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Time is the essence of all construction projects and contracts often have clauses outlining
awards (bonus payment) of penalties (as liquidity damages) for completing a work ahead or
latter than a scheduled date. There effort is made in every project to ensure timely
completion of works and several reasonable well-established techniques are available and
commonly used for time planning/management /scheduling activities.
e.g., CPM, (critical path method), PERT (Program evaluation and review technique), PNA,
LOB, LPC etc
Project time management includes the processes required to accomplish the timely
completion of the project
Time Management processes, are as follows:
1 Plan Schedule Managementthe process of establishing the policies, procedures, and
documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project
2 Define ActivitiesThe process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be
performed to produce the project deliverables.
3 Sequence ActivitiesThe process of identifying and documenting relationships among
the project activities.
4 Estimate Activity ResourcesThe process of estimating the type and quantities of
material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.
5 Estimate Activity DurationsThe process of estimating the number of work periods
needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
6 Develop ScheduleThe process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource
requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.
7 Control ScheduleThe process of monitoring the status of project activities to update
project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan

Project planning is the process of identifying all the activities necessary to successfully
complete the project. Project scheduling is the process of determining the sequential order
of the planned activities, assigning realistic durations to each activity, and determining the
start and finish dates for each activity.
Thus, project planning is a prerequisite to project scheduling because there is no way to
determine the sequence or start and finish dates of activities until they are identified.

Plan Schedule Management
Plan Schedule Management is the process of establishing the policies, procedures, and
documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project
schedule. The schedule management plan is a subsidiary plan of, and integrated with, the
project management plan. identifies a scheduling method and scheduling tool and sets the
format and establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule. The
schedule management plan is a component of the project management plan. The schedule
management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon
the needs of the project.
1. The project management plan contains information used to develop the schedule
management plan which includes project scope statement and the work breakdown
structure (WBS) details used for defining activities, duration estimation, and
schedule management.
2. The project charter defines the summary milestone schedule and project approval
requirements that will influence the management of the project schedule.
3. Enterprise Environmental Factors i.e., Organizational culture and structure,
Resource availability and skills, Project management software, published
commercial information, such as resource productivity information and
Organizational work authorization systems all these influence project schedule.
4. The organizational process assets i.e., Monitoring and reporting tools, Schedule
control tools, Risk control procedures etc
Tools and Techniques:
1. Expert Judgment guided by historical information, provides valuable insight about
the environment and information from prior similar projects.
2. Analytical Techniques
3. Meetings by Project teams to develop the schedule management plan.

Schedule Management Plan. A component of the project management plan that establishes
the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.

Activity Definition
IT is identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed to produce
the various project derivable and subderivables identified in the WBS.
Work Breakdown structure
Scope statement
Historical information
Expert judgment
Tools and Techniques:
Outputs from Activity Definition
1. Activity list
2. Supporting detail
3. Work breakdown structure update

Activity Sequencing
Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the
project activities. The key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of
work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints.

Activity list ,Product description ,Mandatory dependencies Discretionary dependencies
External dependencies Milestones
Tools and Techniques:
Precedence diagramming method (PDM) ,Arrow diagramming method (ADM)
Conditional diagramming methods,Network templates.
Outputs from Activity Sequencing
1. Project network diagrams 2. Activity list updates

Activity Resource Estimating
Estimate Activity Resources is the process of estimating the type and quantities of material,
human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.
Schedule management plan, Activity list, activity attributes, Resource calendars, Risk
register, Activity cost estimates, Enterprise environment factorrs,organizatonal process
1. Activity resource requirements
2. Resource breakdown structure
3. Project documents update

Activity Duration Estimating
Estimate Activity Durations is the process of estimating the number of work periods needed
to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
Inputs to Activity Duration Estimating
1.Activity list 2. Constraints 3. Assumptions 4. Resource requirements
5. Resource capabilities 6. Historical information 7. Identified risks
Tools and Techniques:
1.Expert judgment 2. Analogous estimating 3. Quantitatively based durations
4. Reserve time (contingency)
Outputs from Activity Duration Estimating:
1. Activity duration estimates 2. Basis of estimates 3. Activity list updates

Activity Durations
Activity duration is forecasted by any of the several means, including:
(1) Check Past Records.
(2) Check Standards and / or cost guides, if available.
(3) Ask the workers, who will do it
(4) Make an educated guess
Any time units may be allotted to activity durations like days, hours, weeks, months,
shifts, etc.
In CPM, a single duration is forecasted for an activity.
In PERT (Program Evaluation & Review Techniques), 3 durations are forecasted for
an activity and mean taken by weighted average method. Then, Projects Duration or
any Event Completion Time is calculated by probability distribution.

