12 tayangan

Diunggah oleh Neelam Kapoor

15 Schrodinger Equation

- Lý thuyết sóng
- Gauge Fields in the 5D Gravity-Scalar Standing Wave Braneworld
- 10.1.1.130.7375
- 4a waves
- wave test study guide
- 12 Electric Potential Energy
- qvp2003
- TOWARDS A UNIFIED THEORY OF STRUCTURE AND REACTIONS
- NOE0415380416%2Ech084.pdf
- RIVAS_UIC__WP5_D5_1_V02_final_01
- TWI Ultrasonic Inspection Coursework 5
- Lecture 13
- Atom Light
- Lec 2
- lec_6
- educ0005 - science fpd
- Chapter 35 Interference
- Standing Waves
- Paper 2 Past Questions from Units and Measurements - completed
- science lesson 3-21-18-2

Anda di halaman 1dari 12

DigitalCommons@USU

Foundations of Wave Phenomena Library Digital Monographs

1-1-2012

15 Schrodinger Equation

Charles G. Torre

Department of Physics, Utah State University, Charles.Torre@usu.edu

Follow this and additional works at: htp://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foundation_wave

Part of the Physics Commons

To read user comments about this document and to leave your own comment, go to

htp://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foundation_wave/8

Tis Book is brought to you for free and open access by the Library Digital

Monographs at DigitalCommons@USU. It has been accepted for inclusion

in Foundations of Wave Phenomena by an authorized administrator of

DigitalCommons@USU. For more information, please contact

digitalcommons@usu.edu.

Recommended Citation

Torre, Charles G., "15 Schrodinger Equation" (2012). Foundations of Wave Phenomena. Book 8.

htp://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foundation_wave/8

15. The Schrodinger Equation.

An important feature of the wave equation is that its solutions q(r, t) are uniquely

specied once the initial values q(r, 0) and q(r, 0)/t are specied. As was mentioned

before, if we view the wave equation as describing a continuum limit of a network of

coupled oscillators, then this result is very reasonable since one must specify the initial

position and velocity of an oscillator to uniquely determine its motion. It is possible to

write down other equations of motion that exhibit wave phenomena but which only

require the initial values of the dynamical variable not its time derivative to specify

a solution. This is physically appropriate in a number of situations, the most signicant of

which is in quantum mechanics where the wave equation is called the Schrodinger equation.

This equation describes the time development of the observable attributes of a particle via

the wave function (or probability amplitude) . In quantum mechanics, the complete

specication of the initial conditions of the particles motion is embodied in the initial

value of . The price paid for this change in the allowed initial data while asking for

a linear wave equation is the introduction of complex numbers into the equation for the

wave. Indeed, the values taken by are complex numbers. In what follows we shall explore

some of the elementary features of the wave phenomena associated with the Schrodinger

equation.

15.1 One-Dimensional Schrodinger equation

Let us begin again in one spatial dimension, labeled by x. We consider a complex-

valued function . This is a function that associates a complex number (x, t) to each

point x of space and instant t of time. In other words, at each (x, t), (x, t), is a complex

number. Consequently, we can if desired break into its real and imaginary parts:

(x, t) = f(x, t) + ig(x, t), (15.1)

where f and g are real functions. We can also use a polar representation:

(x, t) = R(x, t)e

i(x,t)

, R 0. (15.2)

See 1.3 for a review of complex variable notation.

The complex-valued function is called the wave function youll see why shortly.

The wave function is required to satisfy the Schrodinger equation:

h

2

2m

x

2

+ V = ih

t

. (15.3)

Here V = V (x, t) is some given real-valued function of space and time representing the

potential energy function of the particle, h is Plancks constant (h) divided by 2, and

131

m is a parameter representing the mass of the particle. The Schrodinger equation is

a complex, linear, homogeneous, partial dierential equation with variable coecients

(thanks to V (x, t)). It is equivalent to a pair of real, coupled, linear dierential equations

for the real and imaginary parts of as you can see by using the fact that equality of

complex numbers means separate equality of their real and imaginary parts (exercise).

The Schrodinger equation species the time evolution of a quantum mechanical par-

ticle,* thus it plays a role in quantum mechanics roughly akin to the role played by the

famous

~

F = m~a in Newtonian mechanics. While we often speak of the Schrodinger equa-

tion, strictly speaking there is no single dierential equation valid for all situations. Rather,

each potential energy function denes a Schrodinger equation appropriate to the physical

system. This is also true with

~

F = m~a in Newtonian mechanics; one uses dierent forms

for

~

F depending upon the physical situation. We also note that in some applications of

the Schrodinger equation it is useful to allow the potential energy function V to be com-

plex valued. Such potentials can be used to model processes involving particle decay. For

simplicity we shall assume that the potential energy function is real. (See the Problems

and also 15.4 for hints as to what happens when we let V be complex-valued.)

While we certaintly wont be ofering a course in quantum mechanics in this text, it is

worth commenting on the physical meaning of solutions to (15.3). The simplest use of the

wave function is via the rule that

of the particles position at time t will nd the particle in the region between x and x+dx.

More complicated expressions involving are used to give the probability distributions

for other particle observables. You will have a chance to get used to such ideas in a later

course in quantum mechanics. Fortunately, we do not really need to understand much of

quantum mechanics in order to see the basic wave phenomena embodied in the Schrodinger

equation. Still, from time to time it will be appropriate to make a few remarks concerning

the physical interpretation of some of our results.

