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AP Biology, Chapter 18 pt.

2[focus on operons]
Microbial Models !he "enetics of #iruses and Bacteria
The control of gene expression enables individual bacteria to adjust their metabolism
to environmental change
1. Briefly describe t$o %ain strategies that cells use to control %etabolis%.
a. &egulate en'y%e acti(ity
i. )nd product of the path$ay feedbac* to stop its production
ii. Binds to 1st en'y%e in the path$ay+ non,co%petiti(e or allosteric
b. &egulate gene e-pression
i. !urn genes on and off by controlling the initiation of transcription
ii. !a*es longer
2. )-plain the adapti(e ad(antage of genes grouped into an operon.
a. .peron / operator, pro%oter, and the genes they control
b. Puts functionally related genes under the control of a single on,off s$itch
0. 1sing the trp operon as an e-a%ple, e-plain the concept of an operon and the
function of the operator, repressor, and co,repressor.
a. 2eparate repressor gene is e-pressed constituti(ely
b. Corepressor / tryptophan
c. &epressor 3 tryptophan binds to operator and bloc*s transcription
d. 4hen tryptophan is lo$, repressor alone releases fro% operator
5. 6istinguish bet$een structural and regulatory genes.
a. 2tructural genes code of en'y%es in a biosynthetic path$ay
b. &egulatory genes code for proteins that turn operons on or off
7. 6escribe ho$ the lac operon functions and e-plain the role of the inducer, allolactose.
a. 2eparate repressor gene is e-pressed constituti(ely
b. &epressor alone binds to operator, bloc*s transcription
c. 8nducer allolactose binds to repressor and it releases fro% the operator
d. &9A poly%erase can the transcribe the genes re:uired for lactose digestion
;. )-plain ho$ repressible and inducible en'y%es differ and ho$ those differences
reflect differences in the path$ays they control.
a. &espressible
i. 2%all %olecule binds respressor and turns off the operon
ii. 1seful for anabolic path$ays+ enough product turns off path$ay
b. 8nducible
i. 2%all %olecule binds repressor and turns on the operon
ii. 1seful for catabolic path$ays+ presence turns on genes to digest
<. 6istinguish bet$een positi(e and negati(e control and gi(e e-a%ples of each fro%
the lac operon.
a. 9egati(e
i. .peron s$itched off by acti(e repressor
ii. =ac repressor $ithout allolactose binds to operator, bloc*s
b. Positi(e
i. .peron s$itched on by acti(e regulatory protein
ii. C&P protein 3 cAMP binds to 69A, helps &9A poly%erase bind to
8. )-plain ho$ cyclic AMP and the cyclic AMP receptor protein are affected by glucose
a. "lucose plentiful
i. cAMP is not %ade in the cytoplas%
ii. C&P doesn>t bind to 69A, &9A poly%erase doesn>t bind as %uch
b. "lucose lo$
i. cAMP %ade
ii. cAMP 3 C&P bind and increase transcription
19.2 Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at many stages
Differential ene Expression
1. 6efine differentiation and describe at $hat le(el gene e-pression is generally controlled.
a. 6ifferentiation / cellular change in for% and function
b. Control
i. At transcriptional le(el
ii. 8n(ol(es 69A,binding proteins
iii. Coordinated by e-ternal signals
!egulation of "hromatin #tructure
2. ?istone acetylation
=oosens nucleoso%e associations, pro%otes transcription
Acetyltransferases %ay be associated $ith transcription factors
&e%o(al causes nucleoso%es to bind
0. Methylation condenses chro%atin
Phosphorylation loosens
Co%bination and order of %odification %ay be i%portant
D$% &ethylation
5. 69A %ethylation
i. Methyl groups %ay be added@re%o(ed especially to C
ii. 8nacti(e 69A is often highly %ethylated+ de%ethylation acti(ates
iii. Methyl inacti(ation during de(elop%ent is passed on after %itosis
i(. Methylating en'y%es recogni'e %ethylation on one strand, add %ethyl to opposite strand
(. )-plains geno%ic i%printing
!egulation of Transcription 'nitiation
7. 6escribe an e-a%ple of a general transcription factors.
"eneral are re:uired to transcribe all protein,coding genes
)- protein that binds the !A!A bo-
;. ?o$ %ay nuclear architecture affect gene e-pressionA
Chro%oso%es are %ainly segregated
Acti(e chro%atin loops %ay associate in transcription factories
<. 6escribe the eu*aryotic processing of pre,%&9A.
a. 7>,cap and polyBAC tail added
b. 8ntrons re%o(ed
8. 6efine control ele%ents and e-plain ho$ they influence transcription.
a. 9oncoding se:uences
b. &egulate by binding transcription factors
c. 6onDt (ary %uch
d. Co%bination of proteins bound deter%ines ti%e and place of e-pression
e. May be close or far a$ayBpro-i%al (s. distalC
E. )-plain the role that pro%oters, enhancers, acti(ators, and repressors play in transcriptional control.
a. Pro%oters
i. &9A poly%erase binding sites+ transcription initiation sites
ii. 6epends on pre(ious binding of transcription factors
b. )nhancers
i. 6istant BdistalC control ele%ents $here proteins bind
ii. 69A folds so their bound transcription factors contact initiation co%ple-B&9A polC
iii. May re:uire specific proteins
c. Acti(ators
i. !ranscription factors bound to enhancers
ii. 69A folding brings the% to the transcription co%ple-
d. &epressors
i. Proteins that bloc* transcription
ii. Bind to silencer control ele%ents
1F. 6escribe the t$o basic structural do%ains of transcription factors.
a. 2e:uence,specific 69A binding do%ain
b. Protein,binding do%ainBsC to interact $ith other transcription factors and &9A poly%erase
11. )-plain ho$ eu*aryotic genes can be coordinately e-pressed and gi(e so%e
e-a%ples of coordinate gene e-pression in eu*aryotes.
a. 2o%e operons Bgene clusters gi(ing a single transcriptC in eu*aryotic cells
b. Coordinately controlled genes ha(e the sa%e co%bination of control ele%ents
i. 2teroid receptor in a transcriptional acti(ator
ii. 2ignal,transduction path$ays can acti(ate co%%on acti(ators