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Plate Heat Exchangers

2000 Start of the T-series, FrontLine


1999 Vicarb acquisition, Compabloc & V-series
1997 Base-line (Food)
1995 Rolls Laval / Spiral C-serie
1994 AlfaRex
1993 Nickel Brazed
1992 Clip-Line (Food)
1989 Plate evaporator
1987 Graphite plate
1986 M-series, module size & thinner plates, Double-wall
1985 Wide-gap
1983 Copper Brazed
1980 Semi-welded concept, glue-free concepts
1970 A-series with Alfa Flex concept, 0.6 mm
1962 Rosenblad herring-bone pattern
1950 Industrial plates in exotic material
1944 Wash-board pattern
1938 Pressed plates in 1.0 mm
1931 First Plate Heat Exchanger (1878 a German patent)
Plate Heat Exchanger - evolution
1931 2001
5-10 mm thick plate
Milled pattern
Liquids passed the plate
horizontally several times
Stainless steel
Up to 5 m
2
per unit
Down to 0.4 mm plates
Pressed plates
Liquids passes over the whole
plate in one passage
Various materials
Up to 2000 m
2
per unit
Plate Heat Exchanger - evolution
PHE - applications
Steel and metal works
Power and energy production
Chemical process industries
Petroleum industries
Refrigeration
Engineering industries
Central cooling engineering
Metal recovery industries
Mineral processing industries
Sugar, distillery fermentation
Pulp and paper industries
Dryers for compressed air
Heating, ventilation and
air conditioning
PHE - main components
Carrying bar
Pressure
plate
Plate pack
Tightening bolts
Frame plate
Current PHE range large units
Current PHE range medium units
Current PHE range small units
Plate - main components
Thin sheet design, cold formed in single step hydraulic
pressing (up to 40000 tons)
Main heat transfer
area
Distribution area
Suspension
Inlet / outlet
Passing through
Gasket in
gasket groove
Leak chamber
Cold in
Hot out
Hot in
Cold out
Plate pack - example single pass
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Only 2 plates that do not transfer heat - the endplates
Plate pack - example two pass
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Cold in
Hot out
Hot in
Cold out
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3 plates in each pass that do not transfer heat
Semiwelded Plate Heat Exchangers
Casette - main components
Main heat transfer area
Distribution
area
Media inlet / outlet
Media to next plate channel
Gasket in
gasket
groove
Leak chamber
Two plates are laser welded to each
other to form a cassette.
Each cassette is sealed off with a
gasket on one side. The cassettes
make up the plate pack.
Aggressive media on one side
Combining the benefits
of welded and gasketed technology
Semiwelded PHE range
AlfaCond in reality
Why AlfaCond?
instead of shell-and-tube
Save money
Save space
Easier maintenance
Easy to increase capacity
Counter-current flow
AlfaCond a paradigm shift
Innovative hole configuration
Innovative pattern for
condensation
Asymmetric channels
Semi-welded technology
Vapour
Vapour
Water
out
Condensate
Water
in
AlfaCond
The AlfaVap plate evaporator
The worlds largest rising film
plate evaporator
Unique patented flow distribution
system to secure perfect wetting
of complete plate pack
Special product made for
evaporation
Based on the semi-welded concept
Uses steam as heating media
The other fluid is boiledso unwanted fluid
is evaporated
The AlfaVap plate evaporator
Flow principle
Steam
Condensate
Feed
Vapour
AlfaVap Product Description
Connections
AlfaVap Product Description
Connections
Feed inlet
Steam inlet
Condensate outlet
Steam
Condensate
Feed
Vapour
Vapour
Concentrate
AlfaRex fully welded solution
Same as a gasketed PHE
Parallel flow
Fully counter-current flow for
heat recover duties
Co-current flow by switching
inlet port of one of the fluids
400C & 40 bar as design
temperature & pressure
Cyclic duties
Alfa Rex - applications
Duties involving
Aggressive media (no gaskets)
Duties cyclic in temperature
and/or pressure where other
welded HEs meet their limits
High pressure and temperature
Heat recovery (liquid-liquid)
Evaporation of clean fluids
For clean media or when
CIP is suitable
Typical industries
Pharmaceutical industry
Vegetable oils production
Refrigeration
Pulp and paper
Marine & Power
HVAC
Gasketed and Semiwelded heat exchangers
Perfomance limits
AlfaRex
Gasketed Plate
Heat Exchangers
300 200 100 0 -50
10
20
30
40
50
Design
pressure
(bar)
Temp. (C)
100% stainless steel
100% gasket-free
Extremely compact no frames
Low weight
Wide temperature range
High design pressure
AlfaNova fully welded solution
Plates are Fusion-bonded (AlfaFusion)
Micro structure similar to welding
AlfaNova
Comparison in Microstructure
AlfaFusion
D: Original Base material
E: Original filler material
F: Homogenisation
D
AlfaNova, availability
Design temperature: -196C -
550C
Design pressure: 30 barg
100% stainless steel
Pressure vessel codes: PED,
ASME
Materials
100% stainless steel
The 1
st
PHE
Semi Welded
Fully
Welded
AlfaFusion
TM
1931
1960 1977 1980 1994 2003
Technology Platforms
Fish Bone pattern
x
Brazed
Compact Heat Exchangers fully welded units
Compabloc
Compabloc exploded view
Compabloc
Performance Data
Temperature: From 100
0
C to 400C
Pressure: From FV to 40 barg
Diff. Pressure: Full differential pressure 40 barg
