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Bin son: Gary L. Gray
Laboratory for Parallel and Computational Mechanics
Engineering Science and Mechanics Department
The Pennsylvania State University
D[ch bi: Nguyn Phi Hng
Ngy 24 thng 08 nm 2004
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_P dF* t1i li2u c0a b9n cI nhi"u ch4Gng 345c so9n riRng lw* :hi biRn d?ch
ch4Gng th{ tDm ta phi gDn l9i b' 3>m sB ch4Gng b=ng l2nh sauV
setcounterdchapterjdrj
B=ng cDch n1y ta cI thZ thay 3Qi cDch 3Dnh sB ph4Gng trnh theo d9ng
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arabicdsubsectionj)arabicde!uationjj
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B9n cI thZ t9o m't b' 3>m m/i b=ng l2nh negcounter theo cDch sauV
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345c dUng th b' 3>m na'e tr v" giD tr? $ m}i :hi b' 3>m
su)ercounter 345c tng lRn :hi sE dFng m't trong hai l2nh stepcounter
hay refstepcounter) (iD tr? mKc 3?nh c0a m't b' 3>m m/i t9o ra l1 $)
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valuedcounterj) _P dF* b9n cI thZ 3Dnh sB mFc n1y b=ng v/i sB trang ch{a
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m't :hong trng l/n hGn :hi bt 3.u c]u m/i g6p 3Ai :hong trng thAng
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ChCng ta h.u nh4 :hAng bao gi@ dUng :P t * b|i v 3Z m| hay 3Ing
ngoKc 3Gn hay :~p ta th4@ng dUng nh4 sau single hay +double-)
ChCng 345c nhzp v1o nh4 sauV single v1 double)
HhYng lo9i d6u g9ch nBi dash 345c dUng trong so9n tho tUy t7ng
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MBi v/i m}i t1i li2u* L
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3'ng 3?nh d9ng l9i t1i li2u th1nh # c't)
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gIi l2nh cI sn v1 'iJn )hK trRn CT,H m1 ta cI thZ dUng)
HhYng gIi n1o cI thZ dUng phF thu'c v1o bn L
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3Kt* nh4ng ta cJng cI thZ c1i bQ sung thRm sau 3I) SDch t& u sw cho
b9n nhYng t4|ng tBt 3Z c1i cDc gIi thRm v1o) HGi b9n c1i cDc gIi phF
thu'c v1o th4 mFc gBc m1 b9n c1i L
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Chuong 6
TI UU CHO NGUI
S DUNG
6.1 Ti uu vic s dng L
A
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Trong mFc n1y tAi h4/ng d8n cDc b9n 3i"u chvnh* 3?nh ngha cDc l2nh v1
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M}i b' 3>m c0a L
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nguyRn ngo1i ra m}i gIi l2nh cI thZ cI thRm cDc bi>n 3>m :hDc :hi bt
3.u t1i li2u cDc bi>n 3>m n1y 345c gDn m't giD tr? nh6t 3?nh* m}i :hi gKp
m't 3Bi t45ng cUng lo9i th bi>n 3>m n1y 345c c'ng thRm \) Bn th]n
L
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3>n nI) M't sB trong r6t nhi"u b' 3>m c0a L
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mAi tr4@ng 3Dnh sB) ^hi bt 3.u t1i li2u d9ng article t6t c cDc b' 3>m :Z c
b' 3>m sB trang 3"u 345c gDn l1 $* t6t nhiRn m}i b' 3>m 345c tng lRn hay
:h|i 3'ng l9i :hi b9n bt 3.u mFc m/i hay mAi tr4@ng m/i)
Ta cI thZ gDn giD tr? c0a m't b' 3>m b|i m't giD tr? b6t : b=ng
l2nh setcounter theo cDch sauV
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1.3 Tng hp nhng g d bit 7
1.2.10 Bin giy, phn du v chn trang
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5.5 Mi trung fIoat 81
Bng o)#V M]y l1 m't bng r6t 3p)
Course and Date Brief Description
mntroduction to LSEDmT Logging on elplanation of the _MS file sys%
March \& L \n tem elplanation and intensive application of
the _MS editor LSEDmT user modifications
,
bord processors and formatting programs
telt mntroduction to LTE<
March #\ L #o and commands environments document
and page styles displayed telt math
e!ua%
tions simple user%defined structures
5.5.3 V d s dng mi trung figure
<Dc 3?nh nGi 3Kt hnh nh giBng nh4 l1m 3Bi v/i bng) ^hi 34a v1o cDc hnh
nh chCng ta muBn 3Kt hai hnh trRn m't h1ng ngang) ^hi 3I ta cI thZ dUng
mAi tr4@ng minipage giBng nh4 Nnh o)o v1 o)n) Nnh o)o v1 o)n
Nnh o)oV M]y l1 tRn c0a hnh n1y) Nnh o)nV M't tRn !uD d1i* hi v;ng
HI cI 3p :hAngp nI 345c in ra trRn nhi"u h1ng)
345c t9o b|i cDc l2nh sauV
begindfigurejthtu
begindminipagejttud#)yinj
begindcenterj
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Hnh nh v cc di tung dc
bit
t9o b|i cDc l2nh sauV
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begindcenterj
begindtabularjdXdjpd\)yinjpd`)`injXdjj
Course and Date Brief Description
hline
mntroduction to LSEDmTnegline March \& %% \n
Logging on %%%
elplanation of the _MS file system %%%
elplanation and intensive application of the _MS editor
LSEDmT %%% user modifications
hline
mntroduction to LaTe<djnegline March #\ %% #o
bord processors and formatting programs %%%
telt and commands %%% environments %%%
document and page styles %%%
displayed telt %%% math e!uations %%%
simple user%defined structures
enddtabularj
enddcenterj
captiondlabeldTableElample\jM]y l1 m't bng r6t 3p)j
enddtablej
ChC r=ng trong Bng o)\ tRn bng 345c 3Kt | phPa d4/i) Ta cI thZ 3Kt
nI | phPa trRn c0a bng b=ng cDch 3Kt l2nh caption tr4/c mAi tr4@ng
tabular giBng nh4 | Bng o)#)
Course and Date Brief Description
mntroduction to LSEDmT Logging on elplanation of the _MS file sys%
March \& L \n tem elplanation and intensive application of
the _MS editor LSEDmT user modifications
,
bord processors and formatting programs
telt mntroduction to LTE<
March #\ L #o and commands environments document
and page styles displayed telt math
e!ua%
tions simple user%defined structures
Chuong 2
FONT CH, CC MI TRUNG
LIT K
2.1 Tng uan v L
A
T
E
X
2.1.1 V d v cc sch dp son bng L
A
T
E
X
ChCng tAi luAn muBn l1m cho b9n bi>t 345c m't t1i li2u 345c so9n v/i
L
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1 M't trang trong hournal of the Mechanics and Physics of
Solids)
2 M't trang trong hournal of ,pplied Mechanics)
3 M't !uyZn sDch c0a (eorge (rwatierV kirst Steps in L
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Short Course)
M't ng4@i cI thZ tranh cSi r=ng cI phi L
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trRn 3Z tzp trung v1o n'i dung hGn l1 cDch th{c 3?nh d9ng :hAng p
_/i ph.n 3Ang nhYng ng4@i so9n tho* h; cB gng so sDnh v1 l1m
theo nhYng trang vn bn 3S 3?nh d9ng ho1n chvnh hay cDc !uyZn sDch
m1 cDc nh1 lu6t bn 3S sp l>p l9i cDc 3" mFc* tham chi>u ch~o )))
2.1.2 Font trong L
A
T
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M't bn LTE< c1i 3Kt ho1n chvnh sw ch{a 3.y 30 cDc font h; +CM)))-* cI
Bng o)\V M]y l1 m't bng r6t 3p)
thZ thRm cDc font +
thRm
cDc font +
10 Font ch, cc mi trung Iit k
2.2 Thay di font cho k t
2.2.1 Nhn mnh
HhYng ng4@i 3Dnh mDy :hi h; muBn nh;n 'nh emphasisie 3i"u g th h;
g9ch d4/i nI) Trong so9n tho* ta :hAng nRn dUng bi2n phDp g9ch d4/i
3Z nh6n m9nh m1 phi TN,s MQm kaHT c0a 3o9n vn bn 3I)
ThAng th4@ng* ta cI thZ nh6n m9nh m't 3o9n vn b=ng cDch in nghiEng
nI trong font thng 3{ng* l2nh emph cho ph~p nh6n m9nh m't 3o9n vn
trong 'Ni font) Ta cI thZ nh6n m9nh m't ph.n 3o9n vn m1 3o9n 3I 3S
345c nh6n m9nh) NSy lem vP dF sauV +n cG th8 nh6n m9nh vOn /n 0hi
' nG 5IPc chQnh l in nghiEngR trong font chY d9ng sans%serif* hay :iZu
3Dnh
mDy)
2.2.2 In font ch
M' l/n c0a font cI thZ 345c thay 3Qi b=ng cDc declarations lem mFc
#)& c0a Ch4Gng \ sau 3]yV
tiny tiny scriptsiie scriptsiie
footnotesiie footnotesiie small small
normalsiie normalsiie large large
Large Large L,q(E L,q(E
huge huge Nuge Nuge
CDc c chY trong cDc l2nh trRn phF thu'c v1o font chY ch;n | 3.u t1i
li2u) ChC r=ng hai l2nh huge v1 Nuge cI cUng 3' l/n :hi ch;n c chY
l1 \#pt hay :iZu t1i li2u l1 SoilT
"
X ) ThRm nYa* 3' d1i :hong trng v1
:hong cDch giYa cDc h1ng sw thay 3Qi :hi thay 3Qi c chY)
2.2.3 H Font, d sc nt, m nht.
SE dFng cDc font chun c0a L
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famiIyV cho ta nh3ng 0i8u ch3 sau% qoman* Typegriter* Sans Serif)
shapeV cho ta nh3ng ng 5ngR nghiEng% upright* italic* slante*
SM,LL C,PS)
seriesV cho ta 5 sc nTt cUa ch3% medium* boId)
5.5 Mi trung fIoat 79
1 h hereV 3Kt hnh nh hay bng giBng nh4 tr4@ng h5p ta chv
dUng l2nh includegraphics hay mAi tr4@ng tabular
2 t topV !uy>t 3?nh 3Kt 3Bi t45ng | 5Vu trang hi2n t9i hay 3.u
nhYng trang :hDc sau 3I
3 b bottomV 3Kt 3Bi t45ng | cuBi trang hi2n t9i hay cuBi nhYng
trang :> ti>p
4 p pageV 3Kt cDc 3Bi t45ng n1y lRn m't trang 3Kt bi2t chv ch{a
cDc 3Bi t45ng linh 3'ng* | 3]y l1 hnh hay bng
5 V :hAng !uan t]m 3>n cDc tham sB bRn trong nh h4|ng 3>n
s sp l>p nI)
L.n nYa* ta phi hiZu r=ng t6t c nhYng tUy ch;n trRn 3]y :hAng cI
tPnh tuy2t 3Bi) H>u phi sE dFng nhi"u th gIi float cI thZ giCp nhi"u cho
b9n nh@ cI thRm tUy ch;n N)
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^hi sE dFng cDc mAi tr4@ng float 3Z chn hnh hay bng* ta cI thZ
dUng cDc l2nh clearpage hay cleardoublepage 3Z ch7a ra m't hay hai
trang trng 3Z lu6t cDc hnh v1 bng cxn trong h1ng 35i) MiZm b6t l5i
:hi dUng hai l2nh n1y l1 trang hi2n th@i sw cI thZ b? b trBng m't ph.n
l1m cho trang 3I :hAng 3p) MZ ci thi2n v6n 3" n1y ta cI thZ dUng l2nh
afterpage cung c6p b|i gIi afterpage) MiZm l5i c0a l2nh n1y l1 trang
hi2n th@i 345c l6p 3.y b|i ph.n vn bn ti>p theo* sau :hi :>t thCc
trang 3I th trang sau sw b trBng 3Z chn hnh v1o) Ta cI thZ l1m vi2c
n1y b|i l2nh sauV afterpagedclearpagej)
CDc l2nh sau 345c 3?nh ngha l9i 3Z thu 345c m't dDng v tBt hGn
cho mAi tr4@ng float)
renegcommanddfloatpagefractionjd$)roj
renegcommanddtopfractionjd$)roj
renegcommanddbottomfractionjd$)roj
renegcommanddteltfractionjd$)\oj
5.5.2 V d v mi trung table
M]y l1 m't vP dF minh h;a vi2c sE dFng mAi tr4@ng table) Bng o)\ 345c
\
tUy ch;n N cI hi2u lc tuy2t 3Bi bt bu'c 3Bi t45ng phi 345c 3Kt ngay t9i nGi 34a
v1o* 3Z sE dFng nI b9n c.n cI gIi here)
78 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit Nnh o)&V M]y l1 m't hnh nh h6p d8n)
nI l1m cho 3Bi t45ng 34a v1o n=m ngang c hai c't t{c l1 :hAng ch?u
tDc 3'ng c0a mAi tr4@ng hai c't n1y) HhYng tr4@ng h5p :hDc b9n nRn
dUng cDc mAi tr4@ng thAng th4@ng)
Nnh o)& 345c chn v1o b=ng mAi tr4@ng figure) _P dF n1y sE dFng
3o9n l2nh sauV
begindfigurej
begindcenterj
includegraphicsdTCCaDElamplej
enddcenterj
captiondlabeldfigV,nElamkigjM]y l1 m't hnh nh h6p d8n)j
enddfigurej
Th1nh ph.n cG bn c0a vP dF n1y l1 hnh nh cI sn* thRm v1o 3I l1 tRn
hnh 3Z gii thPch n'i dung cG bn hay m't nhzn 3?nh c0a b9n v" nI) B=ng
cDc l2nh label v1 ref ta cI thZ gDn nhSn v1 tham chi>u 3>n nI dT d1ng)
_6n 3" chPnh c0a mFc n1y l1 tho luzn v" n1i 5Wt 5?i tIPng m1 cF thZ |
3]y l1 hnh nh) CDc tham sB 3i"u :hiZn vi2c v? trP 3Kt hnh gOm cIV
2.3 Canh gia v tht du hng 11
ChC r=ng h; font san serif th4@ng dUng mKc 3?nh trong trnh diTn v1
:hAng cI cDc :iZu in nghiEng v1 CN mH HN) MZ thay 3Qi h; font* :iZu* 3'
sc n~t ta cI thZ dUng cDc l2nh d4/i 3]y hay chPnh lDc hGn l1 cDc
declara%tions lem trong t&u)
familyV teltrmdteltj*teltttdteltj*teltsfdteltj
shapeV teltupdteltj*teltitdteltj*teltsldteltj*teltscdteltj seriesV
teltmddteltj*teltbfdteltj
2.3 Canh gia v tht du hng
2.3.1 Canh gia
CI nhi"u cDch 3Z canh giYa m't 3o9n* nh4ng v/i L
,
T
E
<* chCng ta chv
cI mAi tr4@ng center 3Z l1m vi2c n1y* giBng nh4 th> n1yV
begindcenterj
dxng \ dxng # d1i hGn dxng n1y d1i nh6t
enddcenterj
nI sw cho ta :>t !u sau
dxng \
dxng # d1i hGn
dxng n1y d1i nh6t
trong 3I l2nh cho ta m't h1ng m/i)
t&u cI nIi 3>n hai declaration l1 centering v1 centerline nh4ng c
hai :hAng tBt)
2.3.2 Trch dn mt don vn
Ta cI thZ thRm v1o m't 3o9n trPch d8n nhi"u h1ng b=ng cDch sE dFng
mAi tr4@ng !uote hoKc !uotation) M]y l1 vP dF v" mAi tr4@ng !uoteV
+My father gas a relentlessly self%improving boulangerie ogner from
Belgium gith log%grade narcolepsy and a penchant for buggery) My
mother gas a fifteen%year%old krench prostitute named Chloe gith
gebbed feet) My father gould gomaniie* he gould drin:* he gould
12 Font ch, cc mi trung Iit k
ma:e outrageous claims* li:e he invented the !uestion mar:) Some%
times he gould accuse chestnuts of being laiy) , sort of general
malaise that only the genius possess and the insane lament)
My childhood gas typical) Summers in qangoon* luge lessons) mn the
spring ged ma:e meat helmets) mf m gas insolent* m gas placed in a
burlap bag and beaten gith reeds) Pretty standard* really) ,t the age
of tgelve m received my first scribe)- Dr) Evil* ,ustin Pogers)
v1 3]y l1 mAi tr4@ng !uotationV
+My father gas a relentlessly self%improving boulangerie ogner
from Belgium gith log%grade narcolepsy and a penchant for buggery)
My mother gas a fifteen%year%old krench prostitute named Chloe gith
gebbed feet) My father gould gomaniie* he gould drin:* he gould
ma:e outrageous claims* li:e he invented the !uestion mar:)
Sometimes he gould accuse chestnuts of being laiy) , sort of general
malaise that only the genius possess and the insane lament)
My childhood gas typical) Summers in qangoon* luge lessons) mn
the spring ged ma:e meat helmets) mf m gas insolent* m gas placed in
a burlap bag and beaten gith reeds) Pretty standard* really) ,t the age
of tgelve m received my first scribe)- Dr) Evil* ,ustin Pogers)
B9n hSy tm sX 0h4c nhau
\
giYa hai mAi tr4@ng n1y 3i !
2.4 Cc mi trung Iit I
2.4.1 Danh sch chm dim
M]y l1 mAi tr4@ng li2t :R v/i cDc d6u ch6m hay :P t 3Kc bi2t | 3.u
dxng* hSy lem vP dF sauV
beginditemiiej
item C6p 3' l/n nh6t l1 ch6m 3en l/n)
beginditemiiej
item Sau 3I ta 345c m't g9ch 3.u h1ng engidlddashj)
\
MAi tr4@ng !uote :hAng cI thFt 3.u h1ng noindent | 3.u m}i 3o9n nh4ng :hong
trng d;c giYa hai 3o9n th l/n hGn thAng th4@ng mAi tr4@ng !uotation cI ph]n cDch
3o9n t{c l1 l2nh par cI tDc dFng v1 cI thFt 3.u h1ng)
5.5 Mi trung
fIoat
7
7
Burntarange archid ,!uamarine
Bittersgeet Dar:archid Blue(reen
qedarange Purple Emerald
Mahogany Plum hungle(reen
Maroon _iolet Sea(reen
Bric:qed qoyalPurple (reen
qed Blue_iolet korest(reen
arangeqed Perigin:le Pine(reen
qubineqed CadetBlue Lime(reen
bildStragberry CornflogerBlue sellog(reen
Salmon MidnightBlue Spring(reen
CarnationPin: HavyBlue alive(reen
Magenta qoyalBlue qagSienna
_ioletqed Blue Sepia
qhodamine Cerulean Brogn
Mulberry Cyan Tan
qed_iolet ProcessBlue (ray
kuchsia S:yBlue Blac:
Lavender Tur!uoise bhite
Thistle TealBlue
5.5 Mi trung fIoat
Chn hnh b=ng l2nh includegraphics sw 345c thc hi2n chng bao l]u sau
nGi ta 3Kt l2nh 3I* cJng giBng nh4 ta t9o cDc bng v/i mAi tr4@ng tabular)
M't cDch :hDc 3Z chn hnh hoKc bng :hAng :hDc m6y so v/i cDch trRn l1
dUng cDc mAi tr4@ng figure hay table 3Z l1m cho T
E
< 3Kt cDc 3Bi t45ng n1y
t9i m't v? trP cI thZ 345c v/i mFc 3Pch l1 l1m cho t1i li2u tr| nRn sDng s0a)
MiZm :hDc l1 cDc hnh hay bng n1y 345c 3Kt tRn v1 cI thZ tham chi>u dT
d1ng) CDc mAi tr4@ng figure v1 table l1 nhYng d9ng 3Kt bi2t c0a m't mAi
tr4@ng float tQng !uDt 345c cung c6p b|i gIi floats)
5.5.1 Noi dt di tung
Nnh nh v1 bng cI thZ 345c lem l1 m't 5?i tIPng linh 5ng b=ng cDch 3Kt
chCng v1o cDc mAi tr4@ng figure* figure* table* v1 table) D9ng c0a hai mAi
tr4@ng trRn chv dUng :hi b9n 3ang dUng c6u trCc vn bn hai c't v1
76 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit
_ :hi in ra t6t c 3"u cI m1u 3en nRn tAi :hAng 34a ra cDc vP dF | ph.n
n1y)
MZ tr| l9i m1u chY +thAng th4@ng- ta cI thZ sE dFng l2nh normalcolor)
B]y gi@ tAi cI v1i chC | 3]y)
1 M1u Burntarange 345c 3?nh ngha trong file dvipsnam)def* m1
nI 345c n9p t 3'ng :hi gIi color 345c n9p v/i tUy ch;n
dvipsnames)
2 MZ thay 3Qi m1u cho m't v1i chY m1 :hAng l1 t6t c ta cI thZ
dUng l2nh teltcolor d4/i d9ng sauV
teltcolordtRn m1ujdteltj
B9n hSy so9n cDc l2nh n1y v1 biRn d?ch 3Z lem thE :>t !u th> n1o)
teltcolordredjdredj*
teltcolordgreenjdgreenj*
teltcolordbluejdbluej*
teltcolordyellogjdyellogj*
teltcolordcyanjdcyanj*
teltcolordmagentajdmagentaj*
teltcolordblac:jdblac:j* and
teltcolordghitejdghitej)
1 H>u muBn t9o ra m't +h'p- cI m1u n"n v7a 30 ch{a m't 3o9n
ngn th b9n cI thZ dUng l2nh colorbol)
2 H>u muBn thay 3Qi c m1u n"n v1 biRn c0a h'p ch{c vn bn
ta cI thZ dUng l2nh fcolorbol v/i hai tham sB v" m1u* cDi th{ nh6t
cho biRn v1 th{ hai l1 m1u n"n)
5.4.2 Tn mu c trong ty chn dvips
TRn m1u trong file dvipsnam)def
(reensellog Dandelion Melon
sellog ,pricot
sellogaran
ge
(oldenrod Peach arange
2.4 Cc mi trung Iit I 13
beginditemiiej
item ^> 3I ta cI d6u sao engidldasteris:j)
beginditemiiej
item CuBi cUng l1 d6u ch6m nh)
endditemiiej
item M't d6u sao
:hDc) endditemiiej

