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SECTION 3 POWER TRAIN SYSTEM

Group 1 Structure and Function 3-1


Group 2 Operational Checks and Troubleshooting 3-66
Group 3 Tests and Adjustments 3-77
Group 4 Disassembly and Assembly 3-80
3-1
SECTION 3 POWER TRAIN SYSTEM
GROUP 1 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
1. POWER TRAIN COMPONENT OVERVIEW
Engine Transmission
Front axle
Front drive shaft Center drive shaft Rear drive shaft Rear axle
The power train consists of the following components:
Transmission
Front, center and rear drive shafts
Front and rear axles
Engine power is transmitted to the transmission through the torque converter.
The transmission is a hydraulically engaged four speed forward, three speed reverse countershaft type
power shift transmission. A calliper-disc type parking brake is located on the front axle.
The transmission outputs through universal joints to three drive shaft assemblies. The front drive shaft
is a telescoping shaft which drives the front axle. The front axle is mounted directly to the loader frame.
The front and rear axle is equipped with torque proportioning differential.(Limited slip differential : option)
The rear axle is mounted on an oscillating pivot.
The power transmitted to front axle and rear axle is reduced by the pinion gear and ring gear of
differential. It then passes from the differential to the sun gear shaft(Axle shaft) of final drive.
The power of the sun gear is reduced by a planetary mechanism and is transmitted through the
planetary hub to the wheel.
7607PT01
3- 2
HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
K4 KR K1 K3 KV K2
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
B
D
NFS
Y1
Oil sump
Pump
Filter
Lubrication
Oil cooler
Bypass
valve
Converter
Bcak
pressure
valve
Relief
valve
System
pressure
valve
Pressure
reducing
valve
Temp
sensor
Main oil circuit
Valve block control circuit
B
D
NFS
Y2
B
D
NFS
Y3
B
D
NFS
Y4
B
D
NFS
Y5
B
D
NFS
Y6
16+2 bar
3.5 bar
1.5 bar
9 bar
16+2 bar
9 bar
F 60 A 57 B 53 C 58 D 56 E 55
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Engaged
clutch
X
X
K1,KV
X
X
KV,K2
X
X
K3,KV
X
X
K4,K3
X
X
KR,K1
X
KR,K2
X
X
KR, K3
1 2 3 4 1 2 3
K4
KR
K1
K3
KV
K2
-
F
E
D
C
B
A
-
60
55
56
58
53
57
-
Forward Reverse
Neutral
Engaged
clutch
Positions
on the
valve block
Current
No. of the
measuring
points
X : Pressure regulator under voltage
Speed
NFS Follow-on slide
D Oscillation damper
B Orifice
P1 Proportional valve clutch K4
P2 Proportional valve clutch KR
P3 Proportional valve clutch K1
P4 Proportional valve clutch K3
P5 Proportional valve clutch KV
P6 Proportional valve clutch K2
Y1~Y6 Pressure regulator
76043PT18
3-3
2. TORQUE CONVERTER
The converter is working according to the Trilok-system, i.e. it assumes at high turbine speed the
characteristics, and with it the favorable efficiency of a fluid clutch.
The converter will be defined according to the engine power so that the most favorable operating
conditions for each installation case are given.
The Torque converter is composed of 3 main components :
Pump wheel - turbine wheel - stator(Reaction member)
These 3 impeller wheels are arranged in such a ring-shape system that the fluid is streaming through
the circuit components in the indicated order.
Pressure oil is constantly streaming out of the transmission pump through the converter. In this way, the
converter can fulfill its task to multiply the torque of the engine, and at the same time, the heat created in
the converter is dissipated through the escaping oil.
The oil, escaping out of the pump wheel, enters the turbine wheel and is there inversed in the direction
of flow.
According to the rate of inversion, the turbine wheel and with it also the output shaft, receive a more or
less high reaction moment. The stator(Reaction member), following the turbine, has the task to inverse
again the oil which is escaping out of the turbine and to delivery it under the suitable discharge direction
to the pump wheel.
Due to the inversion, the stator receives a reaction moment.
The relation turbine moment/pump moment is called torque conversion. This is the higher the greater
the speed difference of pump wheel and turbine wheel will be.
Therefore, the maximum conversion is created at standing turbine wheel.
With increasing output speed, the torque conversion is decreasing. The adaption of the output speed to
a certain required output moment is infinitely variable and automatically achieved by the torque
converter.
1 Pump
2 Stator
3 Turbine
4 Transmission pump
5 Input flange
1 2 3 4 5
73033TM00
3- 4
1
1.5
1
2.5
<2.5
1
1
<1.5
0
Pump wheel
From the engine
TR
TP = Torque of the pump wheel
TT = Torque of the turbine wheel
TR = Torque of the reaction member(Stator)
TT
Turbine wheel
To the gearbox
Reaction member
(Stator)
Turbine wheel is running with
about the same speed as
pump wheel.
Condition shortly
before the converter
clutch is closed.
Intermediate
condition
Starting
condition
TP
nT = 0.8n engine
nT < n engine
nT = 0
Machine stopped
Function of a hydrodynamic torque converter(Schematic view)
If the turbine speed is reaching about 80% of the pump speed, the conversion becomes 1.0 i.e. the
turbine moment becomes equal to that of the pump moment.
From this point on, the converter is working similar to a fluid clutch.
A stator freewheel serves to improve the efficiency in the upper driving range, it is backing up in the
conversion range the moment upon the housing, and is released in the coupling range.
In this way, the stator can rotate freely.
(760) 3-4
3-5
1 Reverse clutch(KR)
2 Engine-dependent
power take-off
3 Forward clutch(KV)
4 2nd clutch(K2)
5 3rd clutch(K3)
6 Rear output flange
7 Converter side output
flange
8 Output shaft
9 Transmission pump
10 Input flange
11 Converter
12 Inductive transmitter
for engine speed
13 4th clutch(K4)
14 Converter relief valve
15 1st clutch(K1)
3. TRANSMISSION
LAYOUT 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
12
11
10
9
8
7
14
13
15
7607PT03
3-6
INSTALLATION VIEW 2)
2
3
3
1
3
8
9
5
10
11 6
15
12
7
14
19
20
18
16
4
13
17
1 Converter
2 Lifting lugs
3 Transmission suspension bores M20
4 Attachment possiblility for oil level tube
with oil dipstick(Converter side)
5 Attachment possibility for emergency
steering pump
6 Breather
7 Electro hudraulic control
8 Oil drain plug with magnetic insert M381.5
9 Output flange-Converter side
10 Connection to engine
11 Converter bell housing
12 Transmission case cover
13 Oil filter pipe with oil dipstick
14 Output flange-Rear
15 Transmission case
16 Power take-off; Coaxial; Engine dependent
17 Port return line M261.5(From brake)
18 Port system pressure M161.5
19 Filter head
20 Filter
7607PT02
3-7
OPERATION OF TRANSMISSION
Forward
Forward 1st
In 1st forward, forward clutch and 1st clutch are engaged.
Forward clutch and 1st clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.
3)
(1)

OUTPUT
INPUT
IN
KR
K2
K4
K3
OUT
KR
KV
K2
K3 K1
K4
OUTPUT
GEAR PATTERN
KV
K1
7607PT04
Forward 2nd
In 2nd forward, forward clutch and 2nd clutch are engaged.
Forward clutch and 2nd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch
piston.
3-8
INPUT
OUT
GEAR PATTERN
KV IN
KR
K2
K4
K3
K1
KR
KV
K2
K3
K1
K4
OUTPUT OUTPUT

7607PT05
3-9
Forward 3rd
In 3rd forward, forward clutch and 3rd clutch are engaged.
Forward clutch and 3rd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.

INPUT
OUT
GEAR PATTERN
KV IN
KR
K2
K4
K3
K1
KR
KV
K2
K3 K1
K4
OUTPUT OUTPUT
7607PT06
3-10
Forward 4th
In 4th forward, 4th clutch and 3rd clutch are engaged.
4th clutch and 3rd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.

INPUT
OUT
GEAR PATTERN
KV IN
KR
K2
K4
K3
K1
KR
KV
K2
K3
K1
K4
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
7607PT07
3-11
Reverse
Reverse 1st
In 1st reverse, reverse clutch and 1st clutch are engaged.
Reverse clutch and 1st clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.
(2)

INPUT
OUT
GEAR PATTERN
KV IN
KR
K2
K4
K3
K1
KR
KV
K2
K3
K1
K4
OUTPUT OUTPUT
7607PT08
3-12
Reverse 2nd
In 2nd reverse, reverse clutch and 2nd clutch are engaged.
Reverse clutch and 2nd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch
piston.

INPUT
OUT
GEAR PATTERN
KV IN
KR
K2
K4
K3
K1
KR
KV
K2
K3 K1
K4
OUTPUT OUTPUT
7607PT09
3-13
Reverse 3rd
In 3rd reverse, reverse clutch and 3rd clutch are engaged.
Reverse clutch and 3rd clutch are actuated by the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston.

