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Universitas Indonesia

Faculty of Engineering
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Lecturer: El Khobar M. Nazech

Assignment should be collected: Tuesday March 25, 2014


1. Make a list of things you do that are consistent with a sustainable society.
What area could use some improvement?
1. Throw trashes to its place
2. Make peace with everyone
3. Do not travel with private car but using public transportation
4. Use less electricity

2. List and describe the factors that contribute directly to animal and plant
extinction. Which ones the most important?
1. Animal Hunting and plant trading
2. Polluted air and water
3. Land clearing
4. Economic growth
5. Forest burning

3. Discuss the ecological factors that contribute to species extinction.
The ecological factor that contributes to species extinction is the polluted
environment for sure. When one area in ecology is distributed, the river
for example, then the population of fish will be polluted and animals that
depend on fishes will feel the effect from the pollution also. In other
words, the food chain will be bothered.

4. Define the term deforestation and list the effect of deforestation. What are
the steps taken by the government of Indonesia to tackle the deforestation
Deforestation is when the forest is put on fire or cut down for unrelated
forest use. For example, the forest is burned down because the forest area
is needed for developing agriculture.
The effect of deforestation are, first, global warming, because the smoke
from the burned forest will be gone to the atmosphere. Second, habitats
for some animals will be destroyed too. The animals need to be moved
because their homes will become buildings for humans or agriculture use.
The steps that the government of Indonesia should take are preventing
more forest to be burned by releasing high taxes or articles for industries.
And they can also using the cut and plant solution whereas after one tree
is chopped down, the seed of the trees will be planted afterwards.

5. Describe several ways to use forest more sustainably.
1. By not cutting it down for sure. When the forest is cut down, food
chain will be disturbed and ecological aspect of the forest will be
2. By treating the forest with care. In this context, planting more trees.
3. Use recycled papers instead of non-recycled ones. It can help many

6. What is the relationship between oxygen cycle and carbon cycle?
The relationship between oxygen cycle and carbon cycle is the process of
resulting oxygen and carbon dioxides are related. Oxygen is created after
carbon dioxide joins the water and energy from the Sun. However, one of
the similarities from these cycles are they both can be disturbed by
human activities. For example, human can release more carbon dioxide to
the atmosphere so that it creates greenhouse effect or global warming.

7. Explain the human influence on nitrogen cycle and hydrological cycle.
Human influences on nitrogen cycle are using fossil fuel combustion,
artificial nitrogen fertilizers, etc. It is disturbing because these affect the
nitrogen cycle both in the ground and in the atmosphere. For hydrologic
cycle, it is so obvious by dumping chemical waste and polluted the river
or sea; it will change the water cycle.

8. Discuss the tragedy of the commons. Give some specific examples of
commons and how they are mistreated?
1. Water tragedy, when there is overfishing so that the population of the
fish is disturbed
2. Pollution tragedy, when the carbon from the transportation populated
the atmosphere
3. Food tragedy, when for example, the population of cow is demanded
from every part of the world, so that the population of the cow in the
world will be gradually decreased.

9. What are the factors leading to the increased resource consumption on earth
in recent years?
1. Human population is getting bigger.
2. Recent technologies require more resource
3. Modern world needs modern resource as well

10. Explain the hierarchy of Municipal Solid Waste Management options.
The first step is to separate between the organic and non-organic solid
waste first. Then recycle the non-organic solid waste by using recycling
machine. For the organic solid waste, it can be decomposed by place
them under the ground. If the solid waste cant be recycled, then we can
try to burn them. Burning the solid waste can cause pollution but it is the
most effective way to destroy the waste.

11. Describe how we can reduce waste and pollution?
We can reduce waste and pollution by reminding ourselves that if it is
not us then, who will take care of the world? Then we search for the
possible solutions to stop destroying our beloved Earth. After that we
apply the solutions to the real problems. Then we can reduce waste and
pollution. For example, the government places an article about waste and
pollution so that industries can realize that they need to stop polluting the

12. For 1 (one) week, keep a list of the solid waste you throw away. What
percentage of this waste consists of materials that should be reduced, reused,
recycled and disposed?
For a week, I can dispose much solid waste, including used papers,
empty pen, plastic bottles, cigarettes, plastic bags, and tissues,
Styrofoam. The percentage of these materials that should be reduced,
reused, recycled and disposed is almost 100%.

