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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion

Distributed Beamforming
in
Cooperative Wireless Networks
Chetanya Puri
12EC64R04
Under the guidance of
Dr. Priyadip Ray
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering
IIT KHARAGPUR
May 5, 2014
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
1
Introduction
Beamforming
Motivation
2
Literature Review
Master-Slave Technique
3
Problem Description
4
System Model
System Model
Problem Statement
5
Results
Simulations
6
Conclusion
Future Work
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Beamforming
Directional signal transmission or
reception using an array of antennae.
Intended direction experiences
constructive interference.
Controlling the phase of the signals.
So large performance gains.
Implementation in wireless networks is
dicult due to the high cost and
signicant size of the arrays.
Useful if can be done in a distributed
fashion.
Figure : Distributed
Beamforming in Sensor networks
[2]
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Motivation
Energy ecient transfer of data.
More coverage for less power.
Key : Cooperate in order to function
as a large antenna array.
Reach back using low-power soldier
radios in battleeld communication
and in disaster recovery.
In Cognitive Scenario, secondary
users can use the licensed spectrum
even when primary users are busy.
Figure : Increased Coverage of a sensor
network
[1]
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Literature Review I
Beamforming [2] provides spatial ltering to separate signals that
share the same spectrum but originate from dierent spatial
locations.
In [3], the statistics of the antenna pattern from a distributed
array is examined.
Mudumbai et al. [1] present a master-slave architecture where a
designated master transmitter coordinates the synchronization of
other (slave) transmitters for beamforming.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Literature Review II
Zari et al. [14] presents a novel collaborative null-steering
beamformer that can be implemented in uniformly distributed
WSNs in which each node is oblivious of other nodes locations.
Cognitive Radios have been proposed as the ecient way to utilize
the scarce spectrum in the future generation wireless systems.
Rui Zhang et.al. [15] proposed exploitation of multi-antennas at
the secondary transmitter to eectively balance between spatial
multiplexing for the secondary transmission and interference
avoidance at the primary receivers.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Master-Slave Technique
Consider a cluster of sensor nodes with a given limited transmit
power communicating with a distant Base Station (BS).
Master sensor has a local oscillator which generates a sinusoid
c
0
(t):
c
0
(t) = R( c
0
(t)), where c
0
(t) = e
j(2f
c
t)
Each slave i receives the signal broadcasted by master as:
c
i,0
(t) = R( c
i,0
(t)), where c
i,0
(t) = e
j(2f
c
t
i
)
where
i
is the phase shift between master and slave,
i
=
2f
c
d
i
c
.
Information about the direction of BS, (or the channel response) is
estimated. BS broadcasts the pilot signal:
g(t) = R( g(t)), where g(t) = e
j(2f
c
t)
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Master-Slave Technique contd..
Each sensor independently demodulates its received signal
g(t) = R(h
i
g(t)) using c
i
(t),
An estimate

h
i
of its own complex channel gain h
i
,

h
i
= h
i
e
j
i
Modulate and send:
s
i
(t) = R(

i
m(t) c
i,0
(t))
The received signal at BS is given by
r(t) = R(m(t)

i
h
i

i
c
i,0
(t))
= R(m(t)

i
| h
i
|
2
e
(j2f
c
t2
i
)
)
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Master-Slave Technique contd...
Assuming | h
i
|
2
= 1, and the the total energy of the signal
transmitted through all the sensors is also as 1.
The baseband representation of the received signal is,
r
k
=
1

N
h
H

s
k
+ n
k
where n
k
is AWGN component.
The received signal power will be,
P
r
=
1
N

i=1
e
j
f
(i)

2
where

f
(i) = 2
i
.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Master-Slave Technique contd....
Assuming that
f
(i) is uniformly distributed given by,

f
(i) U[, ]
Figure. 3 shows the average received power versus the number of
sensors.
1 2 3 4 5 6
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
Beamforming
No. of Sensors, N
E
[P
r
]


=0.1
=0.2
=0.3
=0.4
Figure : The Expected value of the received signal power vs.
the number of sensor nodes N
Thus large gains can be realized using a master-slave architecture
from distributed beamforming.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Problem Description
The primary objectives of this project are:-
1
Using Distributed Beamforming to maximize the transmit power
of the data sent to an intended direction without creating
interference in a certain direction.
2
To study the eects of the imperfect channel state information and
unknown location of the nodes on distributed beamforming and
develop heuristics for better system design.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
System Model
Consider N number of nodes in a cluster having a single isotropic
antenna element and a single primary user.
w [w
1
w
2
....w
n
]
T
denote our beamforming vector.
h [h
1
h
2
....h
n
]
T
is the complex vector whose elements are the
channel gain coecients between the i
th
node and secondary Base
Station.
Following the master-slave architecture, each sensor then
transmits the estimated channel coecients

h
i
of its own complex
channel gain h
i
to the master in order to calculate the weights for
beamforming.
Master receives the channel gain with some phase oset, which we
can write as,

h
i
= h
i
e
2j
i
(1)
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
System Model contd...
With these erroneous channel estimates, the master node will
calculate the optimal beamforming weights and transmit them
back to the slave nodes. Slave sensors now beamform the data
symbols using the received beamforming weights.
Data signal received at the base station will be,
y(n) = w
H
hs(n) + (n)
where (n) is the zero mean circularly symmetric AWGN
component with variance
2
.
The received signal power at the secondary user will be,
P
r
= E{w
H
hs(n)s(n)
H
h
H
w}
= w
H
hh
H
w
2
s
= w
H
h
2
2