INPUT
OUT
GEAR PATTERN
KV IN
KR
K2
K4
K3
K1
KR
KV
K2
K3 K1
K4
OUTPUT OUTPUT
7607PT10
3- 14
ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SHIFT CONTROL WITH PROPORTIONAL VALVE 4)
Transmission control see schedule of measuring points, hydraulic schematic and electro-hydraulic
control unit at page 3-2, 3-14 and 3-78.
The six clutches of the transmission are selected through the 6 proportional valves P1 to P6. The
proportional valve(Pressure regulator-unit) consists of pressure regulator(e.g. Y1), booster valve
oscillation damper.
The pilot pressure of 9 bar for the control of the follow-on slides is created by the reducing valve.
The pressure oil (16+2bar) is directed through the follow-on slide to the corresponding clutch.
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y3
Y2
Y1
1 2 3
4
5
6
5
3
A A
B
SECTION A-A SECTION B-B
2 6 1 4
8 7
Y5
11 9 10
1 Pressure reducing valve(9bar)
2 System pressure valve(16+2bar)
3 Housing
4 Cable harness
5 Cover
6 Valve block
7 Intermediate sheet
8 Duct plate
9 Oscillation damper
10 Follow-on slide
11 Pressure regulator
73033CV01
3- 15
By the direct proportional selection with separate pressure modulation for each clutch, the
pressures to the clutches, taking part in the gear change, are controlled. In this way, a hydraulic
overlab of the clutches to be engaged and disengaged is achieved.
This is leading to fast shiftings without traction force interruption.
At the shifting, the following criteria are considered:
- Speed of engine, turbine, central gear train and output.
- Transmission temperature.
- Shifting mode(Up-, down-, reverse shifting and gear engaging from neutral).
- Load level(Full- and partial load, traction, coasting inclusive consideration of load cycles during the
shifting).
The system pressure valve is limiting the maximum control pressure to 16+2 bar and releases the
main stream to the converter and lubricating circuit.
A converter relief valve is installed in the converter inlet, which protects the converter against high
internal pressures(Opening pressure 9bar).
Within the converter, the oil transfers the power transmission according to the well-known
hydrodynamic principle(See torque converter, page 3-3).
In order to avoid cavitation, the converter must be always completely filled with oil.
This is achieved by a converter back pressure valve, following the converter, with an opening
pressure of about 3.5bar.
The oil, escaping from the converter, is directed to a oil cooler.
The oil is directed from the oil cooler to the transmission and from there to the lubricating-oil circuit
so that all lubricating points are supplied with cooled oil.
In the electro-hydraulic control unit there are 6 pressure regulators installed.
GEAR SELECTOR(DW-3) 5)
The gear selector is designed for the
mounting on the left side of the steering
column. The positions(Speeds) 1 to 4 are
selected by a rotary motion, the driving
direction Forward(F)-Neutral(N)-Reverse(R)
by tilting the gear selector lever.
The gear selector is also available with
integrated kickdown control knob.
A neutral lock is installed as protection
against inadvertent drive off.
Position N - Gear selector lever blocked in
this position.
Position D - Driving.
F
N
R
1
2
3
4
N D
73033TM17
LCD type 1, Display during AEB mode
LCD type 2, Display during AEB mode
-
-
-
-
c : Forward, d : Reverse
-
Display the total operation hours of the machine
Display in accordance with selected items
Ride control switch AUTO position, see page 7-35
Ride control switch ON position, see page 7-35
Ride control switch MIDDLE position, see page 7-35
3- 16
LCD
1 ( ) LCD
2 ( ) MENU
- Display main menu
- Return to the normal display
3 ( ) BACK
Return to the previous menu
4 ( ) NEXT
Move to the next selection
5 ( ) SELECT
Activate the currently chosen item
6)
Normal display (1)
TYPE 1 TYPE 2
1
6
a
b
2
c
e
d
3
4
5
77073CD73
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
(Option)
Symbol
F, R, N
1, 2, 3, 4
P
a
b
c, d
e
AUT
ON
OFF
Meaning
Forward, reverse, neutral
Forward, reverse, neutral
Actual gear
Parking brake mode active
Wiper motor intermittently operating
When operating intermittently, it
shows an operating time interval.
Up and down shifting
Pre-selected gear
Hour meter
Engine coolant temperature
Ride control mode active
Ride control mode active
Ride control mode turn off
Remark
Both type1 and type2 are LCD modes and they can be changed each other by operators selection.
HOUR
COOLANT
C
MENU
BACK
NEXT
M
1
2
3
4
5
Cluster
SELECT
77073CD72
Automatic mode
3- 17
Display map (2)
Press Press
CLOCK
USER
ADJUSTMENT
DIAGNOSTICS
ACCESSORY
MENU
CLOCK
USER
ADJUSTMENT
DIAGNOSTICS
ACCESSORY
MENU
HOURMETER
STOP WATCH
ODOMETER
LIGHT CONT
JOB TIMER
ACCESSORY ACCESSORY
JOB TIMER
ON
RESET
OFF
Normal Main menu Sub menu Activate item
Press
Previous
menu
Press
M
Press
Previous
menu
Press
Previous
menu
77073CD74
Main group
Accessory
Clock
User
Sub group
Job timer
Stop watch
Light control
Time set
Clock ON/OFF
Alternate idle
Latest
Total
Odometer
1
2
3
Alarm
Mode 1
(1st-4th)
Mode 2
(2nd-4th)
Mode 1
(Down/Up)
Mode 2
(Down)
Auto
Select
Clutch
Cut-off
Auto 1/2
Quick
shift
Aux-sw
Meaning
Measure the various job time.
Press : Display ON or OFF, RESET.
Measures time in seconds.
Press : Start. Press again : Stop.
Distance until recent times.
Total distance.
Control of LCD display luminosity.
Brightness control : , .
When 12H or 24H is selected, the current
hour appears.
, : input, : setting.
: Clock display ON or OFF.
Alarm setting. It is possible to set 3 alarms.
Stop alarming : or buzzer stop switch.
Raise the idle rpm to 1200rpm automatically
to warm up the engine.
Automatic travelling speed is applied from 1st
to 4th gear.
Automatic travelling speed is applied from
2nd to 4th gear.
Press button once : Shift down, press button
again ; shift up.
Press button every time : Shift to lower gear
respectively.
ON : Transmission auto condition.
OFF : Transmission semi-auto condition.
ON : Clutch cut-off is activated.
OFF : Clutch cut-off is cancelled.
Display on LCD
TOTAL-DIS
Km
JOB HOUR
LATEST-DIS
Km
PM
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3- 18
Main group
Adjustment
Diagnostics
Sub group
Unit
Wiper
Intermittence
Alternate RPM
Pulse
AEB
ENG/KOR
Display 1/2
Meaning
Choose between metric and inch unit display.
When using the intermittent function of wiper
motor, it regulates operation time.
Regulate idle rpm.
Press , : Adjust idle rpm increments
(or decrement) by 25rpm.
Press : Modification.
It controls the disk interval of the transmission,
automatically.
English : Display in English.
Korean : Display in Korean.
Type 1 : Indicate with the symbol.
Type 2 : Indicate with a letter.
Error code display.
Refer to page 3-19.
Hydraulic temperature and battery voltage
display.
Press : Display ON or OFF.
Error code display.
Refer to page 3-20~24.
Engine coolant temperature display.
Press : Display ON or OFF.
Error code display.
Refer to page 3-25~53.
Transmission oil temperature display.
Press : Display ON or OFF.
Display on LCD display
TOTAL-DIS
Km
TOTAL-DIS
Mile
Fault
Code
Monitor
Fault
Code
Monitor
Fault
Code
Monitor
Machine
Engine
Transmis-
sion
HYD
C
BATT-VOLT
V
COOLANT
C
OIL PRESS
PSI
,
OIL TEMP
F
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Version Display the MCU and cluster version.
-
3- 19
Machine fault codes
When selecting the fault code menu, it shows all of the fault codes which mean abnormal
conditions of present time.
(3)
Er : 030
Fuel level sensor open
or short to power
030
050
025
046
Press
77073CD60
To go out from fault explanation window,
press button.
(Press , to go out to first menu.)
No error will be indicated in case that
theres no fault.
Description
Electrical
system
Hydraulic
system
Engine
system
T/M system
Steering
system
Communication
Code
010
011
012
013
014
015
020
021
030
031
034
035
050
051
052
053
060
061
070
071
072
Remark
Below 18V
Above 38V
Below 5V
Above 36V
Option
Option
Meaning
Power input voltage low
Power input voltage high
Alternator voltage low
Alternator voltage high
Buzzer circuit open or short to ground
Buzzer circuit short to power
Hydraulic oil temperature sensor open or short to power
Hydraulic oil temperature sensor short to ground
Fuel level sensor open or short to power
Fuel level sensor short to ground
Cooling fan driving valve open or short to ground
Cooling fan driving valve short to power
Auto select switch supply power open or short to power
Auto select switch supply power short to ground
Clutch cutoff supply power open or short to power
Clutch cutoff supply power short to ground
Emergency steering relay open or short to ground
Emergency steering relay short to power
MCU communication error
TCU communication error
ECM communication error
MCU : Machine control unit TCU : Transmission control unit ECM : Engine control module
3- 20
Fault code No. Reason Effect(only when fault code is active)
ECM internal hardware error.
No engine speed or position signal detected at
pin 17 of the engine harness.
No engine speed or position signal detected at
pin 9 of the engine harness
High voltage detected at the boost pressure
sensor signal pin 45 of the engine harness.
Low voltage detected at boost pressure sensor
signal pin 45 of the engine harness.
High voltage detected at throttle position signal
pin 30 of the machine harness.
Low voltage detected at throttle position signal
pin 30 of the machine harness.
High voltage detected at remote throttle position
signal pin 9 of the machine harness.
