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That cheese has a terrible smell. That cheese smells terrible.

Take a cautious smell at it and see if you
Smell it cautiously and see if you agree.
Those men are pretty hard workers on the
Those men work pretty hard on the whole.

One of them gave us a friendly wave. One of them waved at us in a friendly
I pay amonthly rent. I pay rent every month/by the month (instead of I
pay rent monthly)

a. General rule: An ADJ ECTIVE is used with a VERB to describe the STATE (nature, condition,
appearance etc.) of someone or something.
That cheese smells terrible. - The pie looked delicious. - The sun felt wonderful.
Otherwise, verbs are used with ADVERBS.
b. Adjectives normally form their corresponding adverbs by the addition of ly. Exceptions are:
i. good well
ii. adjectives ending in -ic, which add -ally: basic basically
iii. adjectives ending in -able/-ible, in which final -e becomes -y: comfortable
comfortably; possible possibly
iv. adjectives with adverbs of the same form: fast fast; hard hard.
v. the adjective sly [slai] does not end in ly, and so forms an adverb in the normal way
c. Adjectives that themselves end in -ly do not form adverbs by the addition of a further -ly.
Some of them, such as early, monthly, have adverbs of the same form. Others, like friendly,
have no corresponding adverbs and can be used with verbs only in an adverb phrase.
d. Sometimes, although a corresponding adverb exists, an adverb phrase may be more
common (the last example above)

Adjectives versus Adverbs
Sometimes verbs which we might expect to be used with adverbs according to the general
rule are apparently used with adjectives. Such phrases fall into four categories :
i. Phrases like run deep (referring to a river), travel light, shut it tight, come closer are, if
we think about them, not describing an action itself but the state in which things are,
either when they are happening or have finished happening (Compare affect deeply,
tread lightly, squeeze tightly, examine more closely.) However, the adjectives come after
the verb; before a verb or participle an adverb is used: The windows have all been
tightly shut/shut tight.
ii. Adverbs which have the same form as their corresponding adjectives often have related
forms in -ly with different meanings. As mentioned above, it is normally only the -ly
forms that can come before a verb: It directly concerns us. A common exception is
clean meaning completely: I clean forgot about it. (The adverb cleanly meaning in a
clean way exists but is seldom used.)
iii. There are one or two idioms such as go slow (=avoid strain or excess) and going strong
(=thriving, flourishing) which do not fall into the above categories.
iv. In the pair bad/badly, bad is an adjective which may be used with a verb to describe a
state: The food went (= became) bad. (compare The food tasted good.) The adverb
badly, as we have seen from the uses of right and wrong, is the opposite of the adverb
well: Things went (= progressed) badly. (compare Things went well.)

Adjectives ending in ly
costly, cowardly, deadly, friendly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly, unlikely

Both adverb and adjective in the same form
daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, early and leisurely
fast, hard, clean
If you have a hard work, you have to work hard.

Superlatives and Comparatives
Informal uses of adjective forms as adverbs are especially common with comparatives and
Can you drive a bit slower?
Lets see who can do it quickest.
Adverbs have two forms
direct / directly; flat / flatly; hard / hardly; high / highly

Exercise 1
Transform the following sentences by changing the nouns with adjectives into their
corresponding verbs with adjectives, adverbs or adverb phrases, as required. In each
sentence the adjective, adverb or adverb phrase will come last.
1. He gave a bitter smile.
2. There has been a drastic fall in the dollar.
3. The Stock Exchange's reaction was quite calm.
4. To a European, Chinese has a strange sound.
5. These almonds have a bitter taste.
6. Why did she give me a stern look?
7. Try and give an intelligent answer.
8. Your action was a cowardly one.
9. The boy had a slight limp.
10. The little girl had rather a sad look.
11. Her mother had given her a hard slap.
12. Her movements were clumsy.
13. She has an ugly walk.
14. But she's a good tennis player.
15. The sports committee has monthly meetings.
16. What they said had a deep effect upon me.
17. The room had a nice, cosy look.
18. The flowers had a fragrant smell.
19. I gave her a fatherly talk.
20. I said that her behaviour had been extremely silly.
21. She gave me a sly glance.
22. An early start would be advisable. (Begin It )
23. I'm sure her parents will give me a warm welcome.
24. Your argument isn't logical.

