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J.

1
Time-division multiplexing (TDM)
The method of combining several sampled signals in a
definite time sequence is called time-division multiplexing
(TDM).
TDM for PAM signals
Suppose we wish to time-multiplex two signals using PAM.
Digital logic circuitry is usually employed to implement the
timing operations.
Sampler
Sampler
Pulse
generator
Pulse
generator
LPF
Clock
PAM (TDM)
) (
1
t f
) (
2
t f
+
+
Commutator
J.2
The time-multiplexed PAM output is
Sampling rate
The sampling rate depends on the bandwidth of the signals.
For example, if the signals are low-pass and band-limited to
3kHz. The sampling theorem states that each must be
sampled at a rate no less than 6kHz. This requires a 12kHz
minimum clock rate for the two-channel system.
t
) (
1
t f
) (
2
t f
x
T
T
J.3
Transmission bandwidth
The time-multiplexed PAM signal can be sent out on a
line (baseband communications) or used to modulate a
transmitter (passband communications).
Theoretically, the bandwidth occupied by a pulse is infinite.
J.4
However, we are transmitting the information of the signals
( ), not the information of the pulses.
If the time spacing between adjacent samples is (In this
example, ), the minimum bandwidth is
.
) ( ), (
2 1
t f t f
x
T
2 / T T
x
=
) 2 /( 1
x x
T B =
J.5
For example, if the time-multiplexed PAM signal described
in J.4 is filtered with a low-pass filter with bandwidth
, the impulses become sinx/x terms.
Because we have chosen the spacing between successive
samples to be , contributions from all adjacent
channels are exactly zero at the correct sampling instant.
Therefore, by sampling the output at the correct instant, one
can exactly reconstruct the original sampled values
LPF
t
t
) 2 /( 1
x
B
) 2 /( 1
x x
B T =
) 2 /( 1
x
B
J.6
t
) (
1
t f
) (
2
t f
x
T
T
t
LPF
The results refer to the case in which impulse sampling and
ideal filtering. In practice, neither of these conditions can be
achieved and wider bandwidth is required.
The required bandwidth depends on the allowable cross-talk
(interference) between channels.
J.7
Receiver
Synchronization of the the clock and the commutator in the
time-multiplex receiver can be achieved by sending some
pre-assigned code which, when identified at the receiver,
serves to synchronize the timing.
Sampler
Sampler
Pulse
generator
Clock
) (t f
PAM
Commutator
LPF
LPF
) (
1
t f
) (
2
t f
Pulse
generator
J.8
After time multiplexing and filtering, the pulse-modulated
waveform may be transmitted directly on a pair of wire lines
For long distance transmission, the multiplexed signal is
used as the modulating signal to modulate a carrier.
For example, PAM/AM
PAM
multiplexer
Clock
AM
modulator
t
c
cos
AM
demodulator
t
c
cos
PAM
multiplexer
Clock
J.9
Advantages of TDM
high reliability and efficient operation as the circuitry
required is digital.
Relatively small interchannel cross-talk arising from
nonlinearities in the amplifiers that handle the signals in
the transmitter and receiver.
Disadvantages of TDM
timing jitter
J.10
Example
Channel 1 of a two-channel PAM system handles 0-8 kHz
signals; the second channel handles 0-10kHz signals. The
two channels are sampled at equal intervals of time using
very narrow pulses at the lowest frequency that is
theoretically adequate.
Sampler
Sampler
Pulse
generator
Pulse
generator
LPF
Clock
PAM (TDM)
) (
1
t f
) (
2
t f
+
+
Commutator
J.11
a) what is the minimum clock frequency of the PAM signal ?
The minimum sampling rate for channel 1 is 2B = 16kHz.
The minimum sampling rate for channel 2 is 20kHz.
In order to sample channel 2 adequately, we must take
samples at a 20kHz rate. Therefore the commutator clock
rate is 40kHz.
J.12
b) What is the minimum cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter
used before transmission that will preserve the amplitude
information on the output pulses ?
c) What would be the minimum bandwidth if these channel
were frequency multiplexed, using normal AM techniques
and SSB techniques ?
AM: 2*(bandwidth of channel 1) + 2*(bandwidth of
channel 2) = 2*8kHz + 2*10kHz = 36kHz
SSB: bandwidth of channel 1 + bandwidth of channel 2
= 8kHz + 10kHz = 18kHz