Low voltage detected at remote throttle position
signal pin 9 of the machine harness.
High voltage detected at oil pressure signal pin
33 of the engine harness.
Low voltage detected at oil pressure signal pin 33
of the engine harness.
Oil pressure signal indicates oil pressure below
the low engine protection limit.
High voltage detected at coolant temperature
signal pin 23 of the engine harness.
Low voltage detected at coolant temperature
signal pin 23 of the engine harness.
Coolant temperature signal indicates coolant
temperature has exceeded the minimum engine
protection limit.
Coolant temperature signal indicates coolant
temperature has exceeded the maximum engine
protection limit.
High voltage detected at intake manifold
temperature signal pin 34 of the engine harness.
Low voltage detected at intake manifold temper-
ature signal pin 34 of the engine harness.
Intake manifold air temperature signal indicates
intake manifold air temperature is above the
maximum engine protection limit.
Air conditioner clutch driver signal indicates a
short to ground when commanded on.
Machine specific fault code has occurred.
High voltage detected at ambient air pressure
signal pin 32 of the engine harness.
Engine speed signal indicates engine speed has
exceeded the overspeed limit.
Coolant level signal at pin 37 of the engine
harness indicates coolant level is low.
Possible no effect or engine may run rough or not
start.
Engine power derate.
Possible white smoke.
No engine speed and position backup for main
speed/position sensor.
Engine will derate to no-boost fueling.
Engine will derate to no-boost fueling.
Engine idles when idle validation switch indicates
idle and ramps up to a default set speed when
the idle validation switch indicates off-idle.
Engine idles when idle validation switch indicates
idle and ramps up to a default set speed when
the idle validation switch indicates off-idle.
Engine will not respond to remote throttle input.
Engine will not respond to remote throttle input.
Default value used for oil pressure.
No engine protection for oil pressure.
Default value used for oil pressure.
No engine protection for oil pressure.
Power and/or speed derate and possible engine
shutdown if engine protection shutdown feature
is enabled.
Default value used for coolant temperature.
No engine protection for coolant temperature.
Default value used for coolant temperature.
No engine protection for coolant temperature.
Power derate and possible engine shutdown
feature is enabled.
Speed derate and possible engine shutdown if
engine protection shutdown feature is enabled.
Default value used for intake manifold temperature.
No engine protection for intake manifold temperature.
Default value used for intake manifold temperature.
No engine protection for intake manifold temperature.
Speed derate and possible engine shutdown if
engine protection shutdown feature is enabled.
Air conditioner clutch will not operate.
No effect on engine performance.
Engine power derate.
Fuel to injectors disabled until engine speed falls
below the overspeed limit.
Power and/or speed derate and possible engine
shutdown if engine protection shutdown feature
is enabled.
111
115
121
122
123
131
132
133
134
135
141
143
144
145
146
151
153
154
155
191
211
221
234
235
Engine fault code information (4)
3- 21
Fault code No. Reason Effect(only when fault code is active)
Vehicle speed signal on pins 8 and 18 of the
machine harness has been lost.
Possible tampering has been detected on the
vehicle speed circuit pins 8 and 18 of the mach-
ine harness
Error detected in the exhaust brake relay enable
circuit at pin 42 of the engine harness.
Error detected in fan clutch relay enable circuit at
pin 41 of the engine harness.
High voltage detected at the fuel temperature
sensor signal pin 35 of the engine harness.
Fuel pump control module indicates the fuel
temperature has exceeded the pump protection
limit.
High or low voltage detected at the fuel temperat-
ure sensor signal circuit inside the pump controll-
er.
High voltage detected at main engine
speed/position sensor voltage supply pin 8 of the
engine harness.
Low voltage detected at main engine speed/ po-
sition sensor voltage supply pin 8 of the engine
harness.
The ECM expected information from a
multiplexed device but did not receive it soon
enough or did not receive it at all.
The ECM expected info from a multiplexed
device but only received a portion of the
necessary information
The machine vehicle electronic control unit
(VECU) detected a fault with its throttle pedal.
The machine vehicle electronic control unit
(VECU) detected a fault with its remote throttle.
High voltage detected at machine pressure
signal pin 48 of the machine harness.
Low voltage detected at machine pressure signal
pin 48 of the machine harness.
Engine shutdown by device other than key switch
before proper engine cool down resulting in
filtered load factor above maximum shutdown
threshold.
Power to the real time clock has been interrupted
and its setting is no longer valid
Auxiliary speed signal frequency indicates the
frequency is above a calibrated threshold value.
Low voltage detected at engine position sensor
+5 VDC supply, pin 10 of the engine harness.
EEngine speed limited to "Max. Engine Speed
without VSS". Cruise control, gear-down
protection and the road speed governor will not
work. Trip information data that is based on
mileage will be incorrect.
Engine speed limited to " Max. Engine Speed
without VSS". Cruise control, gear-down
protection and the road speed governor will not
work. Trip information data that is based on
mileage will be incorrect.
Exhaust brake will not work.
Electronic control; module(ECM) can not control
the engine cooling fan. Fan will remain on or off.
Default value used for fuel temperature.
Possible low power.
Power derate.
Default value used for fuel temperature.
Possible low power.
ECM will use the engine position signal as a
backup. Possible white smoke and power loss.
ECM will use the engine position signal as a
backup.
Possible white smoke and power loss.
At least one multiplexed device will not operate
properly.
At least on multiplexed device will not operate
properly.
The engine will only idle.
The engine will not respond to the remote
throttle.
Default value used for machine pressure. Lose
ability to control machine pressure.
Default value used for machine pressure. Lose
ability to control machine pressure.
No action taken by the ECM.
Time stamp in ECM powerdown data will be
incorrect.
Engine will go to idle and lose ability to control
speed of the auxiliary device.
Default value used for sensors connected to this
+5 VDC supply. Engine will derate to no-boost
fueling and loss of engine protection for oil
pressure, intake manifold pressure, and ambient
air pressure.
241
242
243
245
263
261
264
283
284
285
286
287
288
297
298
299
319
349
352
3- 22
Fault code No. Reason Effect(only when fault code is active)
High current detected at the fuel pump control
valve.
Low or no voltage detected at the fuel pump
control valve.
No fuel control valve movement detected by the
fuel pump controller.
No communications or invalid data transfer rate
detected on data link between ECM and fuel
pump controller at pins 4 and 13 of the engine
harness.
Low voltage detected at fuel pump controller
supply voltage circuit.
Fuel pump controller battery voltage measureme-
nt is outside the range between 6 and 24 VDC.
Fuel pump speed/position sensor signal lost.
The fuel pump controller can not achieve the tim-
ing value being commanded by the engine ECM.
Fuel pump controller does not detect engine
position pulse at pin 7 of the engine harness.
Fuel pump controller detects continuous voltage
at idle select pin 16 of the engine harness or fuel
pump controller detects and open circuit or short
circuit to ground at idle select pin 16 of the engine
harness.
High voltage detected at fuel shut off signal pin 6
of the engine harness.
Fuel pump controller has detected an internal
error.
Engine ECM is commanding a fueling or timing
value that the pump can not achieve.
No calibration in the fuel pump controller.
Fuel pump controller is not powering down when
key switch power is removed from the ECM.
Error detected in cold start aid relay 1 enable
circuit at pin 41 of the machine harness.
Error detected in cold start aid relay 2 enable
circuit at pin 31 of the machine harness.
High voltage detected at machine harness sens-
or +5 VDC supply pin 10 of the machine harness.
High voltage detected at the engine harness
sensor +5 VDC supply pin 10 of the engine
harness.
High voltage detected at the throttle position
sensor +5 VDC supply pin 29 of the machine
harness.
Error detected in power supply relay enable
circuit at pin 43 of the engine harness.
Fueling to the injectors disabled and engine is
shut down.
Engine will lose power and may shut down.
Engine power loss.
Engine will run at a backup mode set speed
when throttle is off-idle.
Engine may lose power and may shut down.
Engine will lose power and may shut down.
Fueling to injectors disabled and engine will shut
down.
Significant engine power loss.
Significant engine power loss.
Possible white smoke.
If communication is lost between the ECM and
fuel pump controller, engine will only operate at a
speed slightly higher than idle, regardless of
throttle position.
Fueling to injectors is disabled and engine will
shut down.
Response will vary from some power loss to the
engine shutting down.
Possible no effect or engine may exhibit some
