al. 1 991) but these have not of yet been adequately verified. A
standard loaddisplacement curve may be assumed for a situation after a period of time
when the nature of the cable support has been adequately determined. \ Wh this,
however there is no certainty in the estimation because of variable and often largely
unknown external forces such as blasting effects, seismic loading and changes in stress
McGiU Univerhy - Department of ML?ing and Metdwgr'cal EngU>ee~g
Cable Bolr Grout Displacenient Meter Chapter 4
fields. Furthemore, there rnay be more than one loading condition for any measured
displacement, as such, interpretation may be difficdt.
Figure 37: Given d Lod-Displdcernent curve for a cable boit (enipiricdlly estdt~lisherf for a givcn
cnibednien t at specific confinement) i f the displacemeni is nionitored, ~ h e loacfing on ihe holt c m t)e
deterniined. From this the remdining-life of the abl e can be estirndted.
Wt h the use of empirical methods, i t rnay be possible to more successfully
determine through interpretation (that is, through comparison between limiting data
points) the aaual loading condition. This technique may also be used for comparison.
If a bolt appears to be ineffectively supporting, the source of the inadequacy rnay be
sought and in this way external forces rnay be better assessed.
4.3.3 Bond Slip Ratio
In the capacity of a strain gauge the cable strain measuring device, CShtD
(Sutcliffe and Ng, 1992) was developed. This device i s similar to the Cable-GDhi but
instead of being anchored in the grout it i s fixed to the cable bolt. \\'hile this limits the
usefulness of the instrument, i t may sti l l find an application in conjunction with the
Cable-GDhl, in assessing cable bolting quality. This application i s discusred below.
The loading or strain on a cable bolt is a result of the transfer of forces from the
dilating rock mass. The transfer i s facilitated by the steel/grout interface. The more
McGa Univerity - Department of m g and Metdurgical Engineering
effectively th is interface "comrnunicates" the rock mass loading to the steel cable, the
stronger the suppon wi l l tend to be. The strength of a support is gauged in terms of
bond strength. For example. a birdcage cable bolt wi l l have superior bond strength
than a standard cable bolt; this can be observed in pull-out testing. Pull-out testing is
the only manner in which bond capacity can be evaluated. It i s a destructive testing
method, that is, once the test has been performed the support will have lost much of
its strength. Clearly, from an operational point-of-view a form of nondestructive
testing would be superior to destructive test ing.
B y using the Cabl eGDhi and the operating principle of strain rneasurement
adapted from the CShiD, a method for qualifying the bond capacity i s possible. By
monitoring both the cable strain and the rock mass movements over the same distance
the frictional properties of the interface can be assessed. A qualitative measure of the
bond slip could be expressed in terms of a ratio of cable strain to rock mass dilation.
abl e
BSR i s termed the Bond Slip Ratio,
is the strain on the cable bolt over the measured length
i s the straining of the rock mas, or more correct
relative displacement of the grout column.
Interface quality can be assessed in terms of this ratio; the closer the va
IV the
lue to
unity the more efficient the load transfer. That is, if the cable strain was equal to the
amount of rock mass dilation, the load transfer would be 100% efficient. This
however cannot be the situation; the cable bolts derives its strength primarily from
McGU UmNversity - Deparnent of Mhhg and MetaUurg3iai Engheebg
Ca ble Bolt Grout Displacemen t M e ter Chapter 4
friction', for this frictional strength to be mobilized, relative movement of the cable
must take place.
It is known that birdcage bolts typically have a greater loading capacity than a
standard cable bolt. The birdcage cable itself does not have any more strength, it i s the
bird cage's interface that fosten the load transfer more effectively. By calculating the
BSR, a quantitative value can be determined. In a similar manner by comparing the
BSR for different cable bolting configurations or geometries, a more accurate
cornparison can be rendered. Quality control may also be qualified and improved.
The development of the CableCDM and the application of the Bond Slip Ratio
wi l l allow for the furthering of additional research in the field of cable bolting. For
example, the work being done on the effects of confining stress on bond strength i s
being based upon numerical modelling and analytical solid mechanics theory. The use
of the Bond Slip Ratio system would not give confining stress values but would be used
to estimate rockmass movements and cable loading. The stress values must st i l l be
establ ished by other means, but the effeas of the changing confinement could however
be better measured in terms of bond slip as opposed to visual observations. (Visual
inspection of failed cables will typically be the only source of information available for
estirnating a cable's loading conditions.) 'a
The purpose for utilizing the Bond Slip Ratio is to analyze the effectiveness of
reinforcing cable bolts or at the least provide a basis for cornparison. Thi s wi l l allow
for a better understanding of the mechanics of cable bolting. This knowledge can be
use in applications ranging from the advancement of numerical modelling for cable
bolts to the optimization of support systems; two worth while endeavours.
for the situation of coliesion, the BSR may approacli one ( I ) but cohesion is nor a mahi source of &le
bolt strength (sec Ctiapter 1, Figure 8).
Visual tnspection of failed cabtes will typicaiiy be the only source of information availahlr for
zstirnating the cable's loading conditions: ro base an estimation of frictional strength on the visu1 condition
of a cable bolt L$ wildy inaccurate.
McGill UmRIversiry - Department of and ~ e t d u i ~ ~ E ~ @ e e ~ g
Cable Boit Grour Displacemenr Meter
Chapter 4
With any instrument or monitoring application t h W are limitations associated
with them. The dominant weaki~ess associated with the cableCDhl bas to do with the
mechan ics involved in cable support and the effect on the monitoring wires. In a
manner similar to the cnishing of an empty grout tube, th6 plastic tubing that contains
the monitoring wires will be susceptible to crushing. 8incjjng of the monitoring wires
could also result from the pure shearing' of the cable bolt. I f the monitoring wire tube
is closed-off and the axial movement of the wires obstructed. the monitoring of points
beyond this will become impossible.
