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Avalon Hill Philosophy Part 59
The start of a new year is always an
appropriate time to turn our editorial attention to
the discussion of new games. Last fall was the
first time i n recent memory that AH did not
reveal a new game for the Xmas season. This
shouldn't be taken as an indication of a
slowdown however, as we've been working
quite hard on our '77 releases and have a
number of titles to offer i n the coming year.
Not the smallest happening is our acquisition
of yet another game company. Last December
we took over the complete line of SPORTS
ILLUSTRATED games which include PAYDIRT
(pro football), BOWLBOUND (college football),
(golf), and TRACK MEET (Olympic Decathlon
competition). All five games sell for $1 0 and are
available both by mail and through our regular
retail distribution. These are not just repetitions
of our already existing sports games. Whereas
STRATEGY series emphasizes pure competition
i n the form of the matrix play selections, the
SPORTS ILLUSTRATED line utilizes the "replay"
concept of sports games by providing realistic
statistical ratings of actual teams and individual
athletes so that the player can recreate the
exploits of his favorite team/athlete. Al l the
participants perform i n direct proportion to their
accomplishments i n real life. In this way,
baseball fans can check how Sandy Koufax
would have done facing Babe Ruth, Ted Willi-
ams, etc. These games are particularly well
suited to solitaire play and have a definite place
i n the sports game market. They wi l l makeafine
addition to our line of simulation games. The
effect of the SPORTS ILLUSTRATED acquisition
does not end there however. We wi l l be
repackaging all our sports games to take
advantage of the greater clout of SI. Among the
first to receive this treatment wi l l be our
remakes of the previous 3M games SPEED
CIRCUIT and WIN, PLACE, & SHOW. These t wo
were the class of the 3M sports line and wi l l
effectively round out our greatly expanded
sports line which you'll see advertised frequent-
ly i n the pages o f . . . what else, SPORTS
Of more immediate concern to most of you as
wargamers is, naturally enough, news of the
upcoming wargame releases. The following is
meant as only the briefest sketch of what we'll
offer i n 1977 so as to whet your appetite for the
coming year. More detailed information wi l l
follow as we near publication.
Making their debut i n the spring will be the
long waited ARAB-ISRAELI WARS and the 2nd
edition of RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN. The former
utilizes an improved version of the PANZER-
LEADER game system to portray our first effort
at a modern day conflict. It wi l l sell for $10 i n
bookcase format with 4 geomorphic boards.
RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN wi l l leave the Mail
Order Only ranks for retail distribution i n a
highly polished 2nd edition.The rules have been
rewritten to correct all prior ambiguities and
omissions as well as add a few subtle refine-
ments. The scenarios have been entirely revised
to reflect more realistic OB's and offer greater
variety i n game length. The previous problem of
too many drawn games has been done away
wi th by the incorporation of Sudden Death
victory conditions which also tend to shorten the
average Campaign Game and add even more
suspense to an already exciting game system.
Extra counters for Richard Hamblen's "What
If . . . " Variant which appeared i n Vol. 13, No. 4
have been added to the new counter sheet
which also utilizes increased shading to further
differentiate units wi th double impulse move-
ment capability. Owners of the Mail Order Only
edition of RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN are urged to
look elsewhere i n this magazine for details on
how they can update their game at minimum
SQUAD LEADER is progressing very nicely
and wi l l be ready to make its debut at ORIGINS
77. The game is evolving from an infantry type
PANZERBLITZ into a comprehensive treatment
of WWll squad level actions including armor, off
board artillery, and a myriad of options. We'll be
using the P.I. (Programmed Instruction) method
to take the reader gradually through one of our
most comprehensive rulebooks so that he can
play the game and learn i t step by step with a
minimum investment of time. The game is so
comprehensive and all encompassing that we
are considering offering an extension kit of
counters and scenarios for the Pacific War. Yet,
the beauty of the game lies i n the relative
simplicity of John Hill's new game system.
Also destined for release at ORIGINS is the
remake of GETTYSBURG which embraces more
new techniques then I care to go into here.
Suffice i t to say that i t wi l l be unlike any
wargame we've ever done before. DESCENTON
CRETE is also scheduled for summer release.
This game was designed by Vance von Borries
and developed by Randall Reed. This operational
battalion and company level game is reminis-
cent of a small scale ANZIO and should shed
more than a little light on this fascinating but
often neglected portion of WWII.
THE RISING SUN is out of drydock and into
development but is a long way from completion.
The scope of this game makes THIRD REICH look
like checkers i n comparison. It wi l l include all
the capital ships of the Pacific Theatre plus
destroyer, submarine, and auxiliary divisions
with detailed combat, repair, and ship building
rules to give a tactical feel to a very big strategic
game. At this point the game will utilize
approximately 1,000 two-sided counters repre-
senting land, air, and naval units plus a roster
pad to maintain order. The game will incorporate
interlocking scenarios for play balance and
playing time purposes. A complete Campaign
Game will be included butduetothe inevitability
of the outcome, players will find the initial and
mid-War scenarios to be the meat of the game.
Another wargame slated for release i n 1977
is our reincarnation of U-BOAT. This game will
have nothing todowi th itssimple predecessorof
the early 60's, and wi l l incorporate sub actions
i n all theatres of WWII-despite the misleading
insinuations of the title. The game will include a
multitude of ship vs. sub, and sub vs. convoy
scenarios as well as an interlocking Campaign
A. H. Philosophy. . . . Continued on Page 1 1
Europe and
the Pacific
By Mar k Saha
The origins of World War I 1 in Europe have
been explored mor e thoroughly t han perhaps any
ot her war in history. If for no ot her reason. the
sudden total collapse of Fiiscist Italy and Nari
(;ermany made aba~l ahl e t o historians document s
or di nar ~l y not available for st udy until a hundred
years after the lact. i f at all. Th~sext r aor di nar y body
of material has still not been adequately expl ored.
Nonetheless. t he main European causes. bot h
immediate and lorig range political, cultural.
economic and technological ;Ire generally known
and have been admi rabl y s umma r i ~e d. by the way.
in the Designer's Notes of AH'S ORIGI, VS game.
But the cont ri but i on of the Pacific t o t he
out hreah ol war in Europe is less well known. Some
people would sa! t he Pacific made no cont ri but i on
whet soel er t o the outbreak of hostilities in Europe.
Grant ed. tlie J;lp:incsc were aggressi\e and bent
upon empire. hut they could have been contained
had not the war in Europe tempted t hem i nt oa hold
and opport uni st i c I;ind grab. S o goes the argument .
But a glance at tlie Oh.iecti\cs 1-able of Zedeh's
I' AC' IFIC' OKl(ilSS reveals a ver) interesting fact:
(;erm;in! has no interests in the Pacilic at all.
This situation cameabout because of<;ermany' s
deleat in the Great War ol 1914-IX. S o intense was
hiltred ol (ierninn) after four blood! years of trench
warkirc ( and some out rageous wartime propagan-
da) . that tlie subsequent Versailles Treat y (1919)
redr~ced her t o little more t han a hanhl-upt puppet
\ t al e. Almost incidental. in the course of this
wholesale political cconomi c destruction of Ger-
many. n;is aei/ure of ;ill her ocerseas colonles and
Interests. I his proved t o be n gr a\ e strategic error
that h a s t o come back and haunt t he Allies w~ t h
consequences that persist t o t he present day.
Strategist Ha r v e DeWeerd. in a series ol
unilersity lectures. said t he stripping of ( ; e r ma y' s
o\ ct -\ e; ~s possession\ wa\ an error on three count s
First. the manner in nhi ch it w;isdone: the Allies. he
said, might at least have been honest about it. They
might have said. "l.ook, you've lost t he war. s o we
ar e going t o take your colonies." The Germans ar e
prfigmatic if nothing else, and that kind of talk they
m~g h t have understood. But t he British and French
were not so blunt. They said, in effect. "You, t he
Germans, have shown yourselves t o be a morally
inferior people. unwort hy of t he great task of
bringing al ong colonial peoples in the Christian
tradition. Therefore. we ar c going t o undert ake this
burden for you." That . of course, is a paraphrase.
but it reflects t he gener;ll cont empt t hat existed at
the time in regarding t he Huns as. indeed. morally
inferior savages. Germany was given a national
~nt cri ori t y compl eu. Which made Hitter all t he mor e
welcome when he arri \ ed with a new message: "We
Germans ar e not a morall) inlerior people. Qui t e
t he contrary. Wc ;I!-e ;I lace ol pure At-!an supermen
whose destiny it 1s . . . ."
C/ echosl ocak~a. or Austria. it would really gain
them noth~ng--while an opportunistic .lapan took
advant age of such European entanglement t o sei7e
their priceless resources in the Pac~fi c. 'Thus. it can
be seen, the Allies found themselves in the 1930s in a
t r ap of their own making: and this s~t uat i on
account s for H~t l e r get t i ngaway with as much as he
d ~ d before war finally came in 1939. Indeed. Hitler
did not expect Britain and France t o declare war on
him e\ en then. Why should they sacrifice their
colonial empires t o honor a treaty (t he Polish
guarant ee) they could not possibly enforce anyway'?
He was almost right. England almost let it pass: hut
al t er three days England declared war and per-
suaded a reluctant France t o d o t he same.
But the Vcrsailles seifure of German colonial
Interests in 1919 would not ha \ e created ncarl! the
problem it dld. except for the fact that In the 1930s
all Western possessions came undcr increasing
prefiure from an expandi ng Japanese empire. This
1s the ot her side of t he coin.
It must be remembered that Asia had ne\ er
welcomed Western col on~/ at i on in the first place. In
fact. the!. resisted it: European t rade was often
f or h~dden by law in A\ia. and resisted by force of
arms. But. al t hough a very high level ofcivili7;1t1on
had always e \ ~s t e d in this part of the world. they
I;lcked almost entirely the pragmatism of Western
aclence and tlie technological weapons it produced.
Iiesistance was useless. Asi;,was conquered. and it
was developed. hut it was in many respects an
occupied count ry. Railroads. telegraph lines. and
instruments of economl c exploitation were owned
and operated h! Wcstel-n powers under treaties
d~ct at ed hy those pohcrs. I-his is not a very pretty
chapt er in the h~s t or y of the West, and hecause ~t 15
Sei/ing Germany' s overseas possessions was a n
el-ror on the second count hecause it gave the Allies
n o "li:~lidle" by wl i ~ch thcy might have controlled
Hitler. Suppose the colonies had remained in
Gel-man possession. And H~t l e r marched i nt o t he
Khineland. What does Britain do? She sei7es a rich
German colony In ret;ilintion. as a "police action."
German! inimed~;itel> feels the sting. But in fact
Germany had nothing t o seife. All had been taken in
1919. 11 Hitler chose t o ni;~rcli into C/echoslocakia.
Austria. Poland . . . it was a matter of go t o war or
d o nothing.
I-in:lll!. seiling Gel-man colonies left Germany
the onl! ni:!ior Wester11 power wtthout colonial
intcrc . (icrmariy \vas therelore i nd~fferent t o
J ; ~panes e expalision and aggression. France, Eng-
land. Netherlands, ctc.. had ;I great deal t o lose and
tI1crclo1-c ;I great deal t o protect in the Pacific. If
thcy went t o nal- nl t h ( i cr ni an o\ e r Khinel;tnd,
still a controversial subject, perhaps the best thing is
to refer readers to a couple of recent popular
accounts that take opposing views. It makes for
interesting reading, and you can decide for yourself.
Barbara Tuchman's recent (1971) bestseller,
Stilwell and the American Experience in China,
1911-45; Part One, Chapter 2 offers a brief but
somewhat outraged critical account. The more
recent Total War, Vol. 2 by Peter Calvocoressi &
Guy Wint (1973) is much more sympathetic or,
perhaps, fatalistic about what happened. They say,
in Part One, Chapter I, that although the Western
record in Asia is "chequered," nonetheless "The
record of the (Western) powers is not so black as it is
painted, whether by Chinese communists or western
liberal historians, who are overwhelmed, quite often
unreasonably, by guilt. In some ways China's
suffering was inevitable. . . a withdrawn state being
thrust upon the world." And thus, "The version put
about by the communists is exaggerated, perverted,
and untrue." Both books are excellent popular
accounts and highly recommended.
Japan was the first major Asian nation to
actively seek and master a knowledge of Western
technology. A main reason for this decision on
Japan's part seems t o be that she had little other
choice. Like England, Japan was an island nation,
and thus highly dependent upon fishing and trade
for economic survival. However, Japan entered the
20th century with problems more desperate, and
solutions more elusive, than any Britain has ever
faced. It was not necessary that Japan should go to
war in an effort t o solve these problems-
throughout history many nations have and some
have not-but a unique combination of cultural and
political events made the road t o empire an
increasingly attractive solution.
Japan Over Asia by William Henry Chamberlin
is an attempt at an objective Western assessment of
Japan's problems, published in 1936 and revised-
with developing events-in 1937 and 1939. It is
always a good idea to study acontemporary account
of an historical event because hindsight makes the
problems of the past appear so silly, and a rational
solution so obvious; a contemporary account may
be less accurate, but at least it reflects what people
believed and how they felt at that time. And people
act upon their beliefs, not what is subsequently
found to be the truth. In any case, Chamberlindid a
remarkable job, in my opinion, in examining
Japan's problems and explaining why the solutions
of Western advisers did not work. Most of what
follows is drawn from this book.
Chamberlin points out that although Japan was
an island nation like England, any resemblance
ended there. Japan was an island of volcanic rock;
with best efforts, only 15.6 percent of her land area
could be made suitable for farming, compared with
24.2 in Britain (and 27.8 in Netherlands, 40.2 in
Belgium, 43.7 in Germany. This is 1936). This
situation was aggravated by a sudden population
explosion. Chamberlain quotes from a translated
Japanese textbook: "The territory of Japan repres-
ents one half percent of the world's total, while her
population makes up five percent of the world's
total . . . (her) population density is approximately
ten times greater than the average population
density of the world."
Three possible "peaceful" solutions to Japan's
woes were suggested by Western advisers. These
were (a) birth control, (b) emigration, and (c)
industrialization. Japan's reply was that (a) it was
too late now for birth control, and in any case the
Japanese family tradition was strongly against it,
and (b) the Western countries themselves had all
sorts of quotas strongly biased against oriental
emigrants. The only country which was really open
to Japanese emigration was Brazil, but this resulted
in such a migration that even Brazil was forced to
impose quotas. That emigration should be smugly
offered by Western advisers as a solution thus
angered the Japanese more than birth control.
Finally, there was industrialization. This,
indeed, was the direction of Japan's major effort at a
solution. But industry requires raw materials and
natural resources, and here Japan ran into a truly
remarkable streak of bad luck. There was gold and
mineral wealth in abundance in the Philippines,
rubber in Indochina, oil in Borneo-but the
volcanic rock of the Japanese islands yielded very
little. Perhaps the ultimate insult in this regard came
on the island of Sakhalan, which was divided by
treaty between Japan and Russia. Japan searched
diligently all along the southern portion of the
island but found nothing of value; the Russians,
after brief exploration, found on the northern half
one of the largest oil fields then known!
What was Japan t o do without resources?
Again, there were two economic theories then
prevalent, offering two different solutions. The first
theory originated in Italian Fascist intellectual
circles-a strange place for such a theory-because
it was analogous t o the communist "class struggle."
Just as there can be a class struggle between rich and
poor, bourgeoisie and proletariat, within a country,
this argument went, so could there be an interna-
tional struggle between "have" and "have-not"
nations for global raw materials and natural
resources. Chamberlin comments, ironically, that
even in Germany ". . .National Socialist leaders
have displayed an increasing tendency to attribute
their country's economic difficulties largely to the
lack of colonial sources of essential raw materials."
Thus, Germany, Italy, and Japan were the major
"have-not" nations of the world. And, in their
struggle against the "have" nations, Germany
sought a solution in a Russian empire, Italy in a
Mediterranean empire, and Japan in an Asian
Western economists of the "have" nations
disagreed with this theory. They claimed that the
mere ownership of colonial resources "meant
nothing" because, "the expense of conquering and
administering colonies is out of all proportion t o the
trade, investment, and migration benefits which
accrue from colonial imperialism." And, "Since the.
producers of essential raw materials are only t oo
eager t o find buyers,. . . there is nothing to prevent
a nation which is poor in raw materials from buying
what it needs in the cheapest market and building up
its industries on imported raw materials."
(It is interesting to notice that this theory has
suddenly become relevant once again, with the Arab
oil embargo of 1973, and the shoe on the other foot!
United States and Europe were suddenly -have nots"
and found it distinctly unpleasant. Western econo-
mists promptly dusted this theory off and reminded
us that if the Arabs refuse to sell us their oil, or put
too high a price on it, they will be stuck with a
product for which they have no other possible use.
The Arabs also understand the argument, from the
standpoint that it is not in their interests to wreck
the Western economy and thus destroy their best
Nonetheless, although everybody seems to agree
with the theory, few countries like being in the
position of Japan of the 1930s. Even though this
time Japan is again with us, in the same boat! Thus,
while economists and negotiators in the U.S. and
elsewhere constantly quote this argument, present
U.S. political policy is to make the nation "energy
independent" as soon as possible.)
And Chamberlin immediately goes on to show
why thiseconomicargument, while sound in theory,
was of little comfort to the Japanese. Quite simply,
it put Japan at the mercy of the "have" nations. Says
Chamberlin: "Japan needs rubber. The natives of
Malaya need cheap textiles. But the process of
normal exchange is upset when the British Govern-
ment, quite naturally concerned by the plight of the
Lancashire textile industry, imposes a quota which
sharply reduces Japanese sales of textiles in
Malaya." Thus, "With trade restrictionsestablished
and multiplying all over the world, it is not easy to
convince the Japanese that physical possession of
essential raw materials is a matter of indifference"
and "There is a strong temptation to cast the
samurai sword into the mercantile scales that seem
unfairly weighted against Japan."
This temptation, and popularfeeling in Japan at
the time, is captured better than any dry historical
account possibly could, by a remarkable series of
quotations of translated speeches and articles from
the island empire.
Chamberlin quotes from an article by Japanese
publicist Rin Kaito:
For over a century and a half the Asiatics have been
pressed down by the Whites and subjected to Western
tyranny. But Japan, after defeating Russia, has
aroused the sleeping Asiatics to shake off the Western
tyranny and torture.
From a pamphlet issued by the Japanese Naval
Ministry in 1935:
In view of Japan's geographical position the powers
should leave the maintenance of peace in the Orient in
the hands of Japan, which is now powerful enough to
perform this duty. If other powersfail to recognize the
mission of Japan they may well be said to disobey the
will of Heaven.
Translated excerpt from Japanese and Oriental
Political Philosophy, by Professor Chikao Fuji-
The Emperor as Sage-King would think it his sacred
duty to loveand protect not only the peopleof this land,
but also those alien peoples who are suffering from
misgovernment and privations. It must be recalled that
the Sage-King is answerable in person for the
pacification of the entire Under-Heaven, which is the
ancient name for the whole world: consequently his
moral and political influence ought to make itself
strongly felt through the length and breadth of the
earth. Should any unlawfulelementsdare to obstruct in
one way or another the noble activities of the Sage-
King, he would he permitted to appeal to force . . . the
heavenly mission of Japan to tranquilize the whole
Chamberlin writes that during his visits to Japan
he spoke with many Japanese university professors
with similar views. One of them concluded such talk
with "a very amiable smile" and added, "Some
people say I am an imperialist. But I think I am only
a sane liberal."
Having quoted the above statements, l hasten to
remind readers that these are quotations taken out
of context of a tumultuous period of history; and, if
you will compare carefully, you will find them no
more absurd, indeed probably less absurd, than
Nazi Aryan propaganda of the same period.
Moreover, like Nazi propaganda, it mostly originat-
ed from high political or academic positions where it
was "party line". There is little evidence that the
Japanese or German peoples believe their respective
propaganda so much as they went along with it due
to a sense of national duty. Thus, in the recent book
Tojo, (Ballantine, 1975) Alvin D. Cox states that if it
had been put to a vote, as late as 1940, he estimates
80% of the population of Japan would have voted
against going to war. Most of Japan's political
leaders felt the same way, but control of the
government was seized by the military, and they
exploited the popular conception of Emperor
Hirohito as Sage-King to present their military
expansion as a religious crusade.
Dan Zedek's remarkable PACIFIC ORIGINS
game variant, included in this issue. may not be a
"perfect" game. However, every gamer who has
playtested it so far (and this includes about twenty
hardcore garners in California and Maryland) have
found it superior to standard 0RI GI . VS and more
than a few remarked "this is the only thing that
could really get me back into playing ORIGIIVS."
The game subject is one that defies perfection as
a simulation. Many players. for example, were
unhappy that they could not appropriate their PFs
to Europe or the Pacific as they pleased. Obviously,
this would have resulted in a very wild game almost
impossible to balance. Moreover, it would be
unrealistic to suppose that. say. Britain would pull
out of the Pacific entirely to stop Hitler, or let Hitler
have Europe to gain ascendance in the Pacific.
Thus. European and Pacific PF allocations for a
country like Britain represent an overall policy
commitment to these respective theatres. Moreover,
many of the PFs in one theatre could not have been
transferred to the other even if England had desired
to do so. For example, abandoning Hong Kong
would not have increased England's influence in
Europe-indeed, would likely have decreased it.
And vice versa. The same holds with the other "two-
theatre" countries.
A certain amount of PF transferencecould have
taken place-especially in terms of fleets, etc.,-and
this is abstracted in the present game in the
interboard relationship rules. Readers who are
interested may experiment with a Max/Min PF
allocation system if they wish; wherein total PFsfor
both theatres are given a player each turn, and he
has a certain amount of discretion as to which
theatre to place his PFs within set Max/ Min limits.