13. In what ways can you personally reduce paper and wood waste and increase
Because right now Im a student, I can stop using plain paper every time
I take notes. I can use used paper to write on it. Then create a movement
or community to collect used materials that can be recycled and recycle

14. How to manage construction waste and demolition debris?
There is way to manage it. That is by recycling the waste and debris or by
using it for lower construction standard. For example, using the waste
and debris for road pavement.

15. What are the major arguments for and against wilderness preservation?
Major arguments for wilderness preservation are because animals help to
sustain environment and keep the food chain going and also if all animal
is in endangered condition, then our sons and grandsons may not be able
to see them. Major arguments against wilderness preservation are some
animals disturbing human life and when there is tragedy of commons
about certain animals, the population animals must be reduced.

16. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy.
The advantages of solar energy are that they are reliable for the next
energy resource because they are infinite. Also, it can help to reduce the
amount of electricity that we use. But, the solar energy panel itself is
very expensive to be built. In addition, the solar energy panel only active
during day not night, unlike electricity, which can be used whether, it is
day or night.

17. Using your critical thinking skills, debate the statement conservation is our
best and cheapest energy resource
On one side, conservation is the best and cheapest energy resource.
Because by conserving one resource, the resource will keep producing
energy to use. On the other hand, by conserving one resource, it means
the civilization will only depend on the conservation not searching for
other possible energy resource.

18. How is geothermal energy formed? How can it be tapped? Describe the
benefits and risks of geothermal energy?
Geothermal energy formed when there is energy that is and processed
and stored under the ground and can be measured by using heat
thermometer. The benefits of geothermal energy are its amount is
considered to be higher than any other energy resources and its price is
not susceptible to price fluctuation like crude oil. The risks of having
conservative geothermal energy are the machinery and technology for
extracting the thermal itself requires extreme care and the distance to get
to the core of the heat is so far.

19. Define nonrenewable and renewable mineral resources, and give examples
of each. How are they different?
Non-renewable mineral resources are the resources that are not
renewable, so humans must take a careful action and consideration on
extracting them. The example of non-renewable resources is fossil fuel (it
is basically renewable but requires more than 100 years to return it to its
prime condition). Renewable resources are the resources that renewable
so that human can easily process them. There are the solar energy and
water energy for example.

20. What are the chronic health effects of air pollution? Which pollutants are
thought to be the cause of these effects?
The chronic health effects of air pollution are hard to breath, asthma, and
bronchitis, even heart attack. Main pollutants that thought to be the cause
of these effects are carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide
from transportation and industrialized area.

21. Describe the greenhouse effect. What causes it? What are its effects? How
can be done to lessen its impacts?
Greenhouse effect is an effect where the thermal radiation from the Earth
is reradiated from the atmosphere to everywhere. It caused by the carbon
dioxide that are trapped inside the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide itself
is a pollutant from transportation and industries all around the world. The
effect from greenhouse effect is the Earth will get hotter and eventually,
causing the ice from all around the world to melt. To lessen its impacts,
we can stop polluting our atmosphere by prevent air pollution and use
carbon-free transportation.

22. Explain the possible impacts of ozone depletion on ecosystem. How can we
avoid it?
The obvious impact of ozone depletion is that the UV radiation can easily
radiate human. Skin and eyes are the primary target for this radiation. We
can avoid it by using sunblock on our skin and using sunglasses for our

23. Identify the core causes of current water crisis in the word.
The core causes for current water crisis are the explosion of human
population around the world and changing climate for every part on the
world. In this context, changing climate means global warming. So when
the Earth is getting hotter, the demands for water will be exceed its limit.

24. Water could be the source of the worlds next big conflict Please explain
(consider movie: Quantum of Solace)
Because the world is too focused on oil and petrol, we often forget about
the other important human resource, in this case, it is water. Water is a
very important resource in developing countries, especially, tropical one.
Since it is a tropical area, there are more spring and summer season so
basically, that kind of area needs more water.