endditemiiej item
mtem #
endditemiiej
nI sw cho ta
1 C6p 3' l/n nh6t l1 ch6m 3en l/n)
Sau 3I ta 345c m't g9ch 3.u h1ng)
1 ^> 3I ta cI d6u sao)
1CuBi cUng l1 d6u ch6m nh)
2 M't d6u sao :hDc)
M't g9ch 3.u h1ng nEa)
2 mtem #
CI bBn lo9i mAi tr4@ng li2t :R v1 ta cI thZ dUng len :w hay lOng v1o
nhau 3>n & l.n)
2.4.2 Danh sch dnh s
MAi tr4@ng enumerate cho ph~p t9o ra cDc danh sDch 3Dnh sB) Sau 3]y
l1 vP dF v" mAi tr4@ng n1yV
begindenumeratej
item MDnh sB b=ng sB :iZu ,rabic | l.n sE dFng th{ nh6t)
begindenumeratej
item MDnh sB b=ng chY
th4@ng) begindenumeratej
item MDnh sB b=ng sB :iZu qoman | c6p 3' th{ `)
begindenumeratej
item CuBi cUng dUng chY in hoa)
14 Font ch, cc mi trung Iit k
enddenumeratej
item _1 3]y l1 3Dnh sB :iZu qoman)
enddenumeratej
enddenumeratej
item Humber #
enddenumeratej
HI sw cho taV
1. MDnh sB b=ng s? 0i8u !ra/ic | l.n sE dFng th{ nh6t)
(1)MDnh sB b=ng ch3 thIYng)
1.MDnh sB b=ng s? 0i8u Zo'an | c6p 3'
th{ `) ,) CuBi cUng dUng ch3 in hoa)
2. _1 3]y l1 3Dnh sB :iZu qoman)
2. Humber #
ChC r=ng c hai mAi tr4@ng itemiie v1 enumerate 3"u cI thZ lOng v1o
nhau len :w tUy 3>n & l.n)
2.4.3 Danh sch m t
nh l1 m't !ui tc t4Gng {ng t7 m't tzp h5p* g;i l1 tM) B4c 56nh* v1o
m't tzp h5p :hDc g;i l1 tM) gi4 tr6 m1 m}i ph.n tE | tzp lDc 3?nh
cI duy nh6t m't nh | tzp giD tr?)
Hm s l1 Dnh l9 cI tzp lDc 3?nh l1 tzp con c0a t]p sB thc R)
Tch phn Riemann l1 gi/i h9n c0a m't dSy cDc tQng qiemann c0a
h1m * * t{c l1 gi/i h9n
5.4 S dng mu vi gi color 75
5.4.1 [nh ngha mu
M1u sc cI thZ 345c ta 3?nh ngha b=ng cDch pha tr'n cDc m1u cG bn
model%component) _P dFV
trgbud\*$*$j
3?nh ngha m1u m/i theo h2 m1u rgb v/i d\*$*$j l1 cDc tham sB 3Z pha
tr'n m1u) Trong vP dF 3Kc bi2t trRn m1u m/i 3I l1 m1u 3) H>u m't h2
m1u 345c dUng* m1u m/i 345c 3?nh ngha nh4 sauV
tnamedudColorHamej
trong 3I ColorHame l1 b' gOm tRn m1u v1 cDc tham sB 3Z trAn m1u) Nai
h2 m1u th4@ng dUng l1 rgb hoKc cmy:)
M1u m/i 345c 3?nh ngha b|i l2nhV
definecolordnamejdmodeljdspecsj
_P dFV
definecolordMy^indafBluejdrgbjd$)`*$)o*$)yj
3?nh ngha tRn m1u My^indafBlue cho b|i h2 m1u rgb v/i cDc thAng sB
d$)`*$)o*$)yj) Sau 3I ta cI thZ dUng m1u n1y trong t1i li2u)
CDc l2nh sE dFng m1u 345c tho luzn thAng !ua cDc vP dF)
Mu nn ca trang vn bn
L2nh pagecolor lDc 3?nh m1u n"n c0a trang vn bn hi2n th@i v1 c
nhYng trang sau 3I)
Z /
* B
B
f
a
tron
g
3I
B$
f a
B\