The effea of neartollar surface failure wi l l possi bl ~ affect the Cable-GDhl- If
the CableGDbl is fixed to the rocks surrounding the Pole collar, anY ~rogressive
failure will affect the instrument and its datum point. This limitation easi l ~ be
eliminated by designing the monitoring box so as not to be affecteci by moderate
surface failure,
The effectiveness of hanging wall cable bolting i s difficult to determine. When
hanging wall bolting i s used, and the wall does not fail tW question i s Wed: ~ o d d
the wall have failed without this support and was the supp3fl even needed? Since the
hanging wall is inaccessible once a longhole blast h@ occurred, i s t ~ ~ i c a l l ~
impossible to determine the effectiveness of the (short of seeing the failure) of the
hanging wall support. Any device that i s to be used to determine the qua lit^ of a
hanging wall cable bolt must be robust enough to withstand the longhole blasting-
Furthermore, the only way to monitor this would be t hr ~ugh some forrn of remote
signal1 ing. A device l ike th i s i s beyond the scope of th i s report*
McCill University - Department of Mining and Metaliurgical Engineering
The Cable Boit- Grout Displacement Mefer Chapter 5
McGi[l Univenity - Department of Mi nhg and Metalhrgical Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
- -
The instrument to be tested i s the prototype Cable Bolt Grout Displacement
Gauge, Cable-CDC. This device consists of two potentiometers, a printed circuit
board, PCB, and two monitoring wires, figure 38, 39. The potentiometers, fixed into
the PCB, are actuated by wire which are anchored within the grout column, figure 40.
The prototype instrument was mounted on a wood base containing guide sheaves and
a mounting bracket.
The principle o i operation of the instrument i s to use the relative change in
individual potentionieter readings as an indication of the relative niovement of the
anchor points. By observing the difference between the two readings, the
displacement of the joint c m be measured.
There were two prototypes designed. In the first prototype the signal of the
McG~ZZ Urti.i~rsity - Department of Mining and .tIetnlZzrrgical Engineering
Testing Chnpter 3
Figure 39: Photo Prototype 7 ( 1992)
potentiometers was to be interpreted as a change i n the resistance. These signal
readings are taken using a multi-meter at a iixed tirne interval (facilitated by a printed
circuit board designed to monitor resistance of a single channel at a tirne). This nieant
i t was neceszary to change the contact rerminals throughout testing (as the circuit board
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallzr rgical Engineering
Tes ring Chapter 5
Figure -IO:~rotot>pt: tesring arrangement
was not designed to monitor using two multirneter). The second prototype used a
different circuit board design which allowed the potentiometers to interpret change in
voltage. To measure the change iri voltage requires a constant voltage swrce, for this
a 9V battery was used. The signal readings were no longer measured by a rnulti-moter,
but with an analog-todigital, A to D, card contained in a portable personal cornputer,
figure 41. The reading of the potentiometers could then be taken at higher frequency
and wi t h increased dccuracy.
The laboratory testing for the axial tests was conducted under non-rotating or
constrained conditions . A constrained test arrangement, figure 42, consists of a length
McGill Urzirersity - Department of Mirzing and Jfetallrrrgical Engirzeering
Testirtg Chilpter 5
computer (top portable uni t )
of cable grouted i n a steel pipe ivith a length of cable extending i rom one end of the
sarnple. Following acceptable curing of the grout, a cable grip i s installed on the iree
end of the cable and is pulled in a stiii press machine. In non-rotating cable bolt pull
teitirig, pu1 1-out loads wi l l be greater than unconcrrained tests. The parameters thzt are
to Lie considerecj i n [hic type oi testing are: cable 2nd grout characteristics, grout
\\ateCcemenf ratio. grout curing time and curing condi~ions, embedment length. pipe
materidl type, displacernent rate and cample geornety.
Figure 42: Axi al testing arrangement
McGill Clnicenity - Department of Mining and MetallrrrgzgzcaI Enginemng
Tes ting Chapter 5
The testing of cable bolts in shear requires complex and specialized laboratory
equipnient and dt the time of the experimentation ( 1 992) no good testing procedures
or apparatus existed. So one had to be created. A shear testing box, designed by
U. Kahn of McG il1 University, Department of Mining Engineering was constructed to
measure the shear loading, see figure 43a.b. This apparatus was able to load a cable
perpendicular to its length. The setup consisted o i a single cable grouted in three
sections o i steel pipe. The end sections were iixed in place (not allowed to move
vertically or axiallv) while the centre seciion was displaced vertically by the stiff press
machine. This created shear at the two ends of the centre pipe. (Since the time the
initial tests took place, ( 1 992) ditierent testing configurations for shear testing of cable
bolts have been created which allow ior component shearing.)
The parameters that are to be considered in this type of testing are the same as
in axial testing. i t should be noted, that i f this testing arrangement i s used to determine
the shear strength oi the sample the shear strength measured would be double that o i
a single cable. Furthemore, in this arrangement, the shearing ends are not coniined,
that is, grout wedges are allowed to escape irorn the different pipe sections. As such,
this i s iiot a pure representation of the shearing taking place i n a discontinuous rock
mass. It does hoaever suit the application of this experiment.
-UcGill LTnkersity - Department of ilaiining and il.letnlZz~rgical Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
Figure 43: (a) Shear Testing Arrangement in RDP Press, McGiii Rock Mechanics
Laboratov, (b) Close-up of shear testing apparatus (1 992)
McGill University - Departm ent of Mining and MetalZztrgical Engineering
Tes tinn Cha~ter 5
5.2.7 Axial Pull Testing
This experiment was devised to measure the dilation of a joint
out test. This artificial joint i s to simulate a discontinuity along the ax
cable bolt. The purpose of the experiment was to verify the e
in a typical pull-
i s of an installed
ffectiveness and
"interpretability" of the Cable Bolt Grout Displacement Gauge prototype instrument
under ,ixial loading conditions. Testing was not done to deterrnine the pull-out loading
of the samples.