power loss.
Fueling to injectors disabled and engine will shut
down.
Equipment batteries may be drained low during
long shutdown periods.
Intake air heater can not be fully energized by the
ECM.
Possible white smoke and/or hard starting.
Intake air heater can not be fully energized by
the ECM.
Possible white smoke and/or hard starting.
Sensors connected to this +5 VDC supply(i.e.
remote throttle position sensor) will not function.
Default value used for sensors connected to this
+5 volts supply. Engine will derate to no-boost
fueling and loss of engine protection for oil
pressure, intake manifold temperature, and
coolant temperature.
Engine idles when idle validation switch indicates
idle and ramps up to a default set speed when
idle validation switch indicates off-idle.
Possible no effect on performance or engine may
not run.
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
372
373
374
375
376
377
381
382
385
386
387
391
3- 23
Fault code No. Reason Effect(only when fault code is active)
Oil pressure signal indicates oil pressure elow the
very low engine protection limit.
Water-in-fuel signal indicates the water in the fuel
filter needs to be drained.
Voltage detected simultaneously on both the
coolant level high and low signal pins 27 and 37
of the engine harness or no voltage detected on
either pin.(Fault is active for switch type coolant
level sensors only)
Low voltage detected at water-in-fuel signal pin
40 of the machine harness.
Idle validation signals on pins 25 and 26 of the
machine harness indicate voltage detected
simultaneously on both pins or no voltage
detected on either pin.
Idle validation signal at pin 26 of the machine
harness indicates the throttle is at the idle
position when the throttle position signal at pin 30
of the machine harness indicates the throttle is
not at the idle position...OR...idle validation signal
at pin 26 of the machine harness indicates the
throttle is not at the idle position when the throttle
position signal at pin 30 of the machine harness
indicates the throttle is at the idle position.
Boost pressure signal indicates boost pressure is
high when other engine parameters(i.e. speed
and load) indicate boost pressure should be
low...OR...boost pressure is low when other
engine parameters indicate it should be high.
All data gathered by the ECM since the last key
on(i.e.faults, trip information data. etc.)was not
stored to permanent memory at the last key off.
Voltage detected at ECM power supply pins 38,
39, 40 and 50 of the engine harness indicates the
ECM supply voltage fell below 6 VDC.
Voltage detected at ECM power supply pins 38,
39, 40 and 50 of the engine harness indicates the
ECM supply voltage is above the maximum
system voltage level.
Low voltage detected at throttle position sensor
+5 VDC supply pin 29 of the machine harness.
Low voltage detected at machine harness sensor
+5 VDC supply pin 10 of the machine harness.
Intake manifold temperature signal indicates
intake manifold temperature is above the minm-
um engine protection limit.
Auxiliary device speed signal on pins 8 and 18 of
the OEM harness is out of range of the ECM
threshold.
High voltage detected at the auxiliary +5 VDC
sensor supply voltage pin 49 of the engine
harness.
Low voltage detected at the auxiliary +5 VDC
sensor supply voltage pin 49 of the engine
harness.
Speed derate and possible engine shutdown if
engine protection shutdown feature is enagled.
Excessive water in the fuel can lead to severe
fuel sysm damage.
No engine protection for coolant level.
No water-in-fuel protection.
No effect on performance, but loss of idle
validation.
Engine will only idle.
Possible overfueling during acceleration.
Increase in black smoke.
None on performance. Fault code table, trip
information data, maintenance monitor data,
trending data and user activated datalogger data
may be inaccurate.
Engine will die or run rough.
None on performance.
Engine idles when idle validation switch indicates
idle and ramps up to a default set speed when
idle validation switch indicates off-idle.
Sensors connected to this +5 VDC supply (i.e.
remote throttle position sensor) will not function.
Power derate and possible engine shutdown if
engine protection shutdown feature is enabled.
Lose ability to control the speed of the auxiliary
device.
Auxiliary device will not function.
Auxiliary device will not function.
415
418
422
429
431
432
433
434
441
442
443
444
488
489
515
516
3- 24
Fault code No. Reason Effect(only when fault code is active)
A mechanically stuck fuel control valve has been
detected by the fuel pump controller.
Error detected on the high speed governor droop
selection switch in put pin 24 of the engine
harness.
Error detected in the dual output driver "A" circuit
pin 5 of the machine harness.
Error detected on the torque curve selection
switch input pin 39 of the machine harness.
Error detected in the dual output driver "B" circuit
pin 1 of the engine harness.
Idle validation signals on pins 25 and 26 of the
machine harness indicate voltage detected
simultaneously on both pins.
Software has initiated an engine shutdown based
on machine sensor inputs
ECM detected the engine has initiated a
protection shutdown or has been keyed off while
above a specified load limit.
Error detected in the output device driver(VGT or
transmission shift modulation signal) signal pin
21 of the machine harness.
Engine may shut down.
Operator can not select alternate high speed
governor droop. Normal droop is used.
The device being controlled by the dual output
driver "A"signal will not function properly.
Operator can not select alternate torque curves.
Normal torque curve is used.
The device being controlled by the dual output
driver "B" signal will not function properly.
Engine will only idle.
Engine will shutdown.
No effect.
Can not control the VGT or transmission, depend-
ing on application.
517
524
527
528
529
551
599
611
768
Some fault codes are not applied to this machine.
3- 25
Display during AEB mode (5)
K1~K4, KV, KR
- And Kx
And Kx
= And Kx
OK
STOP
STOP and Kx
Spanner and Kx
E
E
T
T
FT
FB
FO
FN
FP
STOP
Symbol Meaning Remarks
Calibrating clutch K1~K4, KV
or KR respectively
Wait for start, initialization of
clutch Kx, x : 1, 2, 3, 4, V, R
Fast fill time determination of
clutch Kx
Compensating pressure
determination of clutch Kx
Calibration for all clutches
finished
AEB cancled(Activation
stopped)
AEB stopped, clutch Kx can't
be calibrated
Kx couldn't be calibrated, AEB
finished
Engine speed too low,
- Raise engine speed
Engine speed too high,
- Lower engine speed
Transmission oil temperature
too low,
- Heat up transmission
Transmission oil temperature
too high,
- Cool down transmission
Transmission temperature not
in defined range during
calibration
Operating mode not NORMAL
or transmission temperature
sensor defective or storing of
calibrated values to EEPROM
has failed
Output speed not zero
Shift lever not in neutral
position
Park brake not applied
AEB-Starter was used incorrect
or is defective. Wrong device
or wrong cable used
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on) after removing AEB-Starter
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
Transmission stays in neutral, you have to restart the
TCU(Ignition off/on)
AEB mode : It controls the disk internal of the transmission, automatically.
Refer to page 7-28, 29.
3- 26
Definition of operating modes
Normal
There's no failure detected in the transmission system or the failure has no or slight effects on
transmission control. TCU will work without or in special cases with little limitations.(See
following table)
Substitute clutch control
TCU can't change the gears or the direction under the control of the normal clutch modulation.
TCU uses the substitute strategy for clutch control. All modulations are only time controlled.
(Comparable with EST 25)
Limp-home
The detected failure in the system has strong limitations to transmission control. TCU can
engage only one gear in each direction. In some cases only one direction will be possible.
TCU will shift the transmission into neutral at the first occurrence of the failure. First, the operator
must shift the gear selector into neutral position.
If output speed is less than a threshold for neutral to gear and the operator shifts the gear
selector into forward or reverse, the TCU will select the limp-home gear.
If output speed is less than a threshold for reversal speed and TCU has changed into the limp-
home gear and the operator selects a shuttle shift, TCU will shift immediately into the limp-home
gear of the selected direction.
If output speed is greater than the threshold, TCU will shift the transmission into neutral. The
operator has to slow down the vehicle and must shift the gear selector into neutral position.
Transmission-shutdown
TCU has detected a severe failure that disables control of the transmission.
TCU will shut off the solenoid valves for the clutches and also the common power supply(VPS1).
Transmission shifts to neutral. The park brake will operate normally, also the other functions
which use ADM1 to ADM8.
The operator has to slow down the vehicle. The transmission will stay in neutral.
TCU-shutdown
TCU has detected a severe failure that disables control of system.
TCU will shut off all solenoid valves and also both common power supplies(VPS1, VPS2). The
park brake will engage, also functions are disabled which use ADM 1 to ADM 8.
The transmission will stay in neutral.

