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A

REPORT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

AT

UNIVERSAL CABLES LIMITED SATNA (M.P.)


DURING THE PERIOD


15-06-2013 TO 13-07-2013




Submitted to:- Submitted by:-
Mr. Vikram Singh Ram Agrawal
(H.O.D. of Mechanical department)

At universal cables limited satna(m.p.)




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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Though words are seldom sufficient to express gratitude and feelings, I would like
to fulfill a fraction of my moral obligation by expressing a word of gratitude to all
those who have profoundly contributed to this project.

I would like to thank Mr.sudhir jain, (Asst. Vice President, Administration),
Universal CablesLimited , Universal Cables Limited for accepting me as a trainee
and giving me opportunity to visit in the company.

It was their knowledge, skills and professionalism which helped me. Their
suggestions, encouragement has been instrumental in the study.

Under the guidance of Mr. Vikram Singh (Head of department of Instrument
department) at universal cables limited, Satna (M.P.)


Submitted To:- submitted By:-

Mr. Vikram Singh Ram Agrawal
(H.O.D of Mechanical department)
Universal Cables Limited, Satna (M.P.)
















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AUTHORIZATION

I hereby authorize that Mr. RAM AGRAWAL a student of B.E.
(MECHANICAL),VINDHYA INSTITUTE of TECHNOLOGY&SCIENCE,SATNA has
successfully done the major training, assigned to him as a part of the requirement
in the BE curriculum of industrial training under my guidance and supervision.

He has training in industry at universal cables private limited Satna (M.P.) ,
during the period june 15, 2013 to July13, 2013.The project is based on the
original study conducted and has not formed a basis for the award of any Degree
by any other University or Institution.

The project is done for partial fulfillment of the B.E. from the aforesaid institute.






Submitted To:- submitted By:-

Mr. Vikram Singh Ram Agrawal
(H.O.D of Mechanical department)

Universal Cables Limited, Satna (m.p.)













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CONTENTS


COMPANY PROFILE

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF CABLES

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF CABLES

POWER & CONTROL CABLES

EHV CABLES

XLPE CABLES

TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES

ELECTRICAL & MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE
















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COMPANY PROFILE







Universal Cables Limited (UCL) was established in the year 1962 as a modern mass
production unit to manufacture paper insulated power cables in technical
collaboration with world's largest cable producer BICC, UK. Late Shri M.P. Birla,
who had adorned the chair of the Company for over 25 years since its inception,
enabled the Company to flourish in a highly competitive world, while
distinguishing itself by the latest technological tie-ups with the foremost leaders
in the world of this industry and the most up-to date technology.

Universal Cables Limited entered into a collaboration agreement with ABB high
Voltage Cables, Sweden in 1977 to manufacture cross-linked Polythene Power
Cable for the first time in the country. The Company is the foremost manufacturer
of XLPE Cables with modern dry cured dry cooled process for voltage range
extending from 1.1 to Extra High Voltage up to 132 KV grade.

Under the collaboration Agreement with ABB high Voltage Cables, Sweden, UCL
brought in complete know how of compounding of Polymer and produced
complete range of dielectrics presently used in all special cables.


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In 1983, UCL embarked on a joint venture with MPAVN to manufacture Jelly Filled
Telephone Cable in technical collaboration with one of the world's leading
manufacturers of Telephone Cable, Ericsson Cable AB, Sweden. This plant was
incorporated as Vindhya Telelinks Limited (VTL) and is situated at Rewa, only 50
Kms away from its Power Cable Plant at Satna.

Since 1985, ABB High Voltage Cables, Sweden, is further assisting UCL to
manufacture Fluroplastic Cables, specifically for very high temperature operation
and high frequency signaling circuitry.
In 1993, UCL & VTL jointly entered into the field of optical communication by way
of manufacturing Optical Fibre Cables in technical and financial collaboration with
Ericsson Cables AB, Sweden. This marked the birth of Birla Ericssion Optical
Limited (BEOL).

QUALITY CONSCIOUSNESS

Whether conventional or specially designed to any Indian or International
specification, UCL's products are put to the grill of rigorous in-process quality
cheeks by stage inspection and testing Its quality is taken as standard in the world
market.

MEANS ARE AS IMPORTANT AS THE END

UCL proudly claims to have the most sophisticated plant, equipment, laboratory
and testing facilities available in the country. The entire plant is housed in dust-
proof pressurized building to ensure consistency in the product quality.



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CERTIFICATION
The above claim is certified by various test authorities of the country like NTH,
Calcutta and CPRI Bhopal & Bangalore and all consultants like Ell, DCPL, M.N.
Dastur, Lloyds register of Shipping, MECON, Crown Agents and others. This
confirms the dependability and reliability of UCL products.

ISI MARKING

All standard UNISTAR cables are ISI marked.
IS/ISO QUALITY CERTIFICATION

UCL is accredited with IS/ISO 9001/2000 Quality Systems Certification in
recognition of the High Quality Standard of its cables. The company is also
accredited for its well-established environmental friendly activities and
atmosphere.

TECHNICAL SERVICES

The Company welcomes enquiries on cable engineering problems and provides
solutions through its design and development team. It also assists customers in
cable design to suit their specific requirement. A team of experts is always ready
to assist cable engineers for installation, laying and jointing cable systems through
out the India. When requested the technical dept. of the company provides help
to customers for fault location and other related problem.
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

UCL emphasizes on in-house Research and Development. The R & D programme is
mainly directed to applied research for product development, process


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development and technological up gradation. The R & D laboratory of UCL is a
recognized unit of Department of Scientific and Industrial Research of Govt. of
India. This laboratory has developed many new Cables for special applications
such as FRLS Cables, Ship wiring,
Air craft wiring, Radars, Submarine, Medical Equipments etc.

CAPACITORS

UCL set up its Capacitor Division in the year 1967, in technical collaboration with
world renowned TOSHIBA, to manufacture Paper & Power Capacitors. In 1977 this
division entered into a technical collaboration with General Electric Company of
USA, to manufacture Mixed Dielectric Capacitors. Subsequently the collaboration
was extended to include All Polypro- propylene (All-PP) Dielectric Capacitors
impregnated with Non PCB oil. Today the Capacitor Division is rated to be the
foremost manufacturer of All-PP Power Capacitors in LT & HT range in the
country.
This division offers complete schemes for power factor improvement and can
supply capacitors along with associated equipments on turnkey basis. It can also
carry out harmonic analysis of Power System on request and design & supply
Filter Banks. EXPORTS UCL also exports its products to various countries of the
world and has earned due recognition for its export efforts. Universal Cables
limited is a vibrant progressive company, a leader in its field of activities, serving
the aspiration of the nation in the field of Power Development.
.
CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF POWER CABLES

The electrical current in a conductor causes a voltage drop and power losses. The
temperature rise in the cable caused by the losses must be kept within certain
limits in order not to shorten the service life of the cable. The temperature limit
varies with the type of cable, or more precisely the type of insulation. The best
way to keep the temperature within limits specified for the type of cable, is to
choose the conductor cross-section so that the cable and its surroundings with


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the actual continuous load, achieve thermal balance at a temperature below or
equal to the temperature limit recommended. Cable type and size should be
selected keeping in view the following:-

(1) Application.
(2) Working voltage; earthed or unearthed neutral system.
(3) Load current, load factor, starting duty and frequency.
(4) Installation method.
(5) The environment in which the cable has to operate.
(6) Short circuit current and system protection.
(7) Acceptable voltage drop
(8) Economies.

How the above factors influence on the choice of cable?

1) The application of the cable determines the basic factors for the choice of
cable type and the rules according to which it must be manufactured.
Following are the major factors for choice of cable type.

(a) Conductor materials: No doubt copper is better conductor material
owing to its high electrical conductivity and other electrical/mechanical properties
but due to its high cost and scarcity, researches are being carried out to find other
cheaper and abundant metals which may be a close substitute to copper in
electrical application. Aluminium conductors are being used in place of copper
conductors for the past many years and have proved to be quite satisfactory.

The lower conductivity of a Aluminium (61 % of the annealed copper) results in
increased dimensions of the cable and ultimately of conduits and fittings for
the same current carrying capacity as that of a copper conductor cable.
Aluminium conductor cables although bigger and somewhat stiffer when lower
number of wires is used for the conductor than the equivalent copper
conductor cables, are still flexible enough to be installed where a copper


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conductor cable was formerly used. The advantages of the lighter weight
offset the disadvantages of larger sizes for a given capacity. The use of
Aluminium conductor cables should be preferred as far as possible. The use of
flexible copper conductor is recommended where very high degree of
flexibility is required as in the case of mines etc.