5.2.2 Shear Testing
The purpose of this portion of the experiment was to deterrnine the effectiveness
of the Cable-CDiLl under shearing conditions. It was expected that the instrument
woulcl be able to deterrnine absolute displacement and not the relative movement of
the sample's sections. The purpose was to determine i f the shearing of the samples
woulcl pinch otf the monitoring wires in the breather tube. As above, this testing was
not done to determine the shear strength of the samples.
Since cable bolts are exposed to both axial and shear displacements, in
practice, the Cable-GDM should be tested under both of these conditions.
It is hypothesised that the Cable-GDM will effectively monitor the dilation of
a simulated joint surface when the system i s tested under laboratory axial loading
conditions. It i s further hypothesised that the experimental shear testing will not prove
the interpretability oi the device. The laboratory shear testing arrangement i s not an
effective nieans to allow comparison with an actual rock mass under shearing
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metahrgical Enginewing
Tes ting Cha~ter 5
5.4.1 Testing Apparatus
Cable-GDG prototype 1 (see figure 38):
fabric covered lead monitoring wire
two - 2K Ohm potentiometers
mounting base
mounting clamp
4Ocm - 3/8" (5mm) plastic tubing (soit)
two - 1/2" hex nut
0.5 kg return-spring weight
Cable-GDG prototype 2:(see figure 39 and figure 41)
braided stainless steel monitoring wire
two - 100 Ohm potentiometers
mounting base wiih clamp
40cm - 3/8" (5mm) plastic tubing (hard)
two - 1/2" hex nut
three spriiigs per wiper arm
Data acquisition for Cable-GDG prototype 1: multi-meter
Data acquisition for Cable-CDG prototype 2: portable PC with A-D card and
acquisition software
Pull-out tests were done using the RDP-Howden electro-hydraulic, servo-controlled
universal testing machine (see figure 43(a)).
All testing took place at McGili University in the Mining Rock Mechanics Laboratory
in 1992.
Mc Cil2 University - Department of Mining and Metallu rgical Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
5.4.2 Testing Arrangement Axial Pull Testing
Four different sets of pull-out samples were constructed. table 2, each having
similar arrangements. The cable was grouted wi thi n a steel cylinder. The grout
column was not continuous, a joint was simulated by placing a plastic disc in the grout
when the samples were being prepared. See figure 44, 45 for the sample construction.
The cable bolt used was seven strand steel cable having a nominal diameter of
15.2 nim. The steel cylinder used to contain the sample had a thickness of 4 mm and
an inside diameter of 57 mm. The grout consisted of Normal (type 10) Portland
cement ai a water-cernent ratio of 0.4. The total length of the grout column was 305
mm ( 1 2" ) divided in two by the disc-joint (see figure 3); the lower embedment length
being 200 mm and the upper being 100 mm. A distance of approximately 20 mm, was
maintdined between the top of the grout column and the bearing plate of the RDP
press. The efiective testing displacement for the experiment was approximately 20 mm
- the iree distance between the top of the grout and the top of the steel cylinder.
McGill University - Departmen t of Min ing and Met al hgi cd Engineenhg
Test ing Chapter 5
Figure 44 si ri^ pu11 Testing ~ri rnpl e Construction
The anchors were set in the grout by attaching a nui to the end of the
monitoring wire (except for sample TA IV, where the wires were attached to the cable).
The nionitoring wires were run through plastic tubing (cable bolt breather tubing,
outside diameter 5 mm) to ensure free movement of these wires. The sarnples were
prepared so the upper block would move relative i o the lower block thereby simulating
the dilation of an underground joint or critical failure surface in a rock mass.
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallir rgrgrcczZ Engineering
Tes ting Chapter 5
As stated previously, the samples sets were the same (i.e. in terms of size,
shape, type of cernent and waterl cernent ratio) except for the method by whi ch the
upper block was "debonded" at the steel cylindedgrout interface. In each set, there
were t hree samples constructed.
In sample set TA 1. there was no debonding"'. In set TA II, a layer of oi l was
applied to the walls of the upper block. Both sets of samples were prepared at the
The Testing Displacement represents the distance irom the top or the grout to the top or' the steel
c-vlinder (see tigure 44). The number preceding the distance identiiies the speciiic sample
11 umber.
Sdr n~l t .
T.4 t
T A Il
Th I I I
. ,
The bracketed number i s the aaual number of axial tests done, however, since the methodology
ior the experiment was not correct, there was no practical data to record.
Table 5-1 : Axial Testing Sample Configurations
1 ) 2Omm
2) 2Omm
I I l mm
2 ) 13mm
3) IBmrn
1 ) l Lfmm
2) 73mm
3) 1 ,mm
a . .
