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1 9 NOVEMBER 201 3

I NFRASTRUKTUR BERKELANJUTAN
I SMU RI NI DWI ARI
SNA
Density Centrality Degree of Participation
The Concept
Social structure is an overall system, network or pattern of
relations (Nadel,1957:12), which the analyst abstracts from the
concretely observable actions of individuals (Scott,1991:30)

Network is the interlocking of relationships whereby the
interactions implicit in one determine those occurring in
others(Nadel,1957:16)

The whole of social life could be seen as a set of points some
of which are joined by lines to form a total network of
relations. The informal sphere of interpersonal relations was to
be seen as one part, a partial network, of this total network
(Barnes, 1954:43)

Durkheim and Tonnies (end of 18
th
C)
existence of social structure is as in the form of personal ties
that either link people who share similar values and beliefs
or impersonal, formal and instrumental social links.

S. Wasserman & K. Faust (1994)
the social network perspective encompasses theories,
models, & applications that are expressed in terms of
relational concepts or processes. That is, relations defined
by linkages among units are a fundamental component of
network theories.
The Definition
The four tenets of SNA (S. Wasserman & K. Faust,1994)
Actors & their actions are viewed as interdependent rather
than independent, autonomous units.
Relational ties (linkages) between actors are channels for
transfer of flow of resources (either material or non
material).
Network models focusing on individuals view the network
structural environment as providing opportunities for, or
constraints on, individual action.
Network models conceptualize structure (social, economic,
political, and so forth) as lasting patterns of relations among
actors.

The Definition
Three Types of Data
Attribute data
relate to the attitudes, opinions and behavior of agents, in so far as
these are regarded as the properties, qualities or characteristics
that belong to them as individuals or group.
Relational data
the contacts, ties and connections, the group attachments and
meetings, which relate one agent to another and so cannot be
reduced to the properties of the individual agents themselves.
Ideational data
which describe the meanings, motives, definitions and typifications
themselves.

Source: Scott, J., 2000, Social Network Analysis a Handbook, SAGE
Style of research Source of evidence Type of
data
Type of Analysis
Survey research Questionnaires,
interviews
Attribute Variable analysis
Ethnographic
research
Observations Ideational Typological analysis
Documentary
research
Texts Relational Network analysis
Three Types of Data
Source: Scott, J., 2000, Social Network Analysis a Handbook, SAGE
7
The importance of studying affiliation networks is grounded in
theoretical importance of individuals memberships in
collectivities (Wasserman & Faust, 1994)

Affiliation Network: (Faust, 1997)
Such network of actors tied to each other through their participation
in collectivities, and collectivities linked through multiple
memberships of actors
Consist of two elements:
A set of actors and
A collection of subsets of actors (events)
Connections among members of one mode of the modes are
based on linkages established through the second mode
(Wasserman & Faust, 1994)
Affiliation Network
Affiliation Network
8
The set of actors is labeled as
The set of events is labeled as
Affiliation Matrix




Hypothetical Example:
6 actors & 4 events
} ,..., , {
2 1 g
n n n N =
} ,..., , {
2 1 h
m m m M =
m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4
n
1
1 0 1 1
n
2
0 1 0 1
n
3
0 1 1 0
n
4
0 0 1 0
n
5
1 1 0 1
n
6
1 1 1 1
A 1 in row actor , column event of A indicates that actor n
i
is
affiliated with event m
k
i k
{ } gxh a A
ik
= =
Affiliation Network: one-mode & two-mode
9
n
1
n
2
n
3
n
4
n
5
n
6
n
1
0 1 1 1 2 3
n
2
1 0 1 0 2 2
n
3
1 1 0 1 1 2
n
4
1 0 1 0 0 1
n
5
2 2 1 0 0 3
n
6
3 2 2 1 3 0
n
1
n
2
n
3
n
4
n
5
n
6
m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4
n
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
n
2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
n
3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
n
4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
n
5
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
n
6
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
m
1
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
m
2
0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
m
3
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
m
4
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
(