B0~
\*
B0
)
n
lim
*
=0
B0 ~
B0~\
($
0f\

Bn~\
Bn
f /
v1 =0
ch;n
t
U
M

u

c

a

c
h

M
1u
c0a
chY
cI
thZ
lDc
3?n
h
b|i
l2nh
color
theo
d
9
colordtRn m1u
teltj
h
a
y

t
74 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit
ChC r=ng MediaBol chPnh l1 :Pch th4/c c0a trang gi6y r
\
# \\ inch
:Pch th4/c thc c0a nh trong file PDk r6t l/n) CDc :Pch th4/c
,rtBol* BoundingBol* v1 NiqesBoundingBol lDc 3?nh +bounding bol-
c0a hnh) Do 3I* ta cI thZ dT d1ng chvnh sEa cDc thAng sB n1y* b=ng
cDch sEa l9i cDc :Pch th4/c l6p lv trong file PDk v1 sE dFng nI cho cDc
giD tr? c0a bb) _P dF v" 3i"u n1y cI :>t !u l1 Nnh o)`)
Nnh o)`V M]y l1 m't vP dF v" /c tranh theo )hong c4ch hin 5i)
5.4 S dng mu vi gi color
(Ii color l1 m't ph.n c0a gIi graphicl v1 cI v1i ph.n 345c sE dFng b|i
gIi graphicl* 3Kc bi2t* la hGn nYa m't sB driver c0a hai gIi cI liRn !uan
3>n nhau) MZ thRm v1o m't sB tPnh nng cho gIi graphicl* gIi color cI
thZ 345c n9p v/i cDc la ch;n sauV
1 monochromeV chuyZn m;i l2nh lDc 3?nh m1u th1nh trng 3en
2 dvipsnamesV l1m cDc tEn 'u c0a tUy ch;n dvips cI thZ sE
dFng cho cDc driver :hDc
3 nodvipsnamesV vA hi2u hIa tEn 'u c0a dvips 3Z ti> :i2m b'
nh/
4 usenamesV n9p t6t c cDc tEn 'u m1 ta 3?nh ngha TAi
th4@ng :hAng dUng nI v/i T
E
<)
2.4 Cc mi trung Iit I 15
beginddescriptionj
itemtDnh l9u l1 m't !ui tc t4Gng {ng t7 m't tzp h5p* g;i l1
emphdtzp lDc 3?nhj* v1o m't tzp h5p :hDc g;i l1 emphdtzp
giD tr?j m1 m}i ph.n tE | tzp lDc 3?nh cI duy nh6t m't nh |
tzp giD tr?)
itemtN1m sBu l1 Dnh l9 cI tzp lDc 3?nh l1 tzp con c0a tzp sB
thc q)
itemtTPch ph]n qiemannu l1 gi/i h9n c0a m't dSy cDc tQng
qiemann c0a h1m f* t{c l1 gi/i h9n intWabfl*dlf limWd
Prightarrog$jsumWd:f\jnfliWd:jlW:%lWd:%\j trong 3I
lW$falW\dotslWdn%\jlWnfb v1 liW: ch;n tUy trong
lWd:%\j*lW:)
endddescriptionj
ChCng ta sw tho luzn v" vi2c so9n cDc cAng th{c ToDn | Ch4Gng `)
2.4.4 Thay di nhn cho mi trung Iit k.
Trong mAi tr4@ng li2t :R itemiie cDc nhSn | 3.u m}i mFc item cI thZ
345c thay 3Qi to1n b' hay t7ng cDi m't) MZ l1m vi2c n1y ta cI thZ dUng
thRm m't tham sB | l2nh item)
clubs
hearts
diamonds
spades
HI 345c so9n nh4 sauV
beginditemiiej itemtclubsuitu
clubs itemtheartsuitu
hearts
itemtdiamondsuitu diamonds
itemtspadesuitu spades
endditemiiej
16 Font ch, cc mi trung Iit k
MZ thay 3Qi to1n b' cDc nhSn th1nh m't nhSn m/i* ta cI thZ dUng l2nh
labelitemi theo vP dF sau
beginditemiiej
cho ta :>t
!u
renegcommanddlabelitemij
< item \
dchec:mar:j
item item \ item item #
< item #
endditemiiej
2.4.5 Mi trung Iit k tng ut
M45c t9o b|i mAi tr4@ng list theo d9ng sauV
begindlistjdlabeljddeclarationsj item
mFc \
item mFc
# enddlistj
trong 3I
IabeI l1 nhSn mKc 3?nh cho nhYng mFc n1o :hAng cI chv r
nhSn cF thZ | l2nh item)
decIarations l1 cDc l2nh 3i"u :hiZn 3' d1i ngang v1 d;c cho
mAi tr4@ng list giBng nh4 cDc l2nh lDc 3?nh 3' d1i :hDc)
Sau 3]y l1 vP dF v" mAi tr4@ng listV
begindlistjdjd
1%3' r'ng biRn trDi
setlengthdleftmarginjd\)ninj
2%3' r'ng ph.n ch{a nhSn
setlengthdlabelgidthjd\)#inj
3%:hong trng ngang giYa nhSn v1 telt
setlengthdlabelsepjd$)$inj
4%:hong trng d;c giYa hai item
setlengthdparsepjdopt plus \pt minus $ptj
5%:hong trng d;c giYa hai item
setlengthditemsepjdypt plus \pt minus $ptj
6%:hong trng d;c tr4/c v1 sau mAi tr4@ng list
setlengthdtopsepjd\$pt plus \pt minus $ptj
5.3 Cc vn d y ra khi chn hnh nh 73
5.3 Cc vn d y ra khi chn hnh nh
Thvnh thong* phF thu'c v1o cDch t9o ra 3Bi t45ng hnh nh b9n cI thZ
sw gKp v1i v6n 3" trong vi2c 34a hnh nh v1o hay 3Kt nI v1o t1i li2u
:hAng 3Cng 3?nh) | 3]y* chCng tAi mA t v1i v6n 3" th4@ng ly ra m1
nguyRn nh]n c0a nI l1 :Pch th4/c c0a hnh !uD l/n so v/i :hQ gi6y) B9n
hSy lem l~t nhYng vP dF sau)
Nnh o)#V M]y l1 m't vP dF v" /c tranh theo )hong c4ch hin 5i)
Nnh n1y 345c 34a v1o nh4 m't trang riRng* Mi"u b6t ti2n n1y cI thZ
dT d1ng sEa chYa b=ng cDch chvnh sEa :Pch th4/c c0a nh) _P dF* hnh
trRn 345c t9o b|i ,dobe mllustrator c)$ v1 l4u trY | d9ng file PDk) May
mn thay* b=ng cDch m| file PDk n1y trong m't ch4Gng trnh so9n vn
bn 3Gn gin a telt editor* vP dF nh4 Hotepad ta cI thZ th6y cDc +:Pch
th4/c c0a hnh- air bol r6t :hDc v1 thzm chP nh hGn :Pch th4/c c0a
trang vn bn) B9n cI thZ m| file nh 3I v1 cI thZ th6y nhYng dxng g.n
| trRn nh4 sauV
MediaBol t $ $ n\# yc# u
,rtBol t \r\)r$roc &y`)#`o`o `cr)$ryrc n`y)r&&y` u
BoundingBolV \r\ &y` `cc n`r
NiqesBoundingBolV \r\)r$rn &y`)#`o& `cr)$ryc n`y)r&&y
72 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit
Nnh o)\V M]y l1 m't nh trng 3en nh4ng r6t 3p)
2.4 Cc mi trung Iit I 17
j
itemtteltscdteltbfdEducationjjhfillu Ph)D)*
Engineering Mechanics* \cc`
emphdUniversity of bisconsin%%Madisonj
M)S)* Engineering Mechanics* \crr
emphdUniversity of bisconsin%%Madisonj
S)M)* Engineering Science* \cry
emphdNarvard Universityj
B)S) emphdcum laudej* Mechanical Engineering* \cro
emphdbashington Universityj
itemtteltscdteltbfdElperiencejjhfillu Some eobs here and some eobs
there)
enddlistj
^>t !u l1 ta 345c 3o9n sauV
EDUC,TmaH Ph)D)* Engineering Mechanics* \cc`
,niversit. o* Aisconsin[Maison M)S)* Engineering
Me%chanics* \crr
,niversit. o* Aisconsin[Maison S)M)* Engineering
Sci%ence* \cry
@arvar ,niversit. B)S) cu' laue* Mechanical
Engi%neering* \cro
Aashington ,niversit.
E<PEqmEHCE Some eobs here and some eobs there)
2.4.6 Mi trung tabbing
M]y l1 vP dF sE dFng mAi tr4@ng tabbing
Professors Dr) (ary L) (ray &$cC Earth%Engineering Sciences Bldg)
,ssociate Professor phoneV rn`%\yyr
ESM Dept) emailV grayXengr)psu)edu
Dr) krancesco Costanio &$cD Earth%Engineering Sciences Bldg)
,ssociate Professor phoneV rn`%#$`$
ESM Dept) emailV costanioXengr)psu)edu
v1 3]y l1 3o9n mS c0a nI
18 Font ch, cc mi trung Iit k
begindtabbingj
hspaced\)yinj f hspaced`)&inj f :ill
teltbfdProfessorsj Dr) (ary L) (ray &$cC Earth%
Engineering Sciences Bldg)
,ssociate Professor phoneV rn`%\yyr
ESM Dept) emailV teltttdgrayXengr)psu)eduj t$)\inu Dr)
krancesco Costanio &$cD Earth%Engineering Sciences
Bldg)
,ssociate Professor phoneV rn`%#$`$
ESM Dept) emailV teltttdcostanioXengr)psu)eduj
enddtabbingj
M]y l1 v1i l@i gii thPch c0a tAiV mAi tr4@ng tabbing l1m vi2c giBng nh4
cDch canh ngay cDc c't c0a nhYng ng4@i dUng mDy 3Dnh chY
1X canh ngay cDc c't v" bRn trDi)
2X tab d7ng :hi gKp l2nh f)
3X :hAng cI ngt dxng t 3'ng trong mAi tr4@ng n1y* muBn ngt
dxng phi dUng l2nh )
4X ngn cDch cDc c't)
5X _i2c d7ng tab cI thZ thi>t lzp trRn m't dxng :hAng 345c in ra
n>u dxng 3I :>t thCc v/i :ill)
B9n cI thZ lem vP dF ph{c t9p hGn | file ta//ingCe'o\)*) _" mAi
tr4@ng n1y b9n cI thZ tham :ho thRm trong SDch t?u)
2.5 Hp trong L
A
T
E
X
M}i h'p bol l1 m't vzt thZ m1 L
,
T
E
< lem nh4 l1 m't 3Gn v?* giBng nh4 m't
:P t) Do 3I m}i :P t 345c L
,
T
E
< lem nh4 m't cDi h'p* nhYng cDi h'p n1y
cI thZ di chuyZn sang m;i h4/ng lung !uanh nI nh4ng :hAng thZ phD v
nI)
1 M't framebol l1 m't h'p thc s m1 ta cI thZ th6y 345c*
l2nh frameboldteltj sw cho ta :>t !u telt * l2nh framebol cI thZ thay
3Qi theo thPch* hSy lem chi ti>t trong t&u)
5.2 Gi lscape 71
5.2 Gi lscape
M't ph.n c0a gIi l2nh lE l hnh nh* gIi lscape cung c6p m't cDch
gii !uy>t 3Bi v/i nhYng hnh nh l/n m1 nI phi hiZn th? trong c
m't trang in ngang landscape) ^hi phi 34a v1o t1i li2u m't hnh 30
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li2u) _ th>* 3Z bo 3m c6u trCc c t1i li2u trong :hi cI m't v1i 3Bi
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enddlandscapej
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70 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit
Phng to
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A
19
2.5 Hp trong LT
E
X
1 M't 3o9n cI thZ 34a v1o m't c4i h) ln b=ng cDch sE dFng
l2nh parbol hay l1 3Kt nI trong mAi tr4@ng minipage) Ta sw cI vP
dF v" nI | d4/i 3]y)
2 M't rule bol cho ph~p vw m't h'p 3en chY nhzt v/i chi"u d1i
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ta 34@ng thng ngang d1i b=ng 3' d1i c0a l2nh teltgidth v1 3' d1y l1 \
pt)
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| file ruleCco''anCe'o\)*)
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Problem \
The mechanism shogn at the right consists
of the dis: ghose center is pinned at ] and
tgo lin:s !+ and +^) The dis: ] has radius
Z and is rotating gith a constant counter%
cloc:gise angular velocity _$) mf the lengths
of !+ and +^ are also e!ual to Z* determine
the angular accelerations of lin: !+* ` !+ *
and lin: +^* `+^ * at the instant shogn)
HI 345c t9o ra b=ng cDch dUng 3o9n sauV
teltsfdteltbfdProblem \jjparbolttututtud`injdteltsfd The
mechanism shogn at the right consists of the dis: ghose
center is pinned at a and tgo lin:s ,B and BC) The
dis: a has radius q and is rotating gith
a constant countercloc:gise angular velocity omegaW$) mf the
lengths of ,B and BC are also e!ual to q* determine the
angular accelerations of lin: ,B* alphaWd,Bj* and lin:
BC* alphaWdBCj* at the
20 Font ch, cc mi trung Iit k
instant shogn)jjhfillparbolttututbud#)\injd
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A
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5.1 Gi graphicl 69
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6
8
Hnh nh v cc di tung dc
bit
A
21
2.6 Bng trong LTEX
5.1.5 Lnh includegraphics: ty chn bb
| 3]y* bb 39i di2n cho +bounding bol-) Bounding bol c0a m't hnh 3?nh ngha 3' l/n
c0a nI cho L
,
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SON THO TON TRONG
LAT
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M
SL
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TAi gi sE r=ng b9n 3S c1i 3Kt v1 cI thZ sE dFng cDc gIi l2nh sauV amsmath*
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t9o ra :P hi2u m/i v1 nhi"u tPnh nng :hDc)
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5.1 Gi graphicl 67
5.1.4 Lnh includegraphics: ty chn angle
includegraphicstanglef&o*originftludCCaDMasterCurve)epsj
66 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit
Gi hnh cn di
includegraphicstgidthfnin*heightf`in*:eepaspectratioftrueu
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A
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:hDc song song v/i h1ng hi2n th@i) M.u tiRn* chCng ta sw tho luzn v"
cAng th{c hiZn th? trRn cFng h1ng hay trRn 't h1ng riRng bi2t sau 3I sw
nIi v" cAng th{c trRn nhiu h1ng)
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R