The purpose o i trying this was to determine i t the eiiort ot extensive sample preparation could
be avoided. It was hypothesised that since the loading oi the cable is greater at the proximal
end ot the cable that it would be enough to mobilize the lOOrnm upper block and begin
separation ~t the joint.
t p ~ t ~ c 1
O ( 11. '
O 12)'
( c f . 1 ~ 4 )
1 O
3 O
protmype 1
wr h rnulti-
prototype 1
wr h multi-
prototype 7
wirh PC
pri)totypr 2
wirh PC
- no debonding c i i upper bl ok
- dnchcirs iixed in grout c-olumn
- upper blok oiled ior drh~nci i ng
- anchors iixed in grout c-rilurnn
- upper block debonded with pldstic lining
- dnchors iixed i n grout c'olumn
- upprr block debonded with plal;tic lininy:
- mhors tixed to cable h i l t
iCIcGill L'riizw-sity - Deparmerit of Mining cind Metn lltrrgical Engineering
Testing C hap ter 5
same tinie dncl were allowed to cure for 10 days' bei ore testing. In sampie sets TA I I I
and TA IV, the i d l s ot the steel cvlinder o i the upper block were lined with a plastic
siieer ' to enzure t t ~ t i i l ure would rake place at this interface. In sample set TA IL',
the anchor point was i i xed to the cable and not in the grout. The monitoring wi re was
boncled to the cable bol t bv means of a 'quick setting' adhesive used for strain gage
installation. Saniple sets TA III and IV were cured for 30 days'.' beiore testing took
Figure 43: Axial Testing Sample
The curing tirne wss onlv 10 days. as opposed to 28 days. because the bond strengrh of the bolt
lvas n a an issue. It vvas decided thar aiter this time. rhe sdrnples cvould have cured enough to
test ~dequael y.
. -
Thi s pl mi c sheer l vas created irom cutting a section out oi th? walls oi 2 litre pop bottles.
. . *
There was a change irom IO days io 30 days ior the cure tirne as this rime was reuired due ro
the time required io redetjign oi the PCB o i Prororype 2 and the PC acquisition.
McGiZZ University - Department of Mining and Met ah-gi ral Engineering
Testing Chapter 5 Shear Tesfing
Ther e were six samples prepared for shear testing purposes: three composite
bolts, two Arrapree and one standard cable bolt. The purpose behind this testing was
to determine if the Cable-GDM could successfully be used under shearing conditions
and whether interpretation was straight forward so the selection of the type of bolts was
not crucial to the success of the testing.
The test apparatus consisted of three sections of pipe, with the centre section
being pressed bv the machine thereby producing shear on the end sections, see figure
46 for sample construction.
Figure 46: Sliear Testin2 Srimple Arrangement
;kicGiil Urzicersity - Depmtment of Mining and .~fetaUz~rgical Engineering
Tes tirrg Chapter 5
In this testinj the monitoring points were in the centre pipe and the nearest pipe
to the instrument. In this manner onlv a single shear iailure surface was being
rnonitored. For the shear testin; rhere was no need to need to debond the pipe blocks.
Figure 47: Shear Testing Sample (post failure-Arrapree boit).
McGilZ University - Department of Mining and LMetalZurgical Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
The movernent o i the pipe sections would simulate difierential shear movements
between the blocks.
The grout consisted, again oi Lorrnal !Type 10) Portland cernent mixed to a
uraterternent ratio o i 0.4. The anchors ( 1 /2" hex nuts) were set in the grout col umn
of the upper shear block (the section oi the pipe nearest the instrument) and the central
shear t~lock. Plastic tubing i5mm plastic breather tube, was again used to contain the
monitoring \vires.
5 -4.2-3 Modifications Resulfing from Testing
During the testing o i Cable-CDG prototype 1, (the iirst t uo sample sets, three
sarnples: one specimen irom TS I and hvo from TS II) i t became apparent that iailure
was occurring at the cabldgrout interiace and not cyl inderigrout interiace as
anticipated. .At this point i t was established that these samples could not adequately
test the validity o i the Cable-CDG prototype. Further testing with this arrangement and
sample coniiguration was discontinued.
The testing o i iirst three samples also indicated that the Cable-GDG prototype
1, as designed to measure resistance ~\ , i t h a multi-meter, ivould not be an effective
means to rneasure relative displacenient in laboratory conditions. To take a single
unique reading a niulti-meter wi l l take a iew seconds to stabilize beiore an accurate
reading can be obtained. The probleni arose, that while the meter \vas stabilizing, the
potentiorneter was still moving tbecause the RDP press ntas still rnoving). The result
of th is \\as that no accurate readings could be taken.
Thi s iiecessitated the design o i Cable-GDG prototype 2; one that could be
monitored continually and irithout the use o i a rnulti-rneter. This would require
altering the original PCB design to interpreted voltage instead o i resistance.
The axial testing o i sample sets three and iour and the shear testing emploved
a portable cornputer equipped wi th an analog to digital converter card set-up to
McGill Unicersity - Department of Mining and Metallrrrgical Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
mon itor in the range oi -1 0 volts to + 10 volts. The sampling frequency was 10 Hz .
With this, axial testing could be done accuratelv on a continuous basis icr the duration
oi the testing.
I t should be noted that the operation oi the unique monitoring or non-
continuous ithat is, a multi-metedohm meter) would be effective in the mining
application as the displacement would take place over a period of time or during a
microseismidseismic activity. hgain, the reason it was not effective in the laboratory
was due to the rate o i displacement (1.64mrn/seci.
Testing shows that the Cable-GDM i s an effective means of monitoring the
magnitude of cable displacement during axial displacements with sensors anchored in
the grout column. When the sensors were iixed to the cabie. i t appears that this was
not effective in monitoring the load on the cable.
The magnitude of rnovement during unconfined shearing displacement testing
did not result in useiul interpretation.
5.5 . l Axial (Grout Anchored Sensors - Sample Set:TAI Il) Testing
The data recorded irom sample sets TA I and TA il were not used because, (as
described above) iailure was taking place at the cabldgrout interiace and not the
cvlinderigrout interiace. The result of this was that there was no relative dilation of the
sample joint and as such, nothing for the Cable-GDM to monitor. This was not a
Mur e oi the device instead it was a Mur e of the designed testing procedure.
The data recorded irom the axial displacement testing oi samples TA III clearly
indicated that the dilation oi a simulated joint in a rock mass can be monitored with
this instrument when the sensors were mounted in the grout column. In observing the
graphs entitled "Sample Displacement" for the T h III tests. figure 48 (c), 19 (cl and
McGiZZ University - Department of Mining and Metallzwgical Engineering
Tesring Chapter 5
50(c), i t can be seen that there i s clearly relative movement of the two channels.