(b) Insulating materials: The right type of insulation material for a
particular usage depends upon the voltage grade, operating temperature
required, degree of flexibility, current capacity requirement and restrictions on
size etc. and other climatic conditions.

(C) Metallic Sheathing: Either pure lead or different lead alloys are used for
Sheathing of PILC cables and each has its own advantages.The most common
andmpopular alloy is lead Alloy 'E'.

(d) Bedding and Serving materials: In case of PVC cables the normal
bedding and serving materials are PVC compound. The normal bedding and
serving in case of PILC cables consist of a combination of an impregnated paper,
cotton and Hessian tapes and bituminous compound. These materials provide
protection against corrosion of armour and lead and are suitable in great
majority of installations. However, in special cases where severe chemical
corrosion is to be encountered, the use of PVC bedding and PVC serving is
recommended.

(D)Armouring: The purpose of armour is to provide mechanical protection
to the cable and to facilitate earthling for safety requirements. This also carries
phase to ground fault currents of the system safely.
Double steel tape provides good mechanical protection but when in addition
longitudinal stresses are encountered during the installation or in service, steel
wire/strip armouring is recommended for vertical armouring should be


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preferred. Double wire runs, river crossing, cables laid on bridges and mine
shafts etc. where longitudinal stresses are expected.

2. The system voltage determines the voltage class of the cables.

3. The current rating is, in general, the decisive factors for fixing conductor
cross-section. But in certain applications where intermittent load is required, it
is more relevant to use the squared average r.m.s. current with a reduced cross
section.

4. The power cables must be capable of carrying, the required normal full load
current continuously under the site conditions throughout the year. Therefore,
the current ratings specified must be corrected to site conditions by applying
suitable derating/uprating factors depending upon -

(a) Ground or ambient air temperature (max.).
(b) Thermal resistivity of soil during dry season.
(c) Depth of laying.
(d) Total number of cables/circuits in groups.

5. (A) Chemical substances in the environment might cause special stringent
requirements on the outer covering.

(B) If it is necessary to reduce the propagation of fire along cable route
combined with low corrosivity, toxicity and smoke generation characteristics for
cables, "FRLS' cables (Flame Retardant low Smoke) with thermoplastic or
thermosetting material or fire survival cables with elastomeric material should
be used. These types of cables are designed with special composition of
protective sheath materials, and by using beat barrier tapes etc. for use in such
critical fire risk installations.


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6) Short circuit current together with duration of short circuit determines the
short circuit energy the cable insulation has to with stand thermally.ln certain
cases a larger size of cable then the cable required for normal full load current
may be needed to match system short circuit current levels.
Voltage drop is also a major factor in deciding the conductor size of the
cable. The cross section of the cable should be chosen such that voltage drop
of the cable for the given route length does not exceed the statutory
requirement.

7) Naturally, the most economical construction and the size of the cable
consistent with required current carrying capacity and laying condition has to
be selected. Thus the selection of particular type of cable i.e. PVC, XLPE, PILC
or rubber and the particular material for screening, sheathing, bedding,
armouring or serving etc. out of many choices available depends upon the
usages, laying and climatic conditions. The design of the cable for a particular
application must be optimized taking into account all the above-mentioned
factors. In case expert guidance in this respect is desired, please contact UCI
Technical Service Division. UCL SATNA

Manufacturing process of Cables

The over all stages of manufacturing consists of the following different types of
processes.

Wire Drawing - Annealing
Tinning
Bunching
Stranding
Insulation
Paper/PVC/Rubber/XLPE/Fluroplastic/Polythelene
Laying


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Impregnation
Lead Sheathing
Bedding Extruded/wrapped/fibrous lapping
Armoring
Round wire/Flat strip/Steel tape
Sheathing/ Serving
Extruded/Fibrous lapping



The details of above manufacturing processes are as given here under
:-

Properzi:-
This is the first step of cable manufacturing process. In this process Al ingots are
melt in Al melting furnace having temperature of about 780-800 degree
centigrade. Molten Al is passes through Lounder having temp. 730-750degree


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centigrade and then Laddle having temperature 710-730degree centigrade and
then casting is done in casting arrangement under temperature of 400degree
centigrade. Cast bar of 40-45mm diameter made during casting process passes
through rolling mill having 13 stand. Each stand having 3 rolls.Al rod of 9.5mm
diameter are coiled in coiler. This Al coil is use in Wire Drawing process.


