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Topic 3 Second Language Learning Theories

Krashens Monitor Model

3.3.1 Input Hypothesis
The main factor in language
acquisition is not the language used
but the language input
The most useful form is
understandable and it should just be
a little beyond the learners ability
If it is too far beyond, the learner will
lose attention and if it is not far
enough, the learner will learn nothing
Teacher should give rough tuned
input & a wide variety of materials
supported by visual cues & realia
E.g. situations that contain input
Teacher-talk from a teacher to a
language student: Teachers simplify
their language to make L2 learners
L2 learners go through an initial Silent
Period: A learner is silent to build up
competencies of 2
Language via
listening. Speak only after the learner
has enough competence
Comprehensible input is very
important for the language
acquisition: The more the
comprehensible input, the greater the
L2 proficiency, lack of comprehensible
input delays the language acquisition

3.3.2 Affective Filter Hypothesis
External factors that forbid language
- Motivation
- Self confidence
- Anxiety
If a learner has a low motivation &
low self confidence but a high
anxiety, the affective filter will occur
& prevent the learner acquiring the
new language
Learners who are motivated,
confident & relaxed have more
success acquiring the 2
Barriers in learning can be found in
any negative feelings that a learner
has about the language, the method
used, the institution & the teacher
A teacher must make the language
learning is stress free & enjoyable in
order to succeed the learner to
acquire a new language

3.3.3 Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
Two systems of language acquisition
1. Acquired system which relates to
unconscious aspect of language
- When people learn their first
language by speaking the
language naturally in daily
interaction with others & the
acquired system is at work
- Act of communicating is more
important than the structure of
the utterances
2. Learned system relates to formal
instruction where students engage in
formal study to acquire knowledge
about the target language. E.g. the
learned system is about studying the
rules of syntax
- Implicit, subconscious
- Informal situations
- Use grammatical feel
- Depends on attitude
- Stable order of acquisition
- Explicit, conscious
- Formal situations
- Use grammatical rules
- Depends on aptitude
- Simple to complex order of

3.2.4 Monitor Hypothesis
The formal rule system acts as
monitor in the acquired system
This hypothesis is best used when
- We have to be very careful
- When language is necessarily
- Writing letters & speaking to
superior in formal situation
There are 3 conditions required by the
Monitor Hypothesis
1. Time
- Learner must have time to use
the monitor. Using monitor will
have the speaker to slow down &
focus on the form of language
2. Focus on correctness of the form
- Learner must focus on the form of
language. It is difficult to focus on
meaning & form at the same time
3. Knowledge of rules
- Learner must know the rules. The
speaker must have explicit
instruction on the language form
Three types of Monitor users
1. Over users always use their monitor
& so concerned with correctness
2. Under users choose not to use their
conscious knowledge of language
3. Optimal users use the monitor when
it is appropriate & does not interfere
Krashen stresses more on the meaning that is
wished to convey rather than the form of

3.2.5 Natural Order Hypothesis
There is natural order in which
learners pick up a language
Mistakes made by learners are a part
of language learning & these mistakes
are not random but similar to the
errors that children make when
learning their 1
These mistakes will be made up in
the same order whether the learners
have been taught the grammar or
not & teaching grammar will not help
them change the order

4.2.1 What is Universal Grammar?
Universal Grammar is the system of
principles, conditions, & rules that
are elements or properties of all
human languages
Means that a native speaker of
language knows a set of principles
that can be applied to all languages &
parameters that vary from one
language to another
4.2.2 Why it is named as Universal
Chomsky named this innate capacity
as Universal Grammar
Universal means it is universal to all
Grammar means the fact about
grammar that human are born
4.2.3 What does Universal Grammar consist
Universal Grammar which exists in a
childs mind is a set of principles &
Principles: grammar, speech, sounds
& meaning
Principles of Language are rules of
language that permit or prohibit
certain structures from occurring in
all languages
Parameters of Language refer to
systematic ways which human
languages vary to syntactic variability
amongst languages. E.g. the use of
past tense in English but not in Malay

4.2.4 Universal Grammar and First Language
Children are able to learn the
grammar of a particular language
unconsciously because all intelligible
languages are found on a deep
structure of grammatical rules that
are universal & correspond to an
innate capacity of human brain
Stages of acquisition of a native
language can be measured from the
increasing complexity & originality of
childs utterances
Children learn sounds & vocabulary
of their native language through
imitation & grammar which is seldom
taught to them explicitly
Chomsky claimed that children are
biologically programmed for language
Language is said to be innate because:
1. Maturational controlled: languages
emerge before they are needed &
cannot be forced before scheduled. A
child goes through some stages
before able to speak.
2. Do not appear as the result of a
conscious decision
3. Do not appear due to a trigger from
external events