Relative movernent was determined by the difierence between the t wo channel
readings calibrated i rom raw data readings to sensor displacements, figure 48 (a), 49
(a) and 50( a) .
The graphs i n figures 18(a), 49(a) and SO(a) represent the potentiorneter readings
as monitored directly by the acquisition computer. By observing the curves i t i s
evident that they are relatively smooth. This suggests that there was free movement of
the monitoring wires. Frorn the raw data readings, the points are calibrated to convert
the potentiometer readings to displacement values per potentiometer calibration
curves', figure 5 1 (a) and (b) (for best fit calcuiations see Appendix) thereby using the
potentiometer readings to measure the movement of the two sarnple blocks.
Ii was expected that there would be three distinct areas on the testing data. In
the iirst region, the test data would reflect no movement of either block (and no relative
joint displacement) while the slack (tensioning the cable bolt and tighiening of the steel
cylincler against the stiff press machine platen) in the "system" was being taken up.
In the second region, the upper block would begin to move towards the top of the steel
cylincler (wi th the pul l i ng of the stiff press machine) while the lower block would
reniain in place (and the joint would dilate). In the third region, the upper block would
reach i ts limit of iree travel and the lower block would remain i n place, (relative joint
dilation would stop) then the cable would begin to pull out of both blocks. By
deterniining the movement of the upper and lower blocks, the relative movement of
the joint could be deterrnined. In each of the tests TAIII, these regions can clearly be
seen on figures 48 (b), 49 (b) and 5O(b), 'Relative Movement" curves.
The potentiometers were reierred to as channel#O and channel#l, ch#O being the monitoring
ivire o i potentiorneter O anchored in the lower block, and ch#l being the monitoring wi re
mchored in the upper, or iree moving block.
M cbzif Unzversrty - Department of Min Nzg ntzd Metaliztrgical Engitzccritzg
Tes ring Chapter 5
2 hl
- - - -
Rcl ati x
Mar cmcnt
1 I
Figure 48: Axial Test TA 111-1: 30 day cure, prototype 2 1~1t h coiitinuous acquisition, anchors iixed in
grout d u m n ( J I top ki t , mw testing data as recorded by C~bl e-GDM, (b) top right, test displacement
as rnon~tored over the testing duration, (cl lower, test sample displacement in the iree displacement
range i ir., the testing range used to determine the Cable-G DM'S eiiectiveness)
McGiZZ University - Dcparttne~it of Mi ~i i ~z g and Met ahr gi cd Engineering
Tes tins Chapter 5
Figure 49: Axial Test TA 111-2: 30 day cure, prototype 2 with continuous acquisition, anchors fixed in
grout column (a) top leit, ra\v testing data as recorded by Cable-CDM, (b) top right, test displacement
as moiiitored over the trsting duration, (cl lower, test sample displacement in the free displacement
range (te., the testing range used to determine the Cable-GDM's eiiectivenessr
McGill Ut~iuersity - Depnrtment of Mining and Metalhrgical Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
= IO.
Y 3 .
- ~lini i h i l i R d \<O\ inr 1
Figure 50: Axial Test TA 111-3: 30 day cure, prototype 2 with continuous acquisition, anchors iixed i n
grout column (a) top lett, raw testing data as recorded by Cable-GDM, (b) top right, test displacement
as monitored over the testing duration, (cl lower, test sarnple displacement in the iree displacement range
(ie., the testing range used to determine the Cable-CDM's eiiectiveness)
McGiU University - Department of Mining and Metah-gicaZ Engineering
Te s t e Chapter 5
Calibration Curve
Channel O (Left Pot.)
- -. - -
20 40
Dis placement (mm)
Calibration Curve
Channel 1 (Right Pot.)
20 40
Displacement (mm)
Figure 5 1: Cdlibration Curve for prototype 2, using acquisition corn puter for signal read ings and
and niicronieter readings for potentiometer wiper arm displacement. The Cal ibration
of the potentiometers was required to enable the conversion from the Raw Signal data
from the acquisition cornputer to the actual potentiorneter displacenient .
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metalhrgtal Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
The movement of the upper block was confirmed by experinien ta1 observation
and the opening of the joint was confirmed by post-testing observation; the test sample
was sawed axially. From this it could be seen that opening of the joint did take place
and the cable had begun to pull out of the lower grout column. No quantitative
measurements could be taken because the sawing of the sample aifected the integrity
of the sample. Observation also showed that there was movement (ie. cable pull-out)
on the upper portion of the grout column. This was due to the sample being pulled
after i t had reached the limit of the upper blocks free-movement (ie., the distance
between the top of the grout column and the bottom of the stiff-press machine).
In a regression analysis of the Relative Movement curves (for tests TA 111-1 to
TA 111-3), the slope of the curves average 0.70. This indicates that of the displacement
of the press did not directly cause the upper block to move in a 1: 1 ratio. If al1 of the
press niovement caused the upper block to move, i t i s expected that, the slope of the
regression curve would approach 1 -00. This can be explained by slip on the cable
grout interface oi the upper block resulting in sonie pull-out o i the cable that the
sensor could not monitor. Discussion
LVhen the initial loading oi the sample takes place, the simple load transfer of
the systern i s as ~OIIOWS:
1 )
press to the cable (and longitudinally through the cable),
2 ) cable to the grout colurnn
3) radially through the grout column
grout column to the cylinder wall
While in the tests it was attempted to create elastic failure of the cable bolt
systeni at the grout column\cylinder wall interface by using a sleave at this interface,
it appears that the grout column failed elastic- plastically. (See Cable Bolt Mechanism
Chapter 3).
