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Brigitte U.

Research Critique

Republic of the Philippines
Ifugao State University
Main Campus, Nayon, Lamut, Ifugao

Master of Arts in Nursing

Research Critique

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in
Intensive Maternal and Child Health

Submitted By:
Brigitte U. Bumanghat

Submitted To:
Leslie Ann H. Monayao, RN, RM, MAN, CRN

May 24, 2014
Summer, S.Y.2013-2014

Brigitte U. Bumanghat
Research Critique

This paper is a critique of the article titled The Effects of Baby Massage on
Attachment between Mother and their Infants. This is a critique of several different
aspects of the research study including: the title, the authors, introduction, purpose of
the study, study design, setting and samples, data collection methods, nursing
intervention, data analysis, ethical considerations, results, discussion, conclusion and
TITLE: The Effects of Baby Massage on Attachment between Mother and their Infants
According to Parahoo (2006) the title of the article should make reference to
the specific area being studied and the population being examined. It is evident from
the title of the paper that the phenomenon being investigated is the effect of baby
massage on attachment between mother and their infants. The title meets Connell
Meehans suggestion of a 10 to 15 word length (Connell Meehan 1999).
AUTHORS: Ayse Grol, PhD, Rn and Sevinc polat, PhD, RN
Conkin Dale (2005) suggests that the authors qualifications and job title can be
a useful indicator when attempting to gauge the researchers knowledge and
familiarity with their chosen field of investigation. This research lists two authors and
states they are both a professor in Atatrk University. It also indicates the authors
degree of academic attainment. It is worth noting at this stage that the quality of the
research and findings generated should be assumed on the basis of the authors
academic qualifications (Coughlin et al 2007).
The purpose of the summary is to furnish readers with enough information to
allow them to decide whether the research will be of interest to them and should briefly
state the purpose of the study, the design (including methods and sampling) and the
main findings (Parahoo 2006). The purpose of the study is clear, however, the
methodology was not identified as quantitative. It just stated the study design used by
the researchers which is quasi-experimental design. The sample size and data collection
is listed but the sampling criteria were not identified.

Brigitte U. Bumanghat
Research Critique

In this article the introduction and literature review were as one. The concepts of
the study are clearly stated, and are consistent with the title.
Several sources were reviewed by the authors to establish the need for the study
as well as to stress the importance of baby massage on the mother-infant attachment.
There are thirty articles reviewed by the authors that discuss about mother-infant
attachment and baby massage. All sources are relevant to the topic of determining
the effects of massage on attachment between mother and their infants. The citations
within the paper are all referenced correctly.
Overall, the introduction and literature review were organized.
The purpose of the research is clearly stated as well as the hypothesis. The article
contains information about the population (mother and baby in Atatrk University
Obstetrics Clinic) and contains the variables (baby massage and mother-infant
attachment), but there is no problem statement stated. Despite the absence of a
specific problem statement the goals and objectives are clear. The goal of the study is
to examine the effect of baby massage on the mother-infant attachment.
This study is a clear example of positivistic approach via the use of a quasi-
experimental design.
Atatrk University Obstetrics Clinic
Parahoo (2006) identifies that deciding on the number and characteristics of
people who will be included in a study are an essential part of the research design. This
coupled with the sample size, method, setting and response rate are essential in
determining the generalization of the findings.
The target population is the group from which the researcher aims to draw
a sample from, and for this particular study was those who resided in Erzurum city
center, had graduated from at least secondary school, did not have any conditions
that would prevent them from applying massage, did not have sight or hearing deficits,
Brigitte U. Bumanghat
Research Critique