(6)
Abbreviations
OC : Open circuit
SC : Short circuit
OP mode : Operating mode
TCU : Transmission control unit
EEC : Electronic engine controller
PTO : Power take off
(7)
3-27
11
12
13
15
16
48
46
95
176
178
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
Logical error at gear range signal
TCU detected a wrong signal combination
for the gear range
Cable from shift lever to TCU is broken
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage or vehicle ground
Shift lever is defective
Logical error at direction select signal
TCU detected a wrong signal combination
for the direction
Cable from shift lever to TCU is broken
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage or vehicle ground
Shift lever is defective
Logical error at engine derating device
TCU detected no reaction of engine while
derating device active
Logical error at direction select signal 2 shift
lever
TCU detected a wrong signal combination
for the direction
Cable from shift lever 2 to TCU is broken
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage or vehicle ground
Shift lever is defective
Logical error at axle connection
Feedback axle connection measured by TCU
and output signal axle connection don't fit
Axle can't be connected or disconnected
due to mechanical problem
One of the cables from feedback axle
connection switch to TCU is broken
TCU shifts transmission to
neutral
OP-mode : Transmission
shutdown
TCU shifts transmission to
neutral
OP-Mode : Transmission
shutdown
After selecting neutral, TCU
change to OP mode limp home
TCU shifts transmission to
neutral if selector active
OP mode : Transmission
shutdown if selector
active
OP mode : Normal
Check the cables from TCU to
shift lever
Check signal combinations of
shift lever positions for gear
range
Check the cables from TCU to
shift lever
Check signal combinations of
shift lever positions F-N-R
Check engine derating device
Check the cables from TCU to
shift lever 2
Check signal combinations of
shift lever positions F-N-R
Check the cables from TCU to
feedback axle connection switch
Check signals of the feedback
axle connection switch
Failure cannot be detected in
systems with DW2/DW3 shift
lever
Fault is taken back if TCU
detects a valid signal for the
position
Fault is taken back if TCU
detects a valid signal for the
direction at the shift lever
This fault is reset after power
up of TCU
Fault is taken back if TCU
detects a valid neutral signal
for the direction at the shift
lever
Table of fault codes (8)
3-28
21
22
23
24
32
29
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage at clutch cut off input
The measured voltage is too high:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Clutch cut off sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
S.C. to ground or O.C. at clutch cut off input
The measured voltage is too low:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Cable has no connection to TCU
Clutch cut off sensor has an internal
defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle
ground or is broken
S.C. to battery voltage at load sensor input
The measured voltage is too high:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Load sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
S.C. to ground or O.C. at load sensor input
The measured voltage is too low:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Cable has no connection to TCU
Load sensor has as internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle
ground or is broken
Clutch cut off function is disabled
OP mode : Normal
Clutch cut off function is disabled
OP mode : Normal
Retarder function is affected
TCU uses default load
OP mode : Normal
Retarder function is affected
TCU use default load
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the clutch cut off sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the clutch cut off sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the load sensor
Check the assembly tolerances
of load sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the load sensor
Check the assembly tolerances
of load sensor
Availability of retarder
depends on default load
Availability of retarder
depends on default load
3-29
25
26
27
28
33
30
76
74
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at transmission
sump temperature sensor input
The measured voltage is too high:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Cable has no connection to TCU
Temperature sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage or is broken
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at transmission
sump temperature sensor input
The measured voltage is too low:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Temperature sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle
ground
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at retarder
temperature sensor input
The measured voltage is too high:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Cable has no connection to TCU
Temperature sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage or is broken
S.C. to ground at retarder temperature
sensor input
The measured voltage is too low:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Temperature sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
No reaction, TCU use default
temperature
OP mode : Normal
No reaction, TCU uses default
temperature
OP mode : Normal
No reaction, TCU uses default
temperature
OP mode : Normal
No reaction, TCU uses default
temperature
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the temperature sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the temperature sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the temperature sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the temperature sensor
3-30
27
28
31
32
76
74
38
34
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at converter
output temperature sensor input
The measured voltage is too high:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Cable has no connection to TCU
Temperature sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage or is broken
S.C. to ground at converter output
temperature sensor input
The measured voltage is too low:
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Temperature sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at engine
speed input
TCU measures a voltage higher than 7.00V
at speed input pin
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Cable has no connection to TCU
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage or has no contact
S.C. to ground at engine speed input
TCU measures a voltage less than 0.45V at
speed input pin
Cable/connector is defective and is
contacted to vehicle ground
Speed sensor has an internal defect
No reaction, TCU uses default
temperature
OP mode : Normal
No reaction, TCU uses default
temperature
OP mode : Normal
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the temperature sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the temperature sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
3-31
33
34
35
36
42
39
35
43
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
Logical error at engine speed input
TCU measures a engine speed over a
threshold and the next moment the
measured speed is zero
Cable/connector is defective and has bad
contact
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Sensor gap has the wrong size
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at turbine
speed input
TCU measures a voltage higher than 7.00V
at speed input pin
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle battery voltage
Cable has no connection to TCU
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage or has no contact
S.C. to ground at turbine speed input
TCU measures a voltage less than 0.45V at
speed input pin
Cable/connector is defective and is
contacted to vehicle ground
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Logical error at turbine speed input
TCU measures a turbine speed over a
threshold and at the next moment the
measured speed is zero
Cable/connector is defective and has bad
contact
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Sensor gap has the wrong size
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
If a failure is existing at output
speed,
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
If a failure is existing at output
speed,
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
If a failure is existing at output
speed,
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the sensor gap
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the sensor gap
This fault is reset after power
up of TCU
This fault is reset after power
up of TCU
3-32
37
38
39
3A
40
36
44
41
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at internal
speed input
TCU measures a voltage higher than 7.00V
at speed input pin
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle battery voltage
Cable has no connection to TCU
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage or has no contact
S.C. to ground at turbine speed input
TCU measures a voltage less than 0.45V at
speed input pin
Cable/connector is defective and is
contacted to vehicle ground
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Logical error at internal speed input
TCU measures a internal speed over a
threshold and at the next moment the
measured speed is zero
Cable/connector is defective and has bad
contact
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Sensor gap has the wrong size
S.C. to battery voltage or O.C. at output
speed input
TCU measures a voltage higher than 12.5V
at speed input pin
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Cable has no connection to TCU
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage or has no contact
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
Special mode for gear selection
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
If a failure is existing at turbine
speed,
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : lamp home
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the sensor gap
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
This fault is reset after power
up of TCU
3-33
3B
3C
3D
3E
37
45
71
72
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to ground at output speed input
TCU measures a voltage less than 1.00V at
speed input pin
Cable/connector is defective and is
contacted to vehicle ground
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Logical error at output speed input
TCU measures a turbine speed over a
threshold and at the next moment the
measured speed is zero
Cable/connector is defective and has bad
contact
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Sensor gap has the wrong size
Turbine speed zero doesn't fit to other
speed signals
Output speed zero doesn't fit to other
speed signals
If transmission is not neutral and the shifting
has finished,
TCU measures output speed zero and
turbine speed or internal speed not equal to
zero.
Speed sensor has an internal defect
Sensor gap has the wrong size
Special mode for gear selection
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
If a failure is existing at turbine
speed,
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : lamp home
Special mode for gear selection
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
If a failure is existing at turbine
speed,
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : lamp home
-
Special mode for gear selection
OP mode : Substitute clutch control
If a failure is existing at turbine
speed,
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : lamp home
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
Check the connectors
Check the speed sensor
Check the sensor gap
-
Check the sensor signal of
output speed sensor
Check the sensor gap of
output speed sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
the sensor
This fault is reset after power
up of TCU
Not used
This fault is reset after power
up of TCU
3-34
71
72
73
74
22
10
16
23
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage at clutch K1
The measured resistance value of the valve is
out of limit, the voltage at K1 valve is too high
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to battery voltage
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to another regulator output of the
TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to ground at clutch K1
The measured resistance value of the valve is
out of limit, the voltage at K1 valve is too low
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to vehicle ground
Regulator has an internal defect
O.C. at clutch K1
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit
Cable/connector is defective and has no
contact to TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to battery voltage at clutch K2
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit, the voltage at K2 valve is too
high
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to battery voltage
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to another regulator output of the
TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
TCU to the gearbox
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-35
75
76
77
78
11
17
24
12
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to ground at clutch K2
The measured resistance value of the valve is
out of limit, the voltage at K2 valve is too low
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to vehicle ground
Regulator has an internal defect
O.C. at clutch K2
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit
Cable/connector is defective and has no
contact to TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to battery voltage at clutch K3
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit, the voltage at K3 valve is too
high
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to battery voltage
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to another regulator output of the
TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to ground at clutch K3
The measured resistance value of the valve is
out of limit, the voltage at K3 valve is too low
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to vehicle ground
Regulator has an internal defect
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-36
79
7A
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
18
78
79
80
166
168
167
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
O.C. at clutch K2
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit
Cable/connector is defective and has no
contact to TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to battery voltage at converter clutch
S.C. to ground at converter clutch
O.C. at converter clutch
S.C. ground at engine derating device
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Engine derating device has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
S.C. battery voltage at engine derating
device
Cable/connector is defective and is
contacted to battery voltage
Engine derating device has an internal
defect
O.C. at engine derating device
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Engine derating device has an internal
defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
-
-
-
Engine derating will be on until
TCU power down even if fault
vanishes(Loose connection)
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
-
-
-
Check the cable from TCU to
the engine derating device
Check the connectors from
engine derating device to TCU
Check the resistance* of engine
derating device
Check the cable from TCU to
the engine derating device
Check the connectors from
backup alarm device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
backup alarm device
Check the cable from TCU to
the engine derating device
Check the connectors from
engine derating device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
engine derating device
* See Chapter (9)
Not used
Not used
Not used
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-37
81
82
83
84
25
13
19
26
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage at clutch K4
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit, the voltage at K4 valve is too
high
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to battery voltage
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to another regulator output of the
TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to ground at clutch K4
The measured resistance value of the valve is
out of limit, the voltage at K4 valve is too low
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to vehicle ground
Regulator has an internal defect
O.C. at clutch K4
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to battery voltage at clutch K4
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit, the voltage at K4 valve is too
high
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to battery voltage
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to another regulator output of the
TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the engine derating device
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-38
85
86
87
88
89
14
20
27
15
21
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to ground at clutch KV
The measured resistance value of the valve is
out of limit, the voltage at K4 valve is too low
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to vehicle ground
Regulator has an internal defect
O.C. at clutch KV
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to battery voltage at clutch KR
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit, the voltage at KR valve is too high
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to battery voltage
Cable/connector is defective and has contact
to another regulator output of the TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
S.C. to ground at clutch KR
The measured resistance value of the valve is
out of limit, the voltage at KR valve is too low
Cable/connector is defective and has
contact to vehicle ground
Regulator has an internal defect
O.C. at clutch KR
The measured resistance value of the valve
is out of limit
Cable/connector is defective and has no
contact to TCU
Regulator has an internal defect
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
Check the cable from TCU to
the gearbox
Check the connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Check the regulator resistance*
Check internal wire harness of
the gearbox
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-39
91
92
93
94
1
3
2
4
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to ground at relay reverse warning
alarm
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is contact to vehicle
ground
Backup alarm device has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
S.C. to battery voltage at relay reverse
warning alarm
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Backup alarm device has an internal
defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage
O.C. at relay reverse warning alarm
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Backup alarm device has an internal defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
S.C. to ground at relay starter interlock
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is connection to
vehicle ground
Starter interlock relay has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle
ground
Backup alarm will be on until
TCU power down even if fault
vanishes(Loose connection)
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the backup alarm device
Check the connectors from
backup alarm device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
backup alarm device
Check the cable from TCU to
the backup alarm device
Check the connectors from
backup alarm device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
backup alarm device
Check the cable from TCU to
the backup alarm device
Check the connectors from
backup alarm device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
backup alarm device
Check the cable from TCU to
the stater interlock relay
Check the connectors from
starter interlock relay to TCU
Check the resistance* of
starter interlock relay
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-40
95
96
97
98
6
5
7
9
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage at relay starter
interlock
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and has no connection
to battery voltage
Starter interlock relay has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
O.C. at relay starter interlock
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Starter interlock relay has an internal defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
S.C. to ground at park brake solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is connection to
vehicle ground
Park brake solenoid has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle
ground
S.C. to battery voltage at park brake
solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and is connection to
battery voltage
Park brake solenoid has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
Optional : (Some customers)
TCU shifts to neutral caused by
park brake feed back
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the starter interlock relay
Check the connectors from
starter interlock relay to TCU
Check the resistance* of
starter interlock relay
Check the cable from TCU to
the starter interlock relay
Check the connectors from
starter interlock relay to TCU
Check the resistance* of
starter interlock relay
Check the cable from TCU to
the park brake solenoid
Check the connectors from
park brake solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of park
brake solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the park brake solenoid
Check the connectors from
park brake solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of park
brake solenoid
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-41
99
9A
9B
9C
8
66
67
68
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
O.C. at park brake solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Park brake solenoid has an internal defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
S.C. to ground at converter lock up
clutch solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Converter clutch solenoid has an internal
defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
O.C. at converter lock up clutch solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Converter clutch solenoid has an internal
defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
S.C. to battery voltage at converter lock
up clutch solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and has no contacted
to battery voltage
Converter clutch solenoid has an internal
defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
No reaction
Optional : Some customers
TCU shifts to neutral caused by
park brake feed back
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Converter clutch always open,
retarder not available
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the park brake solenoid
Check the connectors from
park brake solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of park
brake solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the converter clutch solenoid
Check the connectors from
converter clutch solenoid to
TCU
Check the resistance* of park
brake solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the converter clutch solenoid
Check the connectors from
converter clutch solenoid to
TCU
Check the resistance* of park
brake solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the converter clutch solenoid
Check the connectors from
converter clutch solenoid to
TCU
Check the resistance* of
converter clutch solenoid
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-42
9D
9E
9F
81
82
83
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to ground at retarder solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Retarder solenoid has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle
ground
O.C. at retarder solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Retarder solenoid has an internal defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
S.C. to battery voltage at retarder
solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and has no connection
to battery voltage
Retarder solenoid has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the retarder solenoid
Check the connectors from
retarder solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of
retarder solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the retarder solenoid
Check the connectors from
retarder solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of
retarder solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the retarder solenoid
Check the connectors from
retarder solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of
retarder solenoid
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-43
A1
A2
A3
A4
84
85
86
96
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to ground at difflock or axle
connection solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Difflock solenoid has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
S.C. to battery voltage at difflock or axle
connection solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and has no connection
to battery voltage
Difflock solenoid has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
O.C. at difflock or axle connection solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Difflock solenoid has an internal defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
S.C. to ground at warning signal output
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Warning device has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the difflock solenoid
Check the connectors from
difflock solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of
difflock solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the difflock solenoid
Check the connectors from
difflock solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of
difflock solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the difflock solenoid
Check the connectors from
difflock solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of
difflock solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the warning device
Check the connectors from
warning device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
warning device
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-44
A5
A6
97
98
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
O.C. voltage at warning signal output
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Warning device has an internal defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
S.C. to battery voltage at warning signal
output
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and has is contacted to
battery voltage
Warning device has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery
voltage
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
the warning device
Check the connectors from
warning device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
warning device
Check the cable from TCU to
