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TYPES OF

PLANNING
By
M. Zubair
Lecturer Kmu

4 TYPES OF PLANNING
1. OPERATIONAL PLANNING
2. INTERMEDIATE PLANNING
3. CONTINGENCY PLANNING
4. STRATEGIC PLANNING
1. OPERATIONAL PLANNING
1.What is OPERATIONAL planning?
>short-range planning that deals with day-to-day
maintenance activities
>performed at a unit or departmental level
>done as part of the overall strategic planning

Ex1: Unit Director plans a meeting of staff nurses to
reinforce knowledge gained from orientation of new
staff may get endorsement from the Division
Chief Nurse who has set her own staff
development plan for the whole division.
Ex2: Unit Director reviews with staff medicine
supplies
STEPS IN OPERATIONAL PLANNING
(Source: Supervision, Alfred W. Travers)
1.Set your objectives
2.Set your priorities
3.State your assumptions
4.Review any and all limitations
5.Develop your primary and back-up plans
6.Implement the plan
7.Set up a control system and follow up on
progress and results
ILLUSTRATION: STEPS IN OPERATIONAL PLANNING
THE
PLANNING
PROCESS

SET
YOUR
OBJECTIVES
SET YOUR
PRIORITIES
STATE YOUR
ASSUMPTIONS
REVIEW ANY
AND ALL
LIMITATIONS
DEVELOP
PRIMARY &
BACK-UP
PLANS
IMPLEMENT
THE PLAN
SET UP A CONTROL
SYSTEM &
FOLLOW UP
RESULTS
DETERMINE
WHAT YOU
WISH TO DO
DISTINGUISH
BETWEEN WHAT
IS IMPORTANT AND
URGENT
LIST YOUR
EXPECTATIONS
ANTICIPATE
POSSIBLE
PROBLEMS
HAVE A GOOD
PLAN (A)
PREPARE FOR
POSSIBILITIES
(B & C)
ACT
DECISIVELY,
SET TIME
LINES
MONITOR
RESULTS,
MAKE
CORRECTIONS,
SET NEW
OBJECTIVES
(SOURCE: ALFRED W. TRAVERS )
1
II
III
IV V
VI
VII
APPLICATION OF THE PLANNING
STEPS
CASE:
AS NURSE MANAGER OF THE UNIT,
YOU HAVE JUST BEEN INFORMED
THAT THE EMERGENCY ROOM IS
BUSY WITH ADMISSIONS. YOUR
UNIT HAS TWO ROOMS READY FOR
NEW ADMISSIONS. BUT YOU FIND
YOURSELF ASKING,WHAT IF THERE
WOULD BE MORE THAN TWO?
2. INTERMEDIATE PLANNING
2.What is INTERMEDIATE planning?
>a planning that is usually done in the
middle of the fiscal year
>process: mid-year appraisal followed
by affirming ongoing plans and setting
forth new plans for the rest of the year
>often covers issues about
performance, resources, and staff
development
EXAMPLE OF MID-YEAR PLANNING &
INTERVENTION
IN A MID-YEAR EVALUATION MEETING,
TEAM A REPORTS A WEAKNESS IN THE
ORIENTATION PROGRAM GIVEN TO NEW
SUPERVISING CLINICAL INSTRUCTOS FOR
THE FIRST SEMESTER. INPUTS ABOUT THE
ONCOLOGY AND INTENSIVE CARE UNITS
WERE RATED POORLY. IN PREPARATION
FOR THE 2ND SEMESTER ORIENTATION
PROGRAM, IT WAS PLANNED TO GET A
NEW TEAM MEMBER WHO HAS THE
EXPERTISE OF THE TWO UNITS.
3. CONTINGENCY PLANNING
3.What is CONTINGENCY planning?
>managing the problems that interfere with
getting work done
>could be reactive or proactive
Ex: 2 nurses for an 8-hour night shift in the
emergency room called in sickWhat
contingency plans would you do?
4. STRATEGIC PLANNING
4.What is STRATEGIC planning?
>is defining and prioritizing long-term plans that
includes examining an organizations purpose,
mission, philosophy and goals in the light of its
external environment
>it is proactive and future-oriented, focuses on a
3-5 year operation of the organization
>it generally aims at creating an image of the
desired future and design ways to make plans a
reality
Scope of strategic planning
(from: ANN MARRINER TOMEY)
External assessment >opportunities and threats
Internal assessment >strengths and weaknesses
Priority issues and programs
Vision, mission, values, philosophy
Goals: >strategic organization
>operational division, unit
Objectives
Strategies >timelines >plans
Policies and procedures
Implementation
Evaluation >production/operations
>finance
>marketing
STEPS IN STRATEGIC PLANNING
(Source: MARQUIS & HUSTON, KELLY-HEIDENTHAL, & TOMEY)
1.Analyze the organizations internal and external environment
(SWOT analysis)
2.Conduct a stakeholder assessment
3.Define the purpose of the organization
4.Clarify values important to the organization
5.Set the goals and objectives
6.Communicate the goals and objectives to the constituents
7.Identify strategies set time lines and tasks
8.Estimate and allocate resources
9.Develop and communicate a marketing or business plan
10.Establish a system for the implementation and monitoring of
policies, procedures, and rules
11.Establish a system for exchanging information and building
consensus
11.Provide a mechanism for evaluation

SWOT Analysis
(from: KELLY-HEIDENTHAL AND MARRINER TOMEY)
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
Opportunities
New programs &
services
Advanced technology
Population growth
Legislative changes
Physician recruitment
and retention
New markets
Managed care
Prestige in the
community










Threats
Strengths Weaknesses
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
Financial status
Supporting alumni
Programs & services
Employee suggestion
program
Equiptment
Administrative team
Staff expertise
Location
Marketing
Patient satisfaction
Union demands
Lag time for
management
information
system
Escalating cost
for benefits &
salaries
Unprofitable
services
-Competition
-Staff shortages
-Increased
legislative
regulations
-Unionization
-Cuts in funding
of medical
education
-Revenue loss for
caring for the
uninsured
-Decreased
reimbursement