25. Make a complete list of your ideas for controlling air pollution in your city
or town, and rank them according to their effectiveness and their feasibility.
Which ones are practical?
1. Start using public transportation
2. Stop using fossil fuel
3. Stop burning waste (recycle or decompose them)
4. Using BBG instead of BBM for vehicles

26. Describe the major characteristics of a more environmentally sustainable
and livable eco-city or green city.
The major characteristics:
a. The city must have a natural open space
b. The city must have a renewable energy source. For example, solar
energy resource and water energy resource
c. Reduction of solid waste and re-use and recycle of waste

27. Classify the rainwater harvesting. Find out the rainwater harvesting methods
currently being adopted in your locally and try to propose suggestion for
There are two types of rainwater harvesting. The first one is using the
rooftop to collect the rainwater. The second one is by surface rainwater
harvesting. The one that is currently being adopted in my local
neighborhood is the rooftop one, because it is easy to install it. What I
can propose for improvement is for the filter part. We can combine it
with the solar panel to produce warm water for those who need it.

28. What are the causes and effect of acid rain? How can we avoid it?
The cause of acid rain is from air pollution. The sulphur dioxide and
nitrogen dioxide from fossil fuel combustion, combined with the
atmosphere and react with water, oxygen, and the other chemical to
become sulfuric acid, ammonium nitrate, and nitric acid. The effect of
acid rain is dangerous for human skin and even destroying for buildings.

29. Discuss the various water conservation techniques that can be practiced by
There are many ways to conserve the water. We can start by the simplest
ones. For example, we save up the use of water when we take our
shower by not taking shower too long. Another technology that can be
use for saving water is a tap that has an automatic sensor so that when
there is no visual of hands, the water will stop flowing from the tap

30. Explain the consequences of population growth on the following: a. food
resources; b. water resources; c. energy resources.
a. When it comes to food, it will always be a problem because food
stock will adding up when the consumers also adding up. However,
food stock has limit. So the consequence of population growth on
food resources is theres just not enough food for everyone.
b. For water resources, the consequence is that the water will run out
when the human population is keep on growing.
c. The greatest impact will be on energy resources if we are talking
about population growth. When the population is rising up, the needs
for extra energy will be rapid and explosive. In addition, some of the
energy resources are not renewable.

31. Explain the various popular definitions of the term of sustainable
development and what is the concept of sustainable development?
There are various popular definitions of the term sustainable
development because it covers the most important aspects in human life,
for example, the environment aspect, the economy aspect and the social
life aspect. The term itself is so wide because it can cover almost
everything that is important in human life. The concept of sustainable
development is basically the equilibrium state of the 3 aspects I
mentioned before in this paragraph.

32. What are the major obstacles in the path sustainable development in
The major obstacles in the path sustainable development in Indonesia are
the first one is the government. Before the newest governor, many
construction works are accepted so that he can get the commission from
it. That is one example of unbalance in the sustainability on the
economic and social aspects. The second major obstacles are the people
itself. Many residents of Indonesia only care about 2 of the 3 aspects or
even only 1 aspect in the sustainability development area. For example,
the people in Papua only care for the environment and the social aspects.

33. What are the greatest strengths and weakness of the system of government
in your country with respect to: a. protecting the environment and b.
ensuring environmental justice for all? What the major changes? If any,
would you make in this system?
a. On protecting the environment, I think that the government system
still a little left behind from other South East Asian country. The
greatest strength is the car free day movement. It is a movement that
lessens the amount of carbon dioxide being sent to the atmosphere.
Their weakness is the Indonesia government can still be controlled
with money. Even if there is a project about environment, I think the
money will be distributed to the administration around the
b. For ensuring the environmental justice, the greatest is the article about
environmental justice. The weakness is the same with the option A.
the major changes that Id like to make in this system is the
government itself. From there, I think more and more environmental
project can be done.

34. What is the role of science and engineering in the protection of the
The role of science and engineering in the protection of the environment
is to make sure and apply our knowledge about science and engineering
can be use to help protect the environment.

35. Describe the benefit of green development and explain the process elements
of green development.
The benefit of green development is we can figure out how green can the
city by using several planning including architecture planning, design
planning, and environmental planning. The process is started by
reviewing the original city planning first. Then by considering some
environmental aspects, the environmental planning is made. Then there
goes the design and architectural planning.

