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ABSTRACT

Innovations in technologies, economic benefits, quality requirements and environmental concerns


are changing the face of the existing power system. Centralized generating facilities are giving way to
smaller, more distributed generation partially due to the loss of traditional economies of scale. The need
of an intelligent grid, better known as icro grid at the distribution end, has been recognized to
accommodate distributed energy resources !"#$s% and renewable energy technologies on large scale.
icro grids can provide improved electric service reliability and better power quality to end customers
and can also benefit local utilities by providing dispatch able load for use during peak power conditions
or allowing system repairs without effecting customer loads. This report highlights the concept, benefits
and features of icro &rids.
Introduction to icro &rid.
' icrogrid (perating odes.
'
The )eed of icrogrid.
'
*tility grid shortcomings and microgrid value propositions
'
icrogrid market segments
'
Interconnected icrogrids + ,ower ,arks.
'
#nvironmental -spects.
'
Conventional &rid versus icrogrid.
'
-dvantages . "isadvantages of icrogrid.
'
/uture "irections on icrogrid $esearch.
CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION
*p till now small generation units have been dispersed throughout power systems basically as
uninterruptible power supplies. &enerally these sources are not synchronized with the grid power supply
though, but rather cut in when the primary supply is interrupted.
"istributed generation located close to demand delivers electricity with minimal losses. This
power may therefore have a higher value than power coming from large, central conventional generators
through the traditional utility transmission and distribution infrastructure. 0ith the use of renewable
distributed generation, the dependency on fossil fuels and on their price can be minimized. This step will
also lead to a significant reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, which is required in several government
programs. If, in addition, distributed generation and consumption in a certain area are integrated into one
system, reliability of the power supply may be increased significantly, as shown in figure 1. The
importance and quantification of these benefits has been recognized, although these are yet to be
incorporated within the technical, commercial, and regulatory framework.
2owever, under today3s grid codes, all distributed generation, whether renewable or fossil4fueled,
must shut down during times of utility grid power outages. This is precisely when these on4site sources
could offer the greatest value to both generation owners and society.
- microgrid is a regionally limited energy system of distributed energy resources, consumers and
optionally storage. It optimizes one or many of the following5 ,ower quality and reliability, sustainability
and economic benefits and it may continuously run in off4grid4 or on4grid mode, as well as in dual mode
by changing the grid connection status.
0ith the role of distributed generation changing from backup to primary energy supply, more
flexible connection strategies are required. To realize the emerging potential of distributed generation a
system approach is to be taken which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a
6microgrid. The concept of icro &rid has grown out of this desire for truly interconnected operation
of distributed generation. It is envisioned that this microgrid concept will prove to be an ideal solution to
rural electrification besides its very well use in industrial parks, commercial and institutional campuses
and many other situations requiring improved reliability and power quality. - micro grid enables small
communities to take control of their energy use and reduce their carbon footprint through a new and
innovative way of generating and managing electricity.
CHAPTER 2
2. THE MICRO-GRID CONCEPT
- microgrid can be simply defined as an aggregation of electrical generation, storages and loads.
The generators in the microgrid may be microturbines, fuel cells, reciprocating engines, or any of a
number of alternate power sources. - microgrid may take the form of shopping center, industrial park or
college campus. To the utility, a microgrid is an electrical load that can be controlled in magnitude. The
load could be constant, or the load could increase at night when electricity is cheaper, or the load could be
held at zero during times of system stress
The Micro Grid assues !hree cri!ica" #u$c!io$s !ha! are u$i%ue !o !his archi!ec!ure&
1. icrosource Controller
' $egulate power flow on a feeder as loads on that feeder change their operating points
' $egulate the voltage at the interface of each microsource as loads on the system change
' Insure that each microsource rapidly picks up its share of the load when the system islands.
' It responds in milliseconds and uses locally measured voltages and currents to control the
microsource during all system or grid events.
7. #nergy anager
The #nergy anager provides for system operation of the icro&rid through dispatch of power
-nd voltage set points to each icrosource Controller.