McGill University - Departm ent of Mining and Meta IZurgicuZ Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
Because the slope of the regression curves for the Relative Movement of the test
samples i s not equal to 1.00, future tests should be designed to have a larger free-
movement of the upper block. This will allow for a larger Sample Displacement curve.
Wi th this, the failure of the sarnple should be monitored during the pull testing (that
is, determine if the upper block i s moving . This was not necessarily required during
this experiment because i t was designed to determine if the Cable-GDM could be used
to moni tor displacement.
5.5.2 Axial (Cable Anchored Sensors - Sample Set: TAIV ) Testing
In observing the rnonitored data from samples sets TA IV, i t i s clear that the
strain on the cable was not detectable on this type of experiment. figure 52(b), 53(b)
and S-l(b). What strain occurred during the load testing was not discernable irom the
data. In each oi the situations, the sensor wires were pulled free of the cable once pull-
out of the cable began. As such, without the attachment to the cable bolt, there i s no
way the strain could be measured.
S. S. 2. l Discussion
Prior to testing the samples in the stiff press machine different methods were
used to 'ittach the monitoring wire to the cable bolt: epoxy resin, welding, soldering,
and gluing. It w ~ s estimated that a cable clamp rnay have been used for this
application, it would however acted as a type of cable bolt button and it would be
difficult for post experimentai analysis to determine if the clamp has slipped or had
acted in some other manner. For this reason it was decided that the best of these
options was the gluing. Even with this a firm tug could pull the sensor wire from the
cable. Prior to testing i t was not possible to establish if the shear force at the
cabldgrout interface would significantly affect the glue. That is, it was uncertain i f the
glue would hold to the cable bolt during the testing.
1 esttng
Chapter 5
Figure 52: (top) Axial Test TA IV-1 , Figure 53: (middle) Axial Test TA IV-2, Figure 54:
(lower) Ami Test TA IV-3. In each of the above figures - 30 day cure, prototype 2 with continuous
acquisition, anchors iised to cable bolt (a) lefi, raw testing data as recorded by Cable-GDhl, (b) right,
test displacement as monitored over the testing duration
McGill University - Department of Mining and MetaZhrgical Engineering
Testing Chapter 5
\\/hile i t was not expeaed that anv signiiicant readings would available irom
this tvpe o i testing, it was hoped that some form o i this svstern could be used in
determining the Bond Slip Ratio (see Chapter 4. Section 3.2).
5.5.3 Shear Testing
The monitoring data irom the shear loading of the samples , TS 1, II and III, did
not result in useful information, figure 55, 56, 57. There was no displacement of the
Sensors. ( ie., the "Relative bovernent" curve i s ilat, except at the ertreme displacement
of the press.' From testing observation, the movement of the monitoring wires was
obstructed somewhat by the aaual shearing of the blocks, ie., the shearing rnovement
did not allow for free movement of the = 1 channel. There was some movement after
the press had displaced over 75mm. Further, the pinching o i the sensor wires and the
resulting strain \vas not enough to break the wire. This indicates that the selection of
the monitoring wi re i s acceptable. Discussion
The effectiveness of the Cable-GDhi in the application for shear loading o i a
cabl e I ~ol t in a laboratory condirion ilet alone, shear loading in field conditionsi was
expecred to be I on. The instrument is best used in an application where the cable is
to be loaded in terision not shear.
If the Cable-CDh4 n1as able to monitor the shearing displacement of the sampie,
at best, the "Relative j ~\ovement" curve \vould represent the absol ute displacement of
the shearing joint. In a practical application, i i a joint were in shear, and the there was
a given displacernent dong the shear surface, there would be no means to determine
the diiference irom a joint dilation of the same given displacement. This limitation i s
not expected to be too signiiicant in iield applications. As l ong as the instrument is
used in the correct application.
At the Iimir oi the test. the cable samples were beginning to iail and the grout column around
the cabie. 2nd benxeeen the shearing blocks was crumbling.
McGill W?zi-~ersity - Department of Mining and Met a~hf rgi ca~ Engineering
Testitzg Chapter 5
- ---
TS 1- 1
Full Press Disoiacernent 1
- . ---- -
i1 ' O JO fi0 90 100 120
Press Displacernent I mm)
- chg0 - ch= l Relative blovemrnt (
i rnntin i ini ic
Figure 55: TS I - 1 Shear testing Arrapree bolt - 28 day grout cure, prototype 2 witf. L-......1--2
acquisition. anchors i i xed in grout colurnn (a) top, raw testing data as recorded by Cable-GDM, (b)
bottom, te3t displrement as monitored over the testing duration
McGill Ci1livcrsity - Department of Mining and Metalltrrgical Engineering
Test in.q Chapter 5
Raw Dam
:O0 --- ---
O 20 JO 60 5 il 100 120
Press Movrment c mm)
TS I I I - i
Full Press Displxrmenr
& 10 -
- Movement
1) -- - -- ------ --
(1 10 -10 cjd 30 1 O0 120
Press Displacement ( mm)
Figure 57: T3 1 1 1 - 1 Shear testing o i a steel cable bolt- 28 day grout cure, prototype 2 with continuous
a~qui si ti c~i i . ~ ~ i c h o r s i i xed in grout column (a) top, raw testing data as recorded by Cable-GBA, (b)
bottoni. test displacernent ai rnonitored over the testing duration
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metahrgical Engineering
Tes tins Chapter 5
The extent of prelirninary laboratory conditions should be considered complete
with the axial and shear testing sets. The purpose of the tests was fulfilled in
establishing the useiulness and limitation of the Cable-GDM.
Future testing should focus on a prototype for underground conditions. A new
modification to the existing design should be done. The new device should be
designed for underground situations with monitoring being accomplished with a taper-
B potentiorneter.