=
0 '
0
A
A
X
NM
Two-mode
Bipartite Matrix
' AA X
N
=
One-mode matrix of actor co-
memberships indicates the
number of memberships shared
by each pair of actors
A B C D E
1 1 1 1 1 0
2 1 1 1 0 1
3 0 1 1 1 0
4 0 0 1 0 1
1 2 3 4
1 - 3 3 1
2 3 - 2 2
3 3 2 - 1
4 1 2 1 -
A B C D E
A - 2 2 1 1
B 2 - 3 2 1
C 2 3 - 2 2
D 1 2 2 - 0
E 1 1 2 0 -
Methodology
1. Incidence matrix
typically rectangular matrix
represents the affiliations
of agents in a network
2. Adjacency matrix
always square matrix represents the ties among agents in a
network
10
Source: Scott, J., 2000, Social Network Analysis a Handbook, SAGE
Inclusiveness refers the number of connected points that are
included within the various connected parts of the graph.
Inclusiveness = (n- n
0
)/n

The degree of a point is a numerical measure of the size of its
neighborhood.
Density of indirected graph = 2l/n(n-1)

Note: the directed graph has asymmetrical matrix wherein a
directed line from A to B will not necessarily a reciprocated
line directed from B to a.
Density of directed graph = l/n(n-1)
Inclusiveness & Density

Source: Scott, J., 2000, Social Network Analysis a Handbook, SAGE
Inclusiveness & Density
Source: Scott, J., 2000, Social Network Analysis a Handbook, SAGE
No. of connected nodes 4 4 4 3 2 0
Inclusiveness 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.5 0
Sum of Degrees 12 8 6 4 2 0
No. of lines 6 4 3 2 1 0
Density 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1 0
Inclusiveness = ratio of the number of connected points to the total
number of points
An isolated point is incident with no lines and so can contribute nothing
to the density of network. The more inclusive, the more dense will it be.


Centrality (Scott J, 1991)
is a measure of the importance of a node in providing
connectivity (bridging) to other nodes in the network.
is a measure of the contribution of network position to
the importance, influence, prominence of an actor in a
network.
Local centrality (LC) of a node
Absolute LC is simply the degree of a node
Relative LC is ratio between the degree of connection to the
total number of nodes exclude the node of itself
Global centrality a node
is defined as the sum of all distances of that node to the rest of
the nodes of the network
A node is globally central if it lies at short distances from
the other nodes of the network.
The Example (Scott J, 1991)
E F J K N



A G B C O
D M




H L Q P
A,C B G,M J,K,L All other
nodes
Local
Centrality
Absolute 5 5 2 1 1
Relative 0.33 0.33 0.13 0.07 0.07
Global Centrality 43 33 37 48 57
Centrality for Affiliation Networks
15
The notion of centrality is to identify the most important actors
in a social network that located in strategic locations within the
network (Wasserman and Faust,1994).
The measure of the prominence or importance of the actors in a
social network
A prominent actor is if the ties of the actor make the actor
particularly visible to the other actors in the network.
Based on the relational pattern of the row and column entries

The use of centrality measures is to understand group structure
which those actors with the most access will be the most central
in the network.
One-mode Degree Centrality (Wasserman & Faust, 1994)
The simplest definition of actor centrality is that central actors
must be the most active in the sense that they have the most ties
to other actors in the networks.
This very active actor should thus have a maximal centrality
index.
The most visible actors in the network.
Index of actor degree centrality


Normalized degree centrality


An ego density for a nondirectional relation is simply the ratio of degree of an
actor to the maximum number of ties that could occur.

