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Mongkol JIRAVACHARADET
Reinforced Concrete Design
Reinforced Concrete Design
S U R A N A R E E INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Design of Column 1
Column load transfer from beams and slabs
Type of Columns
Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns
Column Failure by Axial Load
Lateral Ties and Spirals
Tributary Area
Tributary Area
When loads are evenly distributed over a surface, it is often possible to assign
portions of the load to the various structural elements supporting that surface
by subdividing the total area into tributary areas corresponding to each member.
Half the load of the table goes
to each lifter
100 kg/m
2 3 m
6 m
Half the 100 kg/m
2
snow load on the cantilevered
roof goes to each column
The tributary area for each column is 3 m x 3 m.
So the load on each column is
100 (3 x 3) = 900 kg
Column load transfer from beams and slabs
1) Tributary area method: Half distance to adjacent columns
y
x
Load on column = area floor load
y
x
9 m 12 m 9 m
4.5 m
6 m
6 m
All area must be tributed to columns
C1
C1 : Corner column
C2
C2 : Exterior column
C3
C3 : Exterior column
C4
C4 : Interior column
9 m 12 m 9 m
4.5 m
6 m
6 m
C1
C1 C1
C2 C2
C2
C3
C3 C3
C4 C4
C4
2) Beams reaction method:
B1
B2
R
B1
R
B1
R
B2
R
B2
Collect loads from adjacent beam ends
C1
B1 B2
B3
B4
Load summation on column section for design
Design section
Design section
Design section
ROOF
2nd FLOOR
1st FLOOR
Footing
Ground level
Load on pier column
= load on 1st floor column
+ 1st floor + Column wt.
Load on 1st floor column
= load on 2nd floor column
+ 2nd floor + Column wt.
Load on 2nd floor column
= Roof floor + Column wt.
a.a+a avuvuna+a
-aav
-.
3.50 m
0.3 x 0.3 m
C1 (A-6)
-.
-.
3.50 m
0.3 x 0.3 m
-.
..
1.50 m
0.4 x 0.4 m
RB2 = 5280 kg
RB4 = 4800 kg
RB19 = 4416 kg
T1 = 960 kg
Col.Wt. = 756 kg
Floor load = 16212 kg
2B5 = 10764 kg
2B4 = 14736 kg
Col.Wt. = 756 kg
Floor load = 26256 kg
Cum. load = 42468 kg
2B5 = 10764 kg
2B4 = 14736 kg
Col.Wt. = 576 kg
Floor load = 26076 kg
Cum. load = 68544 kg
T1
RB2
RB4
RB19
B4
B5
B4
B5
B4
B5
B4
B5
Type of Columns
Tie
Longitudinal
steel
Tied column
Spiral
s = pitch
Spirally reinforced column
Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns
Short columns are typical in most building columns.
P
0
A A

Section A-A
.001 .002 .003
f
y
c
f

Steel
Concrete
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
P
0
f
y
f
y
c
f

F
s
= A
st
f
y
F
c
= (A
g
- A
st
)
c
f

[ F
y
= 0 ]
0
( )
st y c g st
P A f f A A

= +
From experiment:
0
0.85 ( )
st y c g st
P A f f A A

= +
where
A
g
= Gross area of column section
A
st
= Longitudinal steel area
P
u
0
Axial deformation
Initial failure
A
x
i
a
l

l
o
a
d
Tied column
Light
spiral
ACI spiral
Heavy spiral
Column Failure by Axial Load

P
u
r+o.+vo.+ruaanaa+n.ua+oa+o+..ua.+a
a+n.uv+nvou..no++oa.+vre.+ao :
U = 1.4D + 1.7L
a+n.uv+nvou..no..ra.+ar :
U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W)
-a U = 0.9D + 1.3W
o+oaao+a+( , .
e-u.euea.e = 0.75
e-u.euea.e = 0.70
o+.aaoauuuaao.a.
rao+nvvo+.u.naouaao.a.a ACI
+) .-evr.ev.:.ae-a-:|euea.e
.) r.-euea 9 :.:. e -u.-evrve DB32 .e:
r.-euea 12 :.:. e-u.-evrve DB36 .e: DB40
.) ::-:-uea(s)
s 16 .-ev -a
s 48 .-euea -a
s r:-v.er.eree
+) r::rauea.e:r.-eveau.a':.v 135
o
.e:
'::.-eveev:::-.v 15 r:.
x x
x 15 cm
x x
x > 15 cm
x x
x 15 cm
x
x
x x
x > 15 cm
x
x
o+.aaoauuuaao.oaa.
P
u Initial shape
Final shape
f
2
Spiral
f
2
Increase of compressive strength due to lateral pressure:
2
4.1
f c
f f f