2
s
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
System Model contd...
The transmitted power is given as
P
t
= w
H
w
2
s
Now, the interference power in the primary direction will be
P
r
= w
H
gg
H
w
2
s
= w
H
g
2
2

2
s
where g [g
1
g
2
....g
n
]
T
is the complex vector in the primary
direction.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Problem Statement
Maximize the power in intended direction subject to the
constraints. Mathematically,
maximize w
H
h
2
2
subject to w
H
g
2
2
I
w
H
w
2
2
P
t
This problem is dicult to solve in its direct form. So, converting
the problem into a second order cone program(SOCP)by rotation
gives:
maximize R{w
H
h}
subject to I{w
H
h} = 0
w
H
g
2
2
I
w
H
w
2
2
P
t
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Simulations
Simulations for N=10 were done using using SeDuMi solver in
cvx tool for MATLAB 2013b to solve the SOCP problem using
interior point methods.
Intended power was calculated using the optimal weight vector.
Figure : Simulations for 200 random values of w
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Figure : Simulations for 50 random values of w for clarity
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Power v/s Number of antenna
Figure : Power with N increasing
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Simulations with varying density of nodes
500 monte-carlo simulations of the dierent channel realizations
are done.
All the densities are measured as area per node.
The interference power is constrained to -3dB and the transmit
power is constrained at 0dB for all the cases presented henceforth.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
For the case of equidistant antenna
Consider an array of antennae.
No eect of density on power.
Figure : Power in case of equidistant antenna
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
For the case of randomly distributed nodes (both CSI
and location are unknown)
Figure : Power with randomly distributed Nodes
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
For the case of known CSI but unknown location
Figure : Power prole with known CSI
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
For the case of known location but unknown CSI
The performance for this case is better than the two former cases.
Figure : Power with Known Location of the Nodes
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
For the case of known both location and CSI
Figure : Power with both CSI and location known
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Overall Comparison
Figure : Comparison of intended power
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Figure : Comparison of interference power
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Conclusion
Formulated a constrained distributed beamforming scenario.
This gives large collective gains.
Eects of unknown CSI and location of the nodes is studied.
Performance is best when both the CSI and location are known.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Future Work
Some feedback scheme to lower the communication between the
nodes.
Some techniques for the localization of the primary users or
estimation of the CSI can be designed for practical purposes.
It is recommended that the beamformer be designed for non-at
fading channels.
The performance of SOCP algorithms in real-time executions is of
great value. It is recommended that a dedicated hardware or
software routines be employed to facilitate the implementation of
real time beamforming techniques.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
[1] Gwen Barriac, Raghuraman Mudumbai, and Upamanyu Madhow.
Distributed beamforming for information transfer in sensor networks.
In Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2004. IPSN 2004. Third
International Symposium on, pages 8188. IEEE, 2004.
[2] Barry D Van Veen and Kevin M Buckley.
Beamforming: A versatile approach to spatial ltering.
IEEE assp magazine, 5(2):424, 1988.
[3] Hideki Ochiai, Patrick Mitran, H Vincent Poor, and Vahid Tarokh.
Collaborative beamforming for distributed wireless ad hoc sensor
networks.
Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 53(11):41104124, 2005.
[4] Raghuraman Mudumbai, Gwen Barriac, and Upamanyu Madhow.
On the feasibility of distributed beamforming in wireless networks.
Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on, 6(5):17541763, 2007.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
[5] Farid Alizadeh and Donald Goldfarb.
Second-order cone programming.
Mathematical programming, 95(1):351, 2003.
[6] Stephen Poythress Boyd and Lieven Vandenberghe.
Convex optimization.
Cambridge university press, 2004.
[7] Gwen Barriac and Upamanyu Madhow.
Space-time communication for ofdm with implicit channel feedback.
Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, 50(12):31113129, 2004.
[8] Amir F Dana and Babak Hassibi.
On the power eciency of sensory and ad hoc wireless networks.
Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, 52(7):28902914, 2006.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
[9] Simon Haykin.
Cognitive radio: brain-empowered wireless communications.
Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, 23(2):201220, 2005.
[10] William Kehr.
Wireless sensor networks.
[11] Ayfer Ozgur, Olivier Leveque, and David NC Tse.
Hierarchical cooperation achieves optimal capacity scaling in ad hoc
networks.
Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, 53(10):35493572, 2007.
[12] Emre Telatar.
Capacity of multi-antenna gaussian channels.
European transactions on telecommunications, 10(6):585595, 1999.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
[13] Eugene Visotsky and Upamanyu Madhow.
Space-time transmit precoding with imperfect feedback.
Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, 47(6):26322639, 2001.
[14] Keyvan Zari, So`ene Aes, and Ali Ghrayeb.
Collaborative null-steering beamforming for uniformly distributed wireless
sensor networks.
Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 58(3):18891903, 2010.
[15] Rui Zhang and Ying-Chang Liang.
Exploiting multi-antennas for opportunistic spectrum sharing in cognitive
radio networks.
Selected Topics in Signal Processing, IEEE Journal of, 2(1):88102, 2008.
[16] Gan Zheng, Kai-Kit Wong, and Bjorn Ottersten.
Robust cognitive beamforming with bounded channel uncertainties.
Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 57(12):48714881, 2009.
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Outline Introduction Literature Review Problem Description System Model Results Conclusion
Thank you!!
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