The device should be installed on a bolt that i s instrumented with other systems
of monitoring. Early tests might include the installation of Ground Movement
Monitors, (GMM) at the same elevation as the Cable-GDM anchors to allow for the
confirmation of the effectiveness of the instrument in actual conditions; it could further
be used to monitor the arching of a stope back. Further tests could be done using both
a TENSMEG and a multi-point CABLE-GDM. This would be allow for the calculation
of the Bond Slip Ratio, would give an estimation of the effectiveness of a cable bolt
based upon a known loading condition (as established from the stope back failure
profi le).
The key to effective implementation of this instrument i n the mining world is
not its practicdlitv, that i s expected to be very good, i t i s that it i s to be inexpensive,
durable ancl reliable. I t i s a very simple device, (a potentiometer with mechanical
anchors) and no more difficult to install then a normal cable bolt. Both the coltection
of data and simple interpretation could easily be done by either the Operations
personnel (stope niiners or a shift boss) or technical staff. Operations personnel would
accept a device o i this sort because it i s based on easy to understand principles and it
i s monitoring something real (that is, the opening of a joint or the failure in a stope
back) and not theoretical (that is, the load on a cable bolt).
McCill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgicaf Engineering
Aydan, O, TXawamoto & Y. Ichikawa. "Load bearing capacity and stress
distribution in/along rockbolts with inelastic behavior of interfaces", Fifth
lnternational Conference on Numerical hiethods in Geomechanics, Nagoya, japan,
1-5 Aprii 1985
Aydan, O, T. Kyoya, Ykhi kawa & T-Kawamoto, T.lto, Y.Shimizu, "Three-
dimensional simulation of an advancing tunnel supported wi t h forepoles, shotcrete,
steel ri bi and rockbolts", Proceedings of sixth international conference on numericai
methoci-: in geomechanics, Innsbruck 1 1-1 5 Aprii 1988
Aydan. O & T.Kawarnoto, "A comparative numerical study on the reinforcement
effects of rockbolts and shotcrete support systems", Seventh lnternational
Conference on Cornputer hiethods and Advances in Geomechanics, Cairns,
Australia, 6-1 0 May 1991
Aydan, O & Y.lchikawa, S. Ebisu, SXomura & A.\Vatanabe, "Studies on interface
and cliscontinuities and an incremental elasto-plastic constitutive law", Proceedings
of the lnternational Symposium on Rock Joints, Norway, 1-6 ]une 1990
Aydan, O, "The stabilisation of rock engineering structures by rockbolts", Doctoral
Thesis Nagoya University, 1989
Ballivy Gerard & hiichael Dupuis, "Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Bonding
Strength of Grouted rock Anchors", Clhl Bulletin Vol. 22 pp97-102
6harti.S.. J.E.Udd & D.J.Cornett, "Ground Support at Strathcona Mine", Clht
Symposium on Underground Support Systems - 1983
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Bibliograp h y
Brady, B.H.G., E.T. Brown, Rock ~\\echanics for Underground Mi n ing, Geouge
Allen & Unwin publishers, 1985
Brown, D.G."Upl ift Capacity of G routed Rock Anchors", Ontario Hydro research
Quarterly, fourth quarter 1970
Cassidy, K,"The lmplementation of a Cable Bolting Program at the Con hine", Cl hi
Bulletin Vol. 22 pp67-72
Dileo,D., D A \ . X \orrison & NA. Girard, "Case History of a Groundfall at
Falconbridge'. East )\\i neMr Cl h\ Symposium on Underground Support Systems -
Douglas, T.H. & L.J. ,Arthur, "A Guide to the Use of Rock Reinforcement i n
Underground Excavations", ClRlA Report 101, 1983
Fawcett D.A., P.Sheehan & D.C. Martin "Footwal l Anchoring at Srnoky River Coal
Limitecl", 89th Annual Cenerai Meeting of Cl xi - 1987
Fuller, P.C., P.M. Dight, D. West "RIRA Cable Support Design for Underground
Openings in hletalliferous A\ines - Draft 2" . 1988
Fuller P.G.,"The Potential for Cable Support of Open Stopes", AhllRA Ltd. research
project: Cable Support for Long Hole Open Stopes 1982
Fuller, P.G., R.H.T. Cox, ",\\echanics of Load Transfer from Steel Tendons to
Cernent Based Grout", Research Paper No. 262 of the Division of ~ppl i ed
McGill University - Departm en t of Mining and Me taliurgical Engineering
Geomechnaics. Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization, 1985
Fuller,P.G."Cable support in mining: A key note lecture", Proceedings of the
International Symposium on Rock Bolting/Abiska, Australia, 1983
Cori'. J.\\."Laboratorv Evaluation of Cable Bolt Supports", 92nd Annuai General
Meeting of Cl hi - 1990
Goris. J.\ \. & J.P. Conway "Grouted Flexible Tendons and Scaling Investigations".