Adverbs which have the same form as their corresponding adjectives often have
related forms in -ly with different meanings

direct by the shortest way or without stopping: fly direct to Moscow / to Moscow direct;
Does the train go direct to Edinburgh?
without intermediary: I contacted the manager direct. Can I dial this number
direct or I have to go through the switchboard?
directly closely: the matter concerns us directly; The disease is directly linked to poor
drainage system.
exactly: directly opposite, The sun shone directly in my eyes.
flat used with to fall as an adjective
He fell flat on his face. (literal sense)
His jokes fell flat. (figurative sense)
completely, to the greatest degree possible: She told him flat.
flatly completely, absolutely: They flatly refused to pay.
without emotion: The witness responded flatly to the judges questions.
hard adverb of hard (worker, blow etc.): work hard, hit hard
hardly scarcely, barely: She hardly knew him
high to/at a high level/altitude: prices have risen very high, the kite flew higher and
highly very (much): a highly infectious disease, highly appreciated advice;
very favourably: think highly of someone
(a)loud not to oneself, openly: read aloud, laugh out loud
loudly opposite of quietly, faintly: read loudly, laugh loudly
right correctly: do a sum right;
completely: read a book right through, turn right round;
well (with go, come, turn out): things went right at last
rightly sensibly, wisely: she very rightly refused;
justly, rightfully: act rightly towards one's neighbours
sharp at right angles: turn sharp left/right
sharply quickly, abruptly: turn sharply, speak sharply to someone
short without finishing: stop short, fall short of the target
shortly soon: she'll be arriving shortly
wrong incorrectly: do a sum wrong;
badly (with go): things went wrong
wrongly mistakenly, unwisely: I think she decided wrongly;
unjustly, wrongfully: act wrongly towards one's neighbours

Exercise 2
Write out the following, choosing from each pair of words the one you think should be
used. Remember that before a verb or participle it is the -ly form that is used.
I remarked that it was better to approach Ken (1) direct/directly and not through his secretary.
His secretary laughed out (2) loud/loudly at my remark. I think really she was (3) deep/deeply
offended by what I'd said.
(1) _________________ (2) _________________ (3) _________________

Old Mr. Elkins is still going (4) strong/strongly although he's over ninety. He says he'd like to
reach a hundred, but admits he may be aiming a bit (5) high/ highly. However, there's a (6)
wide/widely held belief in the village that he'll get there.
(4) _________________ (5) _________________ (6) _________________

Georgina was about to say something but stopped (7) short/shortly, and her eyes opened (8)
wide/widely with amazement. Somewhere in the house a horse had neighed (9) loud/loudly.
(7) _________________ (8) _________________ (9) _________________

'He told me to turn (10) sharp/sharply left just past the station.' 'If he told you that he told you
(11) wrong/wrongly. But you got here in the end even though you were (12) wrong/wrongly
(10) _________________ (11) _________________ (12) _________________

(13) Faint/faintly in the distance we heard the noise of thunder. Then the radio went (14) faint
/faintly and we could (15) hard/hardly hear the news. We shut all the windows (16)
tight/tightly and waited for the storm.
(13) _________________ (14) _________________ (15) _________________
(16) _________________

Marilyn's leaving (17) short/shortly for the United States on a business trip. As she (18)
right/rightly says, there's nothing like personal contact for promoting one's products. Her
suitcase is so (19) tight/tightly packed with samples there's not even room for a toothbrush.
She refuses to take two suitcases because she wants to travel (20) light/lightly.
(17) _________________ (18) _________________ (19) _________________
(20) _________________

Ken was driving along at about eighty miles an hour when a stone went (21) clean/cleanly
through the windscreen and hit him in the face. Afterwards he talked (22) light/lightly of the
affair, but he was lucky to escape with his life.
(21) _________________ (22) _________________

There's a lot more to Willie than one would think: still waters run (23) deep/ deeply, as they
say. I've been following his career (24) close/closely, and think (25) high/highly of his ability
as an architect. But he's inclined to work too (26) hard/hardly, and the doctor has recently
advised him to go (27) slow/slowly.
(23) _________________ (24) _________________ (25) _________________
(26) _________________ (27) _________________

When I took my driving test, the examiner said I had done everything (28) right/rightly
except reversing, when I had turned too (29) sharp/sharply and mounted the pavement. He
(30) strong/strongly recommended me to practise in a smaller car than the one I'd been using.
(28) _________________ (29) _________________ (30) _________________

