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Midterm Review

1. A manager notes that there is a .125 probability that any employee will arrive late for

work. What is the probability that exactly one person in a six-person department will

arrive late?

2. A manufacturer has the following quality control check at the end of a production line:

If at least 8 of 10 randomly picked articles meet all specifications, the whole shipment

is approved. If, in reality, 85% of a particular shipment meet all specifications, what is

the probability that the shipment will make it through the control check?

3. Joe Dimaggio had a career batting average of .325. What was the probability that he

would get at least one hit in five official times at bat?

4. An insurance salesperson is able to sell policies to 15% of the people she contacts.

Suppose she contacts 120 people during a 2-week period. What is the expected number

of policies she sells?

5. A highway engineer knows that his crew can lay 5 miles of highway on a clear day, 2

miles on a rainy day, and only 1 mile on a snowy day. Suppose the probabilities are as

follows: A clear day: .6, a rainy day: .3, a snowy day: .1. What are the mean and

variance?

6. Of the automobiles produced at a particular plant, 40% had a certain defect. Suppose a

company purchases five of these cars. What is the expected value for the number of

cars with defects? The variance?

7. The following is a stem-plot of the birth weights of male babies born to the smoking

group. The stems are in units of kg.

Stems Leaves

2 3,4,6,7,7,8,8,8,9

3 2,2,3,4,6,7,8,9

4 1,2,2,3,4,5,6

5 3,5,5,6

Find the median birth weight.

8. The heights in centimeters of 5 students are:

165, 175, 176, 159, 172

Find the sample median, sample mean and sample variance.

9. Newsweek in 1989 reported that 60% of young children have blood lead levels that

could impair their neurological development. Assuming a random sample from the

population of all school children at risk, find the probability that at least 5 children out

of 10 in a sample taken from a school may have a blood level that may impair

development.

10. The marks on a Statistics test are normally distributed with a mean of 62 and a variance

of 225. If the instructor wishes to assign B's or higher to the top 30% of the students in

the class, what mark is required to get a B or higher?

11. The test grades for a certain class were entered into a Minitab worksheet, and then

Descriptive Statistics were requested. The results were:

MTB> Describe Grades.

N MEAN MEDIAN TRMEAN STDEV SEMEAN

Grades 28 74.71 76.00 75.50 12.61 2.38

MIN MAX Q1 Q3

Grades 35.00 94.00 68.00 84.00

You happened to see, on a scrap of paper, that the lowest grades were 35, 57, 59, 60,

but you dont know what the other individual grades are. Nevertheless, a

knowledgeable user of statistics can tell a lot about the data set simply by studying the

set of descriptive statistics above.

a. Write a brief description of what the results in the box tell you about the

distribution of grades. Be sure to address:

i. The general shape of the distribution

ii. Unusual features, including possible outliers

iii. The middle 50% of the data

iv. Any significance in the difference between the mean and the median

b. Construct a boxplot for the test grades.

12. True or False?

a. If a students exam score corresponds to a negative z-score, then the student has

a score that is less than the mean of the set of exam scores.

b. The 70

th

percentile means 70% of the values in the distribution are above it.

c. On a statistics exam, Joes score was at the 30

th

percentile and Johns score was

at the 60

th

percentile; thus, we can say that Johns score was twice Joes.

d. On the standard normal curve, the 50

th

percentile corresponds to the mean value

of the data set.

e. The standard normal distribution has a mean of 0.

13. The z-score associated with a measurement x represents the number of _____ that x lies

above the mean or below the mean.

14. If a measurement in a data set is above the mean value for that set, then the z-score will

be what? (positive or negative)

15. A final statistics exam had a mean of 70 and a variance of 25. If Bruce had made an 80

on this exam, what is his z-score?

16. If a sample has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 6, what is the value in the set

that corresponds to a z-score of 2?

17. Family income in a particular suburb has been found to be approximately normal with a

mean of $52,137 and a standard deviation of $19,452. What percentage has an income

in the range of $50,000 to $80,000? (Show your work)

18. The length of time needed to complete a certain test is normally distributed with mean

60 minutes and standard deviation 10 minutes.

a. What is the relative frequency of people who take between 45 and 65 minutes to

complete the test? Sketch the distribution and shade in the area in question.

b. Find the interval that contains the middle 95% of completion times for all

people taking the test.

c. What time is the 80

th

percentile?

d. What time is the 35

th

percentile?

19. Suppose the probability that a company will be awarded a certain contract is .25, the

probability that it will be awarded a second contract is .21 and the probability that it

will get both contracts is .13. What is the probability that the company will win at least

one of the two contracts?

20. A psychologist interested in right-handedness versus left-handedness and in IQ scores

collected the following data from a random sample of 2000 high school students.

Right-handed Left-handed Total

High IQ 190 10 200

Normal IQ 1710 90 1800

Total 1900 100 2000

a. What is the probability that a student from this group has a high IQ?

b. What is the probability that a student has a high IQ given that she is left-handed?

c. Are high IQ and left-handed independent? Why or why not?