' Insure that the necessary heat and electrical loads are met by the microsources
' Insure that the icrogrid satisfies operational contracts with the bulk power provider
' inimize emissions and8or system losses
' aximize the operational efficiency of the microsources
9. ,rotection
The protection coordinator must respond to both system and icro&rid faults. /or a fault on the grid, the
desired response may be to isolate the critical load portion of the icro&rid from the grid as rapidly as is
necessary to protect these loads.
2.1 OPERATING MODES O' MICROGRID
(perating modes of icrogrid are5
1. &rid connected
7. Island connected
:asic icrogrid architecture is shown below. This consists of a group of radial feeders, which
could be part of a distribution system or a buildings electrical system. There is single ,oint of connection
to the utility called as point of common coupling. ;ome feeders !feeders -4C% have sensitive loads, which
require common generation. The non4critical load feeders do not have any local generation. In our
example this is feeder /eeders -4C can island from the grid using static switch which can separate in less
the cycle. In this case, there are four micro sources at nodes <, 11, 1= and 77 which control the operation
using only local voltages and currents measurements. There is a problem with utility supply. The static
switch will open, isolating the sensitive loads from the power grid. If it is assumed that there is sufficient
generation to meet the loads demands. 0hen the micro grids are grid connected power from the local
generation can be directed to feeder ".;tatic switch is closed and utility grid is active.
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16
In case of island mode utility grid is not supplying power. ;tatic switch is open. /eeder -, :, C is being
supplied by micro sources and feeder " is dead.
2.1.1 Grid co$$ec!ed&
It is often a challenge to control the voltage profile in distributed grid due to the low >8$ ratio.
The voltage profile is not mainly influenced by the reactive power as the case in high voltage
transmission power grid. The active power flow is found to be critical in controlling the voltage profile in
distribution power grid. Thus the maximum active power that can be transmitted from or to the power
grid through the distribution line is limited, in order to keep the voltage level ofthe hybrid power system
in the allowable range.
In grid connected operation, "& units work in current controlled mode, assuming the grid voltage
is more or less constant. 2owever, in a very weak power grid, the terminal voltages of the generator and
?;C will fluctuate. The fluctuation of voltage can cause coupling effect between active and reactive
power. ,hase locked loop is thus necessary to measure the accurate phase angle. 0ith accurate phase
angle of the voltage, active and reactive power can be efficiently decoupled.
2.1.2 Pri$ci("es o# )rid co$$ec!ed o(era!io$&
The principles for grid connected operation are5
@ "/I& wind farm operates under maximum power production modeA
@ ;olar power system operates under maximum power production modeA
@ ,umped storage operates under motor mode, provides water for drinking or irrigation and keep
water reservoir at a certain level. &rid side converter controls the "C voltage, generator side
converter controls motor powerA
@ $esidential and industrial loads work under maximumA
@ The distribution line is in service, transmits power from or to the power grid depending on the
balance between power production and consumption in this systemA
@ /requency is controlled by the main power grid, while wind farm and solar power can participate in
the primary frequency control by using frequency droop controlA
@ ,umped storage, wind farm and solar power system all participate in the voltage control of the local
power grid.
Is"a$ded o(era!io$
In islanded operation, without a constant voltage source, the current control mode of "& unit of
grid4connected operation is not appropriate. 0ithout a reference voltage source, the "& units have to
control the voltage and frequency in the power grid by themselves. This is not an easy control task,
especially when several generators and ?;Cs are operated in parallel. The islanding operation of ?;Cs
can be found in literatures and . The control method of single "/I& for stand4alone operation is found in
literatures but this method is not appropriate for controlling multiple "/I&s in one islanded system.
2.2 PRINCIP*ES O' IS*ANDED OPERATION
The principles for islanding operation are5
@ ,umped storage station works as a virtual power grid which determines the voltage and frequency
of the hybrid power system. &rid side converter controls the -C voltage, generator side converter
controls "C voltageA
@ "/I& wind farm and solar power system participate in the frequency and voltage controlA
@ Boad shedding is adopted to limit the frequency dipA
@ Critical loads must be protected.
E. Transfer between grid connected operation and islanded operation
In order to protect the critical load, the transfer between grid connected operation and islanded operation
must be smooth. If the controllers of "& units in grid connected operation and islanded operation are
quite different, then a master central controller and communications between all "& units are required to
determine the change of "& units3 controller mode. This will increase the cost and decrease the reliability
ofthe system, and has to be avoided if it is possible.