kHz T B
x x
20 ) 2 /( 1 =
J.13
d) Assume the signal in channel 1 is sin(5000t) and that in
channel 2 is sin(10000t). Sketch these signals; sketch the
waveshapes at the input to the first low-pass filter, at the
filter output, and at the output of the sample-and-hold circuit
and output of the low-pass filter in channel 2.
t
ms 4 . 0
) 5000 sin( t
t
ms 2 . 0
) 10000 sin( t
J.14
Sampling period = 1/(2*10kHz)=0.05ms
Multiplexed PAM:
Output of filter:
t
ms 4 . 0
ms 05 . 0
t
ms 05 . 0
ms 2 . 0
t
t
J.15
Output of holding circuit
for channel 2:
Output of low-pass filter:
t
t
J.16
Return-to-bias (RB) method
Three levels are used: 0,1, and a bias level.
Bias level may be chosen either below or between the
other two levels.
The waveform returns to the bias level during the last half
of each bit interval.
The RB method has an advantage in being self-clocking.
1 1 1 0 0 1 PCM code
RB
Example:
1 ==> A volts
0 ==> -A volts
Line coding
J.17
Unipolar Return-to-zero (RZ) method
Digit 1 is represented by a change to the 1 level for one-half the
bit interval, after which the signal returns to the reference level for
the remaining half-bit interval.
Digit 0 is indicated by no change, the signal remaining at the
reference level.
Its disadvantage is that it requires 3dB more power than RB
signaling (or AMI) for the same probability of symbol error.
An attractive feature of this line code is the presence of delta
function at f=1/T
b
in the power spectrum of the transmitted signal,
which can be used for bit-timing recovery at the receiver.
J.18
1 1 1 0 0 1 PCM code
RZ
RB
T
b
:Bit duration
Decision boundary
J.19
power spectrum of Unipolar RZ signaling. The
normalized frequency is 1/T
b
J.20
Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI)
The first 1 is represented by +1, the second 1 by -1,
the third 1 by +1, etc.
has zero average value and relatively insignificant low-
frequency components
used in telephone PCM systems.
Also referred to as a bipolar return-to-zero (BRZ)
representation.
1 1 1 0 0 1
PCM code
AMI
J.21
Power spectrum of AMI signaling
J.22
Spilt phase
eliminates the variation in average value using symmetry.
In the Manchester split-phase method
A 1 is represented by a 1 level during the first half-bit interval,
then shifted to 0 level for the latter half-bit interval
A 0 is indicated by the reverse representation.
The manchester code suppresses the DC component and has
relatively insignificant low-frequency components.
In the split-phase (mark) method, a similar symmetric
representation is used except that a phase reversal relative to the
previous phase indicates a 1 and no change is used to indicate a
0.
J.23
1 1 1 0 0 1
PCM code
Split-phase
(Manchester)
Split-phase
(mark)
J.24
Power spectrum of Manchester code signaling
J.25
Nonreturn-to-zero
reduce the bandwidth needed to send the PCM code.
In the NRZ(L) representation, a bit pulse remains in one of its two
levels for the entire bit interval.
In the NRZ(M) method a level change is used to indicate a 1 and
no level change for a 0.
In the NRZ(S) method a level change is used to indicate a 0 and
no level change for a 1.
NRZ representations require added receiver complexity to
determine the clock frequency.
1 1 1 0 0 1 PCM code
NRZ (L)
NRZ (M)
NRZ (S)
Delay Modulation
(Miller code)
J.26
Delay modulation (Miller code)
a 1 is represented by a signal transition at the midpoint
of a bit interval. A 0 is represented by no transition
unless it is followed by another 0, in which case the
signal transition occurs at the end of the bit interval.
1 1 1 0 0 1 PCM code
NRZ (L)
NRZ (M)
NRZ (S)
Delay Modulation
(Miller code)
J.27
Power spectrum of NRZ(L)
J.28
Transmission bandwidth
The fundamental frequency of a binary code stream depends on its most rapidly varying
pattern.
Example: 111 for RZ and NRZ(M)
For a binary PCM system with n quantization levels, the number of bits per sample is
If the sample rate be 1/T, then the number of bits per second to be sent is
The minimum bandwidth is
(NRZ) (RZ)
1 1 1 1 1 1
b
T
b
T
b o
T f / 1 =
b o
T f 2 / 1 =
| | n
2
log
(the brackets indicate the next higher integer to be taken, e.g. if n=7, we use 3 bits)
| | T n / log
2
| |
|
.
|