Develop Schedule
Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource
requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.
1.Project network diagrams 2. Activity duration estimates 3. Resource requirements
4.Resource poll description 5. Calendars 6. Constraints 7. Assumptions
8.Leads and lags 9. Risk management plan 10. Activity attribute

Tools and Techniques:
1.Mathematical analysis
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
2.Duration compression 3. Simulation 4. Resource leveling heuristics
5.Project management software 6. Coding structure

Outputs from Schedule Development:
2. Project Schedule
Project network diagrams with date information added
Bar Charts or Gantt chart
Milestone charts
3. Supporting detail
4. Schedule management plan
5. Resource requirement updates

CPM Calculations
Calculates the following for each activity
EST = Earliest Starting Time
EFT = Earliest Finishing Time
LST = Latest Starting Time
LFT = Latest Finishing Time
TF = Total Float
FF = Free Float
Total Float is Maximum time for which an activity can be delayed without
delaying the project.
Free Float is maximum time for which an activity can be delayed without delaying
the start of proceeding activity.
Total Float = Free Float + Interfering Float
Critical Path:
The path (or paths) in the network diagram, from start to finish, on which all the
activities have zero total and free floats, is called Critical Path.
It is the longest path (or paths) from start to finish in a net work diagram.
It gives minimum normal time to complete a project.
It is usually marked by double lined arrows in a network diagram.

Activity Code Operation Dependence Est. Dur.
ENA Earthworks, north abutment - 5
ESA Earthworks, south abutment ENA 4
CONN Construction, north abutment ENA 14
CONS Construction, south abutment ESA, CONN 12
COMN Compaction, north abutment CONN 2
CIMS Compaction, south abutment CONS,COMN 2
RNB Road, north of bridge COMN 2
RSB Road, south of bridge RNB,COMS 2
PB Prefabricate bridge deck - 18
TD Transport deck to site PB 2
EB Erect bridge deck TD,CONN,
LBS Lay bridge surface EB,RNB,RSB 2
ICB Install crash barriers etc. EB 1
L Landscape RNB, RSB 1

Control Schedule
Control Schedule is the process of monitoring the status of project activities to update
project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.

1.Project schedule 2. Performance reports 3. Change requests 4.Schedule management

Tools and Techniques:
1.Schedule change control system 2. Performance measurement 3. Additional planning
4.Project management software 5. Variance analysis

1. Schedule updates
2. Corrective action
3. Lessons learned


Quality has widely been recognized as a distinctive competency than can be
used by business to increase profitability and market share.

Quality is nothing but satisfaction with the appearance ,performance, and
reliability of the project for a given price range.

Construction Quality:

It is the quality of material being used in construction, the quality of
workmanship with the fulfillment of the end users ultimate requirements. In construction
industry quality is assumed to be sticking to specification which is a part of contract signed
by a contractor and sticking to specification is the contractual obligation.
In the context of quality ,specification and the contract drawing play the most important role
and it would be virtually impossible to achieve the desired quality if the specifications and
the drawings for a project are unclear and confusing. These documents should clarify:
1. The material to be used
2. The manufacturers
3. Guidelines for ensuring quality of materials at the time of purchase
4. The work method
5. The tools and equipments to be used and
6. The information on line an levels etc.
According to (ISO),quality is an inherent characteristic. Some of these characteristics are
obtained from the stated,implied,or obligatory needs.
e.g, The 28 days compressive strength of a concrete slab is 210 kg/m.In this case strength
becomes one of the quality characteristics for concrete slab and is not restricted to products
such as concrete slab, but can be extended to include the porcess of construciton,
person,machinery,the company as a whole etc.Each of entity can have different quality

Total Quality:
Total quality in construction industry is defined as measurable process of
continuous improvement that is focused on the needs and expectations of the customer.

Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing
organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the
project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. Project Quality Management
addresses the management of the project and the deliverables of the project. The project
management team should determine the appropriate levels of accuracy and precision for
use in the quality management plan. The basic approach to project quality management as
described in this section is intended to be compatible with International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) quality standards. Every project should have a quality management
the Project Quality Management processes include:
1 Plan Quality ManagementThe process of identifying quality requirements and/or
standards for the project and its deliverables and documenting how the project will
demonstrate compliance with quality requirements. The key benefit of this process is that it
provides guidance and direction on how quality will be managed and validated throughout
the project.
2 Perform Quality AssuranceThe process of auditing the quality requirements and the
results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and
operational definitions are used. The key benefit of this process is that it facilitates the
improvement of quality processes. Perform Quality Assurance also provides an umbrella for
continuous process improvement, which is an iterative means for improving the quality of all
processes. Continuous process improvement reduces waste and eliminates activities that
do not add value. This allows processes to operate at increased levels of efficiency and
3 Control QualityThe process of monitoring and recording results of executing the
quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. The key
benefits of this process include: (1) identifying the causes of poor process or product quality
and recommending and/or taking action to eliminate them; and (2) validating that project
deliverables and work meet the requirements specified by key stakeholders necessary for
final acceptance.
The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of theses processes are shown in the figure:

Quality in construction project

Factors affecting Construction quality are:
1. Non availability of clear set of design and drawing.
2. When porject specifications are ambiguous and not clear.
3. Non existance of clearly defined quality control methodology.
4. Usage of unsuitable material,improper machinery,equipments,tools and poor
workmanchip during project execution stage.
Activities such as measuring,examining,testing and guaging one or more
characteristics of a product or service and comparing this with specified
Levels of inspection:
1. At the time of receiving the raw materials,parts,assemblies and other purchsed items
2. At the time of processing and
3. Final inspection prior to acceptance of product.
Tools and Techniques used:
Depends upon nature of the project, for example in highway
construction the compaction of earth fill is checked by FDT tools, levels are checked by
dumpy levels, electronic survey instruments and suitability of material is checked by various
equipments for which a laboratory is established at the start of project. The process of
inspection is undertaken in a structured way using checklists.

Quality control
According to ISO,quality control is defined as s set of activities or
techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all quality requirements are being met.Thus
quality control describes those actions that provide the means to control and measure the
characteristics of an item,process,or facility against the established requirements.
Essentials of a quality control programme:
1. Defining quality standards Definitions and procedures for the measurement of
attainment of the standards.
2. Execution of the procedures to determine probable attainment of non-attainment of
the standards.
3. The power to enforce and maintain the defined standards as measured according to
the defined procedure.
Quality control is administered by the contractors or by the specialist consultants such as
consulting engineers or testing laboratories
Three major quality control methods commonly used on construction projects are:
1- Inspection 2-Testing 3-Sampling.

Quality Assurance
According to ISO, quality assurance is defined as a set of activities
whose purpose is to demonstrate that an entity (product, processes, person, department
and organization) meets all quality requirements.
In constrution, quality assurance activities include all those planned and systematic
administrative and surveillance functions initiated by project owner or regulatory agents to
enforce and certify, with adequate confidence, compliance with established project quality
standards to ensure that the completed structure and/or its components will fulfill the
desired purposes efficiently, effectively and economically.
QA is a construction management process where as QC is a sampling or inspection
process. The focus on QA is on defect prevention, while the focus in quality control is on
defect detection once the item is constructed .It can be said that QC is an element of QA
Total quality management