Transfer between grid connected operation and islanded operation
?oltage angle difference between local power system and main power grid is measured. If the
angle difference increases to an abnormal value which cannot happen under grid connected operation,
then it is determined that the local power system is disconnected from the main power grid. This method
is very fast, and can be done in less than one cycle.
- synchronization procedure is required to connect local power system with main power grid.
:efore synchronization, voltage magnitudes and phase angles of islanded system at point of common
coupling !,CC% and grid are measured. The islanded power system at ,CC can be controlled by the
inverter ?;C of pumped storage station. 0hen the magnitude and angle differences between islanded
system and main grid approach zero, the synchronization begins, and the hybrid power system is
connected with power grid again.
In this control strategy, only one "& unit + the pumped storage station is required to change its
control mode. *nder grid connected status, the pump storage station is in standard current control mode,
while under islanded status, it changes to voltage control mode, and set voltage and frequency of the
hybrid power system. This, however, means that the pumped storage station will balance the active power
of the hybrid power system. -s the volume of the water tower is limited, the total energy that can be used
for active power balancing is also limited. Boad and "& units can be controlled to help active and
reactive power balancing, but they need clear indexes to distinguish between active power imbalance and
reactive power imbalance.
-s being discussed, unlike the main power grid which is composed of synchronous generators, the
frequency of the local power system may not change if the system is dominated by static load. Then it is
not possible to control the load or other "& units for active power and reactive power balancing.
The pumped storage station can change its output + ac voltage3s frequency based on its own water level.
If the water level is beyond the maximum, its inverter will increase the output ac voltage3s frequency. If
the water level is less than the minimum, it will decrease the frequency. Then other "& units and load can
be controlled by the frequency deviation. 0hen "& units or load take part in the active power balancing,
the requirement on the pumped storage station is alleviated.
U!i"i!+ )rid shor!coi$)s a$d icro)rid ,a"ue (ro(osi!io$s
The following paragraphs summarize the related power supply challenges and the benefits of
icrogrid installations.
Po-er %ua"i!+ cha""e$)es
The term Cpower qualityD refers to the quality of the supply voltage in a certain area, which strongly
depends on the characteristics of the loads and the transmission and distribution grid infrastructure in this
area. Bong distribution lines with asymmetric loads, for example, may lead to significant low voltage
quality, eventually resulting in effects such as low and unbalanced voltage, voltage harmonics, and flicker
in certain load locations.
,ower quality challenges are mainly caused by a lack of investment in the grid. In several
countries, demand for electricity is growing so fast that the construction of generation plants as well as
transmission and distribution lines cannot keep pace. This situation leads to power outages in certain
areas when demand exceeds actual generation, or the thermal limits of the power system equipment
endanger the integrity of the power systems. "eregulation and tough competition forces utilities in some
other countries to economize on investments + a situation that ultimately leads to low power supply
quality.
- microgrid with an option to disconnect from the utility grid in case of power quality problems
may benefit the loads inside its borders significantly. "epending on the field of application !military,
industrial, commercial, or residential, for instance%, power quality requirements of the loads inside the
microgrid may be different. In highly sensitive industrial areas with semiconductor or chemical
manufacturing facilities, for example, reliable power at a high power quality level is required. This may
be achieved with the installation of reliable fossil4fueled generators within the microgrid. -dditional
power4conditioning equipment may be an option if there are nonlinear loads.
In off4grid areas in some developing countries, where residents have no option other than a microgrid
solution, most of them will be satisfied with somewhat poorer power quality.
2.. NATURA* DISASTERS
In some areas of the world, the -mericas or the Indian subcontinent, for instance, natural disasters
such as tornados, hurricanes, and earthquakes followed by tsunamis may completely annihilate parts of
the transmission and distribution infrastructure. #ven if a certain area is not directly affected by the
disaster, its power supply may be interrupted for weeks or even months if its connection to the utility grid
has been interrupted by such an event.
"ue to the fact that a microgrid does not depend on the power supply of the utility grid, the
immediate construction of microgrids appears feasible in some areas, especially those that have been
repeatedly struck by natural disasters, such as some southern parts of the *;-. (n the other hand, a
microgrid can be planned and assembled in a comparatively short time. It could turn out to be more
beneficial to decide for the immediate construction of a microgrid instead of waiting for the reparation
and reinstallation of the common transmission and distribution infrastructure after a natural disaster.