Wire Drawing:-
Wires of different sizes are drawn from Aluminium/Copper rods on wire-drawing
machines. The size(diameter) of wire depends upon the over all cross sectional
area of the ultimate cable under manufacture as well as the flexibility
requirement.




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Annealing:-
All the drawn Cu wires are annealed in annealing furnace.The Al wires are also
annealed under specific requirements of customer. Annealing have done in order
to reduce the hardeness of wire and increasing the flexibility of wire.
Tinning:-
Annealed copper Wires for flexible rubber cables are then tinned before they are
released for next process. The tinning is done by passing the cleaned cu. wires
seated with the flux through molten tin both. The excess of tin adhering to wire
surface is wiped out by means of wipers.

Stranding - The Al or Cu. wires or tinned copper wires as the case may be are
bunched/stranded together. The direction of stranding of alternate layers is
always kept in opposite direction in order to have tight and balanced
configuration of wires. The standard Conductor may be compact circularorshaped


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as per the cable construction.

INSULATION


1.PVC-
(1) Different type of PVC compounds are used for required Physical &
electrical properties and continuous operating temperature of
cables. PVC compound extruded over conductor by extrusion process
on differe
(2) The sizes of extruders as per the size of conductor. In line to
extrusion process H.V. testing (Spark testing) is being done to check
the quality of extruded core.



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2. Rubber - Natural or synthetic rubber based compounds are prepared to meet
the physical & Elec. properties and continues operating temp. of cable. Various
types of rubber compounds are then extruded over the conductor as per the
requirement of the customer.

3. Paper insulation - In this case insulated paper tapes are lapped on
conductor. The thickness of insulation is built up by required number of paper
tapes according to voltage grade of cables. The top layer of paper tapes is suitably
numbered for core identification.

4. XLPE XlPE cables have become very much popular now a day. These cables
are replacing paper-insulated cables right from low voltage grade to extra high
voltage grade. In these cables two types of constructions are used ie screened and
unscreened. 11 KV and above grade cables are all screened. Conductor screen,
insulation and insulation screen are generally applied in one operation called
dual-tandem process. M/s Universal Cables Ltd is one of the pioneer cable
manufacturers of XLPE cable up to 132 KV grade cables in INDIA.

Vulcanization/Cross-linking: Rubber and XLPE cables are vulcanized after
extrusion. This process is done just after extrusion on CV/CCV/PLCV lines. This
process is done to improve the electrical and physico-mechanical properties of
rubber and polyethylene compounds. In some cases batch vulcanization is carried
out for rubber cables and low voltage XLPE cables.








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Laying up of cables


The insulated cores are laid up along with filling material and twisted to get
approximate circular Cable. A binding tape is also provided to hold the fillers and
maintain the circularity of laid up cables.In case of paper-insulated cables if the
cables are belted type, belt insulation is done along with laying up process by
providing required no. of paper tapes and in screened type cables copper woven
fabric tape is provided over laid up cores.






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Impregnation process.

Paper insulated cables need a special process known as impregnation. The
function of this process is to extract moisture out of paper insulation and
impregnate the insulation with moisture resistant insulating compound.
Heating the Cable under vacuum for some period and then filling the insulating
compound over cable within the impregnating vessel do this process. The cycle of
drying flooding and cooling etc. depends on size and voltage grade of cables. By
impregnation the electrical properties of paper insulation are enhanced.
Procedure adopted for drying and impregnation of paper-insulated cables
comprises the following stages.
Rewinding the cables in impregnation trays
Loading the trays in the impregnation tanks
Heating the cables under vacuum
Impregnating of cables with impregnation compound for required period
Unloading the cable-trays from the tanks after impregnation.

The compound used for impregnation is a petroleum product and has excellent
electrical and mechanical properties.