were open to communication and cooperation, had not previously trained in terms of
baby massage, were primipara, were breastfeeding, had babies with the birth weight
of 2,600 - 4,000 g, born in the 38the42nd gestational week, 1st and 5th minute Apgar
scores > 7, and who had given birth to a single baby.
The recommended number of participants in any study is difficult to define
(Parahoo 2006) and varies widely. Hicks (1990) suggest as little as 30 participants for
valuable statistical analysis, where as Polit and Beck (2006) state that in order to avoid a
response bias a minimum of 50% of the total sample is required. On further reading of
the article, 120 participants were selected using power analysis but 117 participants
completed the study. The sample was divided into two groups, 57 in the experimental
group and 60 in the control group. Non-probability convenience sampling method was
used to assign mothers to each group
Valid and reliable tools are used. The authors made use of Maternal Attachment
Inventory (MAI). This is developed and tested to provide a practical measure of
maternal affectionate attachment. The MAI demonstrated evidence of validity through
significant correlations with other indicators of maternal attachment at all time points
and a correlation with maternal adjustment as measured by the Maternal Attitudes and
Maternal Adjustment Scale (Mller ME). The MAI also demonstrated evidence of
acceptable internal consistency reliability at all three time points (Mller ME).
In collecting data, the authors made use of the Mother-Infant Identifier Poll.
The authors measured maternal affectionate attachment using a 4-point Likert-
type 26-item single dimensional scale.
The discussion was clearly stated.
Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)
version 15.0, and Chi-square tests and one-way analysis of variance tests were used for
the comparison of control and experimental groups.
The parametric t -tests were used for continuous and normally distributed
variable and are used to compare the means of two samples (Parahoo 2006). The non-
parametric chi square tests of the categorical variables, in other words to compare
Brigitte U. Bumanghat
Research Critique

observed frequencies with what you would expect to see if the hypothesis were true
(Banks 1999). The use of the statistical package SPSS is appropriate (Banks 1999), but no
information is provided pertaining to who was responsible for using the package and
was it appropriate that they do so.
As with all research, ethical approval must be granted before embarking. The
authors stated that informed consent was obtained in each case either verbally or
written form. The permission for the study was approved by the Atatrk University Health
Sciences institute Ethics Board. However, it did not mention if they made use of written
or verbal confirmation to the institute ethics board.
The authors discuss the results in a manner that is objective and reflective of the
data. It also gives statistical evidence in a manner that is concise and well-defined. The
results are discussed using tables and the explanations in the text are consistent with the
tables. The data did not demonstrate a statistical difference between the two groups.
The researchers began the study in the hopes that baby massage will enhance
the attachment of the mother and the baby as well as promoting enough sleep for the
baby. The explanations were relevant to the study. Research findings were compared
with other related studies.
The research study titled The Effects of Baby Massage on Attachment between
Mother and their Infants is a well-written study that depicts the study results in a non-
biased manner. The study concluded that the intervention was successful in increasing
the mother-infant attachment.
The authors do identify a number of limitations such as the mothers were not
randomized to the experimental and control groups, there was a small sample size and
the sample was self-selected, and lastly the mothers in the control group may have
applied baby massage to their child following other sources of information.

Brigitte U. Bumanghat
Research Critique

Overall, although this may be considered a quality piece of research, its findings
must be considered in light of other relevant material (Baxter 2001). When considering
the layout of the study itself, information is jointed and adheres to the recommended
structure (Parahoo 2006). On its own, while it is certainly of interest to the nursing
community it is enough to include this in practice.

Banks, S. (1999) Analysis of quantitative research data: Part 1, Professional Nurse,
14(9), pp. 634-637.
Baxter, H. (2001) Understanding research: 3 Critiquing findings and conclusions,
Journalof Wound Care, 10(8), pp. 376-379.
Conkin Dale, J. (2005) Critiquing research for use in practice,
Journal of Paediatric Healthcare, 19, pp. 183-186.
Connell Meehan, T. (1999) The research critique in. In: Treacy P, Hyde A, eds,
Nursing Research and Design, pp 57-74
Coughlin, M., Cronin, P. and Ryan, F. (2007), Step-by-step guide to critiquing
Part1: quantitative research, British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), pp. 659-663.
Hicks, C. (1990) Research and Statistics: A practical introduction for nurses.
London: Prentice Hall.
Parahoo, K. (2006) Nursing Research, Principles, Process and Issues. Basingstoke:
Polit, D. F. and Tatano Beck, C. (2006) Essential of Nursing Research, Methods,
Appraisal, and Utilization. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.