/u"$era0i"i!+ !o (o-er s+s!e dis!ur0a$ces1 !erroris! a!!ac2s1 a$d hua$ errors a$d re"a!ed
re"ia0i"i!+ a$d securi!+ re%uiree$!s
,ower systems face hundreds of disturbances every day, mainly caused by natural incidents such
as lightning and arc flashes on rainy days. The maEority of disturbances is usually eliminated by
protection devices that only separate the affected power system component for a limited period of time +
for example a transmission line segment until an arc has disappeared. If a power system meets certain
reliability and security requirements, nearly none of these disturbances will lead to significant power
outages.
$eliability of a power system refers to the probability of its satisfactory operation over the long
run. It denotes the ability to supply adequate electric service on a nearly continuous basis, with few
interruptions over an extended time period.
;ecurity of a power system refers to the degree of risk in its ability to survive imminent disturbances
!contingencies% without interruption of customer service. It relates to robustness of the system to
imminent disturbances and, hence, depends on the system operating condition as well as the contingent
probability of disturbances.
In every country of the world, today3s customers expect a reliable and secure power supply.
2owever, an interconnected power system with long transmission and distribution lines will always be
prone to disturbances. *nfortunately, there are always some exceptional situations, in which a single
disturbance causes cascading outages, eventually leading to blackouts. It is generally expensive and
requires a rather long time scale to increase the reliability and security of a large power system.
-s mentioned above, a power system is subEect to several disturbances every day, and it can cope
with these disturbances without any power supply interruption on the customer3s side. In addition to
natural disturbances, there are + intentionally or unintentionally + man4made disturbances. This includes
physical damage to power system components such as transmission towers or transformers, which may
lead to large outages. In today3s digital world, cyber attacks such as intentionally wrong remote switching
operations can also cause damage if sensitive communication channels do not meet cyber security
requirements. -n example of man4made, unintentional damage is an outage due to wrong operational
decisions in a power system control center, taken by operators with limited experience and a lack of
training.
Irrespective of its nature and source, any power system disturbance can trigger a cascading
outage. This happens, for instance, when protection and automation devices in close proximity to the
disturbance do not react appropriately to an exceptional situation, which can be the case with
inadequately parameterized or faulty devices.
:y contrast, a power system consisting of several microgrids is virtually not affected by large
outages due to the fact that each microgrid can disconnect from the rest of the system in case of a
disturbance.
- microgrid is located in a geographically limited area. Its generation and load, as well as load balance,
are controlled by reliable electronic components, and it can disconnect from the utility grid and run in
CislandD mode if required. The probability that a microgrid will be shut down due to natural disaster, a
terrorist attack, or human error is very low. In a power system consisting of several microgrids, a very
few of them may be shut down due to disturbances, but most of them will continue operation, either in
grid4connected mode or in island mode.
Gro-i$) dea$d1 )rid e3!e$sio$s1 a$d socia" resis!a$ce
#verybody wants a reliable power supply. The demand for electrical power is growing in many
areas of the world, and people expect appropriate enhancements of the power system, such as new power
plants and new transmission and distribution lines.
2owever, reality shows that everyone opposes the construction of a power plant or a power line in
their own neighborhood. This Cnot in my backyardD attitude makes investments difficult, so building
permissions may take ten years, or even longer.
In an area with microgrid structures, a growing demand for electrical energy can be satisfied by
the installation of new distributed generators, preferably based on pollution4free generation from
renewable sources. This way, microgrids can help defer investments in transmission and distribution
systems and solve related social problems such as demonstrations against the installation of transmission
lines close to residential areas.
O(!ia" u!i"i4a!io$ o# dis!ri0u!ed )e$era!ors
-ccording to today3s grid codes, all distributed generation, renewable or fossil4fueled, must shut
down during power outages. :ut it is exactly in such Cemergency situationsD that distributed generators
offer the greatest benefit to both generation owners and society5 microgrids can provide power services to
consumers, when the larger grid system fails.