General feeling, however, is that such rules
discriminate against the one-theatre nations of
Germany, Japan, and China.
Perhaps the toughest nut t o crack was the
problem of the Sino-Japanese War. This was a very
unique event, in that it represented "hot" war being
actively carried out through much of the global
diplomacy era of the 1930s. Many gamersfelt that it
should be omitted entirely. Zedek felt it should be
included as a Japanese option, but if Japan opted
for a "hot" war with China it would obviously have
to be a very different game design element from the
standard Diplomatic Attacks that continue among
non-belligerent powers. And so you have the Sino-
Japanese War Table. The Japanese player must
judge carefully whether. as events unfold, his best
chance for a win on Objective Points lays i na major
Diplomatic Assault on Western Colonies, or a "hot"
war with China.
Meanwhile. Western powers can never make
their colonies "safe" from Japanese diplomatic
aggression, since only Japan seeks a colonial
Control. The Western parent nation seeks NC (no
control) for his colony and the Allies seek a mild
(low point) Understanding with each others
colonies. This was done to reflect their mutual self-
interest in keeping their colonial possessions from
PACIFIC ORIGINS capturesvery well, I think,
the overall strategic essence of the global diplomacy
that preceded the global war of 1939-45. Obviously,
this is not a simulation-in-detail. Zedek had a lot of
problems to solve; he has come up with some
interesting solutions and a fast, intelligent, and fun
game that is well worth your time and a place in your
by Dan Zedek
Pacific Origins is a companion game to
ORI GI NS OF WORLD WAR I1 and is primarily
designed to be played simultaneously with that
game. The new mapsheet is of East Asia in the
1930s; it should be placed on a separate table, if
possible, but arranged so players haveeasy access to
both gameboards. China and Japan are also
introduced as active participants, so this variant
may include up t o seven players. (However, five
people may still play. GermanylJapan and France
/China can be single players as there is no conflict of
interests between these respective countries. See
below). Hereafter, we shall refer to these simultane-
ous games as PO (Pacific Origins) and EO
(European Origins).
All rules for standard ORIGINSare used except
as modified or expanded here. However. the rules
changes are minimal, as you will see. Thus,
playtesters have found this game easy to learn, very
fast moving and, perhaps most important of all-it's
now interesting even to France and the U.S.A.
(I) Separate National Objectives (Chart I) and
PF Allocations (Chart 11) are provided for the
Pacific theatre. These are used in the same way as
standard EO charts.
(2) PF allocations received in the Pacific must
be placed on the PO mapsheet. PF allocations
received in Europe must be placed on the EO
gameboard. PFs of any country may NEVER be
transferred from one gameboard to the other.
(3) As in standard rules, PFs received in the
Pacific must be placed on the mapsheet immediate-
ly, either in one's home country or as the player
desires. Notice that special holding areas in the
Pacific have been provided for Britain, France, and
the U.S.A. These are "home" areas for these
countries in the Pacific.
(4) British, French, Russian, and United States
PFs in home areas on the PO board are completely
separate from similar PFs on the EO home areas.
No exchanges are allowed between a nation's two
home areas, nor may units in these two home areas
be combined for an attack.
(5) For purposes of this simultaneous game,
standard European Origins isconsidered to begin in
1934 and end in 1939 (instead of 1935 to 1940). This
is no way changes the play of that game. It remains
six turns long, and all Objectives, PF allocations,
and victory conditions remain the same.
Pacific Origins begins in 1932 and ends with
completion of the 1940 turn. It is nine turns in
length. The German player has no active part for the
first two game turns, but may if invited sit in on
negotiations to pave the way for any future benefits
as the situation in the Pacific unfolds.
A complete Player Turn Order is now as follows:
U.S., France. Britain, Russia, Germany, China,
Although PFs may not be transferred from one
board to another, certain interboard relationships
do exist and may be used to advantage by countries
with PFs on both board\.
(I) Remember that Britian, France, Russia, and
the United States have two Objectives Tables-one
for Europe and one for the Pacific. Objective points
in Europe count only toward victory on the
European hoard. Objective points in the Pacific
count only toward victory on the Pacific board.
Thus, each of the ahove countries will.have two
separate Objective Point totals at game's end, and.
for example, Britain could win on one board anci
lose on the other.
(2) The Pacific Object~ves Table somet i ~e;
gives an " E as an objective for one of the above foci
countries in the Pacific. This merely denotes that
although there are no Pacific interests, there are
European ones and these may be relevant. For
example, Russia's Pacific interests with Britain are
denoted by " E ; thus, although Russia cannot gain
an Understanding with Britain in the Pacific, the
" E refers him to the European board, where an
Understanding is possible.
(3) UNDERSTANDINGS on one board are
binding on the other. If Russia should get an
Understanding with Britain on the European board,
this Understanding is binding to Britain on both
Undersrandings with colonies have no signifi-
cance whatever apart from their Objective Point
value. For example, a Russian Understanding with
French Indochina gives Russia 2 Objective Points
but does nor constitute an Understanding with
France. Only Japan seeks to Control colonies;
parent nations seek NC (No Control) in resisting
Japanese desires, and colonial ljnderstandings
merely reflect the mutual self-interest among
Westerh powers that their colonies should be free of
Japanese Control.
Players may still ALWAYS attack foreign PFs
in their home countries or home "holding" areas.
(4) COMBAT: As previously stated, players
may never combine PFs on the two boards for an
attack. However, there is a special case in which a
player may use PFs in his home area on one board to
attack foreign PFs in his home area on the other
(a) When an opponent places PFs in your home
area, you may attack those PFs only with your own
PFs in that home area on that board.
(b) However, if you do not have enough PFs in
the home area t o make a legal attack (and you may
deliberately bring this situation about during
placement of PFs if you wish), then-and only
then-you may elect to attack with PFs in your
home area on the other board. This assumes you do
have enough PFs in your other home area fora legal
attack. Remember, PFs in the two home areas may
nor be added together: losses are taken from the area
from which the attack is made.
Example: Britain has 9 PFs in England:Europe
and 3 PFs in Britain's Pacific "home area". Jaoan
has 3 PFs in Britain's Pacific "home area" If
Britiain should wish to attack, she must attack with
Pacific PFs at 1-1 odds. since this is a legal at!ack.
However, if Britain had only 2PFs in the Pacific
"home" area (no legal attack), she could elect to
attack with the 9 PFs in Europeat 3-1 odds. Inevent
of an exchange, British losses would have to be
taken from the attacking (European) area; the two
British PFs in the Pacific would be unaffected by
any adverse results since they were not involved.
Notice that the above still does not entail any
actual transference of PF units from one board to
(c) This rule would also make it kgal, for
example. for British PFs in the Pacific "home" area
to attack German PFs in England. 1/ Britaindid not
have enough PFs in England/ Europe "home" for a
legal attack. Likewise, France. U.S.. and Russia
may all use this tactic for breaking undesired
Suropean Understandings.
This also allows for a minimal amount of
German/Japanese cooperation: Japan may attack
British PFs in British/ Pacific "home" area to
prevent these units from attacking a German
IJnderstanding in England/Europe. Or. if it does
lot have a legal attack on Britain's Pacific "home".
attack British PFs in England to weaken Britain in
Europe. This is greatly to Japan's interest. as she
wants to see a war break out in Europe (i.e.. a
German win with 15 points) since this greatly
ncreases Japan's own possibilities, as we shall see.
Germany. on the other hand, will seldom opt to
Ittack PFs in Pacific holding areas even if the
opportunity arises. Adverse results weaken Ger-
many in Europe, and it is no benefit to the German
o eliminate (say) British PFs in the Pacific.
( I ) St art ~ng w~t h the 1937 turn. Japan may elect
do away w~t h d~plomacy and declare outrlght war
chur ~a or to attackiremove any Ch~nese
erstand~ng wlth Japdn
(a) At the beg~nn~ng of h ~ s turn. prlor to
lacement of h ~ s PFaIlocat~ons. the Japanese player
any Understand~ngs) and no Ch~nese PFs
me All Japanese PFs In Ch~na are removed.
cl ud~ng any Understand~ng
(c) If Chlna and Japdn have SHARED Control
arker IS slmply removed
(d) The Japanese player may now place h ~ s PF
llocat~ons as per usual He may. and probably will.
lace them In Ch~na
Shanghai Hanko,
pnci 1 , ~ P'LL ino
A r :
a "Turn" now has-a "Sino-Japanese War Phase."
Si rn~l v. it is this: at the end of anv turn that J a ~ a n
has 'ore PFs in China than the Chinese do,'the
Japanese may roll the Sino-Japanese War Table.
When allowed to roll on the table. he may roll for
,very city on the table.
The first time the Japanese player rolls on the
table. he must roll the WAR I column; the second
+ime he uses it, the WAR 11 column, etc. Thus. if he
leclares war in 1937, and is superior to China in PFs
on every subsequent turn, he will get to use the
WAR IV table in 1940.
(g) Each city needs to be captured only once. It
)ecomes a permanent Japanese possession for the
emainder of the game.
(h) If Japan captures every Chinese city. he has
,onquered China. All Chinese PFs are removed
from the board and China scores "7ero" for the
But this is not likely. It is possible only on the last
dame turn; and then only if Japan is rolling on the
WAR IV Chart. and rolls a "17'against Chungking.
( i ) Thus, throughout the Sino-Japanese War,
China or any other Player in the Pacific may
continue to place as many PFs as they please in
China. Russia may even secure her Understanding
(U3) with China. These foreign PFs may even be
used in separate foreign attacks, if sufficient for
legal attack, on Japanese PFs in China. This would
be in an effort to contain the Japanese in China. (It
is not likely that anybody can put enough PFs in
China for a legal attack against Japanese PFs unless
the Japanese player is not making an all-out effort
Any turn in which Japan is unable/ unwilling to
place enough PFs in China to exceed Chinese PFs
there, he is not allowed to roll on the WAR Table.
( j ) Prior to rolling the WAR Table, Japanese
PFs in China may make diplomatic attacks on
Chinese PFs or any other nation's PFs (except
nations that have an Understanding in Japan). Only
after the Diplomatic Attack Phaseare Chinese/ Jap-
anese PFs in China compared to determine whether
Japan may roll the WAR Table.
(k) Each Chinese city that falls t o the Japanese
reduces China's PF allocation per turn for the
remainder of the game by the amount indicated on
the WAR Table. A record must be kept of the total
PFs lost; or, more simply, at time of China's P F
Allocation, these "lost" PFs are physically set aside
or handed to the Japanese player (he may not use
them). At the end of the game, Japan gets 1/2
Objective Point for each such Chinese PF in his
possession. Fractions are not rounded off. Japan
could win by a fraction of an Objective Point.
Notice that since there is no PF allocation after
the 1940 (end of game) turn, no PFs are lost from
this non-allocation phase. Accordingly, no P F loss
is given for Chungking.
Pacific Origins Objective Chart lists NC (No
Control) as United States, British, and French
Objectives in China but does not list a C(Contro1) to
oppose them. Japan's stated Objective is Under-
standing (U I); and this would seem to give the Allies
automatic NC points.
However, if Japan declares war on China, an
Understanding is no longer possible. Japan is said to
CONTROL China if four or more cities are
captured; at such a time, Russia would automatical-
ly lose her Understanding (without it being
attacked) and all foreign PFs would be removed
from China without attacks. Only Japanese and
Chinese PFs would remain in China; the Chinese, to
try to prevent total fall of thecountry. Even if China
survives (China still has a good chance to survive
and, ironically, to win), with four cities captured,
the allies lose their NC points. China is Japanese
Controlled for remainder of game.
Summing up: Japan is not required to declare
war on China, but may do so at the beginning of any
turn from 1937 to 1940. Only in event of wardo these
rules apply. Japan should declare war in I940 inany
event, since (a) it would automatically convert a
SHARED Control of Manchuria to Japanese
Exclusive Control, and (b) some lucky die rolls
would rip-off some fast NC points from the Allies.
But to be sure, Japan must go to war in 1937 and
make this a major effort; and win Objective Points
by early capture of cities rather than diplomatic
confrontations with the Western powers.
(2) PFs in European "home" areas may not
attack foreign PFs in their Pacific "home areas"
even if otherwise legal according to rule 111.4above.
Nor are Understandings in Europe binding in the
Pacific. The European board is dead for all play
purposes in the Pacific.
(3) If there is no war in Europe, the above
conditions do not occur. While the European game
is still over, any Understandings there are still
binding and rule 111-2 interboard attacks may still
be made when legal.
EA TOP .".. TEN -...?..
Rank Name
1. R. Chiang
2. T. Oleson
3. C. Todoroff
4. R. Wood
5. S. Heinowsl
6. G. Kilbride
7. S. Packwoo
8. I 3 VFGl
10. J 4 CDEl
1 ouvv.= players represent t he I llt)l l ~ 3 t
verified (1 1 + rs 100 member
AREA pool. PI; ?nt qualifier
less t han C wt long t he top
player ratings.
The "Times on List" statistic is co 3
"Consecutive" t i mes on list. If a plal t
of t he Top 1 0 for any length of tir t
appearance is considered a s hi s fir!
The following AREA I IS have been
terminated. No rating poi awarded for
games with these individua :re no longer
members of the system.
06 1 Y I
1 4 9E
452 C.
1. Barker
:. Small
. Le Jeune
( I ) There is a separate winner for Europe and
(2) As in European Origins, the player with the
most Objective Points in the Pacific wins.
(3) To compare how the European and Pacific
winners did, multiply the Asian's total by 5 and the
European's by four. The higher score is theTOTAL
game winner: there is still only ONE winner!
~ t e d games
avers with
?re not calc
i) of t he 3.0
a n opponc
: dat ed am
nsidered a!
/er slips ou
ne hi s nex
As in European Origins, whether or not war
breaks out in Asia has no effect on play or victory.
However, if at the end of the game (a) Japan wins
and (b) Japan is at war with China, war in the
Pacific may be considered to have broken out.
However, if at the end of the game Japan has
completely conquered China or has not declared
war on China, there is no war. Only if Japan wins
the game while still bogged down in a Sino-Japanese
war does the Pacific theatre of war result.
nembershi ~
nts can be
11s as they a
The rules as given above are for seven players.
However, five may also play this variant; and,
indeed, may find the game more interesting.
(I) For five players, Germany/Japan should be
a single player, and France/ China should be a single
(2) The only conflict of interest entailed here is
with FranchIChinese Objectives in Mongolia.
Therefore, in this version allow France (only) an
Understanding with Mongolia even if China has
exclusive Control. Japanese Control or Shared
Control would not permit the French understand-
(3) IMPORTANT: Using this variant, only
nations with PFs on both boards (i.e., Russia,
France, England, United States) may use rule 111-4
interboard combat. This will prevent France from
"sacrificing" China or Germany "sacrificing" Japan
to promote a strong win on one board.
At last! The long suffered problem of u'nit
counter st orage for Avalon Hill games is
solved. The Avalon Hill compartment tray fits
snugl y into t he bottom of t he bookcase style
box. A cl ean olastic cover fits over t he mold to
1 %
We've tried to make this game as easy t o set up as
it is t o play. Suggestions:
(I) Obviously, you need a copy of ORIGINS
OF WORLD WAR I& but it would help if you have
two copies, since you will need extra European P F
counters. If you don't have two people with copies,
simply order extra countersheets from the AH parts
(2) Chinese and Japanese PF counters are
provided here, but you should mount them before
vent count1
" x 2%" COl
ommodat e
er leakage.
npart ment
UD t o 40C
Each tray l
s %" deep
1 unit coun
?as sixteen
which will
lters and 4
The tray is atso usaole tn r ne flat box
games. By cutting off with a pair of ordinary
scissors t hr ee of t he four si de panel s of t wo
trays anot her oerfect fit is arranged for t he flat
box ith 32 comoartments
The European game ends in 1939 and the winner
is determined in Europe by standard victory
conditions. If a war has broken out in Europe (i.e.,
Germany has won with 15 or more Objective
Points), Britain, France and Russia are considered
to be "soaked-off' in the Pacific and the following
conditions result for the final (1940) turn in the
(I) Only the United States, China, and Japan
receive their 1940 PF allocations in the Pacific.
Britain, France, and Russia receive no new PFsand
must play the final Pacific turn with whatever PFs
they have on hand.
?is time WI
~r essi ons.
5 dice del
(I) The mapsheet shows a special "Holding
Area" for Hong Kong. This is merely a play-aid
convenience. Units placed in the Hong Kong box
are considered to be in the city; thus, all PFs placed
in Hong Kong are simply placed in the holding box.
(2) Manchuria and Mongolia are not consid-
ered part of any country. They are exactly like
Alsace-Lorraine and the Rhineland in European
direct from Avalon Hill. They will not be
included in ne w game rel eases in either t he
retail or mail order line. The trays areavailable
only in s et s of 3 and sell for $3.25 per s e t plus
75C postage charges. Postage coupons cannot
be utilized to order compart ment trays. Mary-
land residents pl ease add 4% st at e sal es tax.
this k.. --;I
by Richard Hamblen
I . THE CAMPAIGN GAME: There are two time
record charts used in Campaign Fredericksburg.
One, measured in days, keeps track of the periods of
inactivity between battles; the other. measured in
turns, is used during a battle.
A. The day chart is called the game calendar;
each game-day is called a calendar dare. The game
calendar consists of a list of the actual calendar
dates, in sequence, from November 18, 1862 (when
the game starts) until January 31, 1863 (when the
game ends). The players have to make this chart
I. Game Procedure: The Confederate Player
keeps track of the game calendar. Starting with
November 18, 1862, he calls out each date in turn.
a. After the date has been announced both
players check their "Order of Appearance" tables.
All units listed under "Present to be deployed" for
that date are placed in the proper player's base pile.
Units listed for a previous date but which have not
yet appeared in the game also appear. Units that
have already been on the board do not return.
b. Each player in turn moves any of his units he
desires from each edge pile to any complete hex
along that edge. These units may not be placed
within an enemy combat unit's zone of control; they
may push aside enemy Headquarters units in the
c . If the Replacement Pool has arrived on the
Order of Appearance chart, the Union player may
use it to rebuild eliminated infantry divisions. When
he expends a number of replacement pointsequal to
the infantry strength of a division, he may move that
division from theeliminated pile to the wrecked pile.
The Replacement Pool has 15 points that may be
used once a game; they do not all have to be used the
same turn.
d. The Union player may move all the units of
one corps (or the Artillery Reserve) from the
wrecked pile to the Federal base pile. The corps may
not be a "ruined" corps. The Confederates may
move all the units of any one division from the
wrecked pile to the south edge pile. In addition, the
Confederates may move any Corps or Army HQ
units from the wrecked pile to the base pile. The
Federals may move any Grand Division or Army
HQ' s to their base pile.
e. Strategic Movement. Each player may move
all of the units that are on the board. Each unit may
move an unlimited distance except: each unit that is
moved must end the movement on a non-river hex
on its own side of the river (the triangle in the
northwest between the rivers is nobody's side of the
river-no stopping there); a unit may not enter and
may not pass through a roadless wood hex nor a hex
in an enemy zone of control; river hexes may be
crossed only at pontoons and fords; and each unit
must move individually and only once per date. Any
infantry division that doesn't move may emplace a
fort counter on its hex, if it is out of enemy ZOC.
Similarly, any infantry division that does not move
may remove a fort it is sitting on. The forts must be
placed in accordance with the rules of
CHANCELLORSVILLE-no rivers nor town
hexes. a maximum of 15 forts south of the
Rappahannock and five forts north of the
Rappahannock. etc. Removed forts may be em-
placed again.
If a unit cannot abide by the above rules, it cannot
move. The Union player moves first.
f . Each player now announces in turn whether
he wants to start a battle on this date. The Union
player announces first. If neither player does. the
Confederate player crosses off the date and goes on
to the next one (step a).
(i) The Union player has the privilege of
announcing the first battle in the campaign. The
Confederate may not announce a battle until after
the end of the first battle.
(ii) Nobattles may be announced after January
27. 1863. because they could not be finished. Battles
in progress may end.
B. The turn record chart is called the hattle
chart and is simply the CHANCELLORSVILLE
Time Record Chart ~ , i t h one more day (i.e.,
column) q/'turns added on. The players can use the
chart provided in CHA NCELLORSVILLE. add-
ing a column of turns along the right edge.
I. Battle Procedure: a battle is played just likea
game of CHA NCELLORSVILLE except for the
modifications listed in these rules.
a. The battle will last four days (each column of
turns on the Time Record Chart isa "day"). As each
column of turns is completed. the Confederate
player checks off another date on thegame calendar
and announces the next date.
b. The player who announces the battle is the
initiator. He immediately gets to make a Strategic
Movement (see rule 1.A.e above). He ~ I S O gets the
,first />/aj'er ~egnient each turn qf'this hatrle. There is
no special initial movement turn.
c. As the turns pass, both players should watch
their Order of Appearance tables. By date. the
"Arriving" column lists the units. hex location and
turn when new units enter the game. These units are
placed on the named hex-pushing aside any
counters in that hex. if necessary--and may move
d. Any unit may exit the board along any edge,
either during movement or as the result of a retreat.
Headquarters units go into the edge pile for that
edge. Combat units go into the edge pile only if their
immediate Headquarters unit is already in that edge
e . When the fourth column of turns on the
battle chart has been completed. the battle is over.