Denis thinks up the most ludicrous schemes, which all fall (31) flat /flatly. Helen's parents are
(32) flat /flatly opposed to any idea of her marrying him. They say he was (33) direct/directly
involved in the recent financial scandal at the Town Hall.
(31) _________________ (32) _________________ (33) _________________

The struggles my parents had in the early years of their marriage brought them (34)
closer/more closely together. Things often went (35) bad/badly for them in those days, but
look at them now! Things turned out (36) right/rightly in the end.
(34) _________________ (35) _________________ (36) _________________

a) connecting adverbs (which join a clause to what came before): however, then, next,
besides, anyway, etc.
b) adverbs of time and definite frequency: to say when and how often something happens
(today, afterwards, in June, last year, finally, before, eventually, already, soon, still, last,
daily, weekly, every year, etc.)
c) focusing adverbs (which emphasise one part of the clause): these adverbs point to one
part of a clause; consisting of also, just, even, only, mainly, mostly, either, or, neither,
nor, etc.)
d) adverbs of place: to say where something happens (upstairs, around, here, there, to bed,
in London, out of the window, etc.)
e) adverbs of certainty: to say how sure we are of something; consisting of certainly,
definitely, clearly, probably, etc. (maybe and perhaps usually come at the beginning of a
f) adverbs of completeness: to say how completely something happens or is true; consisting
of completely, practically, almost, nearly, quite, rather, partly, sort of, kind of, more or
less, hardly, scarcely, etc.
g) adverbs of indenite frequency: always, ever, usually, normally, often, frequently,
sometimes, occasionally, rarely, seldom, never (usually, normally, often, frequently,
sometimes, and occasionally can also go at the beginning or end of a clause; always, ever,
rarely, seldom, and never cannot go in these positions; however, always and never can
begin imperative clauses)
h) comment adverbs: to give your feeling towards someones attitudes
i) adverbs of manner: to say how something happens or is done, angrily, happily, fast,
slowly, suddenly, well, badly, nicely, noisily, quietly, hard, softly, etc.

- connecting adverbs: however, therefore, generally, totally, thus, moreover, etc.
- adverbs of time (for emphasize the time)
However, not everybody agreed. (connecting adverb)
Tomorrow Ive got a meeting in Cardiff. (adverb of time)

- focusing adverbs: Shes done everything shes even been a soldier. (focusing)
- adverbs of certainty: It will probably rain this evening. (certainty)
- adverbs of completeness: I've almost nished painting the house. (completeness)
- adverbs of indenite frequency: My boss often travels to America. (indenite frequency)
- comment adverbs: I stupidly forgot my keys. (comment)
- some adverbs of manner: She quickly got dressed. (manner)

- adverbs of manner: She brushed her hair slowly. (manner)
- adverbs of place: The children are playing upstairs. (place)
- adverbs of time: I phoned Alex this morning. (time)


1- with his new rod Charless cousin David caught (1) nearly two dozen fish (2) in the Thames
last week.
2- eagerly He therefore (1) went (2) back (3) there yesterday.
3- very quickly Unfortunately he fell in the river and (1) got (2) very wet (3).
4- rapidly His uncle Harry, though, says thats the best way of (1) becoming (2) a true
fisherman (3).
5- already Harry, an expert angler, (1) has (2) taken David under his wing (3).
6- clearly (1) He (2) is (3) delighted at David's enthusiasm.
7- wisely Fishermen, says Harry, are people who (1) spend their spare time (2).
8- wisely His wife Mary doesn't always agree, but (1) says nothing (2).
9- too The other day Charles (1) went fishing (2).
10- only However, he (1) fished (2) for an hour (3); his real interest is his model
railway and pop music.

o NOT (example 01 above) put an adverb between verb and object. However, in some
case, to avoid ambiguity, an adverbial can be put between verb and object
Charless cousin David caught nearly two dozen fish with his new rod which he threw
back to the river ambiguity

o NOT (example 02 space (3) above) put an adverb between a verb of motion (went)
and common adverbials of place like here, there, home, to work

o NOT (example 02 space (2) above, went back) put an adverbial between the verb
itself and its particle of phrasal verbs

o NOT (example 03 above) put an adverbial between the verb and the adjective (very
wet) in the case of verbs used with adjectives

o NOT (example 04 above) put an adverbial between become and a following noun (a
true fisherman)

o NOT (example 07 above) put an adverb of manner in front of a verb if it can also be
an adverb of comment
She treated me kindly. (adverb of manner)
She kindly treated me. (adverb of comment)

o adverbs of degree like nearly and very come directly before the words they qualify

o adverb of addition too, also, as well (example 09 above) comes after the words it

o adverb of restriction only (example 10 above) comes before or, less commonly, after
the words it qualifies

o Mid-position adverbs come after all forms of the verb to be except when the verb is

o AFTER auxiliary verbs and am/are/ is/was/were; before other verbs; not put a mid-
position adverb in front of the whole verb
She has never written to me.
It certainly looks like rain.
The discussion was mainly about money.

