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Metode pentru determinarea i eliminarea frecven ei

de modula ie nedorite n fi ierele audio


Muntianu Iulia-Adriana
Facultatea de Automatic i Calculatoare, specializarea Calculatoare i Tehnologia Informa iei
Universitatea olitehnic
!ucure ti, "om#nia
Abstract
$%ist diferite tipuri de degradare comune fi ierelor
audio, clasificate n dou categorii vaste & degradri localizate
i degradri glo'ale( )egradrile localizate sunt
discontinuit i n forma de und care afecteaz doar anumite
e antioane( )egradrile glo'ale afecteaz toate e antioanele
i includ zgomotul, fluctua iile, varia ii n inl ime *+o+, i
anumite tipuri de distorsiuni non-lineare( Metodele de
restaurare a fi ierelor audio degradate sunt folosite n
recuperarea nregistrrilor, a semnalelor audio vor'ite,
telefonie, aparatur auditiv sau n aplica ii folosite n
domeniul criminalisticii(
-ucrarea de fa e%amineaz modalit ile de recuperare a
secven elor afectate dintr-un fi ier audio, folosind diferite
tehnici de interpolare, folosite pentru a reduce defectul de
varia ie n nl ime( .unt e%puse interpolarea liniar,
interpolrile /ermite i spline si metoda sinc-'ased(
erforman a unui semnal audio sintetic restaurat folosind
schim'area ratei de e antionare non-uniforme este evaluat pe
'aza criteriilor defectelor audio standard i comparate pentru
cele patru tehnici de interpolare(
Keywords ree antionare non-uniform; wow; interpolare;
detec ie defecte; Hermite; spline;
I( I0T"1)UC$"$
.tocarea de tip analog cauzeaz degradarea informa iei
con inute i introduce defecte n urma redrii repetate( 2n
cazul stocrii digitale, pot aprea erori de citire cauzate de
defec iuni de tip mecanic ale suprafe ei compact dis3-ului
sau, n cazul C) pla4er-elor, cauzate de vi'ra iile aparatului(
Fi ierele transferate digital sunt de asemenea supuse unor
posi'ile erori la nivel de 'it( 2n cazul unor astfel de erori,
datele de tip CM ar avea erori n anumite e antioane, datele
encriptate ntr-un format cu detectare de erori *spre e%emplu,
M5, ar avea cadre invalide(
Una dintre pro'lemele relativ la fi ierele audio nregistrate
const n frecven a de modula ie rezultat n urma anumitor
daune ale 'enzii pe care a fost nregistrat, tehnici de editare
nepotrivite, fluctua ii ale vitezei( Acest tip de distorsiune este
definit fie ca +o+, fluctua ii sau zgomot de modula ie, n
func ie de gama frecven ei de modula ie parazitare( )e i
acest tip de defect este dificil de eliminat, e%ist algoritmi
construi i pentru e%tragerea *detectarea, acestuia( )efectul
poate fi compensat folosit, spre e%emplu, o metoda de
ree antionare non-linear prin interpolare, a a cum vor fi
descrise n continuare n lucrarea de fa (
II( -UC"6"I A.$M606T1A"$
Alte lucrri n acela i domeniu stau la 'aza
aplica iilor folosite n criminalistic de ctre agen ii
guvernamentale de securitate( Aplica iile sunt folosite pentru
intensificarea pronun iei i sporirea inteligi'ilit ii 789 pentru
fi iere audio cu e antioane lips( Astfel de defecte apar atunci
c#nd amplitudinea semnalului de intrare dep e te nivelul
ma%im de nregistrare al aparaturii, astfel apr#nd o form de
und complet aplatizat n regiune de amplitudine ma%im(
Aceast asignare ine%act produce distorsiuni fonetice,
rezult#nd n adugarea unor armonici n semnalul nregistrat(
)e asemenea, e%ist aplica ii avansate pentru
eliminarea zgomotului din fi ierele audio, precum i pentru
identificarea componentelor independente *ICA - independent
component anal4sis, - determinarea sursei principale de
semnal, fr a cunoa te numrul surselor de semnal i de
zgomot i nici matricea de mi%a:( Astfel de aplica ii folosesc
de asemenea algoritmul de schim'are a ratei de e antionare,
prin dou tehnici cunoscute & Jackknife i bootstrap 759(
Alte aplica ii similare sunt folosite n com'ina ie cu
tehnici de nv are automat, pentru recunoa terea semnalelor
acustice i traducerea lor n te%t scris(
(
III( )$.C"I$"$A .1-U II-1"
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7;9 >( $ason, !( 0o'le, and I( 0( .neddon, ?1n certain integrals of
-ipschitz-/an3el t4pe involving products of !essel functions,A hil(
Trans( "o4( .oc( -ondon, vol( A8IG, pp( @8QR@@;, April ;Q@@(
%references"
789 S( Cler3 Ma%+ell, A Treatise on $lectricit4 and Magnetism, 5rd ed(, vol(
8( 1%ford& Clarendon, ;JQ8, pp(OJRG5(
759 I( .( Saco's and C( ( !ean, ?Fine particles, thin films and e%change
anisotrop4,A in Magnetism, vol( III, >( T( "ado and /( .uhl, $ds( 0e+
Eor3& Academic, ;QO5, pp( 8G;R5@D(
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.tand( A''rev(, in press(
7O9 E( Eorozu, M( /irano, =( 13a, and E( Taga+a, ?$lectron spectroscop4
studies on magneto-optical media and plastic su'strate interface,A I$$$
Transl( S( Magn( Sapan, vol( 8, pp( GIDRGI;, August ;QJG 7)igests Qth
Annual Conf( Magnetics Sapan, p( 5D;, ;QJ89(
7G9 M( Eoung, The Technical <riterNs /and'oo3( Mill Halle4, CA&
Universit4 .cience, ;QJQ(