2. Ending the battle: after the last turn each
player goes through the following steps. The Union
player does each step first.
a. Isolation: Each unit on the board must be
able to trace an unbroken path of hexes free of
enemy ZOC to any edge of the board. Units which
cannot are immediately eliminated.
b. Supply lines: Each unit must be able to trace
a path five hexes long to a supply road. The five hex
path may cross a river only at a ford. an emplaced
pontoon. or an emplaced boat. Any unit which
cannot is immediately placed in the wrecked pile.
c . Ruined corps: Any Union corps with more
than one half of its infantry units eliminated is
ruined. Place all the uneliminated units of that
corps-including artillery and headquarters units-
in the wrecked pile.
d. Off-board units: units in friendly edge piles
are all right. Units in unfriendly edge piles must
either: I) outnumber the enemy combat factors in
that edge pile by at least 2-1; 2) have a supply road
leading to that edge; or 3) be Confederate cavalry
units. Units that fail all three tests are placed in the
wrecked pile.
e. The senior officer shift: all eliminated
Confederate corps and army headquarters are
returned to the board, all eliminated Federal Grand
Division and army headquarters are returned to the
board. Every Federal corps HQ counter must be
placed on an infantry unit of that corps-the
Federal player may choose which infantry unit. The
Confederate player must place every division HQ in
play on some combat unit of that division. This
must be done even if the HQs or the infantry units
are in the eliminated pile.
f . All disrupted counters are un-disrupted.
g. Victory conditions are calculated (see section
I I).
3. Aftermath of battle: the game goes back to
the routine outlined in section 1.1 except:
a. The date after the battle isjust crossed off. No
action of any type takes place on that date.
b. The second date after the battle no new battle
may be announced.
c. The third date after the battle only the
Confederate player may announce a battle.
d. Then back to normal.
11. VICTORY CONDITIONS: These are calculat-
ed at the end of every battle and then again at the
end of the game.
A. Victory Points: total the following:
I . The Union player gets one victory point for
each Union corps HQ counter on the board, in an
edge pile, or not yet arrived in the game.
2. The Confederate player gets one victory
point for every division HQ counter or full-strength
division on the board, in an edge pile, or not ye1
arrived in the game.
3. If either player has a unit in the enemy's base
pile, he gets one victory point for that.
4. The Union player gets one victory point if he
has a supply road leading off the south edge of the
5. The Union player gets a bonus of one point
per HQ counter in the Confederacy's base pile if
Federal combat factors in that pile outnumber
Confederate combat factors in that pile by more
than 2-1.
6. Add any carryforward victory points from
previous battles.
B. The meaning of all this: compare each side'$
total victory points and consult the list below for
1. Difference of one point: Minor victory.
Critical newspaper editorials for the loser, hopeful
ones for the victor.
2. Difference of two points: Victory. Doubts are
raised about the loser, Hosannas about the victor,
who carries 1 point forward t o the next victory
3. Difference of three points: Major victory.
North and Sout h al i ke ar e stunned-.
momentarily-by the outcome. The victor carries
forward two victory points.
4. Difference of four victory points: Decisive
Victory.The campaign goes into the history books,
the victor gets voted the Thanks of Congress
(whichever Congress seems appropriate), and the
loser is removed from command. The campaign
ends here!
not really part of the campaign game, they're just
good rules for the sake of historical authenticity.
A. Stacking Limits
I. Units that use the road bonus may stack with
other units that use the road bonus t o a limit that is
one half the standard stacking limit (i.e., one
Federal unit or I I Confederate combat factors per
hex). They may stack up to the normal limit with
units that do not use the road bonus.
2. The stacking limit is also halved in roadless
woods hexes.
3. Union cavalry units may not swim. They can
cross river hexes only at fords and emplaced
B. Terrain Considerations
1. The Rappahannock was really not that wide;
artillery firing across it from Stafford Heights
(which should be right on the bank of the river) had
considerable range. So: artillery units firing from
one side of a river to a target on the other side have a
2. Hex GG36 was blocked by a drainage ditch.
during the battle of Fredericksburg. Any unit that
enters that hex stops and becomes disrupted before
any combat takes place.
C. Command Foibles: to represent the individ-
ual idiosyncrasies and abilities of the various
1. Burnside didn't think the fords were usable
until after the first battle failed. Union infantry and
artillery and pontoon units may not cross at fords
until after the first battle has been completed.
2. The Federal command structure was unwield-
y. On any one turn during a battle the Federal
player may move the units of only two Grand
Divisions-the other Grand Divisions may not
move. If the Army HQ unit moves, then only one
Grand Division's units may move. In any case, the
Artillery Reserve units may always move.
3. Longstreet was the most devastatingattacker
of the war. The Longstreet counter may join in an
attack like any infantry unit-the attack he joins
goes up one column on the combat results table.
4. Jackson's long suit was his elusiveness. Treat
the Jackson counter as a special substitute
counter-Confederate units stacked with him at the
end of movement may be removed from the board
and kept in a separate stack, face down. These units
may return t o the board at the beginning of any
- -- - -- - - - - - -
Date: resent to be deployed: hi vi ng:
~ ~ a v . 20 add McLaws, Ransom and Cabell*
add I Corps**
add Center Grand Division***
add Artillerv Reserve
add Lo n g b t ~c i n ~ ,
Hood, Pickett, and
Anderson at A-10 (12 PM)
add Arty Reserve and
I Corps Arty Reserve
111 Corps*** at M-7 (3 PM)
V Corps* at W-12 ( 3 PM)
Arty Res at W-12 (6 PM)
l v e r l M-7
t JJ-
uec. I I add XII ~ o r p s * *
*includes Grand Division HQ and artillery
**includes Grand Division cavalry
subsequent Confederate movement phase, before
any units on the board have moved. While they are
with Jackson, the Jackson counter may move
normally. but all stackingand movement rules must
be obeyed just as if the whole stack were physically
on the board with Jackson. If the Jackson counter
ever attacks or is attacked (or, using the inverted
counter rule, if it is ever turned face up), all the units
with him must immediately be placed on the board
with him.
(NOTE: If the Jackson or Longstreet counter is
eliminated. the counter comes back-but after that
the counter no longer has the special feature
described above).
5. Chain of Command: in order to clarify the
command chain in the two armies, I will list the
various units and what HQ can un-disrupt them:
Confederate brigades: Proper Divlsion HQ or any corps. arm)
Confederate artlllery: Proper Dlvia~on HQ or any corps. arm)
Confederate reserve artlllery: Any HQ
Confederate Divisions or Di vi s~on HQ: Any corps. army HQ
Union infantry divisions: Proper corps or Grand Dlvislon. or
Army HQ
Union cavalry: Proper Grand Division or Army HQ
Union artillery: HQ named on unit. orthe Artillery Reserve HQ.
or Army HQ
Union corps. Grand Division HQs: Any h~gher echelon HQ
Union Artillery Reserve HQ: Army HQ only
Note that the Confederate cavalry units still un-
disrupt by themselves. but the Union cavalry does
IV. WEATHER: Since the actual weather
greatly affected the campaign in a number of ways,
this rule is included as an optional way of
introducing those effects (and the-uncertainty that
comes with them) into the game. The rule is optional
first because it has to be a little complicated in order
to be authentic, and second because so many people
seem to hate weather rules.
A. When the Confederate player calls out each
turn. he rolls a die and consults the chart below to
Gee what the weather is for that day.
I. Roll Weather
I Rain
2 Monthly special
3 Monthly special
4.5.6 Clear
2. The "Monthly special" is clear in November,
Fog in December, and Rain in January.
B. Weather Effects
I. No battle: if no battle is in progress, only
"Rain" is significant. If "Rain" is rolled, no Strategic
movement is allowed and all unoccupied fortifica-
tions are removed from the board.
2. Battle: if a battle is in progress, or begins on
this turn:
a. "Clear"-no effect
b. "Fogw-artillery range is cut to one hex in
ALL situations.
c. "Rainw-all roads cease to be roads for this
~ ~ 1 . n except:
(i) The "Plank Road"
(ii) The "Turnpike" or "Old Turnpike"
(iii) The road from Aldrich to Chancellorsville
(iv) The road from Falmouth to WW37
3. Delayed effects of rain. On the date afier rain:
a. All fords cease to be fords for that turn
b. Off-road movement is penalized
(i) infantry and cavalry units may move half
their MF
(ii) pontoons and artillery cannot move at all off
the road.
c. Note that the above restrictions apply for
both Strategic Movement and movement during a
d. Note also if it rains the day after a previous
rainfall the combination of effects makes movement
verjb difficult.
Definition of terms:
Ruined Corps: A Union Corps with more than
half of its infantry units (not factors) in the
eliminated pile.
Wrecked Pile: A pile of units that have not been
eliminated but which are not actively in the game.
"Ruined" units go into the wrecked pile.
Friendly Edge: For the Federals, the north and
east edges of the board; for the Confederates, the
south and west edges.
Supply Road: A road that runs free of enemy
ZOC to a friendly edge. A supply road may cross a
road only at a pontoon.
Edge Piles: The piles of units that rnoveoff each
edge of the board. There are four edge piles, one for
each edge.
Base Piles: For the Federals, the north edge pile,
for the Confederates, the south edge pile.
A. H. Phi l osophy. . . . Continued from Page 2
Game. Playtest react i onst o t hi sgame have been
extremely favorable and it st andsout a s perhaps
t he most entertaining multi-player, non-
Diplomacy type war game we' ve ever done.
Wargames aren' t t he only thing of interest
we' re working on however. Indeed, t he current
rage among our staff and t he local playtest group
is a form of sophisticated railroad MONOPOLY
called BOXCARS. A great little multi-player
blend of luck, skill, and Diplomacy it will pl ease
anyone not totally sworn to cardboard t anksand
vicarious cavalry charges.
Another little gem which will make its retail
appearance t hi s spring is THE COLLECTOR-a
renamed and redesigned version of 3M' s old
HIGH BID game. A great social game for 3 t o 5
players faintly resembling Rummy, this item has
t he added advantage of a short playing t i me( 30-
45 minutes) making it a delightful pastime for
family play or a fun evening with t wo couples.
We have still ot her brands in t he fire but t hey
may not s e e t he light of your gameroom in '77.
We trust t hat somewher e within our crop for t he
coming year is something you'll enjoy. To us
each game s e e ms to sur pass its predecessor in
quality and we ar e extremely pleased with t he
coming yield. We hope you'll be too.
Now available from t he Mail Order Depart-
ment is a pad of 30 hex s heet s wi t h normal half
inch hexes printed on one si de and %" hexes
printed on t h e back. The pads a r e useful for
designing your own games, making hexoverlays
for actual maps, or generally sketching moves
and/or concepts. The pads a r e available from
t he part s depart ment for $1.00 pl us postage.
Explanation of Orders of Battle
General: The titles of each level of command are in capital letters; each body of troops that should have its own unit
counter In ;he game is indicated by the name of its commander printed in lowercase. After each namein lowerease is
the combat strength and movement allowance of that unit, enclosed in parentheses. Thus:
Birney (5-4)
1 stands for Birney's infantry division, whiih has a combat factor of 5 and ? movement factor of 4 bxes a turn.
Many of the artillery units are identified by the name of their organization, rather than their commander.
The t~tles in upper case indicate if the units arc artillery or cavalry. Units which are not so indicated are infantry
divisions, each having a movement allowance of 4. The units indicated by a (MI) following their name are
headquarters units.
Asterrsks (*) indicate infantry or cavalry units that contain "attached artillery." In addition to the combat factor
pnnted for such unrts, each unit has one"invisib1e"artiNery factor which always travels with the unit andwhich may
be used as artillery m either of the artillery combat methods. This is a variation from the standard game of
The Best A lternative to Plav Balance
Back in days of yore when wargames were scarce
and the strategies they attracted far more abundant,
I was just one of many enthusiasts who read the
GENERAL from cover to micro print eagerly
seeking a new twist to the Shagrin 1-3 envelopment
strategy in STALINGRAD or the latest theory on
the relative advisability of a 1-2 vs Steinmetz on the
heights of Quatre Bras in WATERLOO. Those
were the days when we analyzed every facet of the
classics until we knew them backwards and
forwards or so I thought until the next pbm
opponent taught me yet another trick after adding
another notch to the negative side of my win/loss
Gradually I came to recognize that play balance
was primarily a function of who "got there firstest
with the mostest"; "there" being pronounced ex-
pert-ise with the accent on experience. Even the
much maligned STA LINGRA D, the granddaddy
of all supposedly imbalanced wargames, grudgingly
came to be accepted as a toss-up when played
between players of the highest caliber. A shame too,
for it was always great fun t o watch some upstart
braggart, loud in his conviction that a "competent"
Russian player could not be beat, meet humility at
the hands of a master such as George Phillies or
Dave Roberts. One's only defense in such a position
was quite untenable-after all, he was a "compe-
tent" player was he not? Missing the "master" label
myself by a small millenium, I am probably less
saddened by the onslaught of titles of recent vintage
than are those belonging to that exclusiveclub. Yet,
1 am hardly overcome with mirth by the stare of rhe
art today. You'll forgive me if I borrow that pet
phrase of game designers everywhere and apply it
not to game design but t o the less publicized but
equally important game player. Whereas the
growing number who fancy themselves professional
designers have turned out a constantly improved
product in search of the elusive perfect game, the
players have been falling behind. There is barely
time to read the first descriptive review accounts of a
game, grasp the rules, play a sample game or two,
wait for your favorite wargaming magazine to
arrive, and settle down to analyze . . . the next
descriptive review of yet another new game! And so
it goes with nary a chance to gain any real insight
into the subtleties and nuances of a game, no pet
theories shared with compatriots, and all too few
lessons taught by painful experience.
Perhaps that's as it should be. Realism devotees
have long advocated the need for "fog of war" and
put down the rote reaction that comes with over-
familiarity. "Who cares how many turns it takes
cavalry to get to Nivelles from Charleroi?", they
scream. After all, Napoleon didn't know how long
it would take, why should they? Well, maybe he did
and maybe he didn't, but it's certain that he would
have dearly loved to know that little fact-down to
the very minute his Lancers would draw fire. I'm
with Nappy there. . . I want to know as muchabout
the battle as possible-before I sit down to my
battleground. Granted, there's got to be a first time
but that doesn't mean that I can't have read over the
rules several times, looked for helpful tricks in all
too infrequent strategy articles, or soloed the
situation a few times before facing a real opponent
who not so vicariously thirsts for my gaming blood.
All of this may seem a bit heavy to those of you
for whom simulation is the end-all, be-all of your
wargame persuasion. And, if so, I apologize for
taking upspace you undoubtedly could put to better
use. But for those t o whom the game is the thing I
dedicate what follows. For I am a firm believer that
By Donald Greenwood
there are few rewards in gaming more gratifying wisdom to apply in your next match. So. having
than the inner pleasure one derives from the near painted myself into a corner in the true tradition of
mastery of a game. To stand above one's peers and the world's Charley Browns . . . .
realize the pleasure of piecing together one pre-
planned move after another into an inescapable
iortex of victory as if it were so many pieces of a
puzzle is, to me at least far superior to playing any
game for the first time. Alas, mastery of any
one game seems to be going the way of the
great American dream. At least, that's the
impression one is left with due to the dearth of
authoritative analyses published in today's hobby
magazines. The journals of our trade seem to place a
premium on design theory or what I, less politely,
refer to as bs-at the expense of educating the
gaming public in the nuances of play in all these
splendid new games. And anybody out there who
professes to know all there is to know about gaming
is either a damn fool or a bigger liar. Granted, it
takes a lot more work to put out an authoritative
strategy article than to record flowery phrases on
rules presentation, and one can only print what one
receives, but there is a principle of leadership by
doing which needs wider acceptance in the hobby.
If all this sounds like a eulogy for strategy
articles in wargame magazines I'm vastly relieved
for that is my intent. At the point in the hobby's
evolution when other slick magazines joined the
GENERAL in competing for the wargamer's
attention it became highly fashionable to put down
'Perfect Plans' as the immature rantings of the great
unwashed. The tendency to label any article
smacking of hints on strategy-no matter how
erudite the analysis might be, as a Perfect Plan
evolved into a hobbywide hysteria. Before long those
who still dared pen their strategy tipsgave penitence
to the masses with the standard opening: "I don't
believe in Perfect Plans, but . . . " or some other
such explanatory drivel. Well, I don't believe in
Perfect Plans either, but 1 am a firm believer in
enhancing my enjoyment of a game by analyzing it
to the nth degree. There's only one way to gain
expertise in a game and that's to play it over and
over and over again against as many different
people as possible. If I can shortcut this learning
experience by picking up pointers others are willing
to share with me from their experiences I'm more
than happy t o oblige them by putting their theories
t o the test. Vicarious visions of charging Hussars are
fine and certainly do much to flavor our hobby but
the game remains the thing and enjoyment for me is
still largely a matter of pitting my expertise against
yours. Anybody who enjoys losing with the
underdog is too masochistic for my tastes.
I think the recent trend towards new games,
variants and history ad nauseum in hobby journals
has left the hobby with a subconscious craving for
strategy analyses. Case in point-which was the
most popular seminar at ORIGINS II? Despite the
presence of such famous designers as James F.
Dunnigan and Redmond A. Simonsen it wasn't any
of the design seminars. Rather, it was the throw-in
of the SPI quartet-"Tactics of Game Playing" with
F. Georgian. Who? Sorry, Fred, but it serves t o
prove a point, and we developers don't need any
glory anyway. Seriously, only a shortage of spaceat
the scheduled time kept this seminar from far
exceeding the others in attendance.
Having made this public plea for a return t o
comprehensive analyses of game strategy, I can
hardly cop out by leaving you without some pearl of
Let me hasten to add that my claim to fame in
this or any other game on pure playing ability is
highly suspect. The only game I feel remotely
comfortable with is FOOTBALL STRA TEG Y-
probably a result of a frustrated defensive tackle
who khew he could have been agreat quarterback if
only. . . . . FOOTBALL STRA TEGYisonly afair
simulation but without peer as a competitive game
in my estimation. But after over 300 games against
some 90 different opponents and more than a
few vicarious concussions what would I know? Any
attempt at objectivity was obliterated two Super
Bowls ago. You see, I won 78% of those 300+
contests. I like this game! But belay those fears for
this isn't a prelude to the tale of my 44-0 shutout of
the ldistaviso Bears. Being a professional game
developer means that I playresr a lot of games.
Unfortunately, I get to play very little. Those who
can't fathom the difference between playing and
playtesting haven't done much of the latter. One of
the games I tested more times than I care to
remember is CAESAR'S LEGIONS. In its earlier
form as GDW's EAGLES I was among the
unbelievers who cried "imbalance" and hurled never
ending criticism on the God of designers who dared
treat the imperial Legions of Rome withsuch scorn.
Loren Wiseman, the original designer of EAGLES,
took this in stride and knowingly suggested
alternate strategies with which I might have more
success. I, in the true tradition of the great
unwashed, never did make any headway with
Loren's suggestions and ended game after game
with my legions hopelessly bogged down in the
woods of the Suebii chasing elusive German chiefs
bearing the all important standards. "The game is
unbalanced" became the all too frequent rallying
cry. "We have to increase the time limit to 15, no 16,
turns." Loren remained unperturbed and I kept
playing as we grafted the 1776 matrix CRT into the
game design. Lo and behold after about 20 playings
a winning strategy evolved. Only now the Roman
was winning with relative ease. The solution-drop
the game length back to the original 14 turns. This
article will relay that strategy and hopefully, like
and BULGE before it, set right the question of play
balance for the fourth scenario. of CAESAR'S
First off, play with a touch of class, Don't
duplicate my mistakes and get carried away with the
invincibility of those beautiful 45-4 legion counters.
Swarming across the Rhine and Danube from all
angles has as much subtlety as Charles Bronson
crocheting doilies in a tearoom and less chance of
success. Don't feel sorry for Arminius' travel
schedule and stagger around Germany inciting the
populace to riot. You're bound to be much more
successful at it than he could ever be. I used t o think
it was neat to send the XI11 Legion across the
Danube and watch it plow through the Hermandurii
like a modern day battlewagon through 18th
century frigates. Neat, but not very productive. If
the Sugambrii, Suebii, Lugii, and Hermandurii are
to enter the game it should be as a result of a long
ride by Arminius-one which takes him out of the
action until it's too late. Don't do his recruiting for
Set up as many auxiliaries in the forts across the
Rhine as possible. The aim is not attrition. You'll
need these units for screening purposes later on and
to reinfhrce the legions while moving through
wooded areas. They can be used as bait upon
occasion if their sacrifice will lure a sizable German
force into the open within reach of a Legion.
Otherwise, auxiliaries should be risked only in even
or better odds battles against Lt. Infantry. The
German Lt. Infantry is especially valuable for the
ambush affect it lends killer stacks in woods hexes,
as well as for its extreme maneuverability. It should
be attacked in the open whenever an opportunity
presents itself. The Batavians are equally valuable to
the Roman player and his first move should be to
withdraw them to a Roman fort. Their ability to
infiltrate unguarded wooded flanks makes them
extremely valuable to have around during the end
game despite the fact that they can not stack with
Roman units.
The V and XXI Legions should split into half-
legions with Drusus accompanying the fast cohorts
to M21 with maximum auxiliary support. This
should put both the Usipatii and Frisii to flight. The
half-legions with full cavalry support skirt the
Marsii village to the west while auxiliaries dispatch
the luckless Marsii chieftain who has undoubtedly
been deserted by his troops which will proceed t o
flee through the woods of-Lesser Chaucii. The I and
XX Legions follow close behind.
The Rhine river fleet will be used to ferry
auxiliaries into the land of the Batavii and XVI &
XIV Legions with auxiliary support into the
southern half of the Tenceterii. This should put the
Tenceterii roughly in the center of 4 Roman legions.
If they react correctly they can escape but if they
dawdle they can and should be hit before they can
combine with others to form a killer stack. The I1
and Xlll Legions bring up the rear as they travel
north on the Rhine road net. They will eventually
become the knot in the noose we are just now
beginning t o fashion.