21. A VCR manufacturer receives 70% of his parts from factory F1 and the rest from

factory F2. Suppose that 3% of the output from F1 are defective while only 2% of the

output from F2 are defective.

a. What is the probability that a received part is defective?

b. If a randomly chosen part is defective, what is the probability it came from

factory F1?

22. A sports survey taken at THS shows that 48% of the respondents liked soccer, 66%

liked basketball and 38% liked hockey. Also, 30% liked soccer and basketball, 22%

liked basketball and hockey, and 28% liked soccer and hockey. Finally, 12% liked all

three sports.

a. Draw a Venn diagram to represent the given information.

b. What is the probability that a randomly selected student likes basketball or

hockey? Solve this by also using an appropriate formula.

c. What is the probability that a randomly selected student does not like any of

these sports?

23. Donald has ordered a computer and a desk from 2 different stores. Both items are to be

delivered Tuesday. The probability that the computer will be delivered before noon is

.6 and the probability that the desk will be delivered before noon is .8. If the

probability that either the computer or the desk will be delivered before noon is .9, what

is the probability that both will be delivered before noon?

24. A distribution of grades in an introductory statistics class (where A = 4, B = 3, etc) is:

X 0 1 2 3 4

P(X) .10 .15 .30 .30 .15

a. Find (1 3) P X ! <

b. Find the mean grade in this class.

c. Find the standard deviation for the class grades.

d. Find the lowest grade

0

X such that

0

( ) 0.5 P X X ! <

25. The weight of reports produced in a certain department has a normal distribution with

mean 60 g and standard deviation 12 g. What is the probability that the next report

will weigh less than 45 g?

26. The waiters in a restaurant receive an average tip of $20 per table with a standard

deviation of $5. The amounts of tips are normally distributed, and a waiter feels that he

has provided excellent service if the tip is more than $25.

a. What is the probability that the waiter has provided excellent service?

b. What is the probability that the waiter has not provided excellent service?

27. Suppose you have a distribution, X, with mean = 28 and standard deviation =2.1.

Define a new random variable Y = 2X + 1.

a. Find the mean of Y.

b. Find the variance of Y.

c. Find the standard deviation of Y.

d. Let W = X + X for X in the above problem. Find the variance of W.

28. An appliance store is offering a special price on a complete set of kitchen appliances

(refrigerator, oven, stove, dishwasher). A purchaser is offered a choice of manufacturer

for each component:

Refrigerator: Kenmore, GE, LG, Whirlpool

Oven: KitchenAid, Samsung, Frigidaire, Kenmore

Stove: Electrolux, Hotpoint, GE

Dishwasher: Bosch, Silhouette, Premier, Whirlpool

Use the product rules to answer the following questions:

a. In how many ways can one appliance of each type be selected?

b. In how many ways can appliances be selected if none is to be Kenmore?

c. If someone randomly chooses their appliances, what is the probability that at

least one Kenmore component is chosen?

29. Suppose that for events A and B,

P A

( )

= 0.4, P B

( )

= 0.3, and P A!B

( )

= 0.5.

a. Compute

P A| B

( )

b. Are events A and B independent?

30. Suppose the random variable X has pdf given by

f x

( )

=

1

4

x

3

, 0 ! x ! 2.

a. Find

P X !1

( )

b. Find

P( X !1)

c. Find the value of c such that

P X ! c

( )

= 0.05.

31. Let X have a binomial distribution with parameters n = 20, and p = 0.6.

a. Use the binomial distribution to approximate

P 10 ! X <18

( )

.

b. Use the normal distribution to approximate

P 10 ! X <18

( )

.

32. Let X have an exponential distribution with parameter !=0.025.

a. Find

P X !10

( )

b. Find

P 10 ! X ! 20

( )

c. What is the expected value for X?

33. A waiter estimates that his average tip per table is $21 with a standard deviation of $4.

If we take samples of 8 tables at a time, calculate the following probabilities when the

tip per table is normally distributed.

a. What is the probability that the average tip for one table is less than $21?

b. What is the probability that the average tip for one table is more than $21?

c. What is the probability that the average tip for one table is between $19 and

$23?

34. A certain beverage company is suspected of under filling its cans of soft drink. The

company advertises that its cans contain, on the average, 12 ounces of soda with

standard deviation 0.4 ounce.

a. Suppose we will sample 50 cans, what is the mean and standard deviation for

the sampling distribution of the sample means for this data?

b. Compute the probability that a random sample of 50 cans produces a sample

mean fill of 11.9 ounces or less.

35. Suppose that p(x, y) =

3x + y

39

, x = 1, 2, y = 1,2,3 is the joint pmf of X and Y.

a. Create a contingency table for X and Y.

b. Fill in the marginal values for the table.

c. Find E[X], E[Y], and E[XY]

d. Find !

X

,!

Y

, and cov(X,Y)

e. Determine if X and Y are independent.

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