13th \\' orld hiining Congress Stockholm Sweden. 1987
Goris. J..\i.. F. Duan & j.Pfarr, "Evaluation of Cable Supports at the Homestake
Mine", 92nd Annual Cenerai Xieeting of Ci hi - 1990
Hadley, D.C.F. "Evaluation of Support Systems Subject to Impulse Loading",
CANUET partnered with the Ontario \ining Industry, 1988
Hassmi, F. and U. Khan, "Continious Hardrock Support Systems". Rock hlechanics
Research Croup, Department of hi i n i ng and ~\ietallurgical Engineering, AicG il I
University, 199 1
Kaiser. P.. K.S. Xialoneg and G.Yazici " A New Perspective on Cable Bolt Design:
Experience from Case Study", 93rd Annual General Meeting of C h l - 1991
Lappalainen, P. & JAntikainen, "b\echanized Cable Bolting in Stoping and
Tunnell ing at the Pyhasalmi Xline", 1 3th World ~\\i ni ng Congress, Stockholm
Sweden. 1987 pp793-796
McCill University - Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Bibliograp h y
Lappaldinen, P. & luhani Pulkkinen. "Pre-Reinforcement by Cable Bolting at
Outokumpu OY ,\lines", Stability in Underground hlining, Chapter 14, pp962-977
Littlejohn. G.S. & D.A. Bruce, "Rock Anchors - State of the Art Part 1: Design",
G round Engineering, May 1975 (pp25-32) and J uly 1 975 (pp4 1-18)
Littlejohn, G.S. & D.-\. Bruce, "Rock Anchors - State of the Art Part 2: Construction",
Ground Engineering. Sept. 1975 (pp34-15) and Nov. 1975 (pp41-18)
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Testing", Ground Engineering, April 1975 (pp53-60) and May 1976 (pp33-14)
~ l a h . C.P., R. Pakalnis, D.hiiine, "The Development of a Fibreglass Cable Bolt",
~i arhsal l , G.D.. D.K. Sarin, V.E. Hampton, "Work Place Ground Support at INCO's
Thompson \ ine", Stabil ity in Underground hiining, Chapter 4 1 pp902-92 1
Page, CH. & Da\\. Laubscher, "The Design of Rock Support in High Stress of \\'eak
Rock Environments", 12nd Annuai General Meeting of Cl hi - 1990
Pagel. C.\\'. "Cable Bolting for Ground Support at No. 12 Mine of Brunswick
hlining", CNCRM Symposium on Underground Support Systems - Cl hl 1983
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Juiy 1986 pp-1548
Popov. t .P.. ",\\echanics of hiaterials". second edition, Prentice-Hall, USA, 1978
McGill University - Department of Mining and Metailurgical Engineering
Sibliograph y
Potvin, Y., \\.R. Hudyma & H.D.S. Nilier, "Volume I - Stope Design". NSERC
Project FCRD-8612: integrarecl Mi ne Design Project. 1988
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Syctems", Ph.D Thesis Submittal, XlcCill University Department of Xiining and
Xletallurgical Engineering, 1 990
Reichert, R.D.. \\'.F. Bawden & A.J. Hyett, "Evaluation of Design Bond Strength for
Fully Grocited Cable Bolts". (to be submitted to the C h \ bulletin) 1991
Roko, R.O. & J.J.K. Daemen, "Xnalysis of deformation of joints asperities and
mechanical implications", Proceedings of 29th US svmposiurn i n rock rnechanics,
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application in tunnel design", 24th Symposium on Rock \\echanicc, June 1983
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Dec. 1979 pp16i7-82
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Support Devices". E&MJ september 1980 pp78-91
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Reinforcemend Concrete under cyclic loading", international Journal of Cernent
Compos itei and Lightweight Concrete, Vol.-!, No. 1, 1982
Mc GN University - Departmen t of Mining and Metahrgical Engineering
Supplemental Papers
Bazant. Z.P. & Luigi Cedolin, "Fracture l echani cs of Reinforced Concrete", journal
of the Engineering .\ iechan icc Division
Biron. (1.. E. \rioglu, N. Bigtn & D.K. Acar, "Galle* Heave Investigation Support
Design and Results at ~l pagut-Dodurga Lignite \ i i ne o i Turkey", 13th \\ orld \ i i ni ng
Congres Swd e n 1 987
F rid. 5.4.. "Strength Characteristics of Rock Foundation and Concrete-Rock Contact"
Ingraifea. M.. \; .H. Gerst l e, PGergely & \ . Saouma, "Fracture \iechanics of
Bond in Reiniorced Concrete", journal of Structural Engineering \ 01 1 1 O, No.4
1984, pp8T1-881
Kemp. E.L. \ \ .j. \ \ ilhelm, "investigation of the Parameters Iniluencing Bond
Crackin%". KI Journal Svnposium Paper, Jan 1979 ppX- 71
\iirza. S.'-\. , ].Houde. "Studv of Bond Stress-Slip Relationchip in Reinforced
Concr-le". -\Cl journal SypoGum Paper, jan 1979 ppI8-11
\iorita,S. d T. haku, "Splitting Bond Failurec of Large Deformed Reinforcing Bars'',
AC1 Journal Synposturn Paper, Jan 1979 pp93-110
Odstrcilik. 2.. "lmprovement of Stability of l i i ne \\'orking5 By \ieanc of the
Strengthening or Dertressing of the Rock \ \ as" , 13th \ l ' or l d \ i i ni ng Congres
Sweden 1 987
McGiII University - Departm en t of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
Bibliograp h y
Phillips, S.H.E., Fdctors Affeaing the Design of Anchorages in Rock", Dec. 1970
Rosenberg, P. 6 c.L. Journeaux "Friction and End Bearing Tectc cm Bedreock for
High Capacitv Socket Design". 1976
Sel\adurai, 4.P.S. T O. U~. Faruque, "The lnfluilnce of Interface Friction on the
Performance of Cable Jacking Te m of Rock \iasrec"
van Ham. F. CI '1 . Tsur-La\.,i, "Reinforcement Effect and .Action of Perpendicluar and
I ncl i n~d Roofhlt;. in Layered Rock Formations"
'1 u. T.R.. J.G. He nni ns U J.E. Croxall, 'Looce Rock Det edon \ ' L ith lnirared
1 hermograpnt', 41 cr qnnual Ceneral Iieeting Ci C h i -1 984
Zienkirv. icz, O.C. 8 h.C. Stitgg, "Cable ~ i e t h o d of In Situ Rock Testing", Int.j.Rock
'.iech. 'dm Sci. r,l -i .ppZ2-300. 1466
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