TQM management philosophy focuses on continuously improving the process that makes
the product, rather than attempting to inspect or test the product to achieve quality. Much of
the TQM concept is attributed to the teachings of Drs. W. Edward Deming and Joseph M.
Juran, who, with other experts from the United States, assisted the Japanese in improving
the quality of their products beginning in the early 1950s. Dr. Deming published a book
entitled Out of the Crisis, which defines 14 points or steps to achieve quality.
I. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service. This includes
both immediate solutions to today's problems and long-range planning for the future.
2. Adopt the new philosophy. This charge is not only to the management and work force of
the company, but encompasses the responsibilities of government as well.
3. Cease dependence on mass inspection to achieve quality. The problem is not with the
defective products found during inspection, but in the system that created them.
4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Instead, minimize
total cost by working with a single supplier.
5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service. Quality must be
built in at the design stage.
6. Institute training on the job. Ensure everyone understands their job and has the training
do it.
7. Adopt and institute leadership. The job of management is not supervision, but leadership.
8. Drive out fear. People do their best work when they feel secure. Encourage contributions
from everyone to improve the system.
9. Break down barriers between staff areas. Instead of optimizing the efforts of individual
departments, the effort should be made to develop a team approach for the good of the
10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force. Such devices cultivate
resentment when there are flaws in the system hampering optimum performance.
11. Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force and numerical goals for the
management. Quotas either breed a sense of failure when they are not met or stifle
incentive if they are met too easily.
12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. Eliminate the annual rating or
merit system.
13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. Allow
people to improve themselves and broaden their knowledge with continuing education
14. Take action to accomplish the transformation. The best made plans for improving the
systems are worthless unless they are put into action.
Essential element of TQM:
Management commitment and leadership
Statistical methods
Cost of quality
Supplier involvement

Quality tools and techniques:

After World War II the Japanese adopted 'quality' as a philosophy for economic recovery
and, in line with this traditional approach, sought seven tools to accomplish the economic
rejuvenation. The seven tools chosen were:
Cause and Effect Diagrams
Check Sheets
Pareto Diagrams
Control Charts
Scatter Diagrams

The seven tools:


The process involved with identifying, analyzing, and responding to risk. It includes
maximizing the results of positive risks and minimizing the consequences of negative
Why Risk management:
Project problems can be reduced as much as 90% by using risk analysis
More info available during planning
Improved probability of success/optimum project
Belief that all risks are accounted for
Project cut due to risk level
o The possibility that an outcome is not achieved or is replaced by another, or
that an unforeseen event occurs.
o This broad view of risk includes both uncertainty due to future events and the
consequences of limited knowledge, information or experience.
It, measures in terms of consequences and likelihoods
Risk Tolerance The amount of acceptable risk
Risk Adverse Someone that does not want to take risks
Risk Factors
Probability of occurrence
Range of possible outcomes (impact or amount at stake
Expected Timing of event
Anticipated frequency of risk events from that source

Types of Risk:
Acts of GOD: Flood, Earthquake, Landslide, Fire, Wind, damage
Physical: Damage to structure, Damage to equipment, Labor injuries, Fire, Theft
Financial & Economic: Inflation, Availability of funds, Exchange rate
fluctuations, financial default
Political & Environmental: Changes in laws and regulations, Requirement for permits
Law & order, Pollution and safety rules
Design: Incomplete design scope, Defective design, Errors & omissions, inadequate
Construction Related: Labor disputes, Labor productivity, Different site conditions
Design changes, Equipment failure

How Do We Manage Risk?
Plan Risk Management
Identify Risks
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
Plan Risk Responses
Monitor and Control Risks

Risk Management Life Cycle

Identify Risks

Risk Management Plan
Activity Cost Estimates
Activity Duration Estimates
Scope Baseline
Stakeholder Register
Cost Management Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Quality Management Plan
Project Documents
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets

Tools and Techniques:
Documentation Reviews
Information Gathering Techniques
Checklist Analysis
Assumption Analysis
Diagramming Techniques
SWOT Analysis
Expert Judgment

Outputs: Risk Register

The analysis begins with listing the risks that might affect each key element of
the project.
The aim is to generate a comprehensive list of the relevant risks and
document what each one involves.
The analysis should include a description of the risk and how it might arise,
possible initiating factors, the main assumptions and a list of the principal
sources of information.
There are several ways to identify risks:
Risk checklists provide a useful starting point for some projects.
Agencies carrying out many similar projects can construct their own
checklists based on their experience or project databases, or
Draw on information from specialist industry, research, insurance, or
management expertise.