Lead sheathing

After impregnation, lead sheath is applied over the paper-insulated cables. This
process is done by sleeve extrusion (pipe extrusion). The object of Lead sheathing
is to prevent the entry of moisture in the impregnated cable while maintaining
the flexibility of cable.





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Inner Sheathing/Bedding

PVC and Rubber insulated cables are provided with inner sheathing over laid up
cores as bedding for armouring. In case on PVC cables inner sheathing may be
done by lapping PVC/PE tapes or by PVC extrusion but in case of rubber insulated
cables rubber extrusion is done for this purpose.


Armoring





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The armoring is provided to provide mechanical protection of cables during
handling and installation. This is done by providing galv. round steel wires or
galvanized steel strips or double steel tapes over the bedded cables. Though the
main function of armoring is to protect the cable from outside mechanical
damages to the cable but it also serves the purpose of carrying the short circuit
current produced during system failure or any type of short circuit in the system.

Sheathing/Serving:-

After armouring or in case of un-armoured cables, the laid and bedded cables are
provided with a protective sheathing of extruded PVC or PE sheath. Paper
insulated cables are generally provided with a fibrous lapped serving but PVC or
any other type of extruded sheath can also be given if required.

Power and control cables:-

Introduction:-

Universal cables Ltd manufactures PVC cables up to 11 KV grade to Indian as well
as international standards. Both utilities and domestic users find them suitable for
power distribution, control system, utility network, railway signaling installations,
switching stations, textile mills, chemical plants, and machine shops etc. Normal
PVC insulated cables are suitable for an operating conductor of 700C and HR PVC
insulated cables are suitable for an operating conductor temperature of 850C.







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VCV
PLAN
T





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HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE
Introduction:-

UNIVERSAL CABLES LTD, the pioneer of XLPE cables in India, manufactures Extra
High Voltage (EHV) XLPE cables in the range of 66-220 kV using Vertical Continuous
Vulcanizing (VCV) technology in technical collaboration with World Leader in Cable
manufacturing, FURUKAWA ELECTRIC CO. LTD. (In association with VISCAS
Corporation, Japan). This technology for EHV XLPE Cable manufacturing process is
the only of its kind in the Country.

EHV Underground Power Transmission is the solution for meeting todays growing
power demand of the power starved Metro Cities. Underground Power
Transmission System requires highest reliability to ensure uninterrupted power
supply.

Unistar EHV cable, manufactured using VCV technology with proven know-how
from FURUKAWA ELECTRIC CO. LTD and also having in-house engineering expertise
for system designing, cable jointing and installation, can guarantee this
requirement.

The main cutting edge features of this technology as True simultaneous triple
extrusion with single (common) cross-head, Dry cure dry cooled process,
Dimensional accuracy for perfect geometry with Zero eccentricity/ ovality of the
insulation, Class 1000 cleanliness level with completely closed material handling
system, Online X-Ray monitoring system, Direct gravitational feeding of XLPE
compound, Control and Monitoring in production process using SCADA, all add up
to unmatched quality standard to ensure reliable and efficient performance of the
cable throughout its service life.



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The main cutting edge features of this technology are:-

1. True simultaneous triple extrusion with single (common) cross head -
conductor screen,
insulation and insulation shield applied in single process. This provides perfect
bonding of
insulation and semicon layers with smooth boundary and free of protrusions.

Insulation extruder operates with tight screen of 400 mesh for filtering.

2. Dry cure dry cooled process - Prevents formation of micro voids and
eliminates moisture
contents in the XLPE insulation - Prevents electro-chemical tree formation in the
insulation and
capable to withstand higher stress voltage.

3. Dimensional accuracy - perfect geometry with Zero eccentricity/ovality of the
insulation. This enables uniform stress distribution over the insulation.

4. Class 1000 cleanliness level in manufacturing with completely closed material
handling system - prevents insulation contamination which is an imperative for
Extra High Voltage Cables enabling high impulse and breakdown voltage levels.

5. Cables of longer lengths and larger sizes can be offered to economize the
system cost.
Other special features include:

Online X-Ray monitoring system with a fully computerized control system
including Programmable Logic Control.

Cross link polyethelene(XLPE OR PEX) Plant:-

SPECIFICATIONS:-



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The extrusion of cross linked polyethylene shall be carried out on a dual tandes
continuous catenary vulcanization(ccv) line using nitrogen gas curing system.