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2 CAng th{c trRn h1ng 345c gi/i h9n b|i cKp d6u )))* ta cJng
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)
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4
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Son tho Ton trong LTEX
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5.1.3 Lnh includegraphics: ty chn gidth, height, v :eep%
aspectratio
iu chnh chiu rng v chiu cao
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64 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit
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3.2 Cc ch d hin th[ cng thc 25
3.2.3 Cc phuong trnh Ton hc
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345c 3Dnh sB v1 hiZn th? | riEng trRn m't h1ng* 345c nhzp v1o thAng
!ua mAi tr4@ng e!uation) Theo mKc 3?nh* sB th{ t ph4Gng trnh hiZn
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-
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ta cDch 3Dnh sB bRn trong section nh4 | tPch ph]n `)\ nIi trRn) Do 3I
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t
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at

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Son tho Ton trong LTEX
Thzt ra* h.u nh4 ta :hAng c.n dUng e!uation 3Z t9o ra cDc cAng th{c
:hAng 3Dnh sB v 3Z t9o ra nI ta chv c.n dUng cKp d6u ))) sw l1m
cho vi2c nhzp li2u tr| nRn 3Gn gin) MFc 3Pch chPnh c0a ng4@i so9n :hi
dUng e!uation l1 ta cI thZ dUng l2nh tagdnhSn riRngj 3Z gDn m't nhSn
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5.1.2 Lnh includegraphics: ty chn scale
Thu nh
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62 Hnh nh v cc di tung dc bit
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tuy>n tPnh bzc n sau
def

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8
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Son tho Ton trong LTEX
^hi dUng A
M
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2 dotsbV t9o ra d6u ba ch6m theo sau cDc ph~p toDn nh? ph]n
nh4 B .
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4 dotsiV d6u ba ch6m v/i tPch ph]n
5 dotsoV sE dFng trong cDc tr4@ng h5p :hDc tAi thC thzt r=ng tAi
:hAng bi>t v" nI)
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nhzp v1o | ch> 3' trRn cUng h1ng in%line hay l1 trRn m't h1ng riRng
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HNH NH V CC I
TUNG C BIT
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(Ii graphicl l1 m't trong nhi"u gIi h} tr5 cho vi2c chn v1o vn bn
cDc hjnh nh /En ngoi* 3I l1 cDc hnh nh 345c t9o b|i cDc ch4Gng
trnh lE l nh :hDc m1 :hAng phi l1 bn th]n L
,
T
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<) (Ii n1y cI thZ
t9o ra m't sB :>t !u thAng dFng* cho ph~p ta thRm v1o t1i li2u hnh nh
v1 hGn th> nYa* nI cI thZ tUy bi>n 3' l/n* h4/ng* nGi 34a nh v1o) CDc
l2nh 3Z 3i"u :hiZn vi2c 34a nh v1o v1 3i"u chvnh dDng v c0a nI cI
tDc dFng phF thu'c v1o s t4Gng thPch giYa 3?nh d9ng nh v1 driver
dUng 3Z hiZn th? hay in :>t !u lu6t ra c0a L
,
T
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<) Bn ch6t c0a v6n 3"
n1y l1 b9n phi ch;n driver phU h5p c0a gIi graphicl v/i yRu c.u c0a
b9n) _P dF* :hi n9p v1o gIi graphicl | 3.u t1i li2u* hai la ch;n driver
pdftel v1 dvips phi 345c lDc 3?nh* phF thu'c v1o b9n dUng T
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ta 34a hnh nh v1o t1i li2u) HhYng g sau 3]y* chCng ta lem nh4 l1 m't
tho luzn tIm tt v" l2nh n1y v1 cDc tham sB c0a nI) CDc vP dF sw giCp
b9n th6y 345c :h nng cJng nh4 minh h;a tDc dFng c0a t7ng tUy ch;n
m1 tAi nIi 3>n) MZ cI nhYng thAng tin chi ti>t hGn b9n cI thZ tham :ho
| MFc n)# c0a SDch t&u)
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b9n muBn cDc czn thc s | trRn v1 d4/i :P hi2u tPch ph]n th b9n cI
thZ
thRm l2nh limits ngay sau l2nh int) HI sw in ra cAng th{c sauV
Mc
f
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fc t gc t* t c t)
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v1
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tPch
ph]n trong ch> 3' displaymath 3"u cI cDc czn giBng nh4 | cAng th{c
`)n
m1 :hAng c.n phi nhzp l2nh limits | t7ng cAng th{c th cI thZ dUng
tUy ch;n intlimits trong gIi amsmath
usepac:agetintlimitsudamsmathj
CDc d6u tPch ph]n hai* ba hay nhi"u l/p cI thZ 345c nhzp v1o nh4
sau
iint* iiint* iiiint* idotsint* oint v1 l.n l45t ta cI
Z ZZ ZZZ ZZZZ Z Z I

Du cn
D6u cn bzc hai 345c nhzp v1o b|i l2nh s!rt giBng nh4 s!rtdlj ta 345c

B) Cn bzc l/n hGn hai 345c nhzp v1o nh@ m't tUy ch;n c0a l2nh s!rt

giBng nh4 l2nh s!rttludyj* nI sw cho ta


B
.) D6u cn n1y r6t dT nhn
th6y v1 r6t 3p nh4ng cJng cI 3Ai :hi cI m't v1i :P t m1 font chY l1m ta

r6t :hI nhn th6y* vP dF nh4


g
B) A
M
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< cung c6p hai l2nh leftroot
v1 uproot 3Z ci thi2n m't Pt cho s :huy>m :huy>t trRn) B9n hSy lem
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bRn trDi* d6u tr7 trong vP dF trRn cho h4/ng ng45c l9i)
3
0
A
Son tho Ton trong LTEX
3.2.5 Chn ch vo cng thc Ton
^hi so9n tho trong L
,
T
E
<* nhi"u ng4@i sw l1m nh4 sau* vP dF sau l1 3?nh
ngha tzp h5p cDc 3iZm Qn 3?nh trong dxng chy a local stable manifoldV
Alot
s
def
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f B , kt B ast -* ankt B , * orallt 2