Minimum 2 bar difference between two
sides
Materials: Stainless steel 316L, Avesta 254 SMO,
Incoloy 825, Hastelloy C-276, C22, B2,
Ti, TiPd, Tantalum
Heat transfer area: Up to 320 m
2
per unit
Pressure vessel codes: PED, ASME
Compabloc as a condenser
Compabloc as a condenser
The Compabloc as a condenser
with two passes
The Compabloc as a condenser
with two passes
h
Coolant
Vapour
Coolant
Condensate
Compabloc
Vertical multi-pass condenser
Compabloc as a reboiler
Vapour/liquid
mixture
Liquid
Steam
Condensate
H327
Compabloc
used in a
distillation
system
Condenser
Reboiler
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H328
Compabloc
EASY
EASY
ACCESS FOR
ACCESS FOR
CLEANING
CLEANING
Spiral Heat Exchanger
Winding of a spiral heat
exchanger
A single channel with countercurrent
flow provides...
A single channel with countercurrent
flow provides...
Easy access to clean
Self-cleaning effect with
Horizontal mounting
Single channel
Spiral heat exchanger
The self-cleaning heat exchanger
Counter-current flow
Used for tough process fluids
Slurry
Sludge
Fibres
High-fouling fluids
Compact
Very low pressure drop
Column mounting
Total accessibility on
process side
Possibility to sub-cool
condensate
Spiral heat exchanger condensers
Top-mounted
spiral heat
exchanger
condenser
Top-mounted
spiral heat
exchanger
condenser
Vapour
Condensate
Inerts
Vapour
Inerts
Cond.
Vapour
Inerts
Cond.
Spiral heat exchanger condensers
Spiral Heat Exchanger
Availability
Temperature: From 100
0
C to 400C
Pressure: From FV to 40 barg
Diff. Pressure: Max diff pressure 23 barg
Materials: Any material that can be cold-formed and
welded such as:
Carbon steel, 304L, 316L, 316Ti, 904L,
Avesta 254 SMO, 2205 Duplex, Hastelloy
C-276, C22, Titanium
Heat transfer area: Up to 500 m
2
per unit
Pressure vessel codes: PED, ASME
Easy access
Easy access for cleaning
AlfaDisc Shell & Plate concept
Alfa Laval Slide 49
The
The
AlfaDisc
AlfaDisc
Plate
Plate
Provides true countercurrent flow, for
full LMTD and close temperature
approaches
Turbulence scours the heat transfer
surface, reducing fouling
Alfa Laval Slide 50
The
AlfaDisc
AlfaDisc Plate
Throat of Plate
* Fluid is forced through this
section on the shell side
Throat of Plate
Fluid leaves through
the same area
Bypass
Restrictors
Bypass
Restrictors
Throat of Plate
* Fluid is forced through this
section on the shell side
Alfa Laval Slide 51
Typical Unit with
Typical Unit with
Removable Core
Removable Core
Alfa Laval Slide 52
AlfaDisc
AlfaDisc
Multi
Multi
-
-
Pass
Pass
Design
Design
Multi Multi- -pass designs are available for pass designs are available for
close temperature approaches. close temperature approaches.
By-pass
Restriction
Diverters
(fingers)
Turning Plate Port
Shell
Divider
AlfaDisc, the advantages
Fully welded no gaskets
Very high design pressure
Resistant to thermal variations
due to the accordion like plate
pack
Fully counter current flow
Removable core for accessibility
on one side as option
Compact
AlfaDisc
The accordionlike core construction,
makes the plate pack less sensitive to
thermal expansion
AlfaDisc, availability
Design temperature: -160C - 538C
Design pressure: FV - 100 barg
Heat transfer area: <108 m2
Pressure vessel codes: ASME, PED
Certification: U-stamp, GOST
Materials
Plate material: SS316L, titanium
Shell material: Carbon steel, SS316L
Packinox heat exchanger
Shell & Plate concept
Alfa Laval
Slide 57
Product range
Product range
550C
(1022
F)
Temperature
Pressure
(580 psi)
40 barg
(537 psi)
37 barg
(435 psi)
30 barg
(363 psi)
25 barg
160 C
(320F)
350 C
(662F)
400C
(752F)
-50 C
(-58F)
AlfaDisc
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Gasketed
Semi-welded
A
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a
N
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a
(1450 psi)
100 barg
Heat Exchanger selection
PHEs are used at.
- Energy conservation, less CO
2
SO
X
NO
X
* Feed/effluent duties at lowMTDs. Offloading furnaces
* Using BFW for cooling at lowLMTDs - offloading steamgeneration
Overhead condensers (replacing air coolers), liquid/liquid duties.
- Where corrosion is an issue
* Oheads condensing at crude distillation, fractionators etc.
* Alkylation, desalting, SWS, amine systems etc..
* Poor cooling water
- Difficult thermal duties
* Temperature cross high NTU
* Viscous fluids
- Where space and weight are issues
* E.g. ohead condensers
- Heavy fouling duties
- Overhead condensing
* Very low pressure drop required e.g. Vacuum column
* Column mounted Strippers at SWS, amine systems etc.
The Compact Heat Exchanger
Corrugated plate design promotes:
High turbulence
This results in:
* Efficient heat transfer
* Minimised fouling
Plate Heat Exchangers
T
1, out
T
1, out
= (T
in
- T
out
) / MTD
= (T
in
- T
out
) / MTD
T
1, in
T
1, in
T
2, out
T
2, out
T
2, in
T
2, in
Ideal for:
Temperature-X and high -values
High efficiency in Heat Recovery for
Energy Saving purposes
MTD
What is shear stress?
Shear stress
A high shear stress ensures
High turbulence High heat transfer
High force on the wall Reduced fouling
The force of the flow on the heat exchanger wall
A measure of the turbulence in the heat exchanger
Also called the Tao-value ()