\
|

T
n
B
2
log
2
1
| |
T
n
B
2
log

J.29
In baseband transmission, the bit stream described in N.1-N.8 are sent on a transmission
line.
In passband transmission, the bit stream is used to modulate a high frequency carrier.
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK): the amplitude of a carrier is switched between two
values in response to the PCM code.
Frequency-shift keying (FSK): the frequency of a carrier is switched between two
values in response to the PCM code.
Phase-shift keying (PSK): the phase of a carrier is switched between two values in
response to the PCM code.
1 1 1 0 0 1 PCM code
NRZ (L)
ASK
FSK
PSK
change of phase
J.30
PSK and FSK are preferred to ASK signals for passband
data transmission over nonlinear channel such as
micorwave link and satellite channels.
Coherent and Noncoherent
Digital modulation techniques are classified into coherent
and noncoherent techniques, depending on whether the
receiver is equipped with a phase-recovery circuit or not.
The phase-recovery circuit ensures that the local oscillator
in the receiver is synchronized to the incoming carrier
wave (in both frequency and phase).
J.31
Coherent PSK
The functional model of passband data transmission system is
m
i
is the binary sequence.
In a coherent binary PSK system, the pair of signals and used to represent
binary symbols 1 and 0, respectively, is defined by
where , and is the transmitted signal energy per bit.
Modulator
Signal
transmission
encoder
i
m
Carrier signal
) (t s
i
Channel
) (t x
Detector
i
s
x
Signal
transmission
decoder
m
) (
1
t s
) (
2
t s
) 2 cos(
2
) (
1
t f
T
E
t s
c
b
b
=
) 2 cos(
2
) 2 cos(
2
) (
2
t f
T
E
t f
T
E
t s
c
b
b
c
b
b
= + =
b
T t 0
b
E
J.32
For example,
To ensure that each transmitted bit contains an integral number of cycles of the carrier
wave, the carrier frequency is chosen equal to for some fixed integer n.
The transmitted signal can be written as
and
where
| |
b
b
b
b
T
c
b
b
T
E
T
T
E
dt t f
T
E
dt t s E
b b
= = = =

2
2
) 2 ( cos
2
) (
0
2
0
2
1

c
f
b
T n/
) ( ) (
1
t E t s
b
=
) ( ) (
2
t E t s
b
=
b c
b
b
T t t f
T
t < = 0 ) 2 cos(
2
) (
) 2 cos(
2
) (
) 2 cos(
2
) 2 cos(
2
) (
1
1


n
T
E
T s
t
T
n
T
E
t f
T
E
t s
b
b
b
b b
b
c
b
b
=
= =
J.33
Generation of coherent binary PSK signals
To generate a binary PSK signal, we have to represent the
input binary sequence in polar form with symbols 1 and 0
represented by constant amplitude levels of
b
E + and
b
E , respectively.
This signal transmission encoder is performed by a
polar nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) encoder.
The carrier frequency
b c
T n f / = where n is a fixed
integer.

+
=
0 is symbol input
1 is symbol input
b
b
i
E
E
s

= =
= =
=
b i c
b
b
b i c
b
b
i
E s t f
T
E
t s
E s t f
T
E
t s
t s
if ) 2 cos(
2
) (
if ) 2 cos(
2
) (
) (
2
1

J.34
Product
Modulator
Signal
transmission
encoder
10101
i
s
) 2 cos(
2
) ( t f
T
t
c
b
=
) (t s
i
J.35
Detection of coherent binary PSK signals
To detect the original binary sequence of 1s and 0s, we
apply the noisy PSK signal to a correlator. The correlator
output is compared with a threshold of zero volts.

b
T
0
) (t x
) (t
Correlator
X
1
x
Decision
device
0
if 0
if 1
1
1
x
x
J.36
Example: If the transmitted symbol is 1,
) 2 cos(
2
) ( t f
T
E
t x
c
b
b
=
and the correlator output is
b
T
c
b
b
T
c
b
c
b
b
T
E
dt t f
T
E
dt t f
T
t f
T
E
dt t t x x
b
b
b
=
=
=
=

0
2
0
0
1
) 2 ( cos
2
) 2 cos(
2
) 2 cos(
2
) ( ) (

Similarly, If the transmitted symbol is 0,


b
E x =
1
.
J.37
Delta Modulation (DM) and Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM)
Reference
Stremler, Communication Systems, Chapter 9.7
Delta Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM)
In the transmission of messages having repeated sample values, the repeated
transmission represents a waste of communication capability because there is
little information content in the repeated values.
In DPCM, only the digitally encoded difference between successive sample
values. Therefore, the number of bit can be reduced.
Example: a picture that has been quantized to 6 bits can be transmitted with
comparable quality using 4-bit DPCM.
J.38
LPF
) (t f
Decoder
Clock/
Sampler
Quantizer-
encoder

+
-
DPCM
Decoder

LPF
DPCM
) (t f
) (t f
) (t f
LP
) (t f
LP
t
t
) (t g
) (t f
delay
) ( ) ( T t f t f
LP delay

) ( ) ( ) ( t f t f t g
delay LP
=
t
Range of > Range of
) (t f
) (t g
J.39
Delta Modulation (DM)
In delta modulation (DM), an incoming signal is oversampled (i.e. at a rate much
higher than the Nyquist rate) to purposely increase the correlation between
adjacent samples of the signal.
The difference between the input and the approximation is quantized into two
levels:

> +
> + +
= +
) ( ) ( if ) (
) ( ) ( if ) (
) (
nT f T nT f nT f
nT f T nT f nT f
T nT f
q q
q q
q
) ( T nT f +
Delay T
Quantizer
+
-
+
+
Encoder
) (nT f
q
) ( T nT f
q
+
DM
Accumulator
J.40
Disadvantages
If the input signal level remains constant, the reconstructed DMwaveform
exhibits a hunting behavior known as idling noise.
Slope-overload
) (t f
t
t
0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
Idling noise
Slope-overload