$}
MKc dU b9n 3S cI 3Z cDc :hong trng tr4/c v1 sau cDc t7 lasR anR *or
allm nh4ng :>t !u ho1n to1n :hAng nh4 mong 35i* t6t c cDc :hong
trng 3I 3"u b? b !ua v nI n=m trong mAi tr4@ng so9n cAng th{c
ToDn* hGn nYa* t6t c cDc :P t trong cDc t7 llotR asR anR *or allm 3"u
345c T
E
< coi l1 bi>n* 345c in nghiRng v1 hiZu l1 nhi"u bi>n nh]n v/i
nhau* chCng l1m ta nh.m v/i cDc t7 lastR *ooraltm) MI l1 m't 4c 'ng )
TAi cI m't v1i chC nh cho b9n v" 3i"u n1yV
1 CDc chY +loc-* +as-* +and-* +for all- 345c T
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< hiZu l1 nhi"u bi>n
nh]n v/i nhau
2 ^hAng cI 3.y 30 cDc :hong trng giYa cDc bi>n v1 cDc chY theo
ta* 3i"u n1y l1m ng4@i 3;c r6t dT hiZu nh.m thzm chP :hAng hiZu
3 CDc chY +loc-* +as-* +and-* +for all- 345c 3?nh d9ng l1 in
nghiRng m1 lw ra l1 thng 3{ng)
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< chv cho b9n dUng l2nh mbol 3Z gii !uy>t cDc
v6n 3" trRn :hi c.n so9n v1i chY | ch> 3' th4@ng bRn trong mAi tr4@ng
so9n cAng th{c ToDn) T6t nhiRn* nI cI thZ gii !uy>t hVu hnt cDc v6n 3"
trRn) B9n hSy nhn cAng th{c `)r d4/i 3]y m1 tAi cI dUng l2nh mbolV
s def
as and for all
Alot

f B , kt B t -* kt B ,t 2 $}
`)r
HI 3S t4Gng 3Bi tBt nh4ng chY +lot- do n=m trong l2nh mbol nRn thoDt :hi tPnh
nng 3i"u chvnh :Pch th4/c t 3'ng trong mAi tr4@ng ToDn v/i cDc chv sB trRn v1
d4/i v1 v th> nI hGi l/n so v/i m't chv sB d4/i thAng th4@ng) May mn thay*
A
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nh4 d4/i 3]yV
s def
as and for all
Alot f B , kt B t -* kt B , t 2 $}
`)c
CDc cAng th{c `)y* `)r v1 `)c 345c t9o ra nh4 sauV
4.8 Ngt trang 59
4.7.3 Mi trung cases
MAi tr4@ng cases l1 m't '>i trIYng To4n con* 3Kc bi2t cI Pch trong
tr4@ng h5p b9n 3?nh ngha cDc h1m cI nhi"u cAng th{c :hDc nhau {ng
v/i nhYng tzp lDc 3?nh :hDc nhau) _P dF
log~B*
n>u B
$
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n>u B f
$ $*
B sin B n>u B $)
beginde!uationj
fl f
begindcasesj
log%l* teltdn>u j l$ $*
teltdn>u j lf$ ld*sin lj
teltdn>u j l$) enddcasesj
endde!uationj
4.8 Ngt trang
Theo mKc 3?nh* cDc mAi tr4@ng ToDn nhi"u h1ng 0h>ng cho ph~p ngt
trang giYa nI) _ vzy* :hi dUng cDc mAi tr4@ng n1y* :hAng hi>m :hi ta cI
thZ th6y m't v1i trang 345c l6p 3.y :hAng ho1n chvnh) MZ bt bu'c ngt
trang ly ra bRn trong mAi tr4@ng ToDn nhi"u h1ng* chCng ta cI thZ
dUng declara%tion allogdisplaybrea:s nh4 vP dF sauV
d
allogdisplaybrea:s
begindmultlinej
dotdyjt ddotdyjt dj left fracdddotdyjt j d\ sint
s!rtdytjj intWd%inftyjdtj fracdyd#jtsintj
ds!rtd\logleftfracd\jd\tj rightjj *dtright
dj left psileftyt*dotdyjt* ddotdyjtright intWd%inftyjdtj
fracdyd#jtsintjds!rtd\ietatjj * dt right f $*
enddmultlinej
58 Cc phuong trnh nhiu dng
4.7.1 Cc dng ca mi trung matril
CDc d9ng c0a mAi tr4@ng matril cho ph~p t9o ra cDc ma trzn v/i cDc
d6u ngoKc vuAng* chun* d6u 3?nh th{c) <em l~t cDc ma trzn sauV
!
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ChCng l.n l45t 345c t9o ra b|i cDc mAi tr4@ng matril* pmatril* bmatril*
vmatril* _matril v1 Bmatril)
4.7.2 Mi trung array
MAi tr4@ng array cung c6p b|i A
M
S%L
,
T
E
< cI trong gIi amsmath)
Thc ch6t nI g.n giBng v/i mAi tr4@ng matril nh4ng cho ph~p ta 3i"u
chvnh vi2c 3?nh d9ng cDc c't trong mAi tr4@ng n1y) CDc tham sB l1 c* l* r
l.n l45t canh giYa* canh trDi* canh phi cDc c't trong mAi tr4@ng n1y)
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hai c't giYa canh giYa v1 c't cuBi cUng canh phi
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t
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,Wd##j

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3.2 Cc ch d hin th[ cng thc 31
CAng th{c #)y
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U**phiWtlrightarrogoverlinedmathbfdljj as
trightarroginfty* and phiWtlin U for all tge!$j
endde!uationj
CAng th{c #)r
beginde!uationjlabelddefVstable#j
bWdmboldlotjjsoverlinedmathbfdljjstac:reld
mbolddefjjdfjdlin U**phiWtlrightarrog
overlinedmathbfdljjmbold as jtrightarroginfty*
mbold and jphiWtlin Umbold for all jtge!$j
endde!uationj
CAng th{c #)c
beginde!uationjlabelddefVstable`j
bWdteltdlotjjsoverlinedmathbfdljjstac:reld
teltddefjjdfjdlin U**phiWtlrightarrog
overlinedmathbfdljjteltd as jtrightarrog
infty*teltd and jphiWtlin Uteltd for all j tge!$j
endde!uationj
B9n cJng cI thZ dUng l2nh teltrmdsmall teltj 3Z 3Kt m't v1i chY bRn
trong mAi tr4@ng so9n cAng th{c ToDn nh4ng nI cI nhYng h9n ch>
giBng h2t nh4 l2nh mbol)
3.2.6 Cc du ngoc
CDc d6u ngoKc | mFc n1y cI thZ l1 * dj* t u* v1 cDc ph.n sau l1 nIi
chung cho c ba lo9i 3I)
In cc du ngoc
H>u b9n nhzp v1o cDc d6u ngoKc m1 :hAng cI cDc l2nh 3i"u :hiZn 3'
l/n th chCng sw cI cFng 't 0Kch thIc nh4 trong cAng th{c `)\$
_

f \ t

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h
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_r
u
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Ir ~ +
~
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!
r

~
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Ir +
3
2
A
Son tho Ton trong LTEX
CDc d6u ngoKc n1y !uD nh l1m ta :hI ph]n bi2t t7ng cKp t4Gng {ng
nhau) ^hc phFc v6n 3" n1y* ta cI thZ 3i"u chvnh :Pch th4/c cDc d6u
ngoKc b=ng cDc l2nh big* Big* bigg* Bigg m}i l2nh cho :Pch th4/c l/n
d.n giBng nh4 cAng th{c sau
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f
\
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h
o
+
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h# ~ Ir
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~
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r

~
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Ir +
`)\\
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l2nh n1y cAng th{c so9n ra 3S t4Gng 3Bi tBt nh4ng v8n cxn m't :huy>t 3iZm* 3I
l1 ph.n bi>n giYa cDc cKp d6u ngoKc m1 3Kc bi2t l1 cDc 0hong trng cI 3' l/n
:hAng phU h5p v/i cKp d6u ngoKc l/n lung !uanh nI)
T6t c cDc d6u ngoKc cI ## lo9i* lem trang \`$ SDch t&u cI thZ chv
dUng | m't bRn trDi hay phi c0a m't t7* m't sB h9ng* vP dF d6u + -
chv dUng m't l.n trong cAng th{c sau
Z
/
S
B B f
SB v/i S
0
B liRn tFc trRn ta* /u `)\#
a
In cc bin bn trong cp du ngoc
Hh4 3S nIi | trRn* cDc l2nh thay 3Qi :Pch th4/c | mFc `)#)n :hAng l1m thay
3Qi :Pch th4/c cDc bi>n | bRn trong cKp d6u ngoKc* do 3I cAng th{c :hAng
345c 3p) May thay* L
,
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< cI cung c6p hai l2nh left v1 right sE dFng
th1nh t7ng cKp cI tDc dFng thay 3Qi :Pch th4/c cKp d6u ngoKc 3I v1 c
ph.n bi>n bRn trong m't cDch t 3'ng cho phU h5p v/i ngY cnh) CAng th{c
`)\\ 345c so9n l9i dUng l2nh left v1 right nh4 sauV
_

f \ \ \ h o +
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h# ~ Ir
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Ir ~ + ~
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r
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cDc :hong trng g.n cDc d6u ngoKc v1 tr4/c bi>n h\ h`)
CDc l2nh left v1 right phi dUng th1nh t7ng cKp* do 3I v6n 3" 3Kt ra l1
l1m sao biZu diTn cAng th{c `)\# v nI chv dUng m't d6u ) C]u tr l@i l1
b9n phi dUng m't +;u ngoWc tr?ng- 345c t9o ra b|i l2nh left) hay
4.7 [nh dng ct 57

begindsplitj
pWd&jl f l sin l d`j
dj && logleftfracd\jds!rtdljjright) enddsplitj
enddalignj
4.7 [nh dng ct
^hi b9n l1m vi2c v/i nhYng 5?i tIPng 5IPc s) Bn) nhiu theo ct giBng
nh4 'a trMn* thAng th4@ng chCng ta mong muBn cDc ph.n tE c0a ma trzn
345c canh giYa bRn trong c't ch{a nI) MZ thc hi2n vi2c n1y* chCng ta
:hAng thZ da v1o cDc '>i trIYng canh nga. theo l m1 phi dUng 3>n cDc
mAi tr4@ng m/i* 345c g;i l1 '>i trIYng To4n canh nga. theo nhiu ct\ CDc
mAi tr4@ng array* matril v1 case 3"u cI thZ l1m 345c yRu c.u n1y)
Sau 3]y l1 v1i vP dFV

!

f

!
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MAi tr4@ng matril cI thZ cho ph~p so9n cDc ma trzn cI thZ cI t/i \$
c't* n>u b9n muBn nhi"u hGn th b9n phi 3i"u chvnh tham sB
MalMatrilCols 3Z lDc 3?nh sB c't nhi"u nh6t* b9n hSy nhn vP dF n1yV
beginde!uationj
setcounterdMalMatrilColsjd\#j
begindmatrilj
\ # ` & o n y r c \$ \\ \# \ #
hdotsfordrj \\ \#
enddmatrilj
endde!uationj
v1 nI lu6t ra :>t !u l1
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56 Cc phuong trnh nhiu dng
Hh4ng ta cJng cI thZ dUng mAi tr4@ng multline 3Z 3?nh d9ng l9i cAng
th{c trRnV