wall
= wall shear stress, Pa
f = friction factor
= density, kg/m
3
= velocity, m/s
P = pressure drop, Pa
D
h
= hydraulic diameter, m
L = channel length, m
S&T:
= 2.0 m/s, f = 0.007
=>
wall
= 14 Pa
CP:
= 0.5 m/s, f = 0.5
=>
wall
= 63 Pa

wall
= (f * *
2
)/2 = (P * D
h
)/(4 * L)

wall
= (f * *
2
)/2 = (P * D
h
)/(4 * L)
High shear stress
can minimize fouling
Shear stress () as a function of velocity
Shear stress
1
10
100
1000
0.1 1 10
V, m/s
w
, N/m
PHE, H-theta
PHE, M-theta
PHE, L-theta
SHE, f=0.012
SHE, f=0.008
Tube, f=0.007
The three different channels gives
different shear stress - L, M, H
For the same velocity
the PHE gives a higher
shear stress than the
Shell & Tube
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
1
0
3
0
5
0
7
0
9
0
1
1
0
1
3
0
1
5
0
1
7
0
1
9
0
Shear stess ( pa )
F
o
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g

r
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s
i
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c
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g
r
o
w
t
h

r
a
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e
(

1
0
E
-
8

m
2
K
/
W
h
)
Shear stress versus fouling rate
Rule of thumb: Try to keep the shear stress >50 Pa
Two ways of including safety factors
Fouling factor Defined for Shell & Tubes
K-value margin Defined for Plate Heat Exchangers
Design safety factors
Why safety factors when designing?
Variation in flow rates and physical properties
Allows fouling (dirt) on the plate and it still does the job
Design safety factors
Typical S&T in water-water duty
A normal Rf for S&T: 1,0 10
-4
m
2
C/W
A normal k
Clean
for S&T: 2000 W/ m
2
C
4
f
Clean Service
10
2000
1
R
k
1
k
1

+ = + =
k
Service
=1667 W/ m
2
C
What does this correspond to in K-value margin?
% 20
1667
1667 2000
100 100 arg =

=
service
service clean
k
k k
in M
Normal margin for S&T
Works with lower turbulence More fouling
Area not so easy to access for cleaning
Design safety factors
What if we apply the Rf on a PHE in water-water duty?
Rf for S&T on PHE: 1,0 10
-4
m
2
C/W
A normal k
Clean
for PHE: 6000 W/ m
2
C
4
f
Clean Service
10
6000
1
R
k
1
k
1

+ = + =
k
Service
=3750 W/ m
2
C
What does this correspond to in K-value margin?
% 60
3750
3750 6000
100 100 arg =

