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CONSISTENT METHODOLOGY FOR

ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS


FROM LNG OPERATIONS
Karin Ritter, API

API LNG Guideline Document
Goals
Develop consistent internationally accepted
methodologies to estimate GHG emissions
from operations in the Liquefied Natural Gas
(LNG) value chain
Background
Initiated as part of APIs contribution to the
Cleaner Fossil Energy Task Force of the Asia
Pacific Partnership
Designed to align with other industry
guidance, i.e. API Compendium, IPIECA
Guidelines
3
LNG Document Overview
The LNG document consists of,
Description of LNG operations chain
Methods and emission factors unique to this
industry segment
Emission estimation methods build on the API
Compendium with an expansion to LNG
specific sources and operations
Data reporting consistent with the IPIECA /API
Petroleum Industry Greenhouse Gas
Reporting Guidelines
Document to be publicly available
Document Development Process
Established a U.S. based working group of
companies technical experts
Collaborating with CLNG
Defined LNG segment boundaries and identified
applicable emission sources
Adopted available emissions estimation
methodology for LNG operations
Build on methods available in API Compendium
Conducted several rounds of review and comment
by a broader cadre of industry experts
Special review meeting with APPEA in Australia
Document Contents
LNG OVERVIEW
LNG SECTOR BACKGROUND
GHG INVENTORY BOUNDARIES & SCOPE
EMISSION ESTIMATION METHODS
Stationary Combustion Emissions Estimation
Vented Emissions
Fugitive Emissions
Transportation Emissions
Non-routine emissions
Appendices
A Glossary of terms
B Unit conversions
C Acronyms
Section 1: LNG Overview
Broad overview of the LNG sector
EIA LNG outlook to 2030
LNG capacity under construction outside
of North America
Contribution of LNG to national emission
inventories
Note
The section does not intend to
provide an in-depth LNG outlook
Section 2: LNG Sector Background
Definition of LNG
Listing of selected
LNG compositions
and HHVs for select
countries of origin
LNG applications
LNG operations
chain
Description of LNG
Operations
Courtesy: MEI, LLC
Description of LNG Operations
LNG Operations boundaries
Starts at the entry of gas to the liquefaction plant
Terminates after regassification of liquids and
transfer for transport and marketing
Segments of the LNG Operations Chain
Liquefaction
Storage
Loading and Unloading
Shipping
Regassification

Key Contributors to GHG Emissions
Emissions depend on facility design and
operating practices
Types of storage tanks used
Level of compression used
Vessel pre-cooling practices
Boil-off gas recovery
Types of vaporizers used are key contributors
to regassification emissions
Submerged Combustion Vaporizers (SCV)
Open Rack Vaporizers (ORV)
Shell & Tube Vaporizers (STV)
Ambient Air Vaporizers (AAV)
Above Ground Storage Tanks
Source: Kotzot et al, 2003
Section 3: GHG Inventory Boundaries
This section links the ultimate reporting of GHG
emissions from LNG operations to the
IPIECA/API Industry GHG Reporting Guidelines
GHG emission sources
Provides detailed mapping of Combustion Sources
Provides detailed mapping of Vented, Fugitives and
Mobile Emission Sources
GHG compounds emitted
Emissions and quantification methods focus on CO
2
,
CH
4
, and N
2
O
Section 4:
GHG Emission Estimation Methods
Focus on five categories of sources
Stationary combustion emissions;
Process vents and other vented emissions;
Fugitive emissions from equipment leaks;
Mobile source combustion emissions.
Non-routine emissions
Methods that are included in the API Compendium
are not repeated here
Tables provide listing of applicable emission
factors
Combustion Emission Estimation
For CO
2
combustion estimation
EF and annual fuel use, w/default HHV; or
EF based on fuel use and avg C-content; or
Measured annual fuel use and periodic
measurements of the C-content of the fuel.
For CH
4
, N
2
O combustion estimation
EF based on annual fuel use and fuel HHV;
Applicable equipment/technology based EF
Emission Factors for Gas Flaring
Methane Emissions from Venting
and Equipment Leaks
Sources of Methane emissions
Compressor seals
CO2 removal systems
Dehydration systems
Tank overpressure
Ship loading displacement vapors
Loading arm disconnection
Venting of vapors
Tank overpressure venting
Leaks from pressure relief valves
Vapor recovery compressors
Fugitive emissions from leaking components

Need Additional data to improve these methods
Next Steps
Completed final round of industry
experts review and comments
In process of incorporating and
updating document based on
comments
Publish Pilot Version document for
field testing of document globally
Undertake follow-up review and
revision with new information being
made available during pilot period
Thank you for your attention
Karin Ritter, API, Washington DC, USA
ritterk@api.org

Dr. Miriam Lev-On, LEVON Group, California, USA
miriam@levongroup.net
Thank you for your attention
For additional information: