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International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)

Web Site: Email:,

Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 81

Abstract: Paper deals with the quality analysis of copper
wire using ARM 7 processor. Copper wire used in
transformer/motor windings is enameled by polyurethane,
polyamide, or polyester resins [1]. This enamel coating is
thin, act as resistant to heat, high voltage and is of high
temperature rating [1]. During transport the enamel coating
may get lost due to mishandling. The flaws in enamel coating
further leads to increment in losses and resistivity. So, such
lossy wires are not capable of withstanding high voltage and
temperature ratings [2][3]. The threshold establishment is
necessary for rejection of copper wire on the basis of enamel
coating thickness, flaws due to manufacturing and transport.
Currently ARM 7 processor is widely used in industry as in
speed it competes with DSP processor as well as it is small in
size, cost and power consumption as compare to
Microcontroller 89S51, DSP processor. So, for the
automation ARM 7 processor is used as decision device.
Evaluation metric for this analysis is based on accuracy of
detection, response time and power consumption of the
overall circuit.

Keywords: Advance RISC Machine (ARM); Analog to
Digital Converter (ADC); Complex Instruction Set
Computers (CISC); Digital Signal Processing (DSP);
Incoming Quality Inspection Test (IQIT); Reduced
Instruction Set Computer (RISC).

In agriculture, selection of seed is very much necessary,
and only then we can expect healthy and quality plants
and finally it will lead into good production. Similarly the
primary and profound step in any industrial
manufacturing and production is Incoming Quality
Inspection Test (IQIT).
In this paper the incoming quality test of copper wire
used in transformer/motor is established by using ARM 7
processor. Traditionally this test was done by manual
means or by using mecha-electronics equipments. In
those traditional systems the main drawbacks were of
accuracy, response time and manual database creation. As
these traditional systems were manual they had high
losses and high probability of errors. So, it is necessary to
modify the traditional ways in concern with above
mentioned parameters.
Due to the flaws in enamel coating of copper wire, such
as abrasion it may lead to short circuit when such faulty
wire is used as transformer/motor winding. It finally
affects the gross production and the rejected wire
overheads might get add into the cost per unit. Sometimes
use of such faulty motors/transformers causes major
accidents. Lifetime or work hours of such
motors/transformers may degrade due to uninspected raw
material or inaccurate quality analysis of raw material.
ARM 7 is the 32 bit Advance RISC Machine Processor,
where RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set
Computer. RISC architecture supports software
sophistication, multiple instruction execution in single
cycle called as pipelining, and simple in design. ARM 7
uses Von Neumann architecture which supports same
program and data memory, saves hardware, power
consumption and additional cost. ARM 7 [5] plays
important role in the monitoring of enamel coating
thickness, acquisition of data, processing and storing of
data. It will create a huge database of tested wires on
personal computer which will further useful in taking
corrective actions.
Paper is organized in seven sections. Section one of paper
explains selection of processor, what are the important
features of processor which make processor capable for
the given application. Section two highlights the needs of
analog to digital converter and selection of 24-bit
modulator. The very next section three gives architecture
of abrasion and thermal resistivity tester and execution of
commands. Section four elaborate algorithm and program
flow of ADS 1248 and communication with ARM 7.
Section five generates result parameters of the established
system. Section six is the concluding remark and seven is
the system Photograph.