4.2.5 Universal Grammar and Second
Language Acquisition
Learner acquires second language by making
use of existing knowledge of native
language, general learning strategies or
universal properties of language to
internalize knowledge of second language.
Factors which affect L2 acquisition
1. Individual differences:
- Rate of development
- Ultimate level of achievement
2. Age
3. Language learning aptitude
4. Motivation
5. Cognitive style
- How people perceive,
conceptualize, organize & recall
Strategies used for the development of L2
1. Repetition (imitating a word or
2. Memorization ( recalling songs,
3. Talking to self (engaging in internal
4. Answering in unison (responding to
5. Monitoring (self-correcting errors)

Topic 5 ELT Methods
5.2.1 Grammar-Translation Method
Key features
1. Mother tongue is used as a medium
of instruction & very little teaching of
Target Language
2. Elaborated explanations of
vocabulary are always provided
3. Reading difficult text is done early in
the course of study
4. Little or no attention is paid to
speaking/listening skills
5. Focus on accuracy not fluency
6. Little or no attention is given to
7. Primary skills to be improved are
reading & writing
1. TL is quickly explained because
translation is the easiest way of
explaining meanings or words &
phrases from one language into
2. Effective way for application of
grammar & sentence structure
3. Least stressful for students as they
answer comprehension questions in
their mother tongue
1. Speech is neglected
2. Little contextualization of grammar
3. Less motivation of learners
4. Create frustration for learners
5. No time for the students to produce
their own sentences
Learner-Teacher interaction
1. Teacher to learner interaction
2. Littler learner initiation & learner to
learner interaction
3. Learners listen, copy rules & write out
exercises & correct them from the
4. Learners have passive role in the
classroom & just absorbs & then
repeat what he has absorbed to
satisfy the teacher
Application: Typical Techniques
1. Translation of passage
2. Reading comprehension question
3. Fill in the blanks
4. Memorization
5. Composition
6. Use words in sentences

5.2.2 Direct Method
Key features
1. Instruction is conducted in the Target
Language & no translation
2. Learners must be actively involved in
Target Language
3. Students are encouraged to think in
the target language
4. Oral & listening comprehensions are
taught. Oral communication skills are
organized with emphasis on speaking
styles & correct pronunciation
5. Grammar is taught explicitly. New
items are taught through modelling &
6. Concrete vocabulary is taught
through demonstration, objects &
7. Abstract vocabulary is taught through
association of ideas
1. Effective way to make learners
competent in using the Target
2. Can be used in both the best &
weakest classes
3. Learners are able to understand what
they learn, think about it & express
their own ideas in correct Target
4. Fluency on speech, good
pronunciation & power of expression
are properly developed
1. Not all teachers are proficient enough
in Target Language
2. Need a lot of time to prepare teaching
3. Grammar is closely bound up with the
4. This method could not be properly
applied in larger class as it will not
fulfil individual needs.
Guidelines for Direct Method
1. Ask questions
2. Practice
3. Use sentences
4. Use lesson plan
5. Speak normally & naturally
Learner-Teacher Interaction
1. Teacher to learner, learner to teacher
2. The latter is often teacher-directed
3. Learners read aloud the text together
4. The class only uses the Target
5. Teacher & learner are partners in
teaching & learning
Application: Typical Techniques
1. Reading aloud
2. Map drawing
3. Fill in the blank
4. Paragraph writing

5.2.3 Audio Lingual Method
Key features
1. Dependence on mimicry &
memorization of set phrases
2. Teaching structural patterns by
means of repetitive drills
3. Skills are sequenced in the following
order: listening, speaking, reading,
4. Use of tapes, language labs & visual
5. Mother tongue is only allowed to be
used by teacher & students are not
allowed to do so.
6. Immediate reinforcement
(praise/reward) of correct responses
7. Cultural background of TL is stressed
1. Controlled drills may encourage shy
students to speak
2. May help create fluency for some
1. Learners who need the written word
to enhance their speaking & listening
may find ALM confusing
2. ALM uses non-authentic language
3. Learners cannot create new things
because they have to follow the

Learner-Teacher interaction
1. Learner-learner interaction in this
chain drills.
2. This interaction is teacher-directed
3. Interaction between teacher &
learners is initiated by the teacher
4. The teacher leads, controls & directs
the language behaviour of learner
Typical Techniques
1. Dialogue memorization
2. Repetition Drill
3. Chain Drill
4. Grammar games
5. Use of minimal pairs
6. Complete the dialogue