the warning device
Check the connectors from
warning device to TCU
Check the resistance* of
warning device
* See Chapter (9)
* See Chapter (9)
3-45
B1
B2
B3
60
61
62
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
Slippage at clutch K1
TCU calculates a differential speed at closed
clutch K1. If this calculated value is out of
range, TCU interprets this as slipping clutch
Low pressure at clutch K1
Low main pressure
Wrong signal at internal speed sensor
Wrong signal at output speed sensor
Wrong size of the sensor gap
Clutch is defective
Slippage at clutch K2
TCU calculates a differential speed at closed
clutch K2. If this calculated value is out of
range, TCU interprets this as slipping clutch
Low pressure at clutch K2
Low main pressure
Wrong signal at internal speed sensor
Wrong signal at output speed sensor
Wrong size of the sensor gap
Clutch is defective
Slippage at clutch K3
TCU calculates a differential speed at closed
clutch K3. If this calculated value is out of
range, TCU interprets this as slipping clutch
Low pressure at clutch K3
Low main pressure
Wrong signal at internal speed sensor
Wrong signal at output speed sensor
Wrong size of the sensor gap
Clutch is defective
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check pressure at clutch K1
Check main pressure in the
system
Check sensor gap at internal
speed sensor
Check sensor gap at output
speed sensor
Check signal at internal speed
sensor
Check signal at output speed
sensor
Replace clutch
Check pressure at clutch K2
Check main pressure in the
system
Check sensor gap at internal
speed sensor
Check sensor gap at output
speed sensor
Check signal at internal speed
sensor
Check signal at output speed
sensor
Replace clutch
Check pressure at clutch K3
Check main pressure in the
system
Check sensor gap at internal
speed sensor
Check sensor gap at output
speed sensor
Check signal at internal speed
sensor
Check signal at output speed
sensor
Replace clutch
3-46
B4
B5
B6
63
64
65
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
Slippage at clutch K4
TCU calculates a differential speed at closed
clutch K4. If this calculated value is out of
range, TCU interprets this as slipping clutch
Low pressure at clutch K4
Low main pressure
Wrong signal at internal speed sensor
Wrong signal at turbine speed sensor
Wrong size of the sensor gap
Clutch is defective
Slippage at clutch KV
TCU calculates a differential speed at closed
clutch KV. If this calculated value is out of
range, TCU interprets this as slipping clutch
Low pressure at clutch KV
Low main pressure
Wrong signal at internal speed sensor
Wrong signal at turbine speed sensor
Wrong size of the sensor gap
Clutch is defective
Slippage at clutch KR
TCU calculates a differential speed at closed
clutch KR. If this calculated value is out of
range, TCU interprets this as slipping clutch
Low pressure at clutch KR
Low main pressure
Wrong signal at internal speed sensor
Wrong signal at turbine speed sensor
Wrong size of the sensor gap
Clutch is defective
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : Limp home
If failure at another clutch is
pending
TCU shifts to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check pressure at clutch K4
Check main pressure in the
system
Check sensor gap at internal
speed sensor
Check sensor gap at turbine
speed sensor
Check signal at internal speed
sensor
Check signal at turbine speed
sensor
Replace clutch
Check pressure at clutch KV
Check main pressure in the
system
Check sensor gap at internal
speed sensor
Check sensor gap at turbine
speed sensor
Check signal at internal speed
sensor
Check signal at turbine speed
sensor
Replace clutch
Check pressure at clutch KR
Check main pressure in the
system
Check sensor gap at internal
speed sensor
Check sensor gap at turbine
speed sensor
Check signal at internal speed
sensor
Check signal at turbine speed
sensor
Replace clutch
3-47
B7
B8
B9
BA
BB
87
88
89
90
172
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
Overtemp sump
TCU measured a temperature in the oil
sump that is over the allowed threshold.
Overtemp retarder
TCU measured a temperature in the retarder
oil that is over the allowed threshold
Overspend engine
Differential pressure oil filter
TCU measured a voltage at differential
pressure switch out of the allowed range
Oil filter is polluted
Cable/connector is broken or cable/
connector is contacted to battery voltage
or vehicle ground
Differential pressure switch is defective
Slippage at converter lockup clutch
TCU calculates a differential speed at closed
converter lockup clutch. If this calculated
value is out of range, TCU interprets this as
slipping clutch
Low pressure at converter lockup clutch
Low main pressure
Wrong signal at engine speed sensor
Wrong signal at turbine speed sensor
Wrong size of the sensor gap
Clutch is defective
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
TCU disables retarder
OP mode : Normal
Retarder applies
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Cool down machine
Check oil level
Check temperature sensor
Cool down machine
Check oil level
Check temperature sensor
-
Check oil filter
Check wiring from TCU to
differential pressure switch
Check differential pressure
switch(Measure resistance)
Check pressure at converter
lockup clutch
Check main pressure in the
system
Check sensor gap at engine
speed sensor
Check sensor gap at turbine
speed sensor
Check signal at engine speed
sensor
Check signal at turbine speed
sensor
Replace clutch
3-48
BD
BE
BF
169
171
170
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to ground at engine brake solenoid
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Engine brake solenoid has an internal
defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
S.C. to battery voltage at engine brake
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Engine brake solenoid has an internal defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
O.C. at engine brake
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Engine brake solenoid has an internal
defect
Connector has no connection to TCU
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Check the cable from TCU to
engine brake solenoid
Check the connectors from
engine brake solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of engine
brake solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the engine brake solenoid
Check the connectors from
engine brake solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of engine
brake solenoid
Check the cable from TCU to
the engine brake solenoid
Check the connectors from
engine brake solenoid to TCU
Check the resistance* of engine
brake solenoid
* See Chapter (7)
* See Chapter (7)
* See Chapter (7)
3-49
C3
C4
C5
C6
91
129
131
130
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
Overtemp converter output
TCU measured a oil temperature at the
converter output that is the allowed threshold
S.C. to ground at joystick status indicator
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to vehicle ground
Cable is defective and is contacted to
vehicle ground
Joystick status indicator has an internal
defect
Connector pin is contacted to vehicle ground
S.C. to battery voltage at joystick status
indicator
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a S.C. to battery voltage
Cable is defective and is contacted to
battery voltage
Joystick status indicator has an internal
defect
Connector pin is contacted to battery voltage
O.C. at joystick status indicator
TCU detected a wrong voltage at the output
pin, that looks like a O.C. for this output pin
Cable is defective and has no connection
to TCU
Joystick status indicator has an internal
defect
Connector pin has no connection to TCU
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Cool down machine
Check oil level
Check temperature sensor
Check the cable from TCU to
joystick status indicator
Check the connectors from
joystick status indicator to TCU
Check the resistance* of
joystick status indicator
Check the cable from TCU to
joystick status indicator
Check the connectors from
joystick status indicator to TCU
Check the resistance* of
joystick status indicator
Check the cable from TCU to
joystick status indicator
Check the connectors from
joystick status indicator to TCU
Check the resistance* of
joystick status indicator
*See chapter (9)
*See chapter (9)
*See chapter (9)
3-50
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
54
55
53
52
57
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. to battery voltage at power supply
for sensors
TCU measures more than 6V at the pin AU1
(5V sensor supply)
S.C. to ground at power supply for
sensors
TCU measures less than 4V at the pin AU1
(5V sensor supply)
Low voltage at battery
Measured voltage at power supply is lower
than 18V(24V device)
High voltage at battery
Measured voltage at power supply is higher
than 32.5V(24V device)
Error at valve power supply VPS1
TCU switched on VPS1 and measured
VPS1 is off or TCU switched off VPS1 and
measured VPS1 is still on
Cable or connectors are defect and are
contacted to battery voltage
Cable or connectors are defect and are
contacted to vehicle ground
Permanent power supply KL30 missing
TCU has an internal defect
See fault codes No.21 to 2C
See fault codes No.21 to 2C
Shift to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Shift to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Shift to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check cables and connectors
to sensors, which are supplied
from AU1
Check the power supply at the
pin AU1(Should be appx. 5V)
Check cables and connectors
to sensors, which are supplied
from AU1
Check the power supply at the
pin AU1(Should be appx. 5V)
Check power supply battery
Check cables from batteries to
TCU
Check connectors from
batteries to TCU
Check power supply battery
Check cables from batteries to
TCU
Check connectors from
batteries to TCU
Check fuse
Check cables from gearbox to
TCU
Check connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Replace TCU
Fault codes No.21 to No.2C
may be reaction of this fault
Fault codes No.21 to No.2C
may be reaction of this fault
3-51
D6 58
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
Error at valve power supply VPS2
TCU switched on VPS2 and measured
VPS2 is off or TCU switched off VPS2 and
measured VPS2 is still on
Cable or connectors are defect and are
contacted to battery voltage
Cable or connectors are defect and are
contacted to vehicle ground
Permanent power supply KL30 missing
TCU has an internal defect
Shift to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Check fuse
Check cables from gearbox to
TCU
Check connectors from
gearbox to TCU
Replace TCU
3-52
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E5
91
92
93, 104
104
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
S.C. battery voltage at speedometer
output
S.C. to ground or O.C at speedometer
output
S.C. to battery voltage at display output
TCU sends data to the display and
measures always a high voltage level on the
connector
Cable or connectors are defective and are
contacted to battery voltage
Display has an internal defect
S.C. to ground at display output
TCU sends data to the display and
measures always a high voltage level on the
connector
Cable or connectors are defective and are
contacted to battery voltage
Display has an internal defect
Communication failure on DeviceNet
DISPID1 timeout
Timeout of CAN-massage DISPID1 from
display controller
Interference on CAN-Bus
CAN wire/connector is defective
Can wire/connector is defective and has
contact to vehicle ground or battery voltage
-
-
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Shift to neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
TCU select parameter set with
ID0
OP mode : Limp home
-
-
Check the cable from TCU to
the display
Check the connectors at the
display
Change display
Check the cable from TCU to
the display
Check the connectors at the
display
Change display
Check Omron master
Check wire of DeviceNet-Bus
Check cable to Omron master
Check display controller
Check wire of CAN-Bus
Check cable display controller
Not used
Not used
3-53
F1
F2
F3
F5
F6
51
56
59
173
174
Fault code
(Hex)
Int. code
(Dec)
Meaning of the fault code
possible reason for fault detection
Reaction of the TCU Possible steps to repair Remarks
General EEPROM fault
TCU can't read non volatile memory
TCU is defective
Configuration lost
TCU has lost the correct configuration and
can't control the transmission
Interference during saving data on non
volatile memory
TCU is brand new or from another vehicle
Application error
Something of this application is wrong
Clutch failure
AEB was not able to adjust clutch filling
parameters
One of the AEB-Values is out of limit
Clutch adjustment data lost
TCU was not able to read correct clutch
adjustment parameters
Interference during saving data on non
volatile memory
TCU is brand new
No reaction
OP mode : Normal
Transmission stay neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Transmission stay neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
Transmission stay neutral
OP mode : TCU shutdown
No reaction,
Default values : 0 for AEB
Offsets used
OP mode : Normal
Replace TCU
Reprogram the correct
configuration for the vehicle
(e.g. with cluster controller,...)
Replace TCU
Check clutch
Execute AEB
Often shown together with
fault code F2
This fault occurs only if an test
engineer did something wrong
in the application of the vehicle
TCU shows also the affected
clutch on the display
3- 54
Measuring of resistance at actuator/sensor and cable
Actuator
(9)