Pea2 "oad "ii!a!io$s
/rom the utilization point of view, there are three maEor types of power plants. - base4load power
plant produces base4load supply. :ase4load plants are the power generation facilities used to meet some
or all of a given region3s continuous power demand. They produce power at a constant rate, usually at
comparatively low cost as compared to other production facilities available to the system. #xamples of
base4load power plants include nuclear and coal4fired plants.
,eak4load power plants are Cpower plants that generally run only when there is a high demand for
electricity, so4called peak demand. In many countries of the world, this often occurs in the afternoon,
especially during the summer months when the air4conditioning load is highD !0ikipedia%. )atural4gas4
fired turbines are the typical prime movers in peak4load power plants.
- load4following power plant is a power plant that adEusts its power output to the actual demand
for electricity, which fluctuates throughout the day. Boad4following plants are typically in4between base
load and peaking power plants in terms of efficiency, ramp times, construction costs, cost of electricity,
and capacity.
"ue to economical limitations, the capacity of load4following power plants and peak4load power
plants is limited. -lso, the load on transmission and distribution systems must not exceed certain thermal
limits, especially during hot summer days that are characterized by a high demand for electrical energy.
*tilities need to shed load in such cases when actual demand exceeds given generation and grid
capacities.
- microgrid, however, can manage its own generation and load balance. The system can always
shed load if necessary and avoid peak load. If a certain amount of peak load becomes Cregular,D the
generation capacity of the microgrid can be enhanced with the installation of additional distributed
generators.
CHAPTER .
.. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION *OSSES
-verage transmission and distribution losses of a power system amount to six to eight percent of
total generation. - solution that can reduce this figure will help save significant amounts of money and
will also support the reduction of emissions.
If the generation capacity of a microgrid covers its own demand, and generation costs are within
an acceptable range, energy import from the utility grid will only be necessary in exceptional situations.
This means that energy transport losses will be less than one percent under normal circumstances, which
is a significant contribution to the reduction of C(7 emissions. - microgrid will only import energy from
the power grid if its own demand exceeds its given generation capacity.
In addition to offering adequate solutions for the elimination of utility4grid shortcomings, microgrids
promise these benefits5
Reduced e$er)+ cos!s
This topic strongly depends on the long4term development of fossil4fuel prices and on installation
costs for microgrids. ilitary bases in remote locations, for example, may have significantly lower
energy costs with microgrids based on renewable power generation, as compared to power supply
solutions based on the continuous transportation of oil and gas.
Reduced (rice ,o"a!i"i!+
If a microgrid is made up of highly efficient fossil4fuel4based generators !combined heat and
power systems% and renewable energy4based generators, the dependence on fossil4fuel prices will be very
low.
U!i"i4a!io$ o# hi)h"+ e##icie$! #ossi"-#ue"-0ased dis!ri0u!ed )e$era!io$
*se of low4emissions fuel !natural gas% systems and highly efficient power supply solutions
!combined heat and power, C2,% increases overall fuel efficiency.
5o0 crea!io$
In the long term, microgrid structures will be attractive for !small% businesses, which will
eventually bring about local Eobs, not only in microgrid maintenance.
If microgrids gain wide acceptance in future, however, regulations governing energy4trade practices as
well as related laws will also need to be adapted. This may change established utility structures
significantly.
..1 MICROGRID MAR6ET SEGMENTS
-ccording to today3s experience and publications, there are five maEor microgrid market
segments5
I$s!i!u!io$a" a$d ca(us icro)rids
Institutional and campus microgrids consist of a certain number of buildings in a limited
geographical area. The requirements on the quality of power supply may differ, depending on the type of
the institution. - moderate degree of power supply reliability will suit most government or college
buildings, while research institutes may require a power supply that provides better supply quality.
*sually, all buildings and participants in this type of microgrid belong to a single organization, and there
is a single decision maker. This structure makes fast decisions possible, and in case of obvious benefits,
the real estate owner can initiate necessary action.
Coercia" a$d i$dus!ria" icro)rids
In case of single ownership, this microgrid type is similar to the one described above. The matter
becomes more complex if a microgrid is to be established in an existing commercial or industrial area and
comprises several participants. 0hen a Ccommercial4industrial parkD is a greenfield proEect with premium
and normal power supply capability, the investor can decide for a microgrid structure to meet all
customers3 expectations.