=
service
service clean
k
k k
in M
Much too high margin
Too many plate Less turbulence Fouling !
Maybe not competitive?
Fouling
What is fouling?
Something that:
Reduces the heat transfer
Increases the pressure drop
Something that destroys the plate material
Something that leads to maldistribution
5 types of fouling
Major debris
Biological growth
Scaling
Sedimentation
Burn-on
Fouling - major debris
What is major debris?
Large objects and particles that get stuck in the HE
Example, rocks, branches, coca-cola cans, fish
To avoid major debris clogging the HE use
Widegap heat exchangers
Spiral heat exchangers
Design with high shear stress to avoid clogging & fouling
Strainers (large mesh)
Filters (fine mesh)
Fouling - biological growth
What is biological growth?
Micro organisms that grow on the heat transfer surface
Example, algae, bacteria
To avoid major debris clogging the HE use
Chock poisoning
Chlorinating
Cleaning In Place (CIP)
Environmental problems
Cleaning In Place
Why use cleaning In Place?
Removes fouling without opening
Increases lifetime for heat exchangers
Minimises downtime
Cost effective
What is Cleaning In Place?
A chemical agent is circulated in
the HE to dissolve fouling
Important parameters
Concentration of the chemical
Temperature of the chemical
Time of circulation
Mechanical action (turbulence)
Fouling - scaling
What is scaling?
Many fluids contains dissolved salts
When the fluid is heated or cooled the salts solubility changes
The salt precipitates on the heat transfer surface
Normal solubility
Increased solubility at higher temperature
Most common
Precipitates when cooled down
Be careful when cooling
Example, sugar in water
Solubility
Temperature
Sugar
Fouling - scaling
Reversed solubility
Reduced solubility at higher temperature
Precipitates when heated up
Be careful when heating
Solubility
Temperature
Sugar
CaCO
3
Common problem
Cooling water with CaCO
3
and Ca(PO
4
)
2
Avoid cooling water outlet temperatures above 45-50C
Design with high shear stress ()
Recommend water treatment
Regularly apply CIP
Fouling - sedimentation
What is sedimentation?
Fine particles that settles on the heat transfer surface
Reduces the k-value and the HE does not perform
Difficult to remove in filter
Hard to dissolve with chemicals (CIP)
How to avoid it?
Design with high turbulence / shear stress
Utilise pressure drop
Use H-theta plates
Back-flushing can be an option
Fouling - burn on
What is burn on?
Breakdown or polymerisation of molecules that stick to the plate
Example, when you boil milk on the stove it burns easily
Common in food and organic applications
Caused by too high temperatures
How to avoid it?
Design with high turbulence / shear stress
Utilise pressure drop
Use H-theta plates
Check what wall temperature can be allowed
Apply co-current flow to reduce wall temperature
Fouling in PHE vs S&T
PHE is considered to foul less than a S&T
Baffles
High turbulence High shear stress Less fouling
Low wall temperatures due to efficient heat transfer
Less risk of scaling and crystallisation
Material is selected to avoid corrosion
(S&T have corrosion allowance)
No zones of low velocity
Fouling in PHE vs S&T
Examples, Heat Transfer Research Institute (HTRI)
HTRI study of typical fouling in cooling tower water
PHE S&T
Flow velocity (m/s) 0.45 1.8 m/s
Shear stress (Pa) ca 60 ca 15
Result: Fouling in PHE was 50-70% lower
PHE Higher turbulence at a lower velocity Less fouling
A common wrong belief A
A
common
common
wrong
wrong
belief
belief
PHEs require a higher pressure drop than S&T
Statement from Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook (7th
edition):
These narrow gaps and high number of contact points which change fluid
flow direction, combine to create a very high turbulence between the plates.
This means high individual-heat-transfer coefficient (up to 14200 W/m2C),
but also very high pressure drop per length as well. To compensate, the
channel plate length are usually short, most under 2 and few over 3 meters
in length. In general, the same pressure drop as conventional exchangers
are used without loss of the enhanced heat transfer.
This length, 2 to 3 meters, in Compabloc is even lower: max 750 mm...
Normal flow
Reversed flow
Backflushing
Flow direction is reversed
Flushes the debris out of the port and back to the source
Alfa Laval Port Filter
A simple solution without separate filter
Cylindrical perforated tube
Protects at the inlet port
Available on most M-serie PHEs
Mounted and dismantled from pressure plate
Requires
Hole in pressure plate
Lining
Inspection cover
Remove inspection cover
Pull out and empty
Alfa Laval Filters
Normal operation
Flushing
Back flushing
Advantages
Easy to install - Saves space
No extra pump capacity
No disturbance of operation
during flushing
Low pressure drop
High reliability
Low flushing pressure
Easy and quick service
Good corrosion resistance