Like all such analyses our plan will become
increasingly vague as the game goes on, dependent
as it is on reaction to an opponent's variable
response. If the Germans have not selected their
initial disposition wisely, pursuit may yield early
favorable battles against the Usipatii and Tencterii.
Failing that, the V and XXI Legions should
recombine and proceed at a more leisurely pace into
the northern half of Lesser Chaucii while Drusus
joins the I and XX Legion at the border of the Chatii
and the XIV & XVI Legions separate and flush the
woods of the Tencterii.
By this time Arminius may well have succeeded
in raising Lesser & Greater Chaucii. No matter.
You'll do him a favor now and raise the Chatii by
advancing into that land with Drusus, two legions,
and six auxiliaries being careful to skirt TI 6 so as
not to free the Lesser Chaucii Eagle. The Chatii will
doubtless disdain combat in the open northland and
mobilize in protective stance around their temple.
The XXI and V Legions draw a bead on the
northernmost Lesser Chaucii village while the
Rhine river fleet puts to sea.
This is a crucial turn for the German player if he
is to seriously impede the Roman plan. One of the
northernmost legions continues on to the eastern
peninsula of Lesser Chaucii while the other seals off
the gap between the two forests in the center of the
land, being careful to maintain a four hex distance
from the temple at all times. Drusus and two legions
cross the river into the extreme south of Lesser
Chaucii followed at a distance by XIV and XVI
Legions. A pincers movement is starting to become
apparent, anchored at the Marsii village by thejust
arrived I1 Legion. If the German is to offer more
than passive resistance he must act now and put
heavy battle groups into the triangle formed by the
woods hexes at U13. A chief, three heavy infantry.
and a light infantry mob in a woods hex have an
almost even chance against a Legion if Drusus is not
present. In any case this is the German's best chance
to cause significant Roman casualties and his onit.
chance to seriously impede the pincers movement.
TURN 5-7-
By now the Rhine river fleet should be i n
position to ferry the XXI Legion across the major
river and into Greater Chaucii while maintainlnp 3 4
hex range from the Greater Chaucii temple. On turn
7 it will again take ship to cross into the land of the
Suebii. Now the marines will disembark and join tht.
auxiliaries which have accompanied the XXlst. All
units are still more than 4 hexes away from the
German temples. Drusus continues his advance into
Greater Chaucii with two legions and the Xl l l
Legion arrives to form the bottom of the cup.
Arminius has by now roused all the support he's
likely to get but finds himself and most of his forces
outside the rapidly forming cordon of Roman
The trap springs shut. Roman legions should
now occupy 8 roughly equidistant points along the
lines of J5,06,Q9,TI I,U15,S18.M19 and K 16.
Spread out behind them so as to avoid combat but
create an infiltration proof screen will be the
auxiliaries-thusly deployed only when an escaping
chiefand captured eaglemight be heading their way.
Combat is offered now only in the open under
Roman terms.
The ring tightens as the three easternmost
legions advance on the Greater Chaucii temple-
forcing the German standard bearer to flee west-
deeperinto thecontractingcircle.The rest of the ring
is careful not to violate the reaction zone of the
Lesser Chaucii temple.
TURN 10 & the End Game-
The ring tightens further with all eight legions
forming a tight circle around the Lesser Chaucii
temples and its two Eagles. On turn I I the
bloodletting will begin in earnest as the Legions cut
their way through t o the Eagles with no regard for
casualties. Care must be taken to maintain a screen
of auxiliaries and cohorts to prevent a breakout by
the Eagles and this will become increasingly difficult
as Arminius and his recruitsenter the fray. However,
experience has shown that the Roman can gain the
upper hand frequently-especially if Arminius gets
a little too bold and offers combat in the open
against two Legions. The result is never guaranteed
but is always close and usually fun. What more
could you expect from an imbalanced game?
hanan. R.1
52 and s ub
Ipany. The
e IS to prl
. -
Irders for
e oayable 1
le editor' s
lndlana ad
a quarterly
- -A:.-., ,
- -
D must bc
-D and s en
DIP1 VORLD is i magazine
on UIIJIUIIIULY which ib au1tt.u oy Walter
Buc R Y3. Box 324. Lebanon, IN
4 6 0 ls~dized by The Avalon Hill Game
Con. purpose of each 40-page offset
ISSU ?sent a broad overview of t he
postal D I D I C ~ ~ C ~ hobby by printing articles on
good play, ztne news, listing rating systems,
game openings, and printlng a complete
variant game and map with each issue. Subs
ar e $4 00 wlth stngle coptes $1.25
C 3
p a d t
to t t
lple have
-,.. ..-I,--,.
Many pec j t hat we
publish a " b s ~ 3 ~ 1 1 ~ 1 3 IIDL 31111ilar to t hat
utilized by book publishers to promote top
selling items. Such a list for Avalon Hill games
is not a s appropriate however due to our
slower publishing rate, mail order only policy
for s ome titles, and t he overall relative stability
of our tltles salability. Yet to appease t he
curious and give small manner of praise to t he
"hot ones" we'll publish our Fiscal Year Best
Seller list annually and supplement it with an
The list above is based on t ot al s r
'75 Fiscal Year which began in A1 1
ended Mav. 1
,, . .... E BEST
,' I ; . . . ,.;-
;ales for OUI
~ r i l '75 anc
Axis Commander: R. J. Beyma
Allied Commander: D. S. Burdick
Neutral Commentator: Thomas Hazlett
-- --- - -
This is the 3rd Series Replay published t o date offensive operations are planned at this time except
on AFRlKA KORPS. None has been free ofplayer that I may try to slip a 1-1-6 behind Germanlines to
error and perhaps that b as it should be. What is harass his supply line.
generalship if not taking advantage of an oppo- German supply is the key t o this game. This early
nent's mistakes? This game was interestingprimari- stage is especially critical. If my navy can sink two of
ly because the loser thought he was robbed of the first three Axis supply ships Rommel will be in
victory by the luck of the die. Closer examination serious trouble.
reveals that while certainly unfortunate in some
areas, he did have good fortune in avoiding
casualties in his early attacks. The question of
whether his opponent was "lucky" or that he was
negligent in not taking extraprecautions against the
desperate options of an opponent pressed by the
relentless tide of war is one which we thought you
would enjoy answering yourself:
Note that this game was played by mail in 1975
and as such uses the old CRT and supply tables-
thus explaining the different percentages of events
referred t o by the players. The commentator, Tom
Hazletr, is an acknowledged expert in AFRlKA
KORPS, having won a com~et i t i on similar to the
AH C L A S S I ~ 500 at thh 1975 convention in
Cincinnati. His commentary appears in italics
Opening Allied Comment:
The primary Allied objective for the first stage
(April-June, 1941) of the upcoming campaign is to
establish and maintain a defensive perimeter in the
escarpment around Tobruch. This is an admittedly
ambitious objective; the Germans may very well
succeed in investing Tobruch. In that case I hope to
make the Germans pay in casualties for their
In addition to the main goal of defending
Tobruch 1 will endeavor to maintain control of the
pass at K-34 and, of course, my Home Base. No
German April 15 Commentary-
This is my standard opening move. The Italians
isolate Bengazi, my Recce unit heads for the British
Southern Flank, and the main units of the 21st
Panzer deploy in a threatening manner in the central
desert. Trenta will anchor my southern flank at N-
17 next turn and can participate in attacks on H-16
and K-18 on Turn 3.
I will adopt a wait and see strategy early in the
game while 1 gauge the British response and assess
the supply situation. My units will always be ready
to pounce on a British mistake that could lead to a
major victory.
Allied April 15, 1941-
1 moved 7/31 Motorto N-19 to prevent 21 / 5 and
21 / 104 from reaching the escarpment between 0-21
and S-24 next time. My opponent can get a
surrounded 3-1 against 713 1 Motor but 1 doubt that
he will use a supply and risk an exchange at this
stage of the game.
With 2115 and 211 104out ofthepicture I should
be able to use the 1-1-6's to counter the threat from
the south. 2113 can't reach my Home Base before
June 1 by going through thedesert because Rommel
is too far away to contribute his bonus.
April I Neutral Commentary-
The pattern of the game is quicklv established.
The German plaver has a good basic knowledge of
APRII. 15. 1941-The illustration shows the final positions of both approaches to the Germans through the pass in theescarpmentsat Q-
sidesafter the opening move. The British take top honorsfor the turn 21. Though noattacksaremadethe Allies havegained the upper hand
by occupying N-19 with 7131M and thus denying the southern in maneuver for the coming turn.
the game but his play in many instances indicates
either he does not pay attention to, or is not aware
or, the subtleties of trooppositioning. Here he failed
t o garrison N-19 with 2113. He will quickly discover
that the Recce unit is almost useless as a solo threat
in the south. The British properly took advantage of
this lapse, moving t o N-19 and preventing a
southern move by the rest of the 21st Division.
German April 30 Commentary-
Brescia and Savena isolate Benghasi and the
212S.G. dies at the end of the turn. The21st Recce is
harassing the British southern flank. The rest of the
army deploys in front ofthe British escarpment line.
A local attack on this line next turn is a possibility,
especially if 1 get another supply unit.
Allied April 30, 1941-
The Axis move contained no surprises. The best
Rommel can do now in the west is a 4-1 against a 2-
2-6 or a 5-1 and 3-1 against 7A/ 1,2. This is why it
was important to leave 212 S.G. in Bengasi last time
so that two Italian units would have to stay back on
siege duty this turn.
I'm glad that 21 / 3 moved to R-3 1 instead of to
the escarpment at R-29. This way I only need the
three brigades of 4th Indian Division to keep 2113
away from Trobruch and off the escarpment on
Row L. Since I won't need a garrison at my Home
Base until May 1, I've sent Supply #2 south into the
April I1 Neutral Commentary-
The Germans continue to position unitspoorly.
Trenta should be several hexes north where it can
reach the road and still threaten all the targets
reachable from his present position. 21 13 ignores a
position on the escarpment, and the extrapressure it
would provide on the British line.
German May 15 Commentary-
1 consider the 4-1 attack to be necessary to break
the escarpment line. A D-back 2 won't be too bad as
it will leave the British 2-2-6 cut-off from Tobruch.
The British player will be in a poor defensive
position next turn unless he pulls back.
Losing the supply unit was unfortunate. How-
ever, if I get the expected two out of three in April
and May 1 will be ok.
The 21st Recce is simultaneously threatening J-
27,J-34, and the British Home Base. Unless he takes
positive steps this turn, I will capture his home base
on June, 1941.
Rommel did a little fancy footwork this turn. He
went from C-9 to C-11, back to E-6, down to N-13,
and then over to N-16.
Allied May 15, 1941-
1 was surprised that my opponent would risk the
4-1, especially with only two supply units on board.
He got the result he wanted, but at least his unitsare
somewhat out of position. My disposition exploits
the fact that he can't bring 24 factors to attack 1-25.
He can get a 3-1 against 22 Gds on 1-27, which is
probably his best attack, but an exchange would
hurt him.
At first 1 had 411 11 on 5-33, but I finally decided
it was better to keep 21 / 3 from going t o 1-29.1 also
changed 7A/2 from S-24 to S-25 in order to prevent
its being attacked from R23 while G-23 is attacked
from H-23. Both those attacks could have been
supplied from M-23.
May I Neutral Commentary-
The Germans must now pay the price of failing
to ourflank the British to the south. Any exchange
possibility this early is a British victory. The
Germans get away with theatrack, rollinga D-Elim,
but it costs a supply, a commodity they willjind to
be all too precious in this game.
Again the German misplaces units. The 15th
should be closer to the coast road, at 512. Why
didn't 211104 join in the advance after combat?
I think 7A/ 2 would be better off on S24, inspite
of British comments to the contrary. He overesri-
mates the possibility of an attack on G-23 from H-23
only. 9 2 4 ties up two German units ifan attempt is
made to block it.
German May 30 Commentary-
I've decided to take a calculated risk this turn in
order to get a chance of taking Tobruch next time. If
I can get a D-Back 2 or an exchange on my 1-2 (A
40% chance) 1 can take the escarpment on 1-25.
From there, with all but 4 factors of the British
forces cut off, I can mount a good attack on
Tobruch on the June, 1941 turn.
If my attack doesn't succeed I will still be in a
relatively good position with light losses. I should be
able to complete the encirclement of Tobruch next
turn. I've decided to go ahead and eliminate the
pesky 7A/2 while I have the chance. Note that Hex
H-23 was deliberately left open in case more than
one British unit had to retreat from 1-25.
APRIL 30,1941-The German receives supplies and advances them the end of the British move and Bologna which is holding down the
across thecentraldesert. Not shownare Savenaand Bresciawhichare German Home Baae. Allied units not picturedare supply unitsat S-53
completing the isolation of 2/2SG in Bcngasi which is eliminated at and 5 4 .
MAY 30,1941-The German suppliesarrive safely and move to K-l I
which is not shown in the illustration. Thisallows the Germans a bold
chance to cut off Tobruch from reinforament but their 1-2 attack vs.
9A/ZO results in the elimination of Snvcna. 2115,and 211 104aceu1ea
DB2 (G-23) in their 5-1 vs. 7A/ I, as docs Ariete and Pavia vs. 41/7at
3-1 (H-23). The 15th Division eliminates 7A/2 in an AV. AU four
attacks are supplied by Supply #I. The British, relieved by their near
brush with disaster, fall back upon Tobmch.
MAY 15, 1941-The Germans attack and eliminate 7/31M in a4-I sending 4115 out to sea to deal with the threat to their Home Base
with 2115 advancing after combat to K-18. Supply #Z is used to posed by2113. UnilsnotshownareBritishsupplyunitsatJ-62andX-
sustain the attack. The British fall back on Tobmch in their turn. 53.
Allied May 31, 1941- order to hit 213 at 3-1 surrounded. If he doesn't
I made an error last time which, fortunately, attack 213, my defensive line will be stronger next
worked out well for me. His attacks were well time.
conceived. He had a 40% chance of clearing 9A/20
from 1-25 so that Ariete and possibly Pavia could
advance to that hex. That would have prevented my
units on G-23 from getting back to Tobruch this
turn. As it happened, the loss of Savena was not
worth the slight gain in position. Nevertheless, I
should have laced 213 bv itself on 1-25 last time.
m e British player made his first major error,
leaving the 4-4-7 on G-23, where it could be cut off.
The Germans made a good attack. If their 1-2 had
succeeded, they would have been guaranteed a 3-1
on Tobruch next turn.
The elimination bf Gvena accomplishes my
objective of causing Axis casualties before Tobruch German Jude 15 Commentary-
is put under siege. There should be more to come.
I was most disappointed with the results of my
He'll have to make at least one more soak-off in attacks last turn. I seemed to have lost all of them.
order to besiege Tobruch. In fact, his best chance To make matters worse, I lost another supply unit
may be to take the soak-off against 1-27 next time in on a 30% chance.
Fortunately, my opponent made a serious
miscalculation. Using Rommel and getting an A. V.
on POL enabled my supply unit to reach 1-24. This
enabled me to roll over 4117 and surround' the
British Units on 1-27. They will be automatically
eliminated on his turn.
At this point 1 have bottled up the British in
Tobruch and have destroyed the British Forces
outside. I will have several turns now to assess the
supply situation and to decide whether to drive into
Egypt or assault Tobruch.
JUNE IS, 1941-Despite the loss of their supply ship the Germans
pull offa majorcoup. 21 I5 AVs41/7at7-l.allowing2l/3to reach H-
28 via the back door of the Salum pass. Ariete and Trcnta eliminate
7A/ I at 3-1, while Breria survives its soak-off vs. 213 at 1-4. Pavia
survives the necessary 14soak-offvs. 9AlZOand 22GDS. This leaves
them adjacent to Ariete and Trmta without supply or retreat, forcing
their elimination. 151 1 15 advanas to G-23 after eliminating the Poles
at 5-1 surrounded. The 411 1 1 survives the 5-1 by 15133 and 211 104,
and retreats to N-31 from whm 11 moves in theBritish a m to block
the Salum aasr. British units not shown include71 7SG at 14. 41123.
J - 4 7 . 7 / 4 ~ k ~ & Supply #3 1-47, Supply #2X-54, Supply U4J-62, and
717 in reserve.
Allied June 15, 1941-
Ouch! 1 didn't think his supply unit could get
past Row 23. That was a costly oversight. Then, to
top it off he comes unscathed through two 1-4 soak-
offs and a 3-1. I suppose I deserved those battle
results though for my blunder.
The thing to do now is get over the shock and
take stock of my assets. There are some positive
aspects to my situation. 1) 213 is still alive to defend
Tobruch. 2) Rommel has no supplies on the board
(although he is in no real danger of losing his army
through isolation as long as he can trace a supply
path to his Home Base as it is unlikely I'll keep
sinking supplies. 3) 411 11 has survived fora while. 4)
Savena has been eliminated. If 1 can hang in there
and get a break or two, 1 might still pull this game
The only real decision required this time was
where to send 411 11. That unit can't escape being
surrounded next time no matter where it goes. I
decided it was better to block the pass at K-34 than
to send 411 11 south into the desert.
June I Neutral Commentary-
The British made a costly miscalculation.
Failure to see the automatic victory cost them 2-2-
6's at no cost to the Germans, who now have a very
favorable kill ratio.
German June 30 Commentary-
It's too bad that 1 didn't win my 60% 5-1 against
411 1 1. That would have meant no "loose ends" to tie
up. By the way, 411 11 was purposely retreated the
way it was, I would rather have it where it is, where I
can easily isolate it, than running around in the
desert with a supply unit. (Note that we're playing
with the rule interpretation that a captured supply
unit cannot be used to sustain the attack that
JUNE 30,194l-The German supplies arrive but are too far west to defend the coastal road approaches with their scant forces. Units not
do them any immediate good . . . they must settle for a westward shownincludethe7/7still in reserve, thra Allied suppliesat W-55, K-
penetration and isolation of 411 1 1 at Salum. The British take 59. and 5-62; Rommel K-11, and German supply at J-12.
advantage of the respite offered by the German lack of supply to
captures it). Also, I'm not going anywhere anyway
until my supply unit arrives. By that time 411 11 will
be dead.
Strategically speaking, I intend to drive on the
British Home Base if I get a reasonable amount of
supply units. Mathematically speaking the Germans
should get supplies 4 out of the 1st 6 turns. I'm due
one next turn,On,the next couple of turns I intend to
drive East in the desert. 1 want toUseal in" the rest of
his units, especially the 1-1-12. I anticipate a delay
unit on 5-37. Hopefully, I will be able to outflank
and isolate this unit. 1 anticipate having (4) +2
attacks against the British forces before November.
1 should be able to get close and inflict more
casualties. Another serious mistake on his part
could end the game. If he overlooks Tobruch I may
be able to sneak back and take it. In any event, with
decent supplies, I should be in pretty good shape
come November.
Allied June 30,1941-
From his disposition this time I can tell that
Rommel is not planning to attack Tobruch next
turn. Therefore, as a psychological ploy I am leaving
him a 40% chance to capture Tobruch by attacking
one of my 4-4-7's at 1-2followed by a 3-1 against the
othtr. My prediction is that he will be tempted, but
reject the attack as not worth the risk.
My ploy has two objectives, both psychological
in nature. First, I hope to divert his attention
temporarily from the drive against my Home Base.
Second, he may feel that I overlooked the potential
(1-2) & (3-1) assault on Tobruch and consequently
underestimate my playing ability. Certainly, my
play so far has not been the sort to inspire respect for
my competence. If I can lull him into a feeling of
overconfidence, it could pay off for me later in the
My disposition is designed to keep him from
reaching the escarpment too far east. I'm too weak
to try t o establi'sh a position further west by
occupying both 5-37 and K-38.
expected number of supplies 1 can work the British
over pretty good by November.
411 11 will be eliminated at the end of the British
turn. I will isolate 41/23 next turn if its the only unit
that 1 can attack.
Allied July 15, 1941-
I was right about his not going for the Tobruch
attack this time. 1 wonder if he was tempted. At any
rate I'm not going to give him another chance at it.
It's not clear at this point whether he willattempt
to storm Tobruch or continue the drive on
Alexandria. If he goes for Tobruch and gets an
exchange plus an AElim on a soak-off, then he'll be
down to 24 factors while,I still have a 4-4-7.
My guess though is that he will try to take my
Home Base. If so, it would be nice if hecontinues to
besiege Tobruch with only the two Italiandivisions.
If the opportunity presents itself, I may try to break
out of Tobruch. In the meantime I want to establish
a pattern of leaving units in reserve until they are
needed. I'll need to use my August reinforcements
when and if I try the Tobruch breakout, and I don't
want to alarm my opponent if I leave those units in
reserve for a turn or two.
July I Neutral Commentary-
The German supply situation is not good.
Although hisexpectation to thispoint is4.0, not 4.7,
I agree that his receiving only 3 supplies has been a
major factor. The supply used on May I would have
been very useful the last two turns.
Why did the German pass up the Tobruch
attack? He was willing to take a 40% chance on May
11. At this point their lack of supplies makes a
successful eastern push unlikely. The attack on
Tobruch is a great opportunity.
The British withdrawal was wise. It is generally
better to withdraw to a narrow front and conserve
strength, rather than attempting to delay in the
desert with the whole army. The Germans will
probably not waste a supply to kill 41/23.
June I1 Neutral Commentary-
The Germans did all they could without
G e r ~ ~ ~ d ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i n on K-5 ] and M-
supplies. I don't understand the British comments
about Tobruch. The benefit of leaving the 3-3-7 in
51' that
have 'lowed me down and forced me
reserve escapes me. It is inconsistent with hispolicy
'"late 41/23' I guess my British Opponent
of causing German casualties, as even should the 1-2
fail it is a cheap soak-off to the one
I could have gotten both 41/23 and 7/7S.G. this
necessary i f a 3-3-7 werepresent. Anypsycho~ogica~
but think my
is worth more than2
advantage will be of little value ifhe loses Tobruch.
factors at this point.