Mi"i!ar+ icro)rids
-lthough this is the smallest microgrid market segment, it is being developed with high effort,
because there are tangible, quantifiable customer benefits. "istributed generators based on renewables are
being used to secure power supply and reduce fuel costs.
Cou$i!+ a$d u!i"i!+ icro)rids
CCommunity and utilityD microgrids will mainly comprise private end4customers in
predominantly residential areas, but sometimes commercial and industrial customers in that area as well.
They may include urban areas, neighborhoods, and rural feeders. ;uch microgrids can provide power to
urban or rural communities that are connected to the larger utility grid. There can be a wide variety of
renewable or fossil4fueled distributed energy resources within this type of microgrid. 0idespread
commercial acceptance of this class of microgrids will strongly depend on national and international
standards and regulations. "ue to the high number of participants, decisions will be lengthy as compared
to other microgrid structures.
Is"a$d a$d reo!e 7o##-)rid8 icro)rids
-n island microgrid is usually very similar to a community or utility microgrid. The main
difference is that in most cases there will be no connection to the utility grid. In very few cases there may
be a cable connection to the utility grid on the mainland if the distance from the island to the mainland
makes this feasible. (n the other hand, the decision making process may be very short, depending on the
actual power supply infrastructure on the island.
C(ff4gridD microgrids for geographically remote communities and developing countries focus on
distributed and diverse power sources. -s regions in the developing world continue to expand their
electricity infrastructure, many remote microgrids are being designed to eventually interconnect to a
larger grid system.
(ther remote microgrids are built to remain autonomous in order to maintain energy independence.
..2 MICROGRID E9AMP*ES
icrogrids may be very different depending on market segment, size, and location. ;ome
microgrid examples are discussed below.
I$s!i!u!io$a":ca(us icro)rids
This example shows an institutional8campus microgrid, which is continuously operated in island
mode. Connection to the utility grid is a backup option. The biogas and C2, units are necessary for
continuous energy supply, and also for heat for cold winter days. 2owever, fluctuating energy of
renewable resources like wind and solar systems can be stored, for example with an electrolysis system.
This stored energy can then be used with the application of a fuel cell.
I$dus!ria" icro)rid
ain reasons for the installation of an industrial microgrid are power supply security and its
reliability. There are many manufacturing processes in which an interruption of the power supply may
cause high revenue losses and long start4up times.
Typical examples are chip manufacturing, the chemical industry, and the paper and foodstuff
industries, for instance. Today, some industrial sites are installing uninterruptable power supplies if their
utilization is economically Eustified. icrogrid structures may bring additional advantages, for example
the combination of secure power supply with high energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable
generation.
O##-)rid a$d is"a$d icro)rid
-n Coff4gridD microgrid is usually built in areas that are far distant from any transmission and
distribution infrastructure and, therefore, have no connection to the utility grid. "ue to this, such a
microgrid must have black start capability.
U!i"i!+ icro)rid
- utility microgrid may include a distribution feeder, a complete medium voltage distribution
substation or even several distribution substations in a large area. In the latter case, the energy flow from
various generators within the microgrid to the loads and the energy exchange between different segments
may become difficult to handle. Thus, the microgrid operation may require the installation of a
distribution ;C-"- and a distribution management system !";%, including distribution state
estimation and power flow calculation. -dditional operation, control, and automation systems such as an
outage management system !(;% and distribution substation and feeder automation may be required to
keep the outage time short in case of a disturbance within the microgrid.
E3(ec!ed Micro)rid #ea!ures
Au!o$o+& icrogrids include generation, storage, and loads, and can operate autonomously in
grid4connected and islanded mode. In the first case, a icrogrid can independently optimize its
own power production and consumption under the consideration of system economics such as buy
or sell decisions. In islanded mode the system is capable of balancing generation and load and can
keep system voltage and frequency in defined limits with adequate controls.
S!a0i"i!+& Independent local control of generators, batteries, and loads of icrogrids are based on
frequency droops and voltage levels at the terminal of each device. This means that a icrogrid
can operate in a stable manner during nominal operating conditions and during transient events,
no matter whether the larger grid is up or down.