36. Give a brief explanation of the design, construction and operation of
sustainable buildings.
Design, construction and operation for sustainable buildings must
complete the aspects for the sustainable development, therefore, the
building must have a good working space, and plant around the building,
the lighting of the building must not waste electricity much too.

37. Suppose you have a dream to build an ideal house for your own family,
describe your design criteria of your house. You are going to reuse and
recycle all of water, explain your plan. How are going to manage your solid
waste at your home? You also planned to harvest rain water. Illustrate your
house layout.
Start from the roof, it must have some solar panels on it. The pipelines
for rainwater harvesting are on the sides of the roof. The rainwater that
harvested is used for showering the plant in the garden. There also will
be infiltration wells at the front of my house. The taps in my house will
use the automatic sensors too. Then to handle the solid waste, first I will
put the organic and non-organic trash bin inside the house so that the
waste can be separated. Then I will plant some of the solid waste to
make fertilizer and compost and for the other, I will recycle them. In
addition, the windows around the house are not facing the sun to prevent
the glasshouse effect.

38. The UNCED conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 was the last major
international conference on sustainability. Research what has been done
since the Rio conference to implement its recommendations, and prepare a
paper summarizing your findings.
Since the Rio conference, there is a Commission on Sustainable
Development whom regularly every year to follow up the results from
the UNCED conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Based on my
research, there is a Rio+20 conference, which discussed the
sustainability development in respect to the Results from UNCED
1992. The results were, member states decided to develop the sets of
sustainable development goals, which will build upon the Millennium
development goals and then the conference also adopted the
groundbreaking guidelines on green economy policies, governments
also agreed and decided to establish and strengthen the UNEP
following 67
session of General Assembly and establish an
intergovernmental process under the General Assembly to prepare
options on a strategy for sustainable development financing. They also
agreed to establish a high level political forum to discuss about the
sustainability matter. The conference also looking forward the decisions
for energy resources, food, securities, oceans, and cities. Governments
also requested the UNSC for launching a program of work in the area
of measures of progress to complement gross product in order to
perform policy decisions.

39. The concept of sustainability maintains that prevent should be designed to
insure that future generations will have the ability to meet their own needs.
However, based on past experience, it can be argued that people are
adaptable and find way to cope with a changing world. For example, known
petroleum reserves may soon (in a few decades) run out. Some argue that
this is not a reason to conserve on gasoline usage now, because by then other
undiscovered petroleum reserves may be found or alternative fuels will be
developed. Petroleum-based fuels may be of little value in the future. Discus
the pros and cons of this argument and give your views.
From my point of view, we shouldnt waste petroleum reserves too
much for now. Because we dont know for sure that the next generation
of human life will find other alternatives. It would be a wise action to
save up the petroleum reserves for our future generation. However, the
fact that petroleum-based fuels may be of little value in the future is
also true. In the world we are living right now, petroleum-based fuels
are needed by almost everyone in the world.

40. We are now in position to make a substantial contribution to the greening
of the planet through ecological and ecosystem restoration. We find
ourselves in a retrospective period of human history, both politically and
ecologically, where although not necessarily questioning all we have built
and engineered to date, we are determining 1. Whether to continue practices
as usual (and whether we can afford to do so); and 2. What new approaches
are available for restoring the bodily function of nature, on which we
depend? Please explain your opinion regarding this condition.
1. Yes, continue to do the practices as usual.
2. New approaches that can be use, first, we can put guards or allow
green community to watch over the forest all around Indonesia to
prevent the illegal woodcutting. Second, make the vehicle taxes as
high as possible to prevent the over growing vehicle all around
Indonesia especially Jakarta. It can also help to prevent further air
pollution. Third, the slums area, near the important river (ciliwung),
must be moved or destroyed because it disturbing the nature of the
river. Fourth, more BBG public transportation inside the city. So that
people who use private vehicle can use the public transportation and
therefore will lessen the volume of carbon dioxide and the traffic jam
too. Fifth, sue all industries around Indonesia that polluted both
water and air of Indonesia.