15.2 Free Particle Solution of the Schr odinger Equation

Let us now try to understand the sense in which (15.3) is a wave equation. This is most

easily done by considering the special case V (x, t) = 0, which physically corresponds to

the motion of a free particle. Although you can probably guess solutions to this equation,

let us apply some of the techniques we have developed.

We begin with separation of variables; we try a solution of the form

(x, t) = X(x)T(t), (15.4)

* There is also a Schrodinger equation for systems of particles, not to mention even more

exotic dynamical systems. But we will stick to the simplest case of a single particle.

132

and substitute to nd (exercise):

h

2m

X

00

X

= i

T

0

T

. (15.5)

As usual, we conclude that

h

2m

X

00

= X, (15.6)

and

iT

0

= T,

where is some constant. These equations are easily solved:

X(x) = Ae

ikx

, T(t) = Be

i(k)t

, (15.7)

where k is any constant and

(k) =

hk

2

2m

. (15.8)

Note that we could have written X(x) = Ae

ikx

, but we can get both choices of sign by

choosing k positive or negative, so for simplicity we drop the . Keep in mind, though,

that for a given there are two independent solutions for X(x), namely e

i|k|x

.

Since is complex-valued, there is no obvious a priori restriction on whether k is

real or not. As it happens, physical considerations in conjunction with the principles of

quantum mechanics end up requiring k to be real in this example, so well only consider

that case. The solution

(x, t) = Ce

i(kx(k)t)

(15.9)

is then a complex form of a traveling wave (i.e., its real and imaginary parts are traveling

waves). We do not need to take the real part of , however, since the wave function

is allowed to be complex. Like the wave equation, the Schrodinger equation is linear and

homogeneous. This means that one can take linear combinations of solutions (with complex

coecients) to get new solutions a fact that has far-reaching physical consequences in

quantum mechanics. The general solution of the free particle (V (x, t) = 0) Schrodinger

equation is a familiar superposition of traveling waves:

(x, t) =

1

2

Z

C(k)e

i(kx(k)t)

dk. (15.10)

As a homework problem you will derive this same form of the solution using Fourier

transform methods.

Let us make a few comments regarding the physical meaning of (15.9) and (15.10).

Physically, the wave function (15.9) represents a free particle with momentum p = hk

and energy E = h =

h

2

k

2

2m

. Recall that

133

for nding the particle between x and x + dx. This probability is the same throughout

all space for a particle described by (15.9) because

= constant, independent of x

(exercise). Thus the particle in a state described by (15.9) has an equal chance to be

found anywhere in space. By contrast, the momentum of the particle in this state is known

with certainty to have the value hk. This state of aairs is an extreme manifestation of the

position-momentum uncertainty principle: the statistical spread in the position is inversely

proportional to that of the momentum. Thus, in particular, if the momentum is known

precisely (vanishing statistical uncertainty) then the position takes all values with equal

probability. The general solution (15.10) of the free particle Schrodinger equation, being a

superposition over plane waves, corresponds to a superposition of momenta and energies.

Because of this superposition, neither the energy or momentum of a free particle described

by (15.10) has a precise value in the sense that there is a probability distribution describing

the range of possible outcomes of a measurement of these observables.

Exercises: What choice of C(k) in (15.10) corresponds to (15.9)? What is the wavefunction

at t = 0 if we set C(k) = 1?

Equation (15.8) denes the relation between frequency and wave number (equivalently,

wavelength) for solutions of the free particle Schrodinger equation. It is the dispersion

relation for this Schrodinger equation. Compare the dispersion relation for the Schrodinger

equation with the dispersion relation (8.67) for the wave equation in one dimension. The

latter exhibits a linear relation between frequency and wave number while the former

exhibits a quadratic relation. To understand the implications of these dierent dispersion

relations let us recall that, in general, sinusoidal waves of the form Asin(kx t) travel

with speed given by /k. For the wave equation, (8.67) tells us that /k = v, i.e., the

waves travel with speed v irrespective of the frequency (or wavelength) of the wave. For

the Schrodinger equation, (15.8) tells us that

k

=

hk

2m

, (15.11)

which implies that the speed of the sinusoidal wave depends upon the wavelength.* Thus

waves with dierent wavelengths travel at dierent speeds, the shorter wavelengths having

the higher speeds (exercise). At any given time we can Fourier analyze any solution of the

free particle Schrodinger equation into a superposition of sinusoidal waves with varying

wavelengths (see (15.10)). Since each of these waves travels with a dierent speed, the

shape of the wave will not be preserved in time as it is in the case of the wave equation

* Note that this result says the sinusoidal wave speed is one half the momentum hk of the

particle divided by the mass! So one cannot interpret the free particle wave motion as

particle motion; the slogan particles are waves has to be handled with care.

134

the Schrodinger wave will in fact disperse as the shorter wavelengths outrun the

longer wavelengths (see g. 21 below). This is the origin of the term dispersion relation

for formulas such as (8.67) and (15.8).

In contrast to the wave equation, the general solution to the Schrodinger equation

involves only one undetermined complex function of one variable. We see this explicitly

in the free particle case (15.10), where the undetermined function is represented by C(k).

This reects the fact that only the initial value of the wave function (x, 0) is needed to

uniquely x the solution. Thus suppose (x, 0) = f(x), where f(x) is some given function.

Then C(k) is the Fourier transform of f(x) (exercise). According to the rules of quantum

mechanics, C(k) denes the probability amplitude for momentum, that is, C

(k)C(k)dk

is the probability for nding momentum between hk and hk + hdk. Let us illustrate this

with an example which we have already explored mathematically.

Consider the initial condition

(x, 0) = Ae

x

2

a