Co(a!i0i"i!+& icrogrids are completely compatible with the existing utility grid. They may be
considered as functional units that support the growth of the existing system in an economical and
environmentally
friendly way.
'"e3i0i"i!+& The expansion and growth rate of microgrids does not need to follow any precise
forecasts. The lead times of corresponding components !fossil4fueled and renewable generators,
storage systems, and others% are short, and a microgrid can grow incrementally. icrogrids are
also technology4neutral and able to cope with a diverse mixture of renewable and fossil4fueled
generators.
Sca"a0i"i!+& icrogrids can simply grow through the additional installation of generators, storage,
and loads. ;uch an extension usually requires an incremental new planning of the icrogrid and
can be performed in a parallel and modular manner in order to scale up to higher power
production and consumption levels.
Sca"a0i"i!+& icrogrids can simply grow through the additional installation of generators, storage,
and loads. ;uch an extension usually requires an incremental new planning of the microgrid and
can be performed in a parallel and modular manner in order to scale up to higher power
production and consumption levels.
E##icie$c+& Centralized as well as distributed icrogrid supervisory controller structures can
optimize the utilization of generators, manages charging and discharging energy storage units, and
manages consumption. in this way energy management goals can be profoundly optimized, for
example in economic as well as environmental respects.
Peer-!o-(eer ode"& icrogrids can support a true peer4to4peer model for operation, control, and
energy trade. In addition, interactive energy transactions with the centralized utility grid are also
possible with this model. The proposed concept does not dictate the size, scale, and number of
peers and the growth rate of the icrogrid.
Eco$oics& -ccording to market research studies, economics of heat recovery and its application
by C2, systems is very important to the evaluation of microgrids. In addition, the utilization of
renewable energy resources will help reduce fuel costs and emissions.
CHAPTER ;
;. INTERCONNECTED MICROGRIDS
Bocal interconnection standards vary considerably from one bulk power provider to the
next. - national standard, -);I standard ,1FGH !"raft% ;tandard for "istributed $esources
Interconnected with #lectric ,ower ;ystems is being drafted by the I### working group. This
standard rests on certain assumptions about the contribution of "#$ to power quality and ;ystem
reliability. The standard applies at the point where a icrogrid connects to the grid and is related
to the aggregate "#$ rating within the icrogrid. In other words, the rules applied to a icrogrid
containing many small "#$ devices would be the same as for one large "#$.2owever, the
applicability of ,1FGH is limited to a "#$ rating of 1I ?-, which is larger than The ratings
expected for icro&rids. :ecause a icrogrid exploits low voltage, use of waste heat, and the
flexibility of power electronics, its practical size may be limited to a few ?- !even
Though I### draft standard ,1FGH specifies an upper limit of 1I?-%. In a large
complex, loads could be divided into many controllable units e.g., among buildings or industrial
sites. #ach unit Could be supplied by one or more icrogrids connected through a distribution
system. The advantages of this system are that the icrogrid structure insures greater stability and
controllability, -llows for a distributed command and control system, and provides redundancy to
insure greater power supply reliability for the power park.
E$,iro$e$!a" as(ec!s
&rowing environmental awareness and government directives have set the stage for an
increase in the fraction of electricity supplied using renewable sources .$enewable generation
could appear in microgrids,especially those interconnected though power electronic devices, such
,? systems or some wind turbines. :iofueled micro turbines are also a possibility.
#nvironmentally, fuel cells and most renewable sources are a maEor improvement over
conventional combustion engines.
- microgrid is located in a geographically limited area. Its generation and load, as well as load
balance, are controlled by reliable electronic components, and it can disconnect from the utility
grid and run in
CislandDmode if required.
"istributed generation, especially solar and wind power collected across different small
generation locations, is gaining considerable importance and their deployment is perceived as
vital in achieving carbon reduction goals .The gains of increased conversion efficiency are
threefold. /irst, fuel costs will be reduced both because individual fuel purchases will decrease
-nd constrained overall demand will drive down fuel prices. ;econd, carbon emissions will be
reduced. -nd, third, the environmental problem of disposing of large power plant waste heat Into
the environment will diminish.