3.2 Cc ch d hin th[ cng
thc 33
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Son tho Ton trong LTEX
Cc du ngoc c uan h vi nhau theo tng di
NSy cn thzn v1 b9n phi sE dFng 3Cng cDc l2nh 3Z 3i"u chvnh 3' l/n
c0a cKp d6u ngoKc m1 giYa chCng cI mBi !uan h2 n1o 3I) NSy lem s
:hDc bi2t giYa hai cDch 3?nh d9ng sauV
B R B 5 #} v1 B RB 5 #}
trong 3I | cAng th{c th{ hai :hAng cI 30 cDc :hong trng tr4/c v1 sau
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so9n tho sw 345c nIi 3>n trong Bng `)` L Trang `r)
3.2.7 Hm s
4.6 Mi trung Ton con 55
4.6.1 Mi trung con split
MAi tr4@ng split 345c dUng 3Z ngt m't cAng th{c 345c canh ngay theo m't
ph.n n1o 3I) MAi tr4@ng n1y cung c6p hai thu'c tPnh !uan tr;ng l1m cho nI
tr| nRn hYu Pch* 3Kc bi2t :hi dUng bRn trong mAi tr4@ng align)
1 MAi tr4@ng ToDn ch{a nI chv lem c cAng th{c t9o ra b|i mAi
tr4@ng split nh4 l1 m't c>ng thc u. nh;t v1 chv 54nh s? 't lVn)
2 MAi tr4@ng split thc s l1 mAi tr4@ng aligned v/i m't c't* nI cho
ph~p ta 3?nh ngha chv m't v6 trK canh nga. c4c ct\ ^hi mAi tr4@ng split
dUng bRn trong mAi tr4@ng align th 5i8' 58 canh nga. c4c ct trong
mAi tr4@ng split 345c ch;) nhMn b|i mAi tr4@ng align v1 345c dUng
3Z canh ngay t;t c cDc cAng th{c bRn trong mAi tr4@ng align)
_1 3]y l1 m't vP dF {ng dFng trc ti>p mAi tr4@ng splitV

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54 Cc phuong trnh nhiu dng
sinleftalphabetarightfsinleftalpharight*cos
leftbetarightsinleftbetaright*cos
leftalpharight
cosleftalphabetarightfcosleftalpharight*cos
leftbetaright%sinleftalpharight*sin leftbetaright
enddgatheredj
endde!uationj
B9n hSy chC cDch 3Kt mAi tr4@ng gathered v1 aligned bRn trong mAi
tr4@ng e!uation* v1 c hai mAi tr4@ng n1y 345c canh giYa theo chi"u d;c
nh4 th> n1o) _? trP c0a cDc mAi tr4@ng con bRn trong theo chi"u d;c 345c
3i"u :hiZn b|i tham sB vertical align'ent m1 nI cI thZ nhzn cDc giD tr? sauV
cLcanh giYa* tLcanh 3"u v" phPa trRn* bLcanh 3"u v" phPa d4/i) _P dF*
chCng ta cI thZ 3?nh d9ng l9i cAng th{c &)#r 3"u v" phPa trRn nh4 sauV
* B* . f B . sin
#
B cos
#
B f \
kB* . f B .
`
sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos `
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r
hay 3"u v" phPa
d4/iV
&)#c
sin
#
B cos
#
B f \
* B* . f B . sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos `
kB* . f B .
`
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r
&)`$
hay theo m't cDch 3Kc bi2tV
* B* . f B .
kB* . f B .
`
sin
#
B cos
#
B f \
sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos `
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r
&)`\
M't hi2u {ng th4@ng dUng trong trnh diTn c0a mAi tr4@ng aligned l1
biZu th? :>t !u c0a cDc ph~p tPnh 3Gn gin* vP dFV
sin #` f sin ` `
f sin ` cos ` cos ` sin ` &)`#
f # sin ` cos `
3.2 Cc ch d hin th[ cng thc 35
CDc h1m sB cI chv sB d4/i th chv sB sw 345c 3?nh d9ng :iZu subscript
lem MFc `)#)& * vP dF nh4 trong ch> 3' displaymath ta cI
lim
sin

B
f \
B$ B
v1 trong ch> 3' in%line* b9n sw 345c limB$
sin
B
B
f \ hoKc b9n cI thZ vi>t
limB$sin BB f \)
B9n hSy so sDnh cDch 3Kt chv sB 3Bi v/i cAng th{c trRn l1 + B $-
trong ch> 3' in%line v1 ch> 3' displaymath* nI tu]n theo cDc !ui luzt 3S
nIi trong MFc `)#)& v" subscript v1 superscript)
[nh ngha tn hm mi
MKc dU A
M
S%L
,
T
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< 3S h} tr5 h.u h>t cDc h1m phQ dFng trong ToDn
h;c* nh4ng ta v8n luAn cI nhu c.u 3?nh ngha h1m m/i cho riRng mnh)
_/i gIi amsmath ta cI thZ 3?nh ngha tRn h1m m/i v/i l2nh
DeclareMathaperator) _P dF* L
,
T
E
< v1 A
M
S%L
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T
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< 3?nh ngha cDc
h1m hyperbolicV cosh* coth* sinh v1 tanh nh4ng :hAng cI sech v1
csch) B|i vzy* chCng ta sw 3?nh ngha hai h1m n1yV
DeclareMathaperatordsechjdsechj
DeclareMathaperatordcschjdcschj
HI cho ph~p so9n cAng th{c sauV
-
i
a
#
ia
Z
~- sin aB sech
#
/B tanh /B B
f
cs
ch

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#
/
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B9n hSy l gii t9i sao ta :hAng dUng l2nh teltdsechj cho vi2c so9n h1m
+sech- p
Cc ton sectiont c kch thuc In
R
CI v1i toDn tE ToDn h;c nh4 * * * ) ) ) 345c L
,
T
E
< t 3'ng 3i"u chvnh
:Pch th4/c cho phU h5p ch> 3' hiZn th?* 3Bi v/i ch> 3' in%line chCng
th4@ng 345c biZu diTn v/i :Pch th4/c nh v1 trong ch> 3' displaymath
th 345c L
,
T
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< sE dFng 0Kch thIc ln)
3
6
A
Son tho Ton trong LTEX
^hAng cI g phi nIi nhi"u v" 3i"u n1y v L
,
T
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< 3S t 3'ng 3i"u
chvnh :Pch th4/c chCng m't cDch thPch h5p* chv cI m't 3i"u l1 l1m th>
n1o 3Z t9o ra cDc chv sB nhi"u h1ng
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CAng th{c trRn 345c so9n v/i l2nh substac: nh4 sau
beginde!uationj
sumWdif\jdnj vecdkjWi sumWdif\jdnj
sumWdsubstac:def\ e ne! ijjdnj vecdfjWdiej f
sumWdif\jdnj mWi vecdajWi*
endde!uationj
3.2.8 Cc du nhn trn mt k hiu
Trong ToDn h;c* 3Z biZu diTn m't bi>n phF thu'c v1o bi>n B theo m't
ngha n1o 3I* ta cI thZ :P hi2u nI l1 B) CDc :P hi2u nh4 B* B* a * B v1
r6t nhi"u cDi :hDc nYa l1m cho cDc :P hi2u ToDn h;c vA cUng phong phC)
CDc l2nh v1 :>t !u c0a nI v" cDc d6u nh6n n1y 345c cho trong Bng
`)\) CI hai d9ng l/n hGn c0a l2nh hat v1 tilde l1 gidehat v1 gidetilde*
hai l2nh n1y theo th{ t t9o ra d6u nh6n cI 3' l/n phU h5p v/i 3' l/n
c0a bi>n sB bRn d4/i nI) _P dF

D
i*
Di
*
[ \
Di e*Dier* Di est)
D* c d d
ThRm nYa* AMS%L
,
TE< l1m r6t tBt trong vi2c chOng cDc d6u nh6n* t{c l1 ta
cI thZ t9o ra bi>n + - nh@ l2nh hatdhatdajj) NGn nYa* cDc bi>n d9ng


0
a B\ hay 345c so9n r6t tBt b|i l2nh dotdhatdljjW\ hay ddotdvecdljjW`)
B`
_ L
,
TE< sw 3i"u chvnh 3Z d6u nh6n n=m bRn trRn v1 chPnh giYa :P hi2u d4/i

nI nRn v/i l2nh dotdhatdlW\jj ta sw 345c :P hi2u +


0
-* nI :hAng 3p B\
v1 cI thZ l1m sai ngha n>u cDc d6u mJ cI m't ngha riRng n1o 3I)
3.2.9 Khong trng ung uanh cc k hiu
ThAng th4@ng* L
,
T
E
< bi>t c.n phi 3Kt m't :hong trng cI 3'
d1i bao nhiRu lung !uanh nhYng :P hi2u :hDc nhau* 345c ph]n
lo9i nh4 sauV
4.6 Mi trung Ton con 53
begindalignj
fl*y f sin l cos y cos l sin y* interteltdhoKc* b=ng v/i*j f
sinleft l y right* enddalignj
4.6 Mi trung Ton con
M>i trIYng to4n con l1 m't mAi tr4@ng ToDn m1 nI chv cI thZ 345c dUng /En
trong m't mAi tr4@ng ToDn :hDc) CDc cAng th{c 345c t9o ra b|i mAi tr4@ng
ToDn con 345c lem nh4 m't vzt m1 ta cI thZ t4|ng t45ng nh4 l1 m't +:P
hi2u ToDn l/n- hay 3Gn gin l1 m't +cDi h'p-)
CDc mAi tr4@ng align* alignat* v1 gather cI cDc mAi tr4@ng ToDn con t4Gng
{ng l1 aligned* alignedat* v1 gathered) <em l~t cDc cAng th{c sauV
* B* . f B .* g.* h f . sinh*
hB* h f log B

log B

kB* . f B .
`
*
p.* h f

.
sinh*
f B* h
f
\
h
&)#y CAng
th{c &)#y 345c t9o ra nh@ 3Kt mAi tr4@ng aligned bRn trong mAi tr4@ng e!uation)
MiZm :hDc nhau cG bn giYa s biZn diTn | trRn v1 nhYng cAng th{c n1y
so9n b=ng mAi tr4@ng align | trang o# l1 cAng th{c trRn 345c lem nh4 m't
)hI1ng trjnh u. nh;t* cI 3Kc tr4ng l1 chv 54nh s? 't lVn)
B]y gi@ b9n hSy lem l~t vP dF sauV
sin
#

B


cos
#

B

f

\
* B* . f B .
kB* . f B .
`
sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos `
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r
&)#r
CAng th{c &)#r 345c nhzp v1o nh4
sauV
beginde!uationjlabeldSub$#j
begindalignedj fl*y f
ly
phil*y flyd`j
enddalignedj !!uad begindgatheredj
sind#jleftlrightcosd#jleftlrightf\
52 Cc phuong trnh nhiu dng
4.5.2 Mi trung flalign
MAi tr4@ng flalign l1 m't d9ng c0a mAi tr4@ng align trong 3I c't th{
nh6t 345c 3y v" bRn trDi v1 c't cuBi cUng 3y v" bRn phi n>u cI thZ)
M]y l1 vP dF trRn nh4ng sE dFng mAi tr4@ng n1yV
* B* . f B .* g.* h f . sinh*
hB* h f log B

*
&)\
y
log
B

kB* . f B .
`
*
p.* h f

.
sinh*
f B*
h f
*
&)\
r
\
h
4.5.3 Mi trung alignat
M't bi>n thZ :hDc r6t linh 3'ng c0a mAi tr4@ng align l1 mAi tr4@ng
alignat) C6u trCc v1 cDch sE dFng c0a nI g.n giBng v/i mAi tr4@ng align
nh4ng phi cI chC l1 mAi tr4@ng alignat yRu c.u ng4@i dUng lDc 3?nh
sB c't c0a mAi tr4@ng n1y) So sDnh cAng th{c n1y
* B* . f B .*gB* . f log B

&)
\c
kB* . f B .
`
log B*pB* . f

log .
&)
#$
.
sinB
v/i cAng th{c
sau
* B* . f B .* gB* . f log B

*
&)
#\
kB* . f B .
`
log B*
pB* . f

log .
&)
##
.
sinB
M't {ng dFng r6t hYu Pch c0a mAi tr4@ng alignat l1 thRm v1o chC sau
cAng th{c
* B* . f B .* M]y l1 m't cAng th{c
&)#
`
kB* . f B .
`
log B
v1 3]y l1 m't cAng th{c
:hDc
&)#
&
L2nh intertelt cho ph~p ta thRm m't 3o9n vn bn v1o mAi tr4@ng ToDn
m1 nI :hAng b? sp l>p nh4 m't c't* b9n cI thZ lem vP dF sauV
* B* . f sin B cos . cos B sin .* &)#o
hoKc* b=ng v/i*
f sin B . * &)#n
v1 nI 345c nhzp v1oV
3.2 Cc ch d hin th[ cng thc 37
Bng `)\V CDc l2nh t9o d6u nh6n cho :P hi2u)
acutedaj a )))
) bardaj a ddddotdaj a
brevedaj a gravedaj a
chec:daj a hatdaj a
dotdaj a gidehatdaj a
ddotdaj a tildedaj a
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Bng `)#V _ai trx c0a d6u )
L2nh _ai trx