= = =
+
j
ji
j
ij i i i D
x x x n d n C ) ( ) (
1
) (
) ( '

=
g
n d
n C
i
i D
Two-Mode Degree Centrality
Affiliation network as two-mode networks, consists of subsets of
actors wherein connections among members of one of the modes
are based on linkages established through the second mode
(Wasserman & Faust, 1994)

Two-mode Degree Centrality
The actors are important because of their level of activity or the
number of contact that they have (Faust, 1997)
The raw degree centrality for an actor is defined as the number of
events that is participated by the actor
) (
i D
n C
Actor n
i
normalized degree centrality (Everett & Borgatti, 2005)
h
n C
i D
) (
=
One-Mode Closeness Centrality (Wasserman & Faust, 1994)
18
Closeness measures how close an actor is to all the other actors
in the set of actors as a function of geodesic distance.
Actors are central if they can contact others through efficient
(short) paths
Index of actor closeness centrality: Sabidussis (1966) in Wasserman &
Faust (1994)



Normalized closeness centrality: Beauchamp (1965) in Wasserman &
Faust (1994)
(


=
=

g
j
j i
n C
n n d
i C
1
) (
) , (
1
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( '
1
) , (
1
i C
n n d
g
i C
n C g n C
g
j
j i
=

=
(


=
) , (
j i
n n d : the length of any shortest path between the actors for all j i
= ) , (
k i
n n d
: the geodesic distance of the isolate actor n
k
= 0 for all i k
19
is that an actor is central if it lies between other actors on their
geodesics, implying that to have a large betweenness centrality,
the actor must be between many of the actors via their geodesic.
Index of actor betwenness for is the sum of the estimated
probabilities over all pairs of actors not including the ith actor for i
distinct from j and k.

Normalized betwenness centrality


The value is between 0 and 1

One-Mode Betwenness Centrality (Wasserman & Faust, 1994)
jk i
k j
jk i B
g n g n C / ) ( ) (

<
=
] 2 / ) 2 )( 1 /[( ) ( ) ( ' = g g n C n C
i B i B
i
n
i
n
jk
g
: the number of geodesic linking the two actors
) (
i jk
n g
: the number of geodesic linking the two actors that contain actor i
: the number of pairs of actors not including
2 / ) 2 )( 1 ( g g
Rate of Participation
Describe peoples rates of participation in social activities
(McPherson, 1982).

The mean rate of affiliation for actors in the bipartite
matrix that might one to compare peoples rate of
participation in voluntary organization between
communities (Wasserman and Faust, 1994).

Source: Wasserman and Faust (1994)
The row totals of an affiliation matrix, A or
The entries on the main diagonal of actor co-memberships
matrix, in a valued relation matrix.

The number of events with which actors is affiliated is
denoted by .
= the number or the size of events, , to which actor
belongs.


(i) Rate of Participation
N
X
N
ii
h
j
ij i
x a a = =

=
+
1
h M
g
x
g
a
g
a
a
g
i
N
ii
g
i
h
j
ij
i


= + +
= =
+
= = =
1
1 1
Source: Wasserman and Faust (1994)
The average number of actors in each event, or mean
degree of events in the bipartite matrix.

The size of each event refers to the number of actors
affiliated with event j is given by the column total of
affiliation matrix, A, or the entries on the main diagonal of
the event overlap matrix, , is denoted by

(ii) Size of Events
Source: Wasserman and Faust (1994)
M
X
M
jj
g
i
ij j
x a a = =

=
+
1
h
x
h
a
h
a
a
h
j
M
jj
g
i
h
j
ij
j

=
+ +
= =
+
= = =
1 1 1
Pustaka
Faust, K., 1997, Centrality in Affiliation Networks, Social
Networks 19:157-191
Sabidussi, G., 1966, The Centrality Index of a Graph,
Psychometrika Vol. 31 No. 4.
Scott, J., 1991, Social Network Analysis: A Handbook, 2
nd

Edition, SAGE.
Wasserman, S. and Faust, K., 1994, Social Network Analysis:
Methods and Applications, Cambridge University Press.

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