Next turn I can advance UD to the British El
Alamein Line and isolate 41/23:If it retreats or the
German July 15 Commentary-
British advance I can launch a good attack.
I'm getting a bit fed up with losing supply units.
Given average luck, 1 can expect 2 more supply
So far I've managed to get only three out of an units by theend of September. supply units entering
expected 4.7 supply units. ~f 1 can just get The
in October cannot reach the El Alamein front before
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A knowledge of probability is one of the paramount weapons in any
wargamer's arsenal and few games lend themselves better to pure
probability study than WAR ATSEA. Below we list 10 questions dealing
with probability in WAR ATSEA. Answer them by circling the correct
choice or writing the answer in the provided space. The ten winning entries
will receive certificates redeemable for free AH merchandise. To be valid an
entry must be received prior to the mailing of the next GENERAL and
include a numerical rating for the issue as a whole as well as list the best 3
articles. The solution will be announced in the next issue and the winners in
Vol. 14, No. I.
j~actical Science Fiction based on Robe]
IHeinlein's novel of the same name
INSTRUCTIONS: Rate all categories by placing a
j number ranging from 1 through 9 in the ap-
: propriate spaces to the right ( 1
equating excel-
: lent, 5.average; and 9-terrible). EXCEPTION:
: Rate item No. 10 in terms of minutes necessary
: to play game as recorded on lOminute incre-
: ments. EXAMPLE: If you've found that i t takes
1 two and a half hours to play FRANCE 1940, you
; 5~ould give ~t a GAME LENGTH rating of "15."
: Participate tn these reviews only if you are
familiar with the game in question.
In the following ship vs. ship battles, which ship has the best chance to
end the turn still at sea? If both ships' chances are about equal-i.e.. within
2% of each other-rate the battle a draw.
1 1. Physical lluality
j 2. Mapboard
: 3. Components
j 4. Ease of Understanding
j 5. Completeness of Rules
: 6. Play Balance
1 7. Realism
j I. Excitement Level
: 9. Overall Value
j 10. Game length
Admvral Scheer
The review sheet may be cut out. photocopied.
: or merely drawn on a reparate sheet of paper.
Mail it to our 4517 Harford Road addrerr with
: your contest entry or opponents wanted ad. Mark
j such correspondence to the attention of the R &
: D Department.
A British 1-1-7 is determined t o stand and fight it out. Which German
ship should it fire on first (i.e.. which German ship is most dangerous to the
cruiser's chances of remaining at sea?)
h e to be reviewed neat:
_ - _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Opponent Wanted
I . Want-ads wtU be accepted only when prtnted on thts form
? F w Sale. Trade. ,!r N~nl cd. l oRu) ads will he ac.cplcd onl) whrn lltcy .arc dcdl~np, ul t h .'ullc.!or'r 1lcms(gJ!nc5
no It,npr avatlrhlc Iwtn Al l l dnd ~ r c . s~, ornp~nsd h) a token 2 5 , ice
3. l nwrt copy where rcqu~rcd on llncs provided snd print name. address. and phone n u ~ n k r where provided.
4. Nealnrsr counts. ~f ~llcgthle your ad will not he acrcptrd.
5. Ads will he accepted <mly on fonnr from the prccedtnp sswc r ~ r e p t on tho* case$ whcrc no Opponcntr-Wanted
form appeared m the prcced~ng Isruc.
b. So thal as many ads can bc prlnted as porsahle w~rl n~n our l ~r n~t ed rpace. we request you uu the follow~ng
ahhrrvlattonr ~n wordtng your ad. Lskrwi v wt l l State dhhr~vvnlnans.
Afrlka Korpr = AK. Alexander the Crcat = Alex: Anlto. Bavhal l Slrategy = BR St. Battle u i the Bulge = BE:
Baskcthall Strategy = BK St: Bl~t,: D-Day = DD. Foothrll Strategy = FT St. France. 1')40 = kR'40:Facc-t<>Farr
= FTF. (;cttyrhurg = (.ell: Cuadrlcanal = Cuad: Jutland = JOT. Krnegrplel = Krag. Lal l w~f i c lcr Luft. Mldwry =
Mbd. 1014: Ortpnr of WWll = ORI G: Outdoor Survtval = Out. Panlerblllz = PAN; Panrer Lcrdcr = Pan Ld.
Play-hy-Mall = PBM: Pl ayhyPhone = P E P Rcchthufcn'r War = RW. 1776: St d~nga d = 'Crad.Tacttcr I1 = TAC.
Thud Rc~ch = 3R. Waterloo= Wat.
5. Assume the Bismarck (4-9-6) is fighting the Washingron (5-5-4).
What's the largest number of damage points the Bismarck can have at the
start of the battleand still havea better probability ofending the turn at sea'?
6. How many ASW points does the Allied player have to put in a sea
zone to have a 50% chance of disabling and/ or eliminating all 7 U-boats in
one battle?
7. How many ASW points does the Allied player have t o put in a sea
zone to have a 50% chance of disablingand/oreliminating5 U-boats in one
8. Three 1-1-7 cruisers are fighting the Bismarck (4-9-6). Which side
has the better chance of controlling the sea zone?
British -
I Germans -
I 9. Two 1-1-7 cruisers are fighting the Scharnhorst (3-5-7). Which side
has the best chance of controlling the sea zone'?
I British -
Address City
State Lip Phone I
Germans -
10. What is the probability that all 3 Allied convoys will get to Russia,
assuming maximum Axis air attacks in the Barents Sea but no U-Boat or
surface attacks?
I SSI JEAS A WHO1.E:. . . . . . . . . . ( Rat ef rom I to 10: with I equating excellent. 10. terrible)
8-1 3 A n r l n
JULY 30,1941-The German supplies were sunk on the July 15 move move cast on July 30th. Paviaand Bmscia remain at H-24and H-26 to
so the German contented himself&th eliminating 411 11 b$solation. contain ~obmc h. The British l ave 9A/ 18 in resew-ntiouing
The British fell back to El Alamein leaving 41123 as a rearmard at K- their wvcholonical ~ l o v of lullinn the German into knorinn thc
- .
45, and reinfora Tobmch with 717.
Reinforced by the arrival of their 2nd Supply unit the Germans
the British November troops arrive. That should
give me a pretty good assault on the British H.B.
My defending troops at Tobruch are so arranged
as to prevent the British from "sneaking" units out
at 1-3. Also, the best odds the British can get is 2-1,
which I'm willing to give.
The British player could conceivably capture my
supply unit on L-45. This would, however, involvea
1-6 soakoff with 5 factors. I deem the supply unit to
be worth the expected British losses. It would be like
using my supply unit to get a 6-1 against 5 of his
Allied July 31,1941-
My opponent continues to use just Brescia and
Pavia to cover Tobruch. I'm thinking seriously
about trying the breakout from Tobruch next turn.
My 41/23 on 5-45 prevents him from hitting me
very hard before August 11.
July I1 Neutral Commentary-
There is nothing worth attacking, so the
Germans merely continue their advance. The
German comments about a 2-1 out of Tobruch will
come back to haunt him. When one has an
advantage in a game he should expect his opponent
to do things he would nor consider were the game
AUGUST IS. 1941-The German bypassed 41/23 and left it isolated
while they move eastward on the British HE. This advance IeAves
them further in thc hole which is about to be created by the British
missing h i t . l i Britishiactors and a supply now occupy ~ o h h c h .
The stage is set for the big gamble.
German August 15 Commentary -
I am moving and recording this move prior to
checking to see if I get supplies. It won't make any
difference in my move. 41/23 is not worth a supply
unit. Besides, I can only attack one time in August
anyway. So, I will isolate 41/23. Note that I, in
effect, have a double isolation because of my
advanced Panzers. Next turn I should be able toget
in a good attack. With 2 or 3 additional supply units,
I can raise some hell before November. There's a
25% chance that I may lose a supply unit in the next
2 turns because of having 3 on the board. But having
3 on the board in August isn't all that bad. Havinga
50% chance of killing 3-5 factors is better than a
100% chance of killing a factor that you can isolate
Allied August 15, 1941-
Well, the time has come to bite the bullet and
take the bull by the horns. If I get an "AElim" or an
"A back 2" in my 2-1, I'm a goner. On the other hand
I should win if I get a "DElim," "D back 2" or
"Exchange". A "% AElim" would permit me to
hang on for a while, but I would probably lose
August I Neutral Commentnry-
The British attack had to be made, but Iquestion
whether it was necessary so early. fi e situation
attack out of To b ~ c h . 70123 soskkoff against Brescia at 1-6 and is
eliminated but Pavia is eliminated in a 2-1 by 2/3,9A/ 18,7/4,51/9,
10 with9A/ 18, and 7l4advancinginto H-26. The bulkoftheGerman
could change. The Germans may get a string of
DBZ's, or fail to receive a supply in September.
Either one of these events would make capture of
the Home Base unlikely, as the Germans willneed at
least 4 attacks to break through the double lines of
1-1-6's along a narrow front. The 2-1 wouldstill be
there in September or October and may not have to
be made at all if the situation changes.
German August 30 Commentary-
The British player made a risky attack and got
away with it. His 2-1 out of Tobruch put the whole
game on one die roll. I feel that he attempted to win
with luck what he couldn't otherwise win.
The only chance for a real victory was a D-Elim
and He got it. An A-Elim or A-Back 2 and I win
immediately. I feel as though I could still have a
good chance of winning with a D-Back 2 or Exch
The 2-1 has changed the entire complexion of
this game. The British player has a good chance of
driving on my home base and cutting off the Afrika
Korps. I must now attempt t o extricate my army
and fight a long war against difficult odds.
Allied August 30,1941-
M~ opponent complained loudly about my good
luck. That doesn't bother me though, because that's
loser talk. While he's demoralized; 1;m going to try
to deliver a knockout blow.
He made a nice move, almost, in an effort to get
his Supply #3 out to his main force in the east. My
attack will prevent this, however, because his 15/33
will not be able to join forces with Supply #3 next
time even if it survives my attack. He should have
put 15/33 on P-37 and moved Supply #3 to T-21.
My attack leaves me exposed, but he can't
exploit it without using his Supply #2. That would
leave his main force out on a limb and subject to
eventual isolation.
At first I had 2SA/7 on N-17, but changed it to
N-18. Now, if he sends his Supply #3 t o T-28 or U-
29.1 can capture it and still reach W-29 t o block the
southern route. 1 feel that option is worth more than
the threat to reach the coast road south of Bengasi.
August I1 Neutral Commentary-
The Germans had to move back to Tobruch bur
sloppy placement cost them dearly. 15/33 could
have made it clear to T-36 with Rommel, assuring
him a next turn link-up with Supply #3. Even a one
hex adjustment would have put him beyond attack
range, a fatal error as it turns out. As for Supply #3
I cannot understand why it moved only 9 squares.
SUDD~Y is now cut off from the main Axis f or m and presently lien out
oG& iUuatration at G-22 and K-1 I . The British pla& continues hi
practia of kaping a unit in reserve by leaving 51/29 off the board.
AUGUST 30, 1941-The British breakout of Tobmch forces the
Germans to fla westward, abandoning their encirclement of 41/23
and forcin~ them to use a vital SUDDIV to AV it at J-45 with 1518. The
British maie good use of sea mov&&nt to land the bulk of their foras
The British attack probably should not have
been made, as it left his armor exposed, but against
this German it proved to be a winning move.
German September, 1941 Commentary-
Although the British player did not make any
major blunders I think he made a weak move. He
in Tobruch and fan out into the desert to block the German retreat.
2SA/7 is sent into the desert to track the Germans' Supply #3 which.
in connection with the3-1 on 15/33 by 717 and 2/4makesthe German
supply situation a very tricky predicament.
has his Recce unit after my supply line and
prevented Recce 15 from linking up with Supply 3.
However, his Recce unit cannot threaten my home
base next turn. He has exposed 8 factors (714,717,
4115) in the desert. Had I gotten a supply unit I
could have gotten a 7-1 against 41/5,5-1 surrounded
against 717, and a 1-2 surrounded against 714. Even
SEPTEMBER 15. 1941-The German supplies are sunk again but turn or be isolated. Even the British 1st supply takes .-it in the
the initiative now lies entirely with the British. 2SA/7 captures the embarrassment of the Germans by moving to S-16toslow down the
German Supply Unit #3 on W-30 and destroys it prior to retreating Germans last supply. With only one supply in hand and cut off from
back to W-29. This bit of thievery was all made possible by the his source of future supply the German finds himselfon the horns ofa
foresight of the Allied 3-1 attack on 15/33 last turn.Tothenorthwest dilemma-isolation if he does attack and inactivity if he doesn't.
the British are threatening Brescia which will have to withdraw next
i f the 714 survives it will be eliminated on the British
turn. This is made possible by putting supply units
on T-20 and W-30. The British Recce unit can only
capture one or the other-not both. I can use the
other to kill the Recce unit and withdraw my Army.
Either the British Player made a dumb move or luck
saved him again. The luck of the die is winning this
game for the British Player. There is not enough
rolls in this game for luck to "even out".
Allied September 15, 1941-
My assumption last turn that Rommel could not
afford to attack my exposed units was too hastily
made. My intelligence informs me that Rommel has
drawn up attack plans, but scrapped them when his
supply ship was sunk. Upon reflection it appears
that he might have gotten away with it. I should
have sent 7/ 4SA Motor to N34 and left 717S.G. on
H-25 to protect Tobruch.
For his part I believe that Rommel erred in
allowing me to capture his supply on W-30. Even
though he can annihilate my Recce unit now, it will
cost him another supply unit to do so. Two supply
units for one Recce is a good bargain for me.
September I Neutral Commentary-
Although the game continued well into 1942, we
will drop it after September I, because it is here that
the Germans missed their last real chance to stay in
the game.
It certainly would have been easier on the
Germans had they received another supply but the
attack shouldhave been madeanyway. Bothplayers
have overestimated the ability of one Recce unit to
block the entire southern halfof the board. A link
up with supply would be difficult, but possible. It
should have retreated this turn while the German
Recce units race west and the rest of the Germans
wipe out the British armor. The Recce units would
have been in a position to link up with the Home
Base before British reinforcements could arrive in
the southern desert.
The opportunity of killing two armor units at the
cost of a 1-2 soak-off does not occur often and
cannot be passed up. N was the last real chance the
Germans had to stay in the game. Instead of killing
the armor with one supply unit and retreating the
other out of danger he sacrificed one to the Recce
unit and used the other to kill it on Sept. II. This 2
supplv for 1 unit exchange was the death knellof the
German effort.
He managed to link his army up with his Home
Base without further opposition but received only 1
supply in the next 4 turns. By the time he had
supplies the British were dug in along a line from C-
7 to 924.
After several turns of sitting in an attempt to
draw the British into the open, the Germansfinally
attacked on January II, andgot an exchange against
a3-3-7on K-18. A British counterattack killeda 7-7-
10 in an exchange and 2 turns later a 2-1 against a 4-
4-7 on G-23 resulted in an A-Elim. as the last
desperate German offensive failed to even reach
In his final comments the German decried the
2-1 out of Tobruch as the crucial battle. There is no
doubt that it was, psychologically. From that point
on, the German play deteriorated. Militarily there
wereseveralother crucial battles. There was the 40%
chance to take Tobruch that failed, and'another
40% chance that was passed up. Finally, there was
the failure to kill the British armor, which later
anchored such a strong defense that the Germans
never even reached Tobruch for that hopedfor 1-1.
The German supply rolls were poor but they failed
to use what they had to maximum advantage.
r s
by Mick Uhl
Much more material was available for inclusion
actually made it within the material limits imposed
by economics. Rather than omit it entirely from the
game, provisions for their eventual utilization were
included in the design of the components with the
fore-knowledge that they would bepublished in the
A new scenario is included below which utilizes
these rules in recreating the British land and naval
operations in clearing the Delaware River after the
fall of Philadelphia.
As already noted, one of the counters included
with the game is an overview of a bomb-ketch.
As these vessels were used to reduce forts and
other land structures, they must be used in
conjunction with amphibious operations (to be
detailed later).
Bomb-ketches as a general definition were ships
which carried mortars, i.e., guns which fired
explosive shells on a high trajectory in order t o hit
objects behind breastworks or walls. Bomb-ketches
were not very effective nor were they ever designed
to do battle with other warships. Their main
function was to reduce the defensive capability of
forts and/ or entrenchments so that amphibious
units could land and capture the position.
1. There are three types of bomb-ketches (more
accurately termed bombs) which are available in the
Single Mortar
Two Mortars
Mortar Vessels
Note that the Two Mortar bombs were superior
to the other two vessels in every respect. This should
not limit the players to using this modelexclusively.
Mortar vessels were used during the French
Revolutionary Wars and were not popular which
soon led to their abandonment.
These ships also carried regular cannon as well
2. Bombs may only fire their mortars while
3. The line of fire for the mortars may never be
blocked. They fired over, not through, obstacles.
4. Fire with broadside guns is normal. These
guns may not be loaded or fired during the same
turn that the mortar(s) are loaded or fired.
5. For the single mortar bombs, a mortar's field
of fire is 270" (bow field) which encompasses both
left and right broadside fields and the field between
the two toward the bow. In other words you may not
fire through the stern. For the two mortar bombs
the second mortar may fire in either the left or right
broadside but may not fire across the bow or stern.
6. It takes four turns to load mortar(s) (not
7. The players filling out the log for bombs
should mark off the mortar's hit boxes in the
carronade section.
8. Mortars may only be fired at fixed targets on
shore or at motionless ships (i.e., anchored or
aground), not at ships drifting, no matter how
slowly. They have a maximum range of 10 hexes.
9. Mortars use a separate entry in the HDT.
See chart below.
10. All hits scored by mortars are tripled. Only
the Hull Hit Tables are used. Each mortar is fired
separately and may be fired at the same or different
targets. Mortars may not fire at targets at less than
three hex range.
necessarily in sequence). This is noted in thk load
section bv marking M in the R section for the bow
(270' fieid of fire) mortar and in the L section for the Naturally, these will be placed on hexes
second mortar of the two mortar bombs. designated as land. Forts were used to protect
waterways and the commerce and ports associated
with them from naval and/ or amphibious inva-
sions. Forts had the advantages of thick walls and
sturdy gun platforms which could hold higher
calibre weapons as well as large numbers of
defenders. Their drawback was that they were a
fixed and often isolated target.
1. No counters have been provided for forts, so
you must make your own.
a. Remembering the dimension of a hex as 100
yards in diameter, forts may be as small as one
counter or several formed to pattern the outer walls
of the forts.
b. Forts were designed in man:. polygonal
shapes, so as a general representation of these
varieties and to fit within the geometric pattern cf
the game, a hexagon c; n +e i:.:r,? i s the h s i c $ha;,
of a single counter fort. 1 his dlso grea1i.V :ic~:itatcr
field of fire determination. The example below of a
fort labels each side so as to identify the number of
guns per wall.
recorded. Crews will be divided into three sections
as normal. Guns are divided into sections for each
side of the fort. The extra sections may be recorded
in the rigging section of the log.
c. Gun specifications are determined by the
players in any manner desired. Each side of the fort
need not have the same number of guns as any other.
d. The number of crew squares allotted is a
direct proportion to the number of gun squares
allocated. The ratio is 615 crew square for each gun
square rounded up. Crew squares are distributed to
the crew sections as evenly as possible with the
!owest number sections having the h~ghest priority.
Additional crew squares as garrison units may also
be added. But they must be placed in a separate
section and may fire guns as poor crews only.
4 4!1 sides of a fort may be loaded and fired
during the same turn.
5. Guns in forts or fortifications fire at a +2 Hit
Table modification for 1-6 gun squares, and +3 for
7+ gun squares. This is doubled if the advanced
game is used.
6. Mortars may also fire from a fort. Land
based mortars take just three turns to loadand have
a +2 hit table modification when firing. They have a
full 360' field of fire.
7. A maximum of 6 gun squares (excluding
mortars) per fort wall should be allocated, though
this is up to a player's discretion.
These were large rafts sturdily built with
protective walls and housing large guns to break
down land fortification defenses. They are used
exactly like forts with the following exceptions:
I. Use a counter exactly as the type designed for
single hex forts.
2. They have no movement of their own but are
towed into place by another ship. For towing
purposes they are treated as first class ships of the
3. These batteries must be anchored. If they are
forced to up anchor or break anchor they drift in the
same manner as a first class S.O.L.
4. They are set up in the same manner as forts.
In other words they have no hull squares therefore
they may not be sunk. They may be grappled and
c. For multi-counter forts or fortifications, the
walls of the forts may be drawn to correspond to the
hex sides of the counter forming the wall.
2. The field of fire for each wall is shown below.
Note that these fields overlap. At points where they
do, the guns of two or more walls may fire together
at one massed battery.
3. Adaptions to the log must be made to include
new information and to remove irrelevant sections.
a. For loading more than two sides of the fort,
add columns to the moves section and label them
each to a corresponding side of a fort.
b. In the time scale of the game, the effects of
bombardment on a fort's walls would be too small
to damage its performance. The hull section on a
fortis log will be ignored. Only gun and crew hits are
Each ship generally carried one or more boats
used for various details which could not be
performed by the owning vessel itself. Within the
game framework they best function as screens
against fireships or as amphibious landing craft.
I. Use gunboat counters to represent ships
boats. As with gunboats, each counter may
represent more than one ship's boat.
2. Ship's boats move in the same manner as
gunboats. They do not have any gun squares.