ARM 7 is the 32 bit RISC processor. In speed, it
competes with the powerful DSP chips even, while in cost
and interfacing methods, surpasses them. Size, power
consumption and number of on-chip peripherals available
with ARM 7 are more as compared with simple 89c51
processor. In addition its precision is high.
ARM 7processor is very useful for industrial control,
medical systems, protocol converter and for
communication. Input power supply requirement is very
low for ARM 7, about 3.3v and can operate upto 72MHz.
The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction
Set Computer (RISC) principles, and the instruction set
and related decode mechanism are much simpler than
those of micro-programmed complex instruction set
computers (CISC). This simplicity results in a high
Automatic Resistance detection and Abrasion
testing of copper wire used in transformer or
motor windings by ARM 7 processor

Amruta Patil and Prof. R. M. Khaire

Department of E&TC Engg., BVDUCOE, Pune
International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)
Web Site: Email:,
Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 82

instruction throughput and impressive real-time interrupt
response from a small and cost-effective processor core.
GPIO registers are relocated to the ARM local bus so that
the fastest possible I/O timing can be achieved. The ARM
7 -LPC2364/66/68 [5] each contain four UARTs. In
addition to standard transmit and receive data lines,
UART1 also provide a full modem control handshake
interface. The UARTs include a fractional baud rate
generator. Standard baud rates such as 115200 can be
achieved with any crystal frequency above 2 MHz [5].
The LPC2364/66/68 each contains two SSP controllers.
The SSP controller is capable of operation on a SPI, 4-
wire SSI, or Microwire bus.
It can interact with multiple masters and slaves on the
bus. Only a single master and a single slave can
communicate on the bus during a given data transfer. The
SSP supports full duplex transfers, with frames of 4 bits
to 16 bits of data flowing from the master to the slave and
from the slave to the master. In practice, often only one of
these data flows carries meaningful data [5].

The ADS 1248 is 24 bit, Analog to Digital Converter IC
for temperature sensors such as thermocouples,
thermistors, RTDs [6]. It can be useful for pressure
measurement in industrial process control.
Figure 1 shows internal block schematic of ADS 1248
[6]. It has onboard low noise, programmable gain
amplifier, a precision delta sigma ADC with a single
cycle settling digital filter and in internal oscillator. An
input multiplexer supports four differential inputs for the
ADC 1248. Multiplexer additionally contains sensor
burnout detect facility, monitoring and general digital

Figure 1 Internal Block schematic with pin-outs of ADS

It accepts analog inputs through AIN0 AIN7, select any
input by internal multiplexer according to the status of
AVDD, GPIO and VBIAS. The output of multiplexer is
further amplified by internal programmable gain
amplifier and provide as analog input to 24 bit
modulator or analog to digital converter (ADC). It will
sample by ADC and again filtered by Digital filter. This
output will take on Dout of ADS 1248 as corresponding
to that of analog input [6].


Figure 2 Abrasion tester and Thermal resistivity detector

Figure 2 shows simple block representation of the tester
which consists of power supply unit, ADS 1248
modulator, ARM processor kit, MAX RS232 protocol
analyzer and computer as a Result display device [4].
The flow of tasks is given as: 1) Power on circuit by
turning on power supply unit for each block. 2) Initialize
ADS 1248- 24 bit modulator, ARM 7 processor with its
GPIOs, UART, SPI Bus and other references. 3) Apply
current to copper wire through current source at its one
terminal and measure it at copper wires output terminal.
Resultant current will be proportional to change in
conductivity due to abrasion or add on resistance. 4)
Convert output current to voltage by C to V converter and
apply it to 24 bit ADC modulator. Further modulator will
be sample and send digital count corresponding to analog
input through SPI bus to ARM 7 processor. 5) At ARM 7
processor the data will classify as command or data count
in software comparator. Through MAX RS 232 the data
count corresponding to voltage affected by resistance of
copper wire will be display on hyper-terminal.