Open circuit R12 = R1G = R2G =


Short cut to ground R12 = R; R1G = 0, R2G = R or R1G = R, R2G = 0
(For S.C. to ground, G is connected to vehicle ground)
Short cut to battery R12 = R; R1G = 0, R2G = R or R1G = R, R2G = 0
(For S.C. to battery, G is connected to battery voltage)
Cable
Open circuit R12 = R1P = R1C = R2P = R2C=
Short cut to ground R12 = 0; R1C = R2C = 0, R1P = R2P =
Short cut to battery R12 = 0; R1C = R2C = 0, R1P = R2P = 0
1
R
G
2
1 2
TCU
P(Power supply)
Actuator/
Sensor
C(Chassis)
Ground
U
Bat
76043PT19
76043PT20
3- 55
1 Control unit(EST-37A)
2 Kickdown switch
3 Clutch cut off switch
4 Full automatic switch
5 LCD
6 Gear selector(DW-3) with integrated kickdown switch
7 Supply-system connection
8 Transmission
9 Cable to inductive transmitter - speed central gear train
10 Cable to inductive transmitter - speed turbine
11 Cable to inductive transmitter - speed engine
12 Cable to speed sensor output and speedometer
13 Cable to plug connection on the electro - hydraulic control unit
14 Brake pressure sensor/load sensor
Description of the basic functions
The powershift-reversing transmissions will be equipped with the electronic transmission control
unit(EST-37A), developed for them.
The system is processing the wishes of the driver according to the following criteria.
Speed definition as a function of gear selector position, driving speed and load level.
ELECTRIC CONTROL UNIT
Complete system
7)
1
7
2
8
9
10
12
13
11
4
14
2
6
5
A
3
(2)
(1)
7607PT11
3- 56
Protection against operating errors, as far as possible and practical.
Protection against overspeeds(On the basis of engine and turbine speed).
Reversing-automatic system(Driving speed-dependent).
Pressure cut off(Disconnecting of the drive train for maximum power on the power take-off).
Switch for manual or automatic operation.
Reversing function button, respectively kickdown function.
Gearshifts
The control unit(EST-37A) is shifts the required speeds fully-automatically under consideration of
the following criteria.
Gear selector position
Driving speed
Load level
At the same time, the following speeds are picked up by the control unit(EST-37A).
n Engine
n Turbine
n Central gear train
n Output
- Neutral position
Neutral position is selected through the gear selector.
After the ignition is turned on, the electronics remains in the waiting state; By the position neutral
of the gear selector, respectively by pressing on the key neutral, the control unit(EST-37A)
becomes ready for operation.
Now, a speed can be engaged.
- Speed engagement
In principle, the speed, adapted to the driving speed(At standing, or rolling machine), will be
engaged. The engagement is realized in dependence on load and rotational speed.
- Upshifting under load
Upshifting under load will be then realized if the machine can still accelerate by it.
- Downshifting under load
Downshifting under load will be realized if more traction force is needed.
- Upshifting in coasting condition
In the coasting condition, the upshifting will be suppressed if the speed of the machine on a slope
shall not be further increased.
- Downshifting in coasting condition
Downshiftings in the coasting condition will be realized if the machine shall be retarded.
- Reversing
At speeds below the reversing limit, direct reversing can be carried out at any time in the speeds
1F 1R and 2F 2R(As a rule, this is the maximum driving speed of the 2nd speed).
(3)
3- 57
Reversings in the speeds 3 and 4 are realized dependent on the driving speed.
- Above the programmed reversing limit, the machine is braked down by downshifts of the
electronic control unit(EST-37A) to the permitted driving speed, and only then, the reversing into
the correspondingly preselected speed will be carried out.
- Below the permitted driving speed, the reversing is carried out immediately.
Specific kickdown function
By means of the kickdown-button, integrated in the gear selector, it is at any time possible to
select in the speeds 2F and 2R(i.e. position 2 of the gear selector, at automatic mode also in the
2nd speed of the automatic range) the 1st speed by a short touch. This kickdown state can be
cancelled by :
1. Pressing the kickdown-button again
2. Realization of a reversal operation
3. Change of the gear selector position by the following modification
Gear selector(DW-3) - (Rotation) of the driving position 1
...
4.
The kickdown function will be always terminated by shifting to neutral.
Clutch cut off
Especially at wheel loaders, the clutch cut off can be activated through a switch signal. It is
interrupting the power flow in the transmission as long as this signal is active. Besides, this
function can be used for the transmission-neutral shifting at applied hand brake or as emergency-
stop(In this case, a restarting is only possible through the gear selector-neutral position).
(4)
(5)
3- 58
5. AXLE
OPERATION
The power from the engine passes through torque converter, transmission and drive shafts, and is
then sent to the front and rear axles.
Inside the axles, the power passes from the bevel pinion to the bevel gear and is sent at right
angles. At the same time, the speed is reduced and passes through the both differentials to the
axle shafts. The power of the axle shafts is further reduced by planetary-gear-type final drives and
is sent to the wheels.
Front axle
1)

Rear axle (2)


(1)
2
1
1
3
5
4
1
4
2
3
1
1 Final drive
2 Differential
3 Housing
4 Parking brake
5 Wheel nut
7607PT12
7607PT13
1 Final drive 2 Differential 3 Housing 4 Wheel nut
3- 59
FRONT AXLE DIFFERENTIAL SECTION 2)
1 Roller bearing
2 Input flange
3 Bevel gear set
4 Differential housing
5 Adjusting screw
6 Side gear
7 Clutch
8 Planetary gear
9 Spider
10 Bevel thrust washer of side gear
11 Thrust washer of planetary gear
12 Half case
1
3
4
9 10 6
5
8
7
Limited slip
12
12
8 10 9 6 12
11
12
Torque
proportioning
7607PT16
3- 60
REAR AXLE DIFFERENTIAL SECTION 3)
3
7
1
2
4
9
8
5
6
11
11
11
10
7 99 8 5 11
Limited slip
Torque
proportioning
7607PT17
1 Roller bearing
2 Input flange
3 Bevel gear set
4 Difterential housing
5 Side gear
6 Clutch
7 Planetary gear
8 Spider
9 Bevel thrust washer of side gear
10 Thrust washer of planetary gear
11 Half case
3- 61
DIFFERENTIAL
Description
When the machine makes a turn, the
outside wheel must rotate faster than the
inside wheel. A differential is a device
which continuously transmits power to the
right and left wheels while allowing them
to turn a different speeds, during a turn.
The power from the drive shaft passes
through bevel pinion(1) and is transmitted
to the bevel gear(2). The bevel gear
changes the direction of the motive force
by 90 degree, and at the same time
reduces the speed.
It then transmits the motive force through
the differential(3) to the axle gear shaft(4).
4)
Pinion gear
Side gear Side gear
Axle gear shaft
Carrier
Pinion gear
Swing
Pinion gear
Side gear Side gear
Carrier
Pinion gear Ring gear
When turning
When turning, the rotating speed of the
left and right wheels is different, so the
pinion gear and side gear inside the
differential assembly rotate in accordance
with the difference between the rotating
speed of the left and right wheels.
The power of the carrier is then
transmitted to the axle gear shafts.
When driving straight forward
When the machine is being driven straight
forward and the right and left wheels are
rotating at the same speed, so the pinion
gear inside the differential assembly do not
rotate. The motive force of the carrier is
send through the pinion gear and the side
gear, therefore the power is equally
transmitted to the left and right axle gear
shaft.
(1)
(2)
(3)
1
2
3
4
770-3 [3-26(1)]
770-3 [3-26(2)]
770-3 [3-26(3)]
3- 62
TORQUE PROPORTIONING DIFFERENTIAL
Function
Because of the nature of their work, 4-
wheel-drive loaders have to work in
places where the road surface is bad.
In such places, if the tires slip, the ability
to work as a loader is reduced, and also
the life of the tire is reduced.
The torque proportioning differential is
installed to overcome this problem.
In structure it resembles the differential of
an automobile, but the differential pinion
gear has an odd number of teeth.
Because of the difference in the
resistance from the road surface, the
position of meshing of the pinion gear
and side gear changes, and this changes
the traction of the left and right tires.
5)
(1)

FL FR
a b
Spider rotating
direction
Left side gear
Pinion
Right side gear
Engaging
point
Engaging
point
Operation
When traveling straight
(Equal resistance from road surface to
left and right tires)
Under this condition, the distances
involving the engaging points between
right and left side gears and pinion-a and
b-are equal and the pinion is balanced as
FLa=FRb. Thus, FL=FR, and the
right and left side gears are driven with
the same force.

(2)
770-3 (3-27)
3- 63
When traveling on soft ground
(Resistance from road surface to left and
right tires is different)
If the road resistance to the left wheel is
smaller, the left side gear tends to rotate
forward, and this rotation changes the
engaging points between the side gears
and pinion. As a result, the distances
involving the engaging points becomes
a>b. The pinion now is balanced as FL
a=FRb, where FL>FR. The right
side gear is driven with a greater force
than the left side gear. The torque can
be increased by up to about 30% for
either side gear.
The pinion therefore does not run idle
and driving power is transmitted to both
side gears until the difference between
road resistance to the right and left
wheels reaches about 30%.

FL
FR
a b
Spider rotating
direction
Left side gear
Pinion
Right side gear
Small road
resistance
Large road
resistance
Engaging
point
Engaging
point
770-3 (3-27)
3- 64
6 7 8 9
10 11
13
12
15 14
17 16 17
1
19
18
4
3
2
5
FINAL DRIVE SECTION(Front & rear) 6)
1 Sun gear
2 Side gear(Planetary gear)
3 Side gear carrier pin
4 Final drive cover
5 Side gear carrier support(Hub drum)
6 Wheel hub
7 Bevel gear(Ring gear)
8 Pressure plate
9 Bevel gear support
10 Pin(Push rod)
11 Spindle
12 Half shaft
13 Brake drive piston
14 Lug disc
15 Brake disc(Friction plate)
16 Piston return spring
17 Retaining spring ring
18 Ring nut
19 Disc carrier hub
To gain a large drive force, the final drive uses a planetary gear system to reduce the speed and
send drive force to the tires.
The power transmitted from the differential through axle shaft(12) to sun gear(1) is transmitted to
planetary gear(2). The planetary gear rotates around the inside of a fixed ring gear(7) and in this
way transmits rotation at a reduced speed to the planetary carrier.
This power is then sent to the wheels which are installed to the planetary carriers.
(1)
(2)
7707PT16
3- 65
2
5
4
6
3
1
6. TIRE AND WHEEL
1 Wheel rim
2 Tire
3 O-ring
4 Lock ring
5 Side ring
6 Valve assembly
The tire acts to absorb the shock from the ground surface to the machine, and at the same time
they must rotate in contact with the ground to gain the power which drives the machine.
Various types of tires are available to suit the purpose. Therefore it is very important to select the
correct tires for the type of work and bucket capacity.
1)
2)
770-3 (3-30)