3. The order of battle for these vessels is
dependent upon the parent ship.
a. The number of hull squares is equal to the
number of crew squares available in the first section
of the parent ship.
b. The maximum number of crew squares
which may man a ship's boat counter is the same as
its hull squares, i.e., for every hull square, one crew
square may be carried. The minimum number of
crew squares which may man a ship's boat counter is
one. A maximum of one "oar" square per section is
4. As long as a boat counter is with its parent
ship it need not be in play. It is either being towed or
physically on the ship's deck. As soon as it is to be
used independently, it is placed in any hex adjacent
to the parent ship.
5. Crew/ Military units and/ or artillery may be
placed aboard a ship's boat counter by means of a
Transfer Boarding Party.
6. Crew squares used to "man" a boat counter
should be drawn from the lowest numbered crew
7. Boat counters cannot be used to block shots.
Ships may fire at them or over them.
8. While a boat is attached to the parent ship it
absorbs some of the damage directed toward the
ship. For every four hull or gun hits in any
combination, a boat loses one hull, crew, and oar
square available. This, of course reduces the speed
and the size of the force allowed t o board. As soon
as the boat is placed on the board it receives damage
independently and is considered a separate target. A
boat does not block line-of-sight.
9. In every other respect while independent a
ship's boat is treated as a gunboat and is subject to
all rules covering such.
Certain ships may be designated as carrying
extra crew squares representing forces and material
to be used in an amphibious assault. Ships boat's
would be the vehicle by which units would land.
Combat between land forces are handled with the
Melee system of combat. Players have total freedom
in deciding what types of units may be used in
assault capacity.
1. Counters will have to be made (use reverse
side of those included). There are three possible
types of units available for amphibious assault:
Infantry Cavalry Artillery
2. Each counter represents one section or
equivalent being transported by boat and a side
record must be maintained of its strength.
3. One Infantry square may be transported for
each crew square available on the boat.
a. One Cavalry square may be transported for
every three crew squares available on the boat.
b. Boat counters from ships of 74 or more guns
can carry one gun square of artillery in addition to
one crew square to man the boats.
4. On the turn of landing, ground units may not
move. From the next turn on units may move at the
following rates:
a. Infantry-2 hexes per turn
b. Cavalry-4 hexes per turn
c. Artillery-l hex per turn (2 hexes if defined
as field artillery).
5. When amphibious units are adjacent to the
fort, melee may occur. Use identical procedure to
that used on board ships. Crew quality is deter-
mined before scenario begins. Crews defending a
fort each get an additional 3 melee strength points
added to their original strength.
6 . Units must melee every unit in a fort even if
they are not adjacent.
7. Guns on land fire with same modificationsas
guns in forts.
8. When puttingartillery gun square (other than
field artillery, which is carried just for land
operations) on land, remove one gun square from
either broadside. Carronades may be used.
Ships of smaller class had the ability to move by
oar as well as by sail.
1. All ships mounting 24 guns or less may use
rowing capabilities at any time. The player must
note in the Notes section the turn beforehand that he
is changing to oars. He need not do this to change
back to sail.
2. Wind effects on ships while rowing are the
same as for galleys and ship's boats.
3. Rowing ships handle like galleys except that a
60' turn costs one movement factor.
4. Two crew sections must be used for rowing.
They may not perform any other duties while in this
5. The speed diagram for ships using oars is:
October 3-November 21, 1777
Of major consequence to General William
Howe's success during the British campaign to
capture Philadelphia in the summer of 1777 was the
exposure of his supply lines to the ambush style of
attack in which the Americans excelled. This
exposure was a result of the overland route which
the supply trains followed along Howe's line of
march. All the territory gained as a result of the
superior British feat of arms could not be held if the
supplies could not reach the invading army for the
British army was unable to forage to maintain their
position in America and had to import most of their
supplies from Europe.
An alternate supply route would have to be
developed which would be both safe and efficient.
The obvious answer was the Delaware River. It was
navigable as far as Philadelphia for large ships and
safe from depredations by American forces. The
utility of this route was equally apparent to both
sides and its protection from enemy utilization had
been anticipated by the American command. In the
preceeding months, the Americans had built two
lines of underwater obstructions set to rip open the
hull of any ship passing overhead. These lines were
anchored by three forts. Howe had by-passed the
Delaware upon his descent to Philadelphia from
New York and had chosen, instead, to land his army
at Elk's Head at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.
Now, upon his capture of Philadelphia, he had to
open the Delaware or retreat.
The first line of obstructions was 12 milesdown-
stream from Philadelphia and protected by Fort
Billingsport, a weakly constructed and defended
redoubt. A force detached from Howe's army was
sent to capture this fort. It landed upriver and
quickly captured the fort by a flankattackalthough
the garrison was able to spike the guns and escape.
Enough of the underwater obstacles were cleared to
allow passage of the British fleet, commanded by
Admiral Richard Howe, William Howe's brother.
The second line was five miles closer to Philadelphia
and was in two sections; the center being protected
by a mud bank. This was a more formidable
challenge to the British, being protected as it was, by
two large forts.
The eastern fort on the New Jersey shore, Fort
Mercer, was chosen as the target for the first British
attack to break the line. A brigade of Hessians who
marched directly from Philadelphia tried three
separate assaults on the fort. All three failed due to a
combination of stiff resistance by'the fort's
defenders and support of the American gunboats
along the river. Five British ships ran aground as
they attempted to maneuver close to the fort in
support. Three were able to extricate themselves but
two, the Augusta, 64 guns, and the Merlin, 18 guns,
were destroyed. The Hessians returned to Philadel-
phia with approximately 33% casualties to their
After the debacle at Fort Mercer, the British
turned their attention to Fort Mifflin which
occupied a small island west of the obstructions.
Unable to land an amphibious party here, the
British concentrated a tremendous amount of fire
power both from the land based batteries on the
Pennsylvania shore and from guns on their ships.
On November 15 they opened into one of the
heaviest bombardments of the war. It was estimated
that over a thousand rounds were fired every twenty
minutes. Unable to withstand this fire Fort Mifflin
surrendered and the garrison escaped.
Upon the fall of Fort Mifflin, Cornwallis with a
force of about 2,000 British regulars crossed the
Delaware and again attacked Fort Mercer. This
time it was empty. Christopher Green, commander
of the fort, had pulled out earlier realizing that its
usefulness to protect the river had ended with the
fall of Fort Mifflin as the British could breach the
obstructions near Mifflin and bypass the remaining
fort. The American fleet, trapped upriver, was
The whole affair was marked by an amazing lack
of cooperation between the continental forces, the
local militias, and the navy which was under the
control of the State of Pennsylvania. The fleet did
not risk any of its major vessels in defense of the
forts and in the end lost them anyway. The militia
was unable to provide the reinforcements needed to
man the forts adequately. The bulk of the defense
fell, therefore, on Washington's regulars who were
stretched to defend Philadelphia as well as the river.
In this situation the Americans did not have any
hope of preventing the Howes' eventual control of
the Delaware River. With what they had, the
Continental Army performed brilliantly, exacting
almost as many casualties in Von Donop's assault
on Fort Mercer as the British lost in the battle of
Germantown. They also destroyed a ship-of-the-
line, the largest that they were to capture or destroy
without French aid during the entire war. The
British were delayed for almost two months in
getting supplies to the campaigning army who, if
Washington had defended the Delaware more
strongly, may have been forced to retreat back into
Wind Direction: 2
Wind Velocity: 3-Normal breeze
Wind Change: 6
A. Basic and Advanced game rules including those
described above are used except the Advanced
Game Log Modifications.
B. The following Optional Rules are in effect:
VII. Towing
XI. Running Aground
XII. Casting the Lead
XIV. Fore-and-Aft Sails
IIIA. Fireships
IIID. Gunboats
black: land
grey: Shallows (a partially grey hex is considered a
shallows hex).
red : Special Channel
Land and Prohibited Area-vessels of all types may
not enter.
Shallows-Only certain ships may travel over these
hexes without fear of running aground. These ships
are noted by an S on their entry in the Order of
Channel-Only certain ships may pass through the
Channel without fear of running aground. These
ships are noted by a C on their entry in the Order of
D. The river current runs in direction I and 6. All
ships and rafts drifting must drift in either one of
these two directions and may change to the other
direction only to prevent the ship or raft from
moving into a land or prohibited hex. The owning
player decides the initial drift direction. River
current has no other effect on a ship's movement.
Wind has no effect on drifting.
E. A ship may fire into a coastal land hex but
cannot fire through a land hex.
F. The river channel may be entered by qualified
British vessels from hexes EEI, FFI, or GGI, at
least 5 turns after the successful penetration of line 1
of underwater obstructions at the earliest.
G. All vessels may anchor.
H. Underwater Obstructions
1. Ships may not pass over any hex occupied by an
underwater obstruction counter. All rafts may pass
over. A ship which is forced to move into an
underwater obstruction hex is considered destroyed
and the counter removed from play. Underwater
obstructions are stationary and may not be moved.
2. Underwater obstructions can only be cleared by
a ship of at least 28 guns. The ship must be adjacent
to the obstruction counter for 4 consecutive turns
without being fired upon to remove it.
3. The American player can secretly choose a
passage through the second line of underwater
obstructions between Fort Mifflin and Fort Mercer.
Ships may sail through this passage. Once used, by
the American player though, the British player is
also free to use it. If the American player does not
use the passage the British assume the second line of
obstructions as solid.
4. A ship (not raft or gunboat) can be intentionally
sunk to block passage across two hexes in the same
manner as an underwater obstacle. The sinking is
accomplished immediately upon the announcement
by the controlling player at the end of the movement
phase. The hexes must be marked and cannot be
kept hidden.
I. Fire rafts can only be sent at intervals of one raft
every three turns. Those British vessels which
cannot enter the board at the start of play may
remain off the board and enter at a later time. Those
British vessels which are allowed to enter the
Channel may leave the board along the entry hexes
(see Order of Appearance) and re-enter at the
Channel a minimum of 4 turns after the breaching of
the first line of obstructions.
1. Infantry counters cannot be stacked. Land
batteries may be stacked two high. Field artillery
may be stacked with infantry up to 2 counters high.
2. When forming infantry units, the British may
have a maximum of 10 infantry or crew squares per
counter: the Americans, 8.
3. Some American forces are in the form of
reinforcements. They may enter as either infantry
units or as replacements to fort garrison's. As
replacements they may replenish any garrison
squares lost in melee or gunfire. The garrison may
never be increased above its original strength. The
reinforcements are added at the end of any turn in
which a melee did not occur against the garrison to
be reinforced.
1. Melee may occur between land units in the open
as well as against forts and ships as long as the
battling units are adjacent to one another. This form
of melee is conducted in the same manner as regular
2. Losses due to melee conducted on land are
always taken from the units or garrison sections of
lowest quality first.
3. If an infantry unit loses 33% of its squares
(rounded up), it may no longer voluntarily enter
into melee but may melee as a DBP.
L. Amphibious assault against Fort Mifflin is not
M. Those vessels with an asterisk by their gun
strength in the Order of Battle may fire every turn
provided they lower their Hit Table by one.
N. Guns in forts may be spiked (destroyed) at any
time by the controlling player if he has at least one
crew, garrison or infantry square in the fort.
0. The British Mortar batteries can only fire at one
fort wall at a time (i.e., if 2 gun hits are scored and
only one gun square is on the wall being fired at,
onlv pun sauare is marked off).
P. kinning Aground
1. All ships which cannot move over the shallows
normally (see Order of Battle) may attempt to do so
by risking running aground.
2. For each ship not qualified to move over shallow
hexes and attempting to do so, both players secretly
record a number from one to six and the name of the
ship on a slip of paper. The opposing player then
takes both slips, cross indexing both values on the
table below to obtain a Run Aground Value
(R.A.V.). For each turn including the turn of entry,
that the ship occupies a shallow hex, thecontrolling
player rolls a die which if it equals or is less than the
R.A.V. indicates that the ship has run aground.
Controlling Player's Value
Of course the opposing player must indicate when
the ship has run aground by displaying both written
values as proof.
At Start
Place the following counters in their assigned
A - Billingsport
B - Mercer
C - Mifflin
line 1 H3, 13, 52, K2, L1, MI ,
I4, J3, K3, L2, M2, N1.
line 2a U13, V12, W12, X11, Y11, Z l l ,
AA11, V13, W13, X12, Y12, Z12,
W14, X13, Y13, AA12.
line 2b N17, 017, P16, Q16, R15, P17,
R16, Q17, S16.
American Force
All vessels may start anywhere between obstruc-
tion line #I and board edge 4.
British Force
Vessels may enter the board between Dl and K1
inclusive. At least four turns after successful
penetration of the first line of obstructions, those
ships qualified to enter the Channel may do so
between hex EEI and GGI inclusive.
American Reinforcements
The reserve pool may be used to form infantry
units at any time. Those squares used to form a unit
may not be used to replace a fort's garrison losses.
Turn 5 Greene's Detachment may be brought into
play anytime between turn 5 and 10 provided that
there are British infantry units on the board. As
soon as all British infantry units have been removed
from play, Greene's detachment must also be
Turn 25 Greene's Detachment may return on this
turn or thereafter if there are British forces on the
Greene's detachment may not be brought into play
between turns 11 and 24 whether there are British
infantry units on the board or not.
British Reinforcements
Turn 2-Stirling's detachment may enter be-
Name Guns Class
tween hexes A3 and A5 inclusive any turn between
turn 2 and 5.
Turn 15-Von Donop's brigade may enter between
hexes A22 and 135 inclusive anytime between turn
15 and 25.
British land batteries may be placed anywhere on
the land mass indicated by hexes HHI and RRl .
Turn 25 From this turn on, Cornwallis' and
Wilson's detachments may enter the game anywhere
along the coast from A3 to H17 provided that there
are British vessels or ship's boats adjacent to the
entry hexes.
NOTE: Only one British detachment may be on the
board at any time. So, for example, if Von Donop's
brigade is still in play after turn 24 neither
Cornwallis' nor Wilson's detachments may enter the
game. The British player may remove those land
units already in play by either 1) moving them off
the board through one of the entry hexes or 2)
moving them adjacent to a friendly vessel or ship's
boat along the river bank. The unit may then be
removed from play.
The British player must accomplish the follow-
Hull Qual. Section
1 2 3
ing two objectives in order to win:
1. Capture Fort Billingsport and Fort Mercer; and
remove enough of the underwater obstructions to
allow passage of at least one British ship through
line 1 and 2a; the accomplishment of which will end
the scenario.
2. Gain more victory points than the American
The American player wins if the British player is
unable to fulfill either of his two objectives at the
end of the scenario.
Victory points are awarded as described in the
rules plus extra points for the following:
American Player
1. Each British infantry square destroyed 2 points
2. Every 4 turns played 1 point
3. Every British land artillery or Mortar 1 point
square destroyed
British Player
1. For every American infantry or garrison 1 point
square destroyed
2. For each land artillery square destroyed % point
3. Each fort captured 20 points
(If any part of the garrison escapes) 17 points
1 2 3 4
Battery Raft unl.
X - Xebec
* - may fire each broadside every other turn
C - may pass through channel without running aground
S - may pass through shallows without running aground
Note: The American should use French ships t o complete his fleet.
For years now Avalon Hill has been producing
wargames of extremely high calibre. To date,
however, none compare with the game of RICH-
THOFEN'S WAR, for here one can truly command
every aspect of the plane's flight. The fact that it is an
aerial combat game, and that it is set during World
War I, simply adds to its quaintness as a departure
from the run-of-the-mill wargame.
I therefore felt it would be interesting toconduct
an investigation of the game, using mathematical
probability and my own experience.
First, I decided to compile a chart of all plane
classes used in the game, as listed on the Target
Damage Table, and then determined their respec-
tive hit probabilities. See Chart 1, below.
Chart 1
Hit Probability
With an ace in play, these figures are apt to
change. For example, an "A" class plane firing on an
ace at a range of one must roll 4-12 instead of the
normal 3-1 2 in order to score a hit. This amounts to
only an 8 1.8% chance of inflicting damage, rather
than the 90.9% chance recorded on Chart 1. The
chart will also become amended with an ace firing
instead of being fired upon. However, the figures
should still be used as a general rule of thumb.
It is interesting to note here the relative weakness
of the " D class planes, i.e., the DeHavilland 2,
Nieuports 11 and 12, the Sopwith 1% Strutter,
RAFs Be-2 and Re-8, and the LFG Roland C-2,
even in relation to "C" class planes. It is also
interesting to note that with the exception of the
Roland C-2, all "D" class planes belong to the
Obviously, when these planes are involved in a
dog-fight, or in a situation where they must fight
to survive, they do relatively little good. Their
primary purpose, however, was not to engage the
enemy in combat, but rather to scout enemy troop
movements, dispositions, artillery, etc.
Which brings us to our second chart, average
damage factors when scoringa hit. One must bear in
mind the likelihood of the plane in question to inflict
any damage at all on an enemy plane, re Chart 2:
Chart 2
Average Damage Factors
In this case, as with Chart 1, the presence of an
ace will sway the averages, but only slightly, so as
not to change the basic computations.
It is amusing to note that in some instances in
this chart, as you probably already have noticed,
every plane class has one case where the average
damage value increases instead of decreasing as the
range grows greater, i.e., "A" class planes at range
six in relation to range seven. This can beaccounted
for by the fact that as the distance expands, the
number of times the plane can score a hit
diminishes, but the total number of damage factors
remains the same, or approximately the same, as the
lesser distance.
Please note one important factor at this time. At
a range of five, the lone "B" class plane, the RAF Se-
5a, has an average damage factor .13 greater than
that of "A" class planes at the same range, and that
at a range of six, both this plane and "C" class planes
outweigh, so to speak, the "A's", by .40and by .15,
respectively. Even "C" class planes at a range of
seven have a higher average damage factor than the
"B" class Se-5a.
And so it is at this moment that Chart 1 comes
back again, to be used in conjunction with Chart 2.
As a case in point, consider the following: As
mentioned, the plane in class "B" has a higher
average damage factor when firing at a range of five
and at a range of six than do "A" class planes.
But as a glance at Chart 1 will prove, "A" class
planes firing at ranges of five and six have a better
chance of scoring a hit against the target plane than
does the Se-5a.
My advice is that if you have a choice, go with
the better average damage, as opposed to the better
chance of scoringa hit. As it stands, "A" class planes
do have a better chance of inflicting damage than
the Se-5a does, but the edge is only 9.1% at a range
of six, and only 9% at a range of five. The difference
in average damage more than makes up for this,
Of course, the situation you are in at any given
moment may warrant taking advantage of the better
probability, and you may not have achoice to make
regarding the use of the planes. Generally, however,
it does seem to make more sense to gamble and go
for more damage.
Chart 3 suddenly finds itself thrust into the
Chart 3
Die Roll Probability
your chances for obtaining a critical hit. As an
example, "A" class planes at a range of three need a
die roll of nine in order to scorea critical hit. Chart 3
shows that there is an 1 I. 1 %chance of rolling a nine.
The presence of an ace is a simple enough factor to
figure when computing your chances. Simply add or
subtract one from the roll of the dice, as the case
may be.
For greater realism and enjoyment of RICH-
THOFEN'S WAR, I suggest that you incorporate
the following optional rules when playing the game:
Rule I-Prevailing Wind. This often was a
factor during many of the key air battles of World
War I, and in fact played a role in practically any
battle ever fought in the air during that era.
Rule 2-Reaction Rule. For my part, 1 wouldn't
think of playing a game without using this rule. The
initial reaction of the actual pilot often turned defeat
into victory, and vice versa. Consider, if you will, the
folly of a World War I pilot deliberating for even
one minute as to which way to turn, dive, or climb.
Rule 9-Angle of Attack: Deflection. This is a
highly realistic rule which often takes away what
amounts to a slight advantage for the attacking
This analysis was developed in order to help you
see, in a mathematical light, the subtleties involved
in the game. It is hoped that this will help you in
actual play.
As a game, RICHTHOFEXS WAR provides
what I feel is the ultimate challenge to a gamer's
Avg. 2.49 2.37 1.98 1.48
Chart 3 deals with di, roll frequency, showing
the chance the gamer has when trying for a
particular roll. This should be used in association
with the Target Damage Table in order to ascertain
Game Theorv and
The Tactical Results Matrix in 1776 has
always had a fascinating appeal to me. Anyone
who has had the thrill of attacking at 1-1 using an
Enfilade Left (while the defender Refuses the
Right) and then rolling a one knows exactly what
I mean! Despite the fact that I've always felt I've
had more than my share of luck with this system,
I've often wondered if I was really using the
Tactical Cards to my best advantage. Perhaps I've
been selecting Frontal Assault too often and
Recon in Force not enough. Obviously 1 want to
play my cards in a way that yields the most
favorable result. But the big Question was always
hovering over the battle board: What were the
best possible choices in order to maximize my
chances of a favorable result? The structure of
the Tactical Results Matrix (hereafter referred to
as the TRM) and the manner in which the
Tactical Cards are chosen suggest that this system
could successfully be analyzed by game theory,
that branch of mathematics that deals with the
selection of the best available strategy in order to
maximize one's winnings (or minimize one's
losses) in a game, war, business endeavor, etc.
A small digression is necessary to define some
terms for those readers who may not be familiar
with game theory. A game refers to a set of rules
and conventions for playing and a play refers to a
particular possible realization of the rules. At the
end of each play, each of the players receives (or
loses) a payment, called the payoff. The matrix
consisting of all possible results based on the
strategies available is called the payoff matrix.