CHAPTER <
<. CON/ENTIONA* GRID /ERSES MICROGRID
,erformance easures Traditional grid power
icrog
rid
Cost -t most location in *; delivered
0ell designed microgrid
proEects
grid power
effectivel
y cost withgoodfuelcostor
between = and 1F cents per J0h
availability can be under 1I
cents
per J0h so some are less costly
than grid power in some
locatio
ns.
/uel #fficiency "elivered grid power is 9IK to
icrogrid with C2, can be
HIK
FIK efficient depending on the to LIK efficient. 0ithout C2,
mix of power plant used. microgrid may be less efficient
than grid power.
$eliability &rid power is on average
icrogrid with bulk system
as
LL.LHKreliable.)o
sin
gle "& backup achieves higher
technology without redundancy
reliability than the bulk
system
Can beat this figure. alone and usually at lower cost
than upgrading the bulk system
reliability.
icrogrid alone is not a reliable
as traditional power without use
of costly redundancy.
#missions odern natural gas combine /uel cells and renewable energy
cycle power plants pollute less
systems used in "& have little
or
than fuel oil8diesel "& engine no emission and pollute much
units. less that most grid sources.
)atural gas "& sources pollute
less than coal fired traditional
grid generation.
;ecurity "amage to a few measure ;evere damage to a microgrid
transmission
line
s
ca
n
caus
e affects only thousands of
regional
blacko
uts affecting customers or less.
Construction constraints
It
is
diffic
ult
to
built
new
lines
icrogrid can be a solution
to
and substations due to )I:M
overloaded and constrained
T."
!C
no
t
i
n my backyard
systems. :ut they also have
their
syndromeD%
. own pollution, noise and zoning
issues.
F.1 AD/ANTAGES &
1. icrogrid includes generation ,storage and loads and can operate autonomously in grid connected
islanded mode
7. In peak load periods it prevents the utility failure by reducing the load on the grid
9. icrogrid can operate in stable manner during nominal operating conditions and during transient
events.
G. icrogrids are completely compatible with existing utility grid.
F. It supports the growth of existing system in an economical and environmentally friendly way.
=. icrogrids are more efficient because of it can optimise the utilisation of generators, manage
charging and discharging storage units, manage the power consumption.
H. icrogrids are able to operate with diverse mixture of generators.
<. icrogrid supports a true peer4to4peer model for operation, control and energy trade
F.7 DISAD/ANTAGES&
1. #lectrical energy needs to be stored in battery banks thus requiring more space and maintenance.
7. $esynchronization with utility grid is difficult.
9. icrogrid protection is one of the most important challenges facing the implementation of
icrogrids.
CHAPTER =
=. CONC*USIONS
icro grids can provide improved electric service reliability and better power quality to end customers
and can also benefit local utilities by providing dispatch able load for use during peak power conditions or
allowing system repairs without effecting customer loads. - micro grid enables small communities to take
control of their energy use and reduce their carbon footprint through a new and innovative way of
generating and managing electricity.
The state4of4the4art of issues of icro &rid research proEects, especially in #urope, *nited ;tate, Napan,
Canada and India has been presented. -lthough the researches and activities of icro &rids across the
globe have not yet reached significant levels, however is experiencing a rapid growth.
CHAPTER >
>. RE'ERENCES&
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%$ECEM&E# '(()*
'
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S. Ab.3Char4ha, #.5. Arnold, 5. 6oehler, #. ia, T. Mar47arta, 5.N. #ossb, 6. Steemersc, 8. 9ilsonb, #.
:aoc. "Can microgrids ma4e a ma-or contrib.tion to ;6 energ< s.ppl<=" %September
'
'((1*
http+,,eprints.ecs.soton.ac..4,00'>2,0,Microgrids.pdf
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aboratories %5an.ar< '((@*
'
http+,,www.electricdistrib.tion.ctc.com,pdfs,#$C/Microgrid/9hitepaper/03>3(@.pdf
#obert H. asseter, 8aolo 8iagi. "Microgrid+ A Concept.al Sol.tion", ;ni7ersit< of 9isconsin3Madison
%5.ne '((1*
'
http+,,www.pserc.wisc.ed.,ecow,get,p.blicatio,'((1p.blic,lasseterpesc(1.s.pdf
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'
http+,,www.pserc.org,cgi3
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'
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'
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