o when there are two auxiliary verbs, these adverbs usually come after the first
She must sometimes have wanted to run away.
We have never been invited to one of their parties.

o when adverbs of completeness or manner go in the mid-position, they are usually put
after auxiliary verbs
I will have completely finished by next June.
Do you think the repair has been properly done?
When I saw her, she was being well looked after.

o when an auxiliary verb is used alone, a mid-position adverb comes first
Are you happy? I certainly am.

o In negative sentence, adverbs generally come before not if speakers want to
emphasize the negative; otherwise the adverbs come after;
I certainly do not agree.
I do not often have headaches.
I do not really like her. (mild dislike)
I really do not like her. (strong dislike)

o When adverbs come before not, they also come before the auxiliary verb and always
come before do;
He probably does not know. (NOT He does probably not know.)
He will probably not be there. (He probably will not be there.

o When the verb is emphasized, the mid-position adverbs always come before them
instead of after. (but not in American English, often put before auxiliary verbs and to
be, even the verb is not emphasized)

o The normal order is MANNER (how), PLACE (where), and TIME (when).
She sang beautifully (manner) in the town hall (place) last night (time).

o However, when a verb of motion (went) followed by its common adverbials of place like
here, there, home, to work occurs, the order turns to PLACE MANNER TIME
He therefore went back there (place) eagerly (manner) yesterday (time).

o Also, some sentences are incomplete without adverb of completeness. For example, a sentence
with to put, to go, to last may not make sense unless one says where something is put, where
someone goes, or how long something lasts. These elements usually go in end position and
before other adverbs.
Put the butter in the fridge (place) at once (manner). (NOT Put the butter at once in the fridge.)

Exercise 3
In this Exercise, you have more adverbials to deal with.

1. The car skidded, missed a lamp-post, and came to a halt, (badly/finally/in the
2. My car was damaged, (also/badly/in an accident/the other day/ unfortunately)
3. It was not my fault, (definitely/in any way)
4. The other driver jammed on his brakes, (in front of me/right/stupidly/very)
5. He thought the traffic lights had changed, (from green to red/just/possibly)
6. Willie was with me and confirmed everything I said, (at the time/enough/fully/luckily)
7. He had returned, (apparently/from an architects' conference/in the States/only/the day
8. Did you know that Willie can estimate the height of a building? (accurately/alone/by
9. I had got home when it started to snow, (hardly/in my car/last night/suddenly)
10. It is snowing, (hard/quite/still/today)
11. It is lying, (already/at least/twenty centimetres deep)
12. If it is snowing I shall stay, (at home/at six o'clock/by the
television/comfortably/probably/still/the whole evening)
13. Transport has been affected, (already/seriously/throughout the country)
14. The trains have been brought to a standstill, (almost/even/in fact)
15. The local authorities are not equipped to deal with heavy falls. (adequately / dearly /
efficiently / such)
16. It will snow, (as well/likely/tomorrow/very)
17. I have liked snow, (frankly/much/never)
18. Children adore it because they rush out. (evidently/however/immediately/into it)
19. You would rather stay, (at your age/indoors/presumably/snugly)
20. I would prefer to run about, (energetically/enough/much/outside/surprisingly)
21. I want to do the things I couldn't do. (luckily/obviously/only/rarely)
22. My age prevents me from doing what I want to do. (exactly/in fact/seldom)
23. I go for long walks, (alone/occasionally/still/through the woods)
24. I like to row. (about the lake in the park/also/gently/in the early autumn/sometimes)
25. The leaves are turning and the grapes are ripe, (fully/just/then)
26. We used to take a trip, (at that time of year/in the old days/often/up into the
27. Things have changed, (of course/since then/a lot)
28. They have not changed, (for the worse/in this part of the world/on the whole/though)
29. Tourists come but one can find peace and quiet, (here/in the mountains/in their
30. The old way of life has not disappeared because many of us have preserved the local
traditions, (carefully/completely/moreover/yet)