The object of each player is to maximize his
expectation (the average payoff based on a
strategy.) A strategy is a set of numbers that
represent the frequency with which each possible
play is selected. The astute reader will have
recognized that for our use each play represents
the selection of two Tactical Cards (one by the
Attacker, the other by the Defender), the payoff
is the die roll adjustment on the TRM, and the
payoff matrix is the TRM itself. In 1776 there
are eight possible plays for each player; thus a
strategy wouid consist of a set of eight non-
negative numbers that add up to one.
One important theorem of game theory is
that all games have at least one optimum solu-
tion. That is, there exists a strategy for each
player that will maximize his winnings, and no
other strategy can be better. So all I had to do
was to pour the TRM into the computer, push
the button, and wait for the magic answer.
Unfortunately there was one small feature on the
TRM that did not readily lend itself to analysis.
This was that dreaded nemesis of all attackers,
the successful withdrawal! While a successful
withdrawal has no effect on the current battle, it
certainly has some influence on which Tactical
Card you select. There are few things more
frustrating in life than to have a Continental
By J. Richard Jarvinen
value whatever on a withdrawal. This is actually
the case in many instances. The sole purpose of
each player is to try to inflict the highest possible
Tactical Result Matrix - No Adjustments
e RF +2 0 -1 -1 0 0 +2 -2
e ER -2 +1 0 0 +3 -2 -2 0
d R R + 1 0 - 3 + 2 0 0 0 0
r W D + 3 + 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tactical Result Matrix - Successful WD Adj = -2
loss on his opponent, giving no thought to escape
or retreat. The payoff matrix is now shown as
Table I. The most significant feature of this
matrix is that it is symmetric (for math freaks,
symmetric implies that each value in row i,
column j = the negative of the value in row j,
column i). It is characteristic of all symmetric
matrices that the average payoff (or value) t o
each player is zero, and furthermore, that the
strategies for both players will be identical.
Following is the result for the matrix of Table I,
giving the percentage of the time that each
strategy should be played (FA is Frontal Assault,
RF is Recon in Force, EL is Enfilade Left, etc.).
Underneath the table is the value of the game and
the chance of getting a withdrawal using the
given strategies.
(Withdrawal Adjustment = 0)
Attacker's Defender's
Strategy I Strategy I
Value = 0.0 Chance of WD = 0.0
This table says that each player should pick
FA, EL, and ER 18% of the time (each), RF
27%, RL and RR 976, and never pick SD or WD.
(The purist will note that the odds only add up
to .99 - this is because of the inevitable roundoff
error). The value of the game is 0.0, as previously
Army of 5,000 outnumbered three to one, only suspected, and the chance of a withdrawal via the
to have the sneaky devils slip from your grasp Tactical Cards is also 0.0. So all you 1776ers who
with minimal loss. So how do I allow for this haven't been selecting Recon in Force had better
elusive conceot? Well. to keev things simple (to take a ; look at the above statistics. - - -
begin with, anyway),' I don't maki any-allow-
ances for it. I let the values on the TRM remain So much for the ideal situation. But now you
as they are and replace NC by the value zero. ask, what if the Defender is trying to withdraw?
What this implies is that neither player puts any Obviously that puts a premium on Withdrawals
(unless the Attacker picks Frontal Assault -
ouch!). The problem now becomes how to make
successful Withdrawals "harmful" to the Attack-
er and "beneficial" t o the Defender. One way is
to simply adjust every case on the TRM where a
successful Withdrawal occurs by some negative
number. If you used -1, the bottom line would
now be +3, +1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1. This doesn't
mean that you would use these values in practice.
It just implies that a Recon in Force against a
Withdrawal is not really worth +2 to the Attacker
anymore. He would probably be willing to settle
for +1 if he could have another attack. Obviously
the more negative value you assign to a With-
drawal, the bigger the premium you associate
with it. So, every place in the TRM that wasred
or NC had 1 subtracted from it. I then put this
new adjusted TRM into the computer and pushed
the button again. Surprise! The results were
identical with Case 1. Minus one was probably
not enough of an adjustment. So this time I
subtracted two from all the appropriate entries
(see Table II), and had more luck:
(Withdrawal Adjustment = -2)
Att. Strat. I1 Def. Strat 11
WD .oo .33
Value = -0.12 Chance of Succ. WD = 24.7%
A rather startling change has occurred due t o
the adjustment t o the TRM. The Attacker no
longer selects Refuse the Left or Refuse the
Right, but instead picks Frontal Assaults and
Recons in Force more often. The Defender also
gives up on Refuse the Left or Right, but now
selects Stand and Defend and Withdrawals! The
value of the game has shifted slightly in the
defender's favor, the price you would expect to
pay by using Frontal Assaults more often.
Now I decided to adjust the TRM by even
more. 1 used values from minus three to minus
ten, and one extreme case of minus twenty-four
(either the Attacker is desperate to nail the
Defender or the Defender is willing to sell his
soul in order to escape!). Following are the
results using the values -4, -6, and -24:
CASE 111
(WD adj. = -4)
WD . OO .25
Value = -0.5 Suc. WD = 14.8%
(WD adj. = -6)
Att IV Def IV
Value = -0.74
Att V
Suc. WD = 9.8%)
(WD adj. = -24)
Def V
Value = -1.46 Suc. WD = 1.9%
Taken together, these tables show some inter-
esting trends. As the "value" of the WD adjust-
ment decreases, the value of the game slowly
decreases, while the chance of a successful
withdrawal via the Tactical Cards rapidly ap-
proaches zero. The attacker starts to rely more
and more on Frontal Assaults, while the Defend-
er is busily pulling out Enfilades, with only an
occasional Withdrawal just t o keep the Attacker
on his toes. In the most extreme case, we would
anticipate the Attacker always picking Frontal
Assaults, the Defender always picking Enfilades,
the value being exactly minus two and the chance
of a Withdrawal being exactly zero. And I can
assure you, that when the Attacker doesn't want
the Defender t o get away, and the Defender
knows it, you might as well forget the Tactical
Cards and just subtract two from the die roll.
Experience bears this out , but isn't it nice t o
know that theory agrees with you!
One interesting problem arises when t he
Attacker and Defender interpret the situation
differently. For example, the Attacker may be
using the strategy presented in Case I1 (he doesn't
care t oo much if the Defender gets away), but
the Defender misreads the Attacker's intentions
and defends using the strategy in Case N (he
thinks the Attacker really wants to pulverize
him). This type of problem comes under the
subject of non-zero-sum games, a topic which is
beyond the scope of this article, and undoubted-
ly beyond the ability of this author. However, I
will admit that the advantage would generally lie
with the person using the lower numbered
Using the strategies presented in this article
should improve your chances for getting good
results on the TRM, but I have no sympathy for
those people who are playing against psychic
opponents or who can't roll a number higher
than a two.
by John Engberg
Picture the following game of STALI NGRA D: The other works somewhat like the tactical matrices
you're the Germans. driving fast and hard through in 1776 or CAESAR'S LEGIONS. This second
the Ukraine. You've given the Russians a bloody table translates any overages from flat-odds into
nose. but his lines are still cohesive. But you see an die-roll advantages. In the opening example, the
opportunity-smash one 5-7-4 and you can come thirteen extra factors are turned into a die roll
around behind and cut off most of his front. Sure. modification that would make the battle equal to a
he's behind a river and you can only attack from two 3-1 straight. One factor shouldn't be more import-
hexes. but the four 8-8-6s are in easy reach and ant than the other forty-one put together. Such a
should carry the day. They move up. That's 32-14, table for STALJNGRAD might look like theonein
ten more factors are needed for a 3-1. You spot a 5- diagram A.
5-4 and put him in the line. Five factors needed, but
only enough room left for one more unit. You
Such a system has inaccuracies of its own. Two
frantically search the board-nothing i n reach
factorsare more important at 8-3 than at 22-10. A
bigger than a 4-4-4. That gives you only 41 factors,
quick panacea for this is to express the excess as a
one shy 3-1 odds. N~~ you either call off the
fraction of the attacking or defending force. rather
attack and allow Ivan to reinforce; or riska 2-1 shot,
than a number of factors. The table would be
with the funmaking prospect of having at least 28
divided into percent increments (.I-%. 5.1-10%.
factors fly off ot Valhalla on the wings ofan A-elim,
10.1-15%. etc.), each with a die roll addition. This
Situations like this cheat barbers out of millions of
has t he drawback of players having to calculate
dollars every year.
percents, but it is not all that difficult. Simply divide
the part by the whole and multiply by 100. In the
Is there a better way? Let's see.
beginning example, 13s14xl00=92.86%. A cheap
pocket calculator should do away with pencil-
~h~ t i t l e is derived from the fact that one often
pushing, orachart ofcombinationsand percentages
does not get battles that reduce t o ,,ice, even CRT
could be included in the game (something like the
odds (even with 3-2 col umns and the like), F~~~~~~
odds-reduction chart included with AH'S old
are left over, ~h~~~ factors fight and die like [he rest,
standardized CRT). This would look somewhat like
but are powerless to influence the battle. One
figure B.
obvious solution is to put more columns in the
CRTs, but some fellows will still be left out.
For variety, one could add a vertical column
Carrying this to extremes, we can have a table that
with combat odds. The die roll modification would
covers EVERY possible situation. You could figure
differ slightly depending on the balance of forces.
out what the possible strength defending a
This woul d al l ow the excess-~oint t abl e to take
hex would be, and the greatest number of attackers
percentages into account. Gamblers among you
that could be brought t o bear, and check out
might even like to roll a die to determine the exact
everything in between, Such a CRT would beabout
change, out of different possibilities. This can
the size of the New York phone directory and come
enhance t he created things l i ke
in a separate package. A science fiction game with
tactical and command control.
such a table would be an ancients game by the time
I hope this Total Unit Effectiveness CRT (I get
of publication. There is something inherently
my jollies thinking UP fancy names for things) helps
unwieldy in the beast.
you in your gaming. and that you no longer need to
defoliate yourself over that up-factoring unit that
just couldn't make it. Okay, so I've run it up the
One does not have to risk a hernia just to enjoy flagpole. We'll see who salutes it.
the hobby. I have devised a solution which only
requires two tables. One is a basic flat-odds t yp~
rl bunc a
0-9.9:': 10-19.9% 20-29.96 30-39.96 40-49.9% 50-59.9" 60-69.9'4 70-79.99 80-89.Y') 90-99.9%
0 0 - 1 - 1 -1 - 2
2 -3 - 3 3
In 1948, Stalin sought to put pressure on the
Western Allies by shutting off all of the land access
routes to Berlin. The Allies responded by supplying
Berlin completely through the air in the Berlin Air-
variant situations assume that the Air-Lift had
failed and that the Allied leaders had decided to
open the land routes to Berlin by force.
These situations use the PANZER LEADER
boards and Allied units and the PANZERBLITZ
Soviet units. The PANZER LEADER rules are
used with the following modifications:
1. STACKING-Four Allied units may stack in
a hex; three Soviet units may stack in a hex except
for Soviet infantry units which can stack with only
one other unit.
2. INDIRECT FIRE-No Soviet unit may use
indirect fire; all Allied M and (H) units may use
indirect fire.
3. RANGE-Soviet infantry units have a range
of 2*.
Situation 25 introduces two new types of AVRE's
(Armored Vehicle, Royal Engineers) and this rule
covers their use.
a. The AVRE-F units represent AVRE's
carrying fascines (bundles of sticks). When this
AVRE enters a stream hex, it may drop its fascine
by expending an additional movement point. A
"Fascine" counter is placed in this hex to indicate
that the fascine has been placed in the stream. All
tracked and half-tracked vehicles may now cross the
stream on this hex by expending an additional 3
movement points but no more than 2 units may
cross each fascine per turn. Up to 3 fascines may be
dropped in a single hex and they may be crossed on
the same turn that they aredropped. Each AVRE-F
carries one fascine.
b. The AVRE-B units represent AVRE's
equipped with bulldozer blades. An AVRE-B may
remove a "Wreck" from a Clear Terrain hex by
remaining undispersed on that hex for one complete
Movement Phase at the end of which the "Wreck"
counter is removed from the Board. The same
process is used to clear a "Wreck" from Woods
hexes except that at the end of the Movement Phase,
the "Wreck" is replaced by a "Wreck-R(emoved)"
counter which counts as a unit for stacking but does
not inhibit movement (as along a road).
c. One AVRE-B can remove a "Block"
counter by remaining undispersed on that hex for 2
complete Movement Phases, at theend of which the
"Block" counter is removed from the game. Two
AVRE-B's can remove a "Block" if each one
remains on that hex undispersed for one complete
Movement Phase.
d. One or more AVRE-B's can clear a Green
hexside by remaining undispersed adjacent to that
hexside for a total of 3 complete Movement Phases,
at the end of which a "Green Side Cleared" counter
is placed with the arrow pointing to the cleared side.
All tracked and half-tracked vehicles may then cross
this hexside by expending an additional 2 Move-
ment Points.
e. AVRE-B's can clear minefields by using
the procedure described above for removing
by Roy Easton
Germany, 1948: The Berlin Airlift has failed and President Truman has ordered the army to open
sufficient land supply routes into Berlin to supply the city. The success of this attack by elements of the
U.S. 2nd Armored Division depends on the speed with which the routes are opened and casualties are
I *
Available Units:
U.S.: Two Combat Commands each containing the following:
I only, can spot for any and all U.S. units.
I *
Soviet: Reinforced Guards Mechanized Rifle Brigade.
Note: Since the counter-mix does not provide sufficient counters for this situation, the player should
purchase another set of Allied counters or make appropriate substitutions. Soviet mortars may not use
indirect fire.
Boards: The U.S. Zone-Soviet Zone Border runs south along
Row U on Board A until it reaches the main river and
then runs along the river to the South end of Board D.
& Set-Up:
NORTH Sovier Piuyer: Set up first anywhere east of the Border.
U.S. Player: Set up second anywhere West of the Border,
move first. Each of the two Combat Commands must set-
up on a different Board but there are no other restrictions
Game Length: 15 Turns
on movement or firing.
Victory Conditions:
Victory is determined by the number of road exit hexes on the Eastern Edge of the Board controlled
by the U.S. player at the end of the game. In order to control one of these hexes, the U.S. player must
have been the last to move a unit through this hex and there must be no Soviet infantry or non-halftrack
armored units within 2 hexes of the road exit hex on the last game turn.
Number of Hexes Victory Level
Controlled by U.S.
0 Soviet Decisive
1 Soviet Tactical
2 Soviet Marginal
3 Draw
4 U.S. Marginal
5 U.S. Tactical
6 U.S. Decisive
Germany, 1948: As the U.S. Army diives on Berlin, the Soviets counterattack in the BritishZone. A
battlegroup of the 1st Battalion, Coldstream Guards, is ordered to delay the advance of a Soviet Tank
Available Units:
~ ~ i t i ~ h : Cornet Archer
1 4 ~ 1 2 16"U
l!?%O 8% 3 g 1 6 7-d2 k 0 10@ 1 6~ 1 3 3"Z;IO
1 2 4 3 6 3 3 9 12
18A1240H1016A 812A 5 3 M1224M204 24 3 1 2
1 2 6 2 4 6 3 6 2
9 3 6 1 2
Note: Use Sherman and M-4 counters with Comet values and M-I0 and Achilles counters with 'Archer
Boards: Set-Up:
Brilish Player: Set up first anywhere on the Board, move
Sovier Player: Move first, enter from any hex or hexes
Game Length: 15 Turns
along Eastern edge of Board. All Soviet units must be on
Board by the end of Turn 3. The British player may use
Opportunity Fire on Turn 1.
Special Rule:
All British CAT attacks have their odds increased by one column, i.e., a 1:l becomes a 2:l.
Victory Conditions:
Victory is determined by the number of Soviet tank units, (T-34/85, J S Il l , SU-152, and SU-100)
exited off the Western edge of the Board from any partial hex south of B-GG-6. Each exiting unit must
use 1 Movement Point to exit the Board and may not return after exiting.
Number of Units Victory Level
0-2 British Decisive
3-5 British Tactical
6-8 Draw
9-1 1 Soviet Marginal
12-15 Soviet Tactical
16-24 Soviet Decisive
Germany, 1948: As the Soviet counteroffensive surges through the British Zone, a hastily assembled
force built around an armored regiment of Royal Engineers is ordered to attack the base of the Russian
12 2 3 12 14 8
535m13514A104 3 A
2 a r l 2
I T'2
3 7 ~ 1 0 M o(2P 0 I
0 - 0
side clear
0 ~ 0
7 3 ' 8
2 2 6 6 6
4 4 3 2 9 5
5 7 10 NORTH
Game Length: 12 Turns
Soviet Plaver: Set up first anywhere on the Board.
British Player: Move first and enter anywhere along the
Southern edge of the Board.
Victory Conditions:
The Soviets win if, at the end of the game, they can trace a line of continuous road hexes from the East
to the West edges of the Board such that no hex along this line is within 2 hexes of a British non-Bren or
halftrack unit. The British win by avoiding the Soviet Victory Conditions.
15 A 8
2 92 0
16 A 8
15 841 8
1 2
8 112 1
12 A 5
r n
2 M 0
5 1 4
16%e 1
3 M 12
3 88 1
8 1 1
12:8 1
Dear Sir:
I have some comments Fd like to pass on to
you concerning the GENERAL and the course of
AH i n general. F~rst. youand the peopleat AH arc
l o be congratulated. The GENERAI. has become
a first class publication and I am truly amazed at
the volume of new games that have been brought
out inthe last few years. I rememberthedaysofthe
classics when i t was more like one or two new
games a year. That also brings me to my point of
Perhaps Future Shock has hit the old line
wargamer. It used to be that you could keep up
with all the new AH games and gain at least a
mastery and apprec~at~bn for them even ~f some
( I ~ke 1914)dldn.t reach that slaee The GENERAL
was full of articles which courd be enjoyed i f not
for their quality, but at least because you knew
what they were talking about! What with the
volume of newgamesand the lack of volume of my
time available for gaming. the GENERAL is read
now with perhaps less enjoyment as the average
issue has mostly articles about games which I
know nothing about. I t is interesting at least to
learn what they are about.
I t seems that wargaming has changed,
broadened its scope and appeal, and of course the
GENERAL has followed this trend. However. I
think that the indepth coverage given i n therecent
issues to some of the new games must bedone with
care-that is. don't over do i t as I feel you did i n
Vol. 13. No. 2 with WS&IM taking up so much of
the issue. Really, there only seem to be twoarticles
i n the issue and i f you aren't interested in WS&l M
andlor DIPLOMACY the issue is just a waste. I
am interested i n the two, but please try not to make
the issues quite so specialized. I feel that the in-
depthcoverage isagood thing, butjust no so much
of it!
On another side. thanks for publishing
(finally) my Imperfect Defense article i n Vol. I I.
No. 3. 1 find it funny that the letters about i t (Vol.
12, No. I, Vol. 12. No. 3 and Vol. 13, No. 2) have
referred to the photographer (Dick Bartlett) asthe
author! Oh well. I have taken the criticisms of
Robert Beyma to heart to the extent of pulling
back the stack of 4-6's at CC-14 and using a more
conventional defense on the Bug River. The
defense south of Hungary is the same except for
replacinga 2-3-6 with a4-6-4. Theredoes not seem
to be much to do about the possibility of a big 1-2
on Brest except to grin and hope for the best. The
defense is not the best possible, that's why I called
i t the Imperfect Defense. I wrote it i n response to
some really poor defenses I'd seen published.
STALINGRAD docs appear to be a balanced
game to me now with the 1-2 and 2-1 a necessary
part of a German's tactics. A properly adminis-
tered 2-1 can do wonders for the next few months
of the war.
You are to be congratulated for the publica-
tion of RUSSIAN CA MPAIGN. I t is so different
from S'GRAD that at least to the game player.
there is no overlap. The few that I've tried were
really something.
I guess that the diversification of wargaming
means that we must really specialize i n a few
games even i f you insist on bringing out more
and more new and fascinating ones. Well that's
life. Good luck nonetheless.
Dr. Richard Shalvoy
Lexington, KY
We are aware that we are gambling each time we
put out an in-depth issue such as Vol. 13. No. 2,
bu~feelthat i t is necessary ijweare toprovide truly
meaningful coverage of a game. me policy is not
unbreakable however, and we will continue to
alternate the in-depth approach with scatterpn
coveraxe in.future issues.-Ed.
Dear Sirs:
I purchased a copy of your new game
TOBRUK several months ago, but I did not get a
chance to play i t until recently. Now that I have
received the revised rules for TOBRUK I have
made a concentrated effort to learn and play it.
Learning TOBRUKdid not requireas much effort
as I had thought i t would because of its new
learning system and because i t has been so
enjoyable to play. I have just about finished the
process of learning how to play TOBRUK, and I
am very pleased that I purchased i t and took the
tlme t o learn it. At present. I have a collection of
over one hundred wargames, and I believe that
TOBRUK is the best of them all. I very much like
. .
Letters to the Editor ...
its new game system, and I hope that more games
can be produced using this system. I would like to
see i t applied to the same kinds of situations as
your earlier gdmg PANZERBLITZand PA NZER
LEADER, and I wish that games using the
TOBRUK-system could be developed dealing
with tactical combat i n the Pacific theater during
World War Two and with modern tactical combat
situat~ons(maybesetin the Middle East). l f i t were
possible, even though the type of weapons used
might be much different. I would also be very
interested i n a game which would apply the
TOBRUK-system to tactical combat i n World
War One. I very much believe that TOBRUK's
game-system is a revolutionary design which
could and should be used i n future tactical
wargames, and I hope that you will soon begin
developing more games using the MBRUK-
I n addition, I want totell you how much I like
your other new game WOODEN SHIPS& I RON
MEN. I have found it to be far more playable than
the similar game published by your biggest
competitor. I t might be that some day its
game-\ystem and something like the TOBRUK-
-.T.vstem could be combined to produce what
would probably be a very excellent tactical naval
Jeffrey R. Smith
Columbus. OH
Dear Mr. Greenwood:
I have often wondered when you at Avalon
Hi l l will computerize your games. As a program-
mer and wargamer (since I was twelve), I have
often daydreamed about the possibilities the AH
games present.