Examining similar current or previous projects, risk analyses or project
Brainstorming or work shopping may be valuable for projects involving new
or unusual risks, innovative management arrangements or to develop initial
Risk Management teams comprising multi-disciplinary backgrounds are well
suited to this phase.
They can be supported by the many specialist techniques applicable to
particular kinds of projects or risks.
For example, hazard analysis may be directed to specific safety issues or
complex environmental applications, while failure modes analysis can be
used for examining risks in technical systems

Qualitative Risk Analysis
Risk Register
Risk Management Plan
Project Scope Statement
Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques:
Risk probability and impact statement
Probability and impact matrix
Risk data quality assessment
Risk categorization
Risk urgency assessment
Expert Judgment
Risk Register Updates

Probability and Impact Matrix

Probability Scale & Impact Scale

Impact Scale

Consequence Health and Safety
Extreme Fatality or multiple fatalities expected
High Severe injury or disability likely; or some potential for
Moderate Lost time or injury likely; or some potential for serious
injuries; or small risk of fatality
Low First aid required; or small risk of serious injury
Negligible No concern

Probability Scale

Risk Register Update:
Probability and Impact Matrix results
Perform quality check on results
Categorize the risks to make them easier to handle
Perform urgency assessment to determine which risk need immediate

Likelihood Class

Likelihood of Occurrence (events/year)

Not Likely (NL)

Fatality or multiple fatalities expected
Low (L)

<0.01% chance of occurrence
Moderate (M)

0.01 - 0.1% chance of occurrence

High (H)

1 - 10% chance of occurrence

Expected (E)

>10% chance of occurrence

Perform Quantitative Risk

Risk Register
Risk Management Plan
Cost Management Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Organizational Process Assets

Tools & Techniques:
Data gathering and representation techniques
Quantitative risk analysis and modeling
Expert Judgment

Risk Register Updates

Quantitative Risk Analysis:
Analyze numerically the probability and consequence of each risk
Monte Carlo analysis popular
Decision Tree analysis on test
Diagram that describes a decision and probabilities associated
with the choices
Expected Monetary Value Analysis (EMV)

Plan Risk Responses

Risk Register
Risk Management Plan
Tools & Techniques:
Strategies for negative risks or threats
Strategies for positive risks or opportunities
Contingent response strategy
Expert Judgment
Risk Register Updates
Risk-related Contract Decisions
Project Management Plan Updates

There are four broad strategies for dealing with risks and their consequences:

1. Risk prevention
2. Impact mitigation
3. Risk transfer
4. Risk acceptance

Risk prevention is directed to eliminating sources of risk or
substantially reducing the likelihood of loss from their occurrence.
Examples include the selection of alternative proposals, design and
engineering changes,
quality assurance procedures,
asset utilization studies,
operations reviews,
Regular audits and checks and preventive maintenance.


Impact mitigation is directed to minimizing the consequences of risks.
Some risks, such as those associated with market variations or
weather, cannot be avoided.
Risk Management must then be directed to coping with their impacts.
Impact mitigation measures include contingency planning,
contract terms and conditions,
Inspections and checks to detect technical compliance or security
And recovery programs


Risk transfer shifts responsibility for a risk from the agency to another
party, who ultimately bears the consequences if the risk arises.
The agency will normally incur a cost for the other party assuming the
Insurance is a well-known risk transfer strategy for physical and other
assets and activities and for a limited range of commercial risks.
In procurement, contracts and agreed procedures entered into
between an agency and its contractors or suppliers are the primary
means of allocating risk between the parties involved
The specific terms of a contract also provide a means of transferring
The aim is to place or neutralize significant sources of risk via
contractual measures between the agency, the prime contractor and
insurance providers.
. The specific terms of a contract also provide a means of transferring
The aim is to place or neutralize significant sources of risk via
contractual measures between the agency, the prime contractor and
insurance providers.


Risk acceptance occurs when risks cannot be avoided or transferred,
or the costs of doing so would not be worthwhile.
Risks must then be accepted.
Impact mitigation measures and monitoring may be appropriate and
should be recommended in these circumstances.

Monitor and Control Risks

Risk Register
Project Management Plan
Work Performance Information
Performance Reports

Tools & Techniques
Risk reassessment
Risk audits
Variance and trend analysis
Technical performance measurement
Reserve analysis
Status meetings

Risk Register Updates
Organizational Process Assets
Change Requests
Project Management Plan Updates
Project Document Updates


Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that
organize, manage, and lead the project team. The project team is comprised of
the people with assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project

The Importance of Human Resource Management:
Many corporate executives have said, People are our most important asset
People determine the success and failure of organizations and projects

What is Project Human Resource Management?