5.1.1 Silent Way
Key features
1. Learning is facilitated if the learner
discovers or creates
2. Learning is facilitated by
accompanying physical objects
3. Learning is facilitated by problem
solving involving materials to be
4. Teacher is silent most of the times
leaving the learners struggling to
solve problems about the language
1. Learning through problem solving
looks attractive because it fosters
creativity, discovery, increase in
intelligent potency & long term
2. Teaching is subordinated from
learning because good learning
demand that any language learners to
carefully observe their own speech
1. One of the harsh method
2. No reinforcement as teachers
minimally involve in the learning
Learner-Teacher interaction
1. The teacher is silent
2. Teacher sets up situations to force
3. Learner-based learning
4. Teacher only speaks to give clues not
to model the language
5. Learner-leaner interaction is desirable
& encouraged

1. Learning through sound

5.2.7 Total Physical Response (TPR)
Key features
1. Second language learning is parallel to
first language learning & should
reflect the same naturalistic process
2. Listening should be developed before
3. After listening comprehension
develops, speaking skill will develop
4. Adult learners should use right-brain
motor activities while the left
hemisphere watches & learns
1. Allow learners to get up & move while
learning & encourages a more relaxed
learning environment
2. Fun & easy: Learners will enjoy the
physical activities
3. Good tool for building vocabulary
4. It is memorable & help to strengthen
the connection in the brain
5. Class size is not a problem
1. Not as effective as higher levels of
language learning
2. Does not promote independent
language use outside of oral work
modelled by teacher in classroom
3. Only for beginners
4. Can be challenging for shy learners
Learner-Teacher Interaction
1. Teacher interacts with the whole
group of learners
2. Teacher speaking & learners respond
3. Later, learners become more verbal &
teacher responds nonverbally
4. Learners perform actions together or
individually & learn from each other

Topic 6 Communicative Approach
6.2.2 Principles of Communicative Approach
1. Language is used in real context is
introduced because it is interesting &
2. TL is the vehicle in the classroom
communications & not just the
object of study.
3. Teaching is learner-centred
4. The teacher acts as the facilitator
setting up communicative activities
& as an advisor
5. In communicating, the speaker has a
choice of what to say & how to say it
6. Both speaking & writing are
important. Reading, writing,
speaking & listening are all
7. Fluency & accuracy is important.
Drilling is used when appropriate.
6.2.3 Techniques of Communicative
1. Functional communication activities:
these activities are aimed at
developing certain language skills &
functions & involve communication
such as language games, scrambled
sentences & puzzles
2. Social interaction activities: such as
conversation & discussion sessions,
dialogues & role plays, simulation.
1. Greater focus on the role of learners
with a teacher-centred instruction to
learner-centred instruction
2. Greater attention on the process of
learning than the product that
learners produce
3. Promote holistic learning
4. Emphasis on the importance of
meaning rather than drills & other
forms of learning
5. Views learning as a life-long process
rather than being exam-oriented
1. Focus less on the formal structures
2. This approach relies extensively on
functional-notational syllabus which
places heavy demand on the learners
3. Various categories of language
function are overlapping & not
systematically graded E.g. structures
of the language
4. More to fulfil the needs & interests of
the learners & teachers have to
modify the syllabus to fulfil the needs
5. The requirements are difficult
because this approach needs
availability of a classroom that can
allow for group work activities & for
teaching aids & materials
Role of teacher
1. The teacher facilitates the
communication on the classroom
2. Establish situations likely to promote
3. During activities, teacher acts as an
advisor, answering students
questions & monitoring their
Role of learners
1. Students are communicators
2. Engage in negotiating meaning to
make them understand &
understanding others
3. Students are responsible for their
own learning

Role of resources
This Communicative Approach uses the
authentic resources because they are more
interesting & motivating. Authentic resources
are used to:
1. Provide cultural information about
the target language
2. Provide exposure to real language
3. Relate more closely to learners needs

Topic 7 ELT Methods
Lexical Approach
1. Language consists of grammaticalised
lexis, not lexicalised grammar
2. The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy
is invalid because many languages
have multiword chunks
3. A vital element of language teaching
is raising students awareness &
developing their ability to chunk
4. Collocation is integrated as an
organising principle within syllabuses
5. Central metaphor of language is
6. Grammar as a receptive skill involving
the perception of similarity &
difference is prioritised
1. Intensive & extensive listening &
reading of target language
2. Repetition & recycling of activities
such as summarizing a text orally one
day & again after a few days
3. Guessing the vocabulary items from
4. Working with dictionaries

Eclectic Approach
1. The label given to a teachers use of
techniques & activities of language
teaching approaches &
2. The teacher decides what
methodology or approach to be used
depending on the aim of the lesson &
the learners in the group
3. Most course books have mixture of
approaches & methodologies
Task-Based Learning