= +
Good design: Strength lost by spalling = Strength gain from f
2
2
( )(0.85 ) (4.1 )
g core c core
A A f A f

=
1
Core
Spiral
s
h
core
A
b
f
y
A
b
f
y
s
[ F
x
= 0 ] h
core
s f
2
= 2 A
b
f
y
2
2
b y
core
A f
f
h s
=
2
1 2
4.1(2 )
1 (0.85 )
g b y
c
core core
A A f
f
A h s
| |

=
|
\
3
Define:
2
4
( / 4)
b core b
s
core core
A h A
h s h s

= =

s
3
0.42
1
g
c
s
y core
A
f
f A

| |
=
|
\
Rounding 0.42 to 0.45,
ACI Code:
0.45
1
g
c
s
y core
A
f
f A

| |
=
|
\
rao+nvvo+.u.naouaao.oaa.
1) Minimum width or diameter: h
min
20 cm
4) 2.5 cm Clear stirrup spacing 8 cm
2) Reinforcement ratio: 1%
g
8% (usually 5%)
3) Can use bundled bars in corners ( 4)
5) Spiral diameter: d
b
9 mm
6) Lap splices: L
sp
min { 48 d
b
, 30 cm }
Minimum Cover for Column Reinforcement
Condition
Cast against earth
Exposed to weather
or earth
No exposure
Reinforcement
all sizes
DB20 - DB60
DB16 and smaller
main reinforcement,
ties, and spirals
Min. Cover
7 cm
5 cm
4 cm
4 cm
Limits on percentage of reinforcement
0.01 / 0.08
g st g
A A ( =

Lower limit: To prevent failure mode of plain concrete
Upper limit: To maintain proper clearances between bars
ACI Strength Provision: P
u
+ P
n
Spirally reinforced column:
0.85[0.85 ( ) ], 0.75
n c g st y st
P f A A f A

= + =
Tied column:
0.80[0.85 ( ) ], 0.70
n c g st y st
P f A A f A

= + =
Working Stress Design (WSD) of Short Column
Spirally reinforced column:

= + = (0.25 ), /
g c s g g st g
P A f f A A
Tied column:

= + = 0.85 (0.25 ), /
g c s g g st g
P A f f A A
where f
s
= 0.40f
y
but not exceed 2,100 kg/cm
2
Length Effects
ACI permits neglect of length effect when
1
2
34 12 for braced system
u
kL M
r M

where (34 - 12M
1
/M
2
) may not exceed 40
M
1
= The smaller bending moment
M
2
= The larger bending moment
M
1
/M
2
is positive for single curvature
and negative for double curvature
22 for unbraced system
u
kL
r

M
1
M
2
-
M
1
M
2
+
Example 11.1 Design for Pure Compression
Design a concentrically loaded square column with ties providing lateral
reinforcement. Service dead and live loads are 180 and 90 tons, respectively
The column has an unsupported height of 3.0 m and is braced against
sidesway. Use f
c
= 240 kg/cm
2
and f
y
= 4,000 kg/cm
2
.
1) Determine required strength
P
u
= 1.4D + 1.7L = 1.4(180) + 1.7(90) = 405 tons
2) Check column slenderness. Assume an 50-cm square column
k = 1.0 for braced compression member
r = 0.3(50) = 15 cm
( )
4 2
1
/ / 1/12
12
I A h h h = =
1 2
1.0 3.0 100
20 34 12( / ) 22
15
u
kL
M M
r

= = < =
Neglect length
effects
3) Design for column reinforcement
Required P
n
= P
u
/ = 405/0.70 = 578.6 ton
for tied column:
0.80[0.85 ( ) ]
n c g st y st
P f A A f A

= +
578.6 1,000 = 0.80(0.85240(5050 - A
st
) + 4,000A
st
)
A
st
= 56.2 cm
2
USE 12DB25 (A
st
= 58.9 cm
2
,
g
= 2.36%)
4) Select lateral reinforcement
USE RB9 ties with DB25 longitudinal bars
Spacing not greater than: 16 (2.5) = 40 cm
48 (0.9) = 43.2 cm
column size = 50 cm
USE RB9 @40 cm
50 cm
5
0
c
m
12DB25
RB9@0.40