Making the most effective use of the people involved with a project
Processes include:

1. Human resource planning: identifying and documenting project roles,
responsibilities, and reporting relationships

2. Acquiring the project team: getting the needed personnel assigned
to and working on the project

3. Developing the project team: building individual and group skills to
enhance project performance

4. Managing the project team: tracking team member performance,
motivating team members, providing timely feedback, resolving issues
and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project

Managing and leading the project team includes:
Influencing the project team:
The project manager needs to be aware of and
influence, when possible, human resource factors that may impact the project. These
factors includes team environment, geographical locations of team members,
communications among stakeholders, internal and external politics, cultural issues,
organizational uniqueness, and others factors that may alter project performance

Professional and ethical behavior.
The project management team should be aware of,
subscribe to, and ensure that all team members follow professional and ethical

Project Human Resource Management Summary

Human Resource Planning

Involves identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and
reporting relationships Outputs include:
Project organizational charts
Staffing management plan
Responsibility assignment matrixes
Resource histograms

Sample Organizational Chart for a Large IT Project

Responsibility Assignment Matrices

A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a matrix that maps the work of
the project as described in the WBS to the people responsible for
performing the work as described in the OBS
Can be created in different ways to meet unique project needs

Sample Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

RAM Showing Stakeholder Roles

Staffing Management Plans and Resource Histograms:

A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be
added to and taken off the project team
A resource histogram is a column chart that shows the number of
resources assigned to a project over time

: Sample Resource Histogram

Acquiring the Project Team:
Acquiring qualified people for teams is crucial
The project manager who is the smartest person on the team has
done a poor job of recruiting!
Its important to assign the appropriate type and number of people
to work on projects at the appropriate times

Factors considered during the process of acquiring the project team

The project manager or project management team should
effectively negotiate and influence others who are in a position to
provide the required human resources for the project.
Failure to acquire the necessary human resources for the project
may affect project schedules, budgets, customer satisfaction,
quality, and risks. Insufficient human resources or capabilities
decrease the probability of success and, in a worst case scenario,
could result in project cancellation.
If the human resources are not available due to constraints, such
as economic factors or previous assignments to other projects, the
project manager or project team may be required to assign
alternative resources, perhaps with lower competencies, provided
there is no violation of legal, regulatory, mandatory, or other
specific criteria.

Developing the Project Team:

The main goal of team development is to help people work together
more effectively to improve project performance
It takes teamwork to successfully complete most projects

Tuck man Model of Team Development:


Training can help people understand themselves, each other, and
how to work better in teams
Team building activities include:
Physical challenges
Psychological preference indicator tools

Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

MBTI is a popular tool for determining personality preferences and
helping teammates understand each other
Four dimensions include:
Extrovert/Introvert (E/I)
Sensation/Intuition (S/N)
Thinking/Feeling (T/F)
Judgment/Perception (J/P)
Social Styles Profile
People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones,
based on their assertiveness and responsiveness:

DISC Profiles:
Also uses a four-dimensional model of normal behavior
People in opposite quadrants can have problems understanding each other

Reward and Recognition Systems
Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote
Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals
Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to
meet project goals and develop human resources

Managing the Project Team:

Project managers must lead their teams in performing various project
After assessing team performance and related information, the project
manager must decide:
If changes should be requested to the project
If corrective or preventive actions should be recommended
If updates are needed to the project management plan or
organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques for Managing Project Teams:

Observation and conversation
Project performance appraisals
Conflict management
Issue logs

Five Dysfunctions of a Team:

The five dysfunctions of teams are:

1. Absence of trust
2. Fear of conflict
3. Lack of commitment
4. Avoidance of accountability
5. Inattention to results

General Advice on Teams:

1. Be patient and kind with your team
2. Fix the problem instead of blaming people
3. Establish regular, effective meetings
4. Allow time for teams to go through the basic team-building
5. Limit the size of work teams to three to seven members

Using Software to Assist in Human Resource Management

Software can help in producing RAMS and resource histograms
Project management software includes several features related to
human resource management such as:
Assigning resources
Identifying potential resource shortages or underutilization
Leveling resources