:P hi2u thAng
th4@ng
mid !uan h2 hai ngAi
left ngoKc bRn trDi
right ngoKc bRn phi
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2 [uan h2 hai ngAiV f* * 5* * * ) ) )
3 Ph~p toDn hai ngAiV * ~* * * * ) ) )
4 CDc d6u ngoKcV * * t* ) ) ) )
MKt :hDc* cDc :P hi2u * ~ v1 cI thZ lu6t hi2n trong nhYng tnh huBng
:hAng l1 ph~p toDn hai ngAi* vP dF * ~ cI thZ l1 ;u sign giBng nh4 ~B)
L.n nYa* L
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+ ha. ~ l 't )hT) to4n hai ng>i nnu ch<ng 5IPc 5ng trIc v theo
sau /2i 't 0K hiu ha. 't nhG' tr?ng dj -) B9n sw th6y nhi"u vP dF :hi
ta so9n cDc cAng th{c nhi"u h1ng)
^P hi2u cI bBn vai trx 345c nIi | Bng `)#) CI nhYng tr4@ng h5p m1
L
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< thRm v1o cDc :hong trng :hAng phU h5p v1 chCng ta dT d1ng nhn
th6y nhYng ch} 3I* th4@ng l1 :hong trng hGi hp* do 3I ta cI thZ yRu c.u
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^hong trng
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^hong trng nh hGn V

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^hong trng nh nh6t * negthinspace
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cAng th{c tPch ph]n m't cDch thAng th4@ng sw 345c
4.5 Canh ngay cc ct 51
fracdyd#jtsintjds!rtd\logleftfracd\jd\ s!rtdtjjrightjj
* dt rightf$labeld,lignElB\j
left psileftyt*dotdyjt* ddotdyjtright intWd%inftyjdtj
fracdyd#jtsintj ds!rtd\log left fracd\jdietatj right jj * dt
right)labeld,lignElB#j enddalignj
hoKc cJng cI thZ dUng l2nh phantom
\
theo cDch sauV
begindalignj
dotdyjt ddotdyjt
left fracdddotdyjt jd\ sint s!rtdytjj
intWd%inftyjdtjfracdyd#jtsintj ds!rtd\logleftfracd\j
d\s!rtdtjjrightjj * dt right f $
phantomddotdyjt ddotdyjt djj
left psileftyt*dotdyjt* ddotdyjtright
intWd%inftyjdtjfracdyd#jtsintj
ds!rtd\log left fracd\jdietatj right jj * dt
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begindalignj
fl*y f l y* gy*i f ysini* hl*i f log l s!rtdij*
labeld,lignEl,\j
phil*y f l yd`j* psiy*i f s!rtdysinij* ietal*i f
fracdlog l s!rtdijjd\ij*labeld,lignEl,#j enddalignj
Da v1o cC phDp c0a mAi tr4@ng align* ta th6y :P t 345c dUng v/i
tDc dFng ngn cDch cDc c't v/i nhau) B]y gi@ ta sw lem l~t nhYng vP dF
:hDc) (i sE ta muBn canh ngay cAng th{c sau
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;u ngoWc 51n nh4 sauV
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dotdyjt ddotdyjt left fracdddotdyjt jd\ sint
s!rtdytjj intWd%inftyjdtj
3.2 Cc ch d hin th[ cng thc 39
CuBi cUng* l2nh colon 345c dUng phQ bi>n trong vi2c in ra d6u + V -
c0a m't Dnh l9) H>u b9n nhzp trc ti>p fV,rightarrog B ta 345c
* V ! +
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NSy chC :hong trng trIc d6u + V - trong hai cAng th{c trRn* r r1ng
cAng th{c th{ hai tBt hGn)
3.2.10 K t v k hiu Ton hc
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tQng 3zm hGn nh@ l2nh pmb vi>t tt c0a chY )oor 'anus /ol) L2nh
pmb l1m ra cDc :P hi2u 3zm b=ng cDch d?ch chuyZn nI v" bRn phi v1
chOng lRn :P hi2u cI sn* do 3I ta cI thZ l1m :P hi2u r6t 3zm nh@ dUng
nhi"u l.n l2nh n1y nh4ng hzu !u l1 nI sw phD h0y c6u trCc c0a :P hi2u
3I)
3.2.11 Phn s tng ut
L2nh genfrac cung c6p m't cAng cF ti2n l5i 3Z t9o cDc ph]n sB cI cDc
d6u ngoKc bRn ngo1i v1 3i"u chvnh cDc :hong trng) C6u trCc c0a l2nh
n1y
4.5 Canh ngay cc ct 49
sin leftalphabetaright f sin left alpha right* cosleft beta
right sin left beta right * cos left alpha right
labeldSubTrigB\j
cos leftalphabetaright f cos left alpha right* cosleft beta
right % sin left alpha right * sin left beta right labeldSubTrigC\j
enddgatherj
enddsube!uationsj
u th> c0a mAi tr4@ng sube!uations l1 ta cI thZ 3Dnh sB cho c nhIm
cAng th{c v1 cho t7ng cAng th{c nh trong nhIm* do 3I ta cI thZ tham
chi>u 3>n t7ng cAng th{c hoKc c nhImV
CDc cAng th{c &)\$a * &)\$b v1 &)\$c l1 m't ph.n c0a
cAng th{c &)\$ )
v1 nI 345c so9n nh4 sauV
CDc cAng th{ce!refdSubTrig,\j* e!refdSubTrigB\j v1
e!refdSubTrigC\j l1 m't ph.n c0a cAng th{ce!refdSubE!El\j)
4.5 Canh ngay cc ct
Trong mFc n1y ta sw l~t cDc mAi tr4@ng m1 nI cho ph~p sp cDc ph4Gng
trnh th1nh nhiu c't)
4.5.1 Mi trung align
MAi tr4@ng align 345c dUng 3Z sp cDc ph4Gng trnh th1nh nhi"u c't) SB
c't b? h9n ch> b|i 3' r'ng c0a trang gi6y* v1 :hong trng giYa cDc c't
345c 3i"u chvnh m't cDch t 3'ng) _P dF v" mAi tr4@ng alignV
* B* . f B .* g.* h f . sinh*
hB* h f log B

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log B

kB* . f B .
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f B* h
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trong 3I 3o9n l2nh nhzp v1o l1
48 Cc phuong trnh nhiu dng
3. H>u ngt dxng ly ra bRn trong cKp d6u ngoKc 3Gn* ngoKc vuAng* ) ) )
th dxng :> ti>p phi thFt v1o phU h5p* 3I l1* nI phi bt 3.u | bRn
phi c0a d6u m| ngoKc)
4. _i2c tQ ch{c cDc cAng th{c trong cDc c't giBng nh4 cDch cDc c't
345c sp | v? trP cDc !uan h2 hay ph~p toDn hai ngAi)
5. H>u cDc c't 345c sp t9i chQ cI cDc ph~p toDn hay !uan h2 hai ngAi*
:P t phi 345c 3Kt trc ti>p | bRn trDi ph~p toDn hai ngAi 3I)
6. H>u s sp h1ng 345c l1m b|i d6u hoKc % nh4 l1 m't ph~p toDn
hai ngAi th nI phi 345c nhzp v1o nh4 sauV dj hoKc dj%)
4.4.3 nh s nhm cc cng thc
MKc dU vi2c 3Dnh sB cDc cAng th{c cI nhi"u h1ng 345c l1m t 3'ng
b|i mAi tr4@ng m1 b9n dUng* nh4ng thAng th4@ng* chCng ta cI thZ thay
3Qi phong cDch 3Dnh sB theo riRng) _P dF* !uan sDt cDch 3Dnh sB cDc
ph4Gng trnh trong mAi tr4@ng gather sauV
sin
#
B cos
#
B f \* &)c
sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos ` * &)ca
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r ) &)cb
CDch 3Dnh sB ph4Gng trnh th{ hai v1 th{ ba thu 345c nh@ sE dFng hai
l2nh tagdrefdTrig,`jaj v1 tagdrefdTrig,`jbj) ChC r=ng ta cI thZ tham
chi>u 3>n c ba ph4Gng trnh trRn b=ng cDc l2nh label v1 ref hay
e!ref* giBng nh4 + hai ph4Gng trnh &)ca v1 &)cb 345c 3Dnh sB
bRn trong ph4Gng trnh &)c)- M't cDch :hDc 3Z thay 3Qi cDch 3Dnh sB
cDc ph4Gng trnh trRn l1 dUng mAi tr4@ng sube!uations nh4 sau
sin
#
B cos
#
B f \ &)\$a
sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos ` &)\$b
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r &)\$c
begindsube!uationsj labeldSubE!El\j
begindgatherj
sind#j left l right cosd#j left l right f \
labeldSubTrig,\j
3.2 Cc ch d hin th[ cng thc 41
genfracdldelimjdrdelimjdthic:jdstylejdnumjddenj
trong 3I
IdeIim d6u ngoKc bRn trDi c0a ph]n sB
rdeIim d6u ngoKc bRn phi c0a ph]n sB
thick 3' d1y c0a :P hi2u ph]n sB
styIe the math style of fraction
num tE sB
den m8u sB)
MZ dUng l2nh n1y dT hGn ta hSy 3?nh ngha cDc l2nh sau | 3.u t1i li2u
negcommanddpfracjt#udgenfracdjdjdjdjd\jd#jj
negcommanddbfracjt#udgenfracdtjdujdjdjd\jd#jj
negcommanddvfracjt#udgenfracdjdjdjdjd\jd#jj
v1 hSy so sDnh hai ph]n sB cI hai d6u ngoKc sau* m't so9n v/i l2nh
genfrac v1 m't so9n theo cDch thAng th4@ng
a