Figure 3 shows the system flowchart. Flowchart clearly
explain work done by ADS 1248. After initialization of
ADS 1248, peripherals, timers, UART, SPI ADC
modulator converts analog input to digital count. That
output will be send on SPI bus, It will again read at SPI
i/p , featch and scaled at SPI o/p. Then ADS 1248
establish comunication with ARM 7 through
UART(Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter)
where the ADC result will be packatize for serial
communication. ARM 7 will be continuously send the
given result to computer and able to view on its hyper-

International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)
Web Site: Email:,
Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 83

Figure 3 Work- flow of ADC commands, communication
of ADS 1248, ARM 7 and Computer

The following tables compare various effective
parameters of Traditional System , new innovative
Abrasion tester and resistance detector.
Table 1: Comparison of traditional systemand abrasion

Power consumption in
Response time of one
Fault detection
10W 500mW 5 to 10 minits 800ms to
Table 2: Comparison of traditional systemand abrasion
Accuracy in tems of
No. of accurate test/No.
of test performed) *
Cost in rupees
70% 93% 10000 to
to 7000/-

As the establised abrasion tester is the test and build
circuit with no. of test/check points. For industrial
application the size of PCB will be further reduced with
all effective parameters except accuracy. It will be
improved upto 99% by reducing software errors and bugs.
The abrasion tester will be a good addition to input
quality control department of the transformer and motor

It is the incoming inspection type of test. The most
important purpose of this testing is to avoid placing a
defective component in a motor/transformer assembly
where the cost of diagnosis of the manufactured motor
may far exceed the cost of incoming inspection of the
copper wire. We can greatly control the infant mortality
rate of transformer and motors by using proposed
Abrasion tester.

The proposed Abrasion Tester has the limitation that it is
applied for short wire length about 10 to 15 cm. In future
it will be possible to test whole wire by doing certain
modification with Abrasion tester.


My M.Tech. Project topic is Abrasion and continuity
tester. So the resultant parameters are of my own
dissertation work. Thus I would like to acknowledge
Project guide Prof. R. M. Khaire and Industrial guide Mr.
S. S. Kulkarni for their active valuable support and

Journal Papers:

[1] Landinger, C.; Cronin, L.D., "Fault tests on embedded
copper wire and copper tape shielded single conductor
cables," Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE
Transactions on,vol.94, no.3, pp.959,966,May1975
doi: 10.1109/T-PAS.1975.31929
[2] Pops, H.; Walker, J., "Origins of high voltage
continuity failures in enamel coated copper magnet
wire," Electrical Electronics Insulation Conference
International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)
Web Site: Email:,
Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 84

and Electrical Manufacturing & Coil Winding
Conference, 1993. Proceedings., Chicago '93
EEIC/ICWA Exposition , vol., no., pp.457,484, 4-7
Oct 1993
doi: 10.1109/EEIC.1993.631223
[3] Binhai Zhang; Kaiyou Qian; Wang, T.; Yuqi Cong;
Zhao, M.; Xiangquan Fan; Jiaji Wang, "Behaviors of
palladiumin palladium coated copper wire bonding pr
ocess," Electronic Packaging Technology & High
Density Packaging, 2009. ICEPT-HDP '09.
International Conferenceon,vol.,no.,pp.662,665,10-
doi: 10.1109/ICEPT.2009.52706683.
[4] Amruta Patil,Prof.R.M.Khaire, " Establishment of
evaluation metric and quality analysis of enamel
coating thickness and thermal resistivity of copper
wire using arm7,"International Journal of Application
or Innovation in Engineering &
Management2014International Journal,,Issue


[5] Datasheet of LPC2364/65/66/67/68 (ARM) processor
[6] Datasheet of ADS 1248 modulator (Analog to Digital


Amruta Patil received her BE degree in electronics and
telecommunication fromCummins College of Engineering
for womens, Pune; in 2009 and she is perceiving her
M.TECH. Degree in Electronics and VLSI technology
fromBharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering, Pune;
under the guidance of Prof. R. M. Khaire. She has been in
teaching since 2010 and is currently an assistant professor
in the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication
at Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering, Pune. Her
research interests are in Embedded systemapplications.

Prof. R. M. Khaire is working as a Head of the
Department in E&TC engg. , at Bharati Vidyapeeth
College of Engineering, Pune. He has completed his
M.Tech from IIT Chennai. He is retired Brigadier from
Indian Army.