The insulations of 1.1kv-3.3kv range cables shall extruded in a single layer in
natural colour, using only insulation extruation.

The insulation of 6.6kv-132 kv range cables shall be coextruded in natural colour
together with semiconducting layer using three extruders.


Telecommunication Cables:

Apart from power and control cables, telephone cables are also manufactured.
These cables are generally called PIJF cables meaning Polyehylene Insulated Jelly
Filled cables. In these cables copper wire of suitable size is insulated with
Polyethylene. Two insulated wires are twisted together to form a pair. Required
numbers of such pairs are grouped together and filled with special moisture
resistant jelly. The filled cable is than screened with polythene laminated
aluminum foil and sheathed with LDPE compound. The cable is finally armoured
with galvanized double steel tapes and jacketed with LDPE compound.

Final testing:-
All cables are rewound in proper size wooden/steel reels and sent to testing
section where all the cables are subjected to rigorous electrical and physical tests.
Both the ends of cables after testing are sealed and given a unique identification
number. These are then handed over to marketing department for onward
dispatch to relevant customer
Quality control

In universal cables quality is maintained by following a in built quality system
which is based on international specification IS/ISO 9001.


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A property organized system of control of quality of product and process is
followed for the efficient production of product acceptable in all respects to the
customer. Products are tested and processes are controlled at all stages of
manufactures from raw material to the finished stage. In addition certain
standards procedures are adopted in order to ensure that product successfully
fulfils the customer requirement.

Electrical and Mechanical maintenance:
Electrical and mechanical departments are responsible for the periodic
maintenance of all machines and equipments. A comprehensive schedule of PPM
is followed to avoid breakdowns and thereby loss of machine and men hours.
Both these departments are also looking after break down maintenance and
installation &commissioning of new machines and instruments. These
departments also carry out calibration of various electrical and mechanical
instruments.
COOLING TOWER
ROUND BOTTLE SHAPED COOLING TOWER
Round bottle shaped cooling tower have a long service life and an aesthetic
design. The air flow through round shape cooling tower is more evenly
distributed. Structural member do not interrupt air intake and therefore
thermodynamically. They are the most efficient design in the field. This directly
reduces running costs.
The water is distributed through the sprinkler unit, which rotates through
inlet water pressure. Distribution of water is uniform through out the fill area.
Fiber glass cooling tower are moulded in segments. They are bolted and
fixed on site. Casing and basins are designed to withstand severe vibration, high
wind and to resist corrosion.


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The tower offers PVC fills and eliminator in a design that maximises
economy and efficiency. The shape makes possible to provide maximum cooling
in a minimum cooling in a minimum plan area with lower energy consumption.

Round Bottle Shape Cooling Tower


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Boiler
Boiler is a steam genrator or it is a closed vessel in which water is heated and
converted into steam at desired rate, pressure and temperature.
Water tube boiler:- water passes through the tube and hot gases surround the
tubes.
Fire tube boiler:- Hot gases passes through the tube and water surround the
tubes.



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OIL FIRE TUBE BOILER
Specification:-
Steam Pressure:- 10-17.5 Kg/sq.cm
Capacity:- 3 ton
Fuel:- Oil
Oil Pump Pressure:- 19-21 Kg/sq.cm
Oil Temperature:-100-120 degree centigrade

Boiler Mounting:-
Mounting is used for safe and satisfactory working of boiler.
Steam stop valve:- It regulates the flow of outgoing steam.


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Safety valve:- It helps the boiler from high pressure of steam.
Feed check valve:- It controls the supply of water to the boiler.
Blow of valve:- Used to discharge water or steam or to blow out mud.
Water level indicator:- It indicate the level of water inside the boiler.
Pressure gauge:- It record the pressure of steam inside the boiler.
Fusible plugs:- It used to protect boiler against the damage due to over heating.
Accessories:- It is used to increase effiency of boiler.
Feed pump:- Used to force the water into boiler.
Economizer:- It heat feed water by using the heat of waste flue gases.
Air preheater:- It utilizes the waste heat to preheat the air before air passed to
the furnace.
Superheater:- Used to heat up the steam above saturation temperature.