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q r1ng ph]n sB th{ nh6t cI cDc :hong trng 345c sp tBt hGn)
Chuong 4
CC PHUONG TRNH NHIU
DNG
4.1 Biu din cng thc Ton trn nhiu dng
MZ ci thi2n s sDng s0a v1 dT 3;c c0a m't b1i vi>t cI nhi"u cAng th{c*
th4@ng ng4@i ta 3Kt cDc cAng th{c hay ph4Gng trnh lRn nhi"u dxng)
CDc t1i li2u ng1y nay th4@ng 345c chia th1nh nhi"u ch0 3"* :>t h5p v/i
biZu diTn cDc cAng th{c trRn nhi"u h1ng)
M't cDch t nhiRn* mFc 3Pch c0a vi2c tQ ch{c cDc cAng th{c th1nh
nhi"u h1ng l1 3Z ng4@i 3;c dT ti>p czn nI) _ lP do 3I* cDc cAng th{c
nhi"u h1ng 345c s) nga. theo ct* cI thZ m't hay nhi"u c't) (ratier
3" ngh? t9o ra m't mAi tr4@ng ToDn cho ph~p ng4@i sE dFng 3?nh d9ng
cDc cAng th{c trRn nhi"u h1ng da v1o hai tham sB sauV
1 v6nh ng ct* :hi 3I cDc cAng th{c 345c canh trDi canh phi
hay canh giYa)
2 ^anh l ct* trong 3I s sp l>p cDc cAng th{c 345c thi>t lzp
b|i tham sB do ng4@i dUng chv 3?nh)
4.2 Gp nhm cc cng thc
MAi tr4@ng gather l1 m't trong nhYng mAi tr4@ng cI thZ hiZn th? nhG' cDc
cAng th{c m1 m}i cAng th{c n=m trRn 't hng riEng /it) HhYng cAng
4.4 Vi nguyn tc co bn 47
1 M't :P t v1 m't l2nh hoKc
2 ^P t cuBi cUng v1 :>t thCc cAng th{c)
Trong mAi tr4@ng canh l"* :P t 345c dUng 3Z ngn cDch cDc c't* b9n
c.n nh/ nhYng nguyRn tc sau :hi dUng cDc mAi tr4@ng lo9i n1y 3Z t9o
ra cDc cAng th{c conV
1. M}i cAng th{c con 3"u phi l1 m't cAng th{c ho1n chvnh m1
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2. H>u m't cAng th{c con :>t thCc v/i m't trong cDc ph~p toDn hai
ngAi nh4 hay ~* chCng ta phi nhzp v1o dj hay %dj* theo th{ t ta
thu 345c :hong trng thPch h5p giYa cAng th{c con v1 :P hi2u 3I
3. H>u m't cAng th{c con bt 3.u v/i m't trong cDc ph~p toDn hai
ngAi nh4 hay ~* chCng ta phi nhzp v1o dj hay dj%* theo th{ t ta
thu 345c :hong trng thPch h5p giYa :P hi2u 3I v1 cAng th{c con)
4.4.2 Ngt dng v sp theo ct cc cng thc
D4@ng nh4 3]y l1 m't v;n 5 3Bi v/i s| thPch v1 phong cDch riRng c0a m}i
cD nh]n* thc t>* phi cI m't s ch6p nhzn cDc nguyRn tc in 6n 3ang 345c
sE dFng 3Z !uy>t 3?nh ngt dxng cDc cAng th{c d1i :hi n1o v1 t9i 3]u* cJng
nh4 sp l>p theo c't cDc ph.n c0a m't cAng th{c nhi"u h1ng nh4 th> n1o)
(eorge (ratier* tDc gi chPnh c0a sDch +Math into L
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<-* cUng v/i Ellen
Sganson* ,rlene ,) aSean* v1 ,ntoinette Tingley Schleyer ,merican
Mathematical Society* Providence* qm* \ccc !uy>t 3?nh lu6t bn sDch h4/ng
d8n v/i ta 3" +Mathematics into Type-* nh4 l1 m't s gi/i thi2u l1m cDch
n1o 3Z 3?nh d9ng cDc cAng th{c cI nhi"u h1ng) Ph.n nhi"u trong sDch ch?u
nh h4|ng b|i phong cDch riRng c0a h;* 3]y l1 m't v1i nguyRn tc cG bn
m1 h; nIi 3>n trong sDchV
1. CAng th{c phi 345c ngt dxng tr4/c ph~p toDn hai ngAi nh4
hay ~)
2. H>u d6u ngt ly ra tr4/c d6u * ~ th | dxng :> ti>p ta phi bt
3.u v/i dj hay dj%)
46 Cc phuong trnh nhiu dng
bRn trDi h1ng 3.u tiRn) Ta cI thZ :hAng 3Dnh sB nI v/i l2nh
notag) MAi tr4@ng multline t9o ra cAng th{c nhi"u h1ng :hAng
3Dnh sB t 3'ng nh4ng v8n cI thZ dUng l2nh tag) B9n nh/ r=ng
:hi dUng mAi tr4@ng n1y th c cAng th{c chv 345c 3Dnh sB m't
l.n hoKc :hAng cI 3Dnh sB)
4.4 Vi nguyn tc co bn
Sau 3]y l1 nhYng nguyRn tc cG bn 3Z so9n cDc cAng th{c ToDn nhi"u
h1ngV
1. <uBng h1ng b|i l2nh v1 :hAng dUng l2nh n1y :hi :>t thCc h1ng
cuBi cUng
2. ^hAng 345c ph~p cI h1ng trng bRn trong cDc mAi tr4@ng n1y
3. H>u m't '>i trIYng cI ch{a nhi"u hGn m't cAng th{c th cDc
cAng th{c 345c 3Dnh sB song song) MDnh sB t 3'ng cI thZ lo9i
b b|i l2nh notag hay tag)
4. L2nh label hay tag luAn 3Kt tr4/c l2nh
5. M}i '>i trIYng son c>ng thc trEn nhiu hng 3"u cI t4Gng {ng
m't mAi tr4@ng d9ng + - m1 v/i nI cDc cAng th{c :hAng 345c
3Dnh sB t 3'ng mKc dU l2nh tag v8n cI hi2u lc)
4.4.1 Cng thc con
_/i m't cAng th{c d1i 345c ngt th1nh nhi"u h1ng b|i mAi tr4@ng multline*
ta g;i m}i h1ng nh l1 m't c>ng thc con subformula v1 chCng cJng cI thZ
345c tham chi>u 3>n nh4 l1 m't cAng th{c) Trong cDc mAi tr4@ng :hDc th
3?nh ngha c0a cAng th{c con cI thay 3Qi 3Ai chCt) _P dF* trong cDc '>i
trIYng canh l * mAi tr4@ng m1 trong nI cDc h1ng :hDc nhau c0a cAng th{c
345c tQ ch{c ngay ngn trong nhYng c't* cAng th{c con l1
1 B6t c{ ph.n n1o c0a cAng th{c m1 nI n=m giYa v? trP bt 3.u
v1 :P t 3.u tiRn hoKc
2 H=m giYa hai :P t hoKc
4.2 Gp nhm cc cng thc 43
th{c n1y sw lu6t hi2n trRn nhYng h1ng song song v1 345c canh giYa)
_P dF* b9n hSy lem cDc h2 th{c l45ng giDc cG bn sauV
sin
#
B cos
#
B f \* &)\
sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos ` * &)#
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r ) &)`
CDc cAng th{c trRn 345c t9o ra b|i 3o9n sauV
begindgatherj
sind#jleftlrightcosd#jleftlrightf\*
labeldTrig,\j
sinleftalphabetarightfsinleftalpharight*cos
leftbetarightsinleftbetaright*cosleftalpha
rightlabeldTrigB\j
cosleftalphabetarightfcosleftalpharight*cos
leftbetaright%sinleftalpharight*sinleftbeta
right)labeldTrigC\j
enddgatherj
ChCng ta !uan t]m 3>n sX 0h4c nhau giYa mAi tr4@ng gather v1 mAi
tr4@ng e!uation m1 cDc cAng th{c d4/i 3]y dUngV
sin
#
B cos
#
B f \ &)&
sin ` r f sin ` cos r sin r cos ` &)o
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r &)n
q r1ng :hong trng d;c giYa cDc cAng th{c &)&* &)o v1 &)n l1 0h>ng
5u* v1 do 3I trong tr4@ng h5p n1y mAi tr4@ng gather tha mSn t?t hGn yRu
c.u c0a ta) TAi cI v1i chC cho b9n v" vi2c sE dFng mAi tr4@ng gatherV
1 CDc cAng th{c riRng bi2t 345c luBng h1ng b|i l2nh
2 CAng th{c cuBi cUng trong mAi tr4@ng n1y :hAng bao gi@ cI
l2nh
3 M}i h1ng 345c 3Dnh sB t 3'ng tr7 :hi cI l2nh tag hoKc
notag trIc l2nh
4 HhSn c0a m}i cAng th{c phi 3Kt tr4/c l2nh
44 Cc phuong trnh nhiu dng
^hAng 345c ph~p cI m't h1ng trng trong mAi tr4@ng n1y)
H>u muBn t;t c cDc cAng th{c bRn trong gather 3"u 0h>ng 5IPc 54nh
s?* chCng ta cI thZ dUng mAi tr4@ng gather m1 cDc cAng th{c trong
mAi tr4@ng n1y cI thZ 345c 3Dnh sB v/i l2nh tag) SE dFng mAi tr4@ng
gather* cAng th{c trRn 345c so9n l9i nh4 sauV
sin
#
B cos
#
B f \ TrigmD sin ` r f sin
` cos r sin r cos `
cos ` r f cos ` cos r ~ sin ` sin r
_/i l2nh label theo sau l2nh tag ta cI thZ tham chi>u 3>n cDc cAng th{c cI
3Kt l2nh tag) _P dF tAi cI thZ nhc l9i cAng th{c TrigmD b=ng l2nh
e!ref)
ChC r=ng* mAi tr4@ng gather chv ch{a cDc +onewline *or'ula- :hAng
cI ngha l1 m}i cAng th{c :hAng thZ biZu th? trRn nhi"u h1ng) Mi"u n1y
cI ngha l1 m}i cAng th{c chv 54nh s? 't lVn)
4.3 Ngt dng cc cng thc di
MAi tr4@ng multline l1 mAi tr4@ng cho ph~p ngt dxng cDc cAng th{c
!uD d1i) ChC 3.u tiRn l1 b9n phi ph]n bi2t 3]y l1 mAi tr4@ng multline
ch{ :hAng phi l1 multiline multi%line) CDch sE dFng c0a mAi tr4@ng
n1y :hAng giBng nh4 mAi tr4@ng gather)
B9n hSy lem l~t vP dF sauV
B . h
#
B ~ .
&
B ~ h
#
f B
r
~ # B
y
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m1 nI 345c nhzp v1o nh4 sauV
beginde!uationj
l y i# * l % y& * l % i# flr % #*ly*y % ln*y# &*lo*y`
% l&*y& % #*l`*yo l#*yn % #*ln*y*i n*lo*y#*i %
&*l&*y`*i%&*l`*y&*i n*l#*yo*i % #*l*yn*i % #*ln*i#
n*lo*y*i# % `*l&*y#*i# % r*l`*y`*i# \#*l#*y&*i# %
n*l*yo*i# yn*i# #*l&*y*i` % r*l`*y#*i`
\#*l#*y`*i` % r*l*y&*i` #*yo*i` l&*i& %
4.3 Ngt dng cc cng thc di 45
&*l`*y*i& n*l#*y#*i& % &*l*y`*i& y&*i&) endde!uationj
q r1ng cAng th{c trRn !uD d1i 3>n n}i :hAng thZ trnh b1y trRn m't h1ng m1 phi ngt ra th1nh
t7ng h1ng ngn hGn* giBng nh4 sauV
B . h
#
B ~ .
&
B ~ h
#
f B
r
~ # B
y
. ~ B
n
.
#
& B
o
.
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&
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&
1 # B
`
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#
.
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~ # B
n
. h n B
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.
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h ~ & B
&
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h
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#
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h ~ # B .
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#
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1+ # B
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) &)r
begindmultlinejlabeldMulLnEl\j
l y i# * l % y& * l % i# flr % #*ly*y % ln*y# &*lo*y` % l&*y&
1- #*l`*yo l#*yn %#*ln*y*i n*lo*y#*i
2- &*l&*y`*i%&*l`*y&*i n*l#*yo*i
3- #*l*yn*i % #*ln*i# n*lo*y*i#
4- `*l&*y#*i# % r*l`*y`*i# \#*l#*y&*i#
5- n*l*yo*i# yn*i#
1+ #*l&*y*i` % r*l`*y#*i` \#*l#*y`*i` % r*l*y&*i`
2+ #*yo*i` l&*i& % &*l`*y*i& n*l#*y#*i& % &*l*y`*i& y&*i&)
enddmultlinej
CDc chC v" mAi tr4@ng multlineV
1 HGi tBt nh6t 3Z 3Kt l2nh label l1 ngay sau l2nh begindmultlinej
2 Hgt dxng b=ng l2nh * dxng cuBi :hAng dUng l2nh
3 [uan sDt cAng th{c &)r ta th6y h1ng 3.u tiRn 345c canh trDi* h1ng cuBi cUng 345c canh
phi v1 cDc h1ng cxn l9i 345c canh giYa
4 CAng th{c luAn 345c 3Dnh sB t 3'ng tr7 :hi cI l2nh tag hay notag v1 sB th{ t
345c 3Kt | bRn phi c0a h1ng cuBi cUng hay