Your games are ideally suited (large amounts
of data handled i n the same manner according to
set rules) for computer application. TOBRUK,
with its many die rollsand tables, is one example.
The computer could generate the die rolls and
report the results with such speed that i t would
almost be like sitting i n the turret of a Pz. 111
watching the Grants roll towards you.
Another of your games which I like very much
and bought as soon as i t came out is 1914. I'd play
i t more if i t wasn't so much trouble to set up and
keep track of. The computer could easily keep
track of all the pieces on the boardas wellasmany
rules the players would care to utilize.
Not only could the computer keep track of
rules and units. i t could control what information
each player has on his opponent's units. No longer
will you be able to tell at a glance where your
opponent's strengths and weaknesses are. In
A FRIKA KORPS, Recce units will have to dojust
that-recon; and i n PA NZER BLITZ!LEADER.
you can deploy units behind hills or i n woods
without your opponent knowing they're there.
I realize that all this can be done now with
inverted counters (which tend to confuse the
owning player as well as his opponent) or with a
third player, but at what cost to speed and game
I mentioned the third player. How often do
you find someone who really wants to be a third
player? More oflen than not, a third player takes
on that role so that such things as hidden
movement or simultaneous movement or some
other optional rulecan be employed. But with the
computer taking over these tasks, the third player
can become a contestant i n a multi-player game
without a fourth player having to keep track of
everything. who can become a fourth contestant
without a fifth player. . .
And now that we're on the subject of multi-
player games (which also seem to take forever at a
cost to game enjoyment), what are the possibilities
with the computer i n the picture? Five players as
the commanders i n ALEXANDER? Ten players
TOBRUX? Fifty or more i n JUTLAND? And all
of the players would be making their moves
simultaneously with no information as to the
movements of the other players, i f they could not
logically have information about them.
The cost of computers today is going down.
and microcomputers will be appearing i n every
home and will one day replace the television asthe
family's entertainment center. While today, even
the cheapest microcomputer may be out of the
price range of the average wargamer, they
certainly aren't beyond the reach of most wargam-
ing clubs. I sometimes fantasizealongthe lines I've
outlined i n this letter, and I imagine a dozen or
more wargamersaround thecountry playing i n the
same game, or even a club i n San Francixo
fighting the Battle of the Bulge against a club
i n. . . Baltimore, perhaps?
Stephen Ki l me~
San Pablo. CA
Three games have recentlyjoined ORIGINSin the
"political" category: DIPLOMACY. KING-
MAKER. and MR. PRESIDENT The last of the
three is the subject of this letter. I have been
play~ng MR. PRESIDENT for several years now
and feel that 11 isan outstanding product, probably
the best game of its kind.
Purists may argue that this is a game of
'chance." Not so! My reasons:
I ) Although the order i n which the Ballot
Cards appear is at random, both parties start with
identical decks of cards. It's what they do with the
cards that counts.
2) I n real life a candidate would spend more
time i n a large, populous state than i n a smallone.
To reflect this, the player is forced to roll the dice
while campaigning, for the dice charts favor the
larger states. The frequent number of dice rolls.
however, helps to reduce the luckelement, for luck
w~l l even out.
3) The Campaign Headquarters cards are a
chance element. but a realistic one. I n an actual
campaign such unexpected events such as press
endorsements, rumors, and news events turn up
and alter things. Also, the additional option of
drawing a card adds a decision point.
There is one major flaw i n the game design. I
am annoyed that the same dice numbers used i n
selecting states are also used i n determining
eligibility for "options" (going to campaign
headquarters, advertising. debating). The selec-
tions of states and options are independent events
and should be treated as such. I therefore suggest
that after selecting his reglon (unless he has
dec~ded to raise funds) the player rolls the dice
once for his options (hopingfora 7. 1 I, ordoubles)
and then rolls once for his states. Then he makes
his decision as to what to do this turn. I also
suggest that i n the"Home Stretch" the player must
roll the d~ce separately for the states i n each of the
two reglons.
In short, then, the MR. PRESIDENTgame.
while requiring strategy, is exciting and fascinat-
ing. I t belongs i n every game addict's library.
Hopefully Avalon Hi l l will look into other former
3M games not mentioned i n Vol. 12, No. 5's
"Avalon Hi l l Philosophy." I particularly enjoyed
and SLEUTH. I also feel that MONAD could
survive ~f the rules are changed slightly so that the
discard pile is reshuffled before being turned over
into the draw pile so as to add uncertainty to play.
I am anxious to see which 3M games wi l l be
Bill Hecker
Leominster, Mass. 01453
were never disrontinued. Hl GH BI D was, but we
have redesigned, repackaged. and renamedit THE
COLLECTOR and i t will be availableagain i n the
Dear Sir:
I have played countless games of MIDWAY.
and i t has become my pet love of all wargames.
Long live its creators! However. I cannot help but
wince, whenever I read an article on MI DWAY i n
your magazlne or gaze at my search counters, at
your flagrant use of the word "Jap."
Good Heavens! Doesn't theGeneral Editorial
Staff realize that this is a blatant racial slur?
The word "Jap is as an offensive and
disparaging remark to Japanese-Americans as the
word 'n~gger" is to Black-Americans.
In your Series Replays and various articles. I
am sure this can be rectified qulte easily by simply
inserting "Japanese". The more difficult task
would be the changing of the search counters to
read something other than the word "Jap". I
recommend the use of the abbreviation "JPN" or
"Jpn.". The former has been advocated by the
Japanese American Citizens League as a substi-
tute for the more commonly used "Jap"for the use
i n dictionaries and encyclopaedias. I t is already
being used. I f this is unacceptable(which I doubt),
thenl propose a mere period (.)be placed after the
final "D" In the word "Ja~"on thesearchcounters.
After ill. the American counters are not marked
'US" but "U.S.".
As a wargamer. I subscribe to your magazine
and will continue tosubscribe; but, as a Japanex-
American who is proud of his cultural heritage, I
cannot let the use oftheracialslur,towhich I have
developed an uncanny hatred, continue i n your
fine magazine.
I trust you to rectify it as speedily as possible.
Craig Kurumada
Ed. Nore- Thanks for pointing out this oversi~ht
on our part. We'll keep i t especiallv i n mind while
preparing THE RISING SUN for publication
later i n the year.
Dear Sirs.
I don't feel Dean Miller's article does justice
to RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN i n that hiscomplaint
about a minor point and theeditorial rebuttal tend
to obscure the true "breakthrough." This is the
type of game I have been expecting to happen and
am glad did. Here is a remake of a well "gamed"
period of military history which offers playability
plus confronting each player with a much more
clear-cut view of the advantages and disadvan-
tages possessed by both sides i n theactualconflict.
As the German or Russian, these advantages and
disadvantages have been made on important parts
of the strategic and tactical choices the player has
to make. One can truly appreciate the strategic
problems that faced each s~de and the scope of
the game, including the well conceived victory
conditions, diminishes the possibility of "game
tactics" to avoid a victory condition that would
have been ludicrous i n the actual situation.
Al l this and pbm playability too! I'malready
joining orders w~t h a friend for a second copy and
predict that this game has a good chance of
becoming a good selling classic. To me i t also
proves that there isgreat xope for improvement i n
other well-worked areas (e.g.. The Nonh African
Campaign-a similar redo of AK where the Allies
have to push Rommel out and not just avoid his
conditions of victory. the Pacific campaign on a
reasonable scale, the Civil War, etc.).
So far, The Russian Campaign looks like the
best game of the 70's.
Will~arn A. Farone
Bon Air, VA
Editor's No#: Man.v others have written similar
letters and we think you'll even be more pleased
with the improved scenarios, corrected rules, and
Sudden Death Victory conditions of the 2nd
Dear Don:
Thank you for printing my "More French
Alternatives" i n 13.3. There is one serious flaw.
though; the order of battle for Mini-Game
Dunklrk was left out. Brit~sh forces within the
perimeter should be l(8-8). l(6-8), and 2(1-8). and
l(4-8) is i n hex 721. French forces are l(6-6) i n
Calais. l(6-6) i n 722, and l(6-6) i n 723. Belgian
forcesare l(4-6) each i n 783 and 784. At thestart of
Turn Ten (the third Turn) these units surrender.
German forces south of849 are l(7-8). 3(6-8). l(5-
8). 2(4-8) and 4(2-8). Forces north are X7-6). No
German unit may be within two hexesofan Allied
unit at game start. Germans have four supporting
alr units, the Allies two British (flying from
Phil Kosnett
North Brunswick. NJ
#UECI: Multi-player Political Game based on Pre-WWI Europe
DIPLOMACY was the 29th game t o whenever gatherings allow for a ful l field of
undergo analysis i n the REG and fared well partic~pants, as evidenced by the record
enough to be ranked tenth wi t h a cumulative attendance tournamentsat ORIGINS I & II.The
rating of 2.60 despite its old age. Although the required 7 participants is widely recognized as
game was acquired by Avalon Hill i n 1976, i t the game's major drawback and is partly
has been available i n much the same form respons~bleforspawningapostalDlPLOMACY
practically since the birth of the wargame hobby wherein enthusiasts play i n any of
hobby.TheAHversionremainedfaithfultothis virtually dozens of privately operated fan
timeless classic save for an enlarged map- 'zlnes. DIPLOMACY, more than any other
board and cover art patterned after the hlghly commonly accepted wargame, is widely recog-
successful English version. nized as a hobby i n itself and those interested
The Components ratlng is perhaps the i n pursuing it further should proceed via the
most interesting as i t is the first rated game to DIPLOMACY WORLD journal advertised else-
utilize three dimens~onal pieces (different where i n this magazine.
colored and shaped wooden blocks). The The playing time of 5% hours issomewhat
resulting 3.1 3 was only the 20th best score i n exaggerated and can be cut by reducing the
this category to date and does not bode well for time allotted for negotiations.
those who would favor an end to cardboard
The only drawback t o an otherwise strong
Q. I f a unit is firingcounter-battery, can an enemy
battery attempt to locate i t even though i t is NOT
firing onto the mapboard?
A. Yes. ANY type of off-board fire makes a
battery liable for counter-battery locating-
including counter-battery fire.
A. May forward observers spot targets while i n
full cover?
A. Yes.
Q. May indirect fire weapons acquire targets
which are i n a fullcover slate?
A. Only i f those targets were previously exposed
by movement or by their firing. Units that remain
i n full cover without firing, moving, or changing
their cover state may not be fired upon by any type
of weapon.
Q. May the opposing player examinea unit i n full
cover by looking under anentrenchment counter i f
that unit has already shown itself i n a good cover
state on the previous turn?
A. No. Enemy units under entrenchment counters
may not be examined.
Q. May Carriers fire Bren guns or ATR's from
Inside weapon pits?
A. No.
Only a limited number of GENERAL back issues are available for $1.50 each plus normal postage and
handling charges. Due to low supplies we request that you specify an alternate lor anv selection you make.
The index below lists the contents of each Issue by subject matter: feature articlesaredeaignated with an ( *I ,
series replays are italic17ed. and the number followingeach issue is the reader ratlng of that particular Issue.
Vol. 7. No. 2 - 4 m~scellaneour. An7io. Bulge. Jutland. Blitrkr~eg, Waterloo
Vol. 8. No. I *Bulge. An7io. 2 miscellaneous, Panrerbllt7, 2 I.uftwaffe. 1914. Getty5burg
Vol. 12. No. I - *177h. An:io..miscellaneous. Panzerhlitr. Chancellorsvllle. Panrer Leader. Stalln-
grad. Tactics 11 . . . 2.57
Vol. 12. No. 2 - '3 Tobruk. Pon:rrhlirz. Bulge. Blitrkrieg. PanJcr Leader. Stalingrad . . . 3.10
Vol. 12. No. 3 - *3 Jutland. Worerloo, miscellaneous. Thlrd Reich, Chancellorsville . . . 3.96
Vnl. 12, No. 4 - 'Alexander. Alriko Korp.\. 3 mtscell;~neous. Panrerblit~. Midway. France '40. 1776.
Panrer Leader, Stalingrad . . . 2.64
Vol. 12, No. 5 - *Pan7erblitz. Anzro. miscellaneous. Alrika Korps. Blit~krieg. 1-hird Reich . . . 3.22
Vol. 12, No. 6 -- *Chancellorsville. WS&IM. miscellaneous. Panrer Leader. Stalingrad . . . 3.42
Vol. 13, Nu. I - 'Luftwaffe. Ponzer Lrorler. 2 1776. Waterloo. Kingmaker. Alexander. . . 3.58
Vol. 13. No. 2 - *WS&IM. Dildmnac?.. Third Reich . . . 3.32
Vol. 13. No. 3 - *Caesar's Leglons. Mid*ql., miscellaneous, Panzerblitr. France '40, K~ngmaker.
1776. Stalingrad, Russian Campaign, War at Sea . . .2.53
VoI. 13. No. 4 *Tobruk, Wor Ar Sro. Stalingrad. Third Reich. The Russlan Campaign, Pan7erblitz.
2 M~scellaneoua . . . 3.26
Q. Can P.O.C. gainedevergo over+lOonthe POC
A. No.
Q. Are Germany and Norway one and the same
A. Yes: they are considered one combined port.
Q. Can carrier aircraft ever attack ships i n port?
A. No.
The wargamlng t sh~r t s are now available and The back sports an enlarged silk screened
although these black and wh~t e photos do not verslon of the Avalon H~ l l logo The neck and
portray the vlvtd colors and sharpness of the sleeves featureattractlve redcollars topresent
artwork youcan takeourwordthatthesesh~rts a very pleaslng overall appearance
sport an exact full color l~keness of wargam
Ing s most w~del y recognized box cover The sh~r t s sell for $5 00 each plus the usual
postage charges based on the dollar amount
of your total order Be sure to speclfy slze
Maryland res~dents add 4% State Sales Tax
Small - Large
- Medlum Xtra Large
The games are ranked by their cumulative scores which is an average of the 9 categories for each
game. While i t mav be fairly argued that each category should not weigh equally against the others.
we use ~t only as a general~zatlon of overall rank By break~ng down a game's ratlngs Into lndlv~dual
cateaorles the aamer IS able to dlscern for h~msel f where the game 1s strong or weak In thequalltles
he valuesthe most. Readersare reminded that the Game ~en$h category is measured i n multiplesof
ten mtnutes and that a rating of 18 would equal 3 hours.
Vol. 13, No. 4 of the GENERAL was rated at
3.26 by responding readers. The individual
ratings based on our 1200 point maximum
scoring system were:
TOBRUK Combat Expansion .......... 245
WAR AT SEA Series Replay . . . . . . . . . . 201
Taking the Offense i n STALINGRAD . . 200
The Gamer's Code of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . 168
But What If . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Blind Free Kriegspiel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Avalon Hill Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Increasing Infantry Firepower.. . . . . . . . 32
Rest of Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
YEAR honors i n the annual competition hosted
by the prestigeous English magazine GAMES 81
PUZZLES. Other Avalon Hill games placing high
i n the British competition included KINGMAKER
(5th) and SPEED CIRCUIT (1 9th). We wi l l be
reintroducing SPEED CIRCUIT to the American
market this spring wi th improved rules and
We expect only t wo price increases i n 1977.
As of February 1st both WAR AT SEA and
TACTICS I1 wi l l sell for $6.00 instead of the
previous $5.00. Inflation marches on.
To make way for the switch of RUSSIAN
CAMPAIGN to the retail line, STALINGRAD has
been switched to Mail Order only status. You'll
probably still see i t on store shelves for months
to come, but bulk shipments to retail outlets
have stopped.
We no longer stock blank hexsheets (PAN-
ZERBLITZ hex size) without grid co-ordinates
printed i n each hex. All future orders for hex
sheets of this size wi l l be filled wi th sheets
containing grid co-ordinates i n each hex.
Reader Dave Glewwe informs us thatthe 1 st
Sioux Falls, SD wargame convention wi l l be held
April 23rd and 24th at the 1 l t h St. YWCA. For
more information write Dave at his 312 N.
McKenzie, Luverne, MN 561 56 address.
More and more full service wargaming
centers are coming into existance to serve the
growing wargaming community. One such
establishment is HOBBY LAND at 343 Lincoln-
way West i n South Bend, IN which sells Avalon
Hill gamesandtheGENERAL andthen refers its
customers to the local club headed by Mike
Phoebus. Interested parties can contact Mike for
more details at his 824 W. Colfax, South Bend.
IN 46601 address.
Reader Richard Loomis of Scottsdale, AZ is
already organizing his trip to ORIGINS Ill i n New
York . . . by bus! Richard is looking into the
possibility of a charter bus originating i n Los
Angeles for the cross country trip. Cost is
estimated at $1 70 roundtrip but only if 38 people
sign up for the charter. If interested, contact the
"Flying Bus Service" at P.O. Box 1467, Scotts-
dale, AZ 85252. What a KINGMAKERgame you
could have on a Transcontinental bus trip1
Twin cities readers will be interested i n the
activities of THE OLD GUARD. This wargame
club meets for board games every Sunday be-
tween 1 and 6 at the 6th Precinct Police Club
Room at 2639 Nicollet Ave i n Minneapolis.
Further information is available from Member-
ship Chairman Frank Manos at 722-1684.
Tom Shaw (r~ght). Avalon H~l l V~ce Pres~dent and FOOTBALL
STRATEGY des~gner, congratulates Carl Slutter for wlnnlng
Super Bowl lV
Carl Slutter took top honors i n the Avalon Hill
FOOTBALL STRATEGY League by besting Doug
Burke's Cleveland entry 40-7 i n Super Bowl IV
for the most lop-sided play-off victory i n the
history of the league. Slutter's Dallas team ran
up a 12-2 regular season record and then
proceeded to the Super Bowl wi th a 39-13
victory over George Uhl's Falcons and a 22-1 7
wi n over Paul Oueeney's Saints. Doug Burke
finished the regular season wi t h a 9-5 mark en
route to play-off wins over the Bills of Dennis
Yost 33-28 and Wes Coates' Raiders 24-7.
Slutter won $100 plus possession of the
league's rotating trophy for his mastery overthe
28 team league.
More evidence of the rising acceptance of
games as a new form of literary expression was
the Game Day held by the Wyandotte Bacon
Memorial Library i n Michigan last December
4th. More and more libraries are turning to the
circulation of games as a way of increasing
public interest i n their services. Among the
many games which were eligible for two week
"borrowing" at the Bacon Memorial Library are
1776 and TACTICS I!.
TEAM ITHACA seems t o be opening up a
lead i n the 1976 Avalon Hill Team Champion-
ships gamesmastered by Nicky Palmer of Den-
mark. Their most recent advances came as the
result of a double win i n WATERLOO against
YOGWC. 1975 AH 500 finalist Pat McNevin was
the victim.
Interest Group Baltimore and the Avalon Hill
design offices have moved to 900 St. Paul St. i n
Baltimore. The gaming public is invited to attend
the Saturday game sessions every weekend
from 10 to 5. Half-price, damaged games will be
available for sale at this location, but parts,
magazines, and new game purchases must be
made by mail for the time being.
In order to give readers a longer time to
respond to the contests we wi l l accept entries up
to and including the day the next issue of the
GENERAL is mailed. This means that the ten
winners of credit vouchers for AH merchandise
wi l l not be announced until the second issue
after each contest appears.
Only Robert Medrow of Rolla, MO found the
correct solution to Contest No. 73 as listed i n the
last issue of the GENERAL. The rest of the
solutions were graded on their probability of
preventing the Russian invasion and attack to
save Stalin. Rounding out the top 10 puzzle
solvers were: P. Devolpi of Lisle, IL; P. Siragusa,
Houston, TX; J. Clemente, Houston, TX; K.
Septon, Eugene, OR; J. Culpepper, APO, NY; G.
Hill, New Castle, PA; J. Stahler, Silver Spring,
MD; B. Scott, Cherry Hill, NJ; and R. Kolish of
Homer City, PA.
Following is the solution t o Contest No. 74.
An asterisk indicates that the unit was the
southernmost of two "B" units i n the same hex.
Two asterisks indicate charging cavalry. The
number following the dash i n the Final Hex
Facing and Units Attacked columns refers t o the
correct explanation i n the Notes column.
Hex Units
Unit Moved: Facing: Attacked:
Agema Hypas
I Cav
l Arch
II Arch
Greek I I
Agrianian I
Agrianian II
Cretan Arch
Balacrus Jav
Thessalion II
Allied Horse
Uxian Infantry-2
2nd Chariots
2nd Chariots
(AV) -3
Uxian Infantry -2
I st Chariots
1st Chariots
(AV) -3
Persian HA (AV)
3rd Chariots
3rd Chariots
(AV) -3
Albanian Inf,
Mard Arch (AV)
Scythian Nomads,
Dahae HA
CONTINUATION - (Contestants did not have t o
A. Now execute the AV against the Uxian
B. Regardless of the results of its 1-1 attack the
Royal Companions Cav I will hold its
C. Advances after AVs:
(i) Thessalion I Cav t o PI 9
(ii) Indian Cav must retreat, can not (5). is
(iii) Thessalion II Cav t o L7
(iv) Lancers t o M9
(v) Allied Horse t o L8
hi ) 1st Bactrian Cav must retreat cannot, (5). i s
1. Moving through the Macedonian archers
(question Y at the end of the rulebook).
2. Not executed yet - see continuation
3. Standing chariots halved against enemy mis-
sile fire
4. Skirmishers passing through fully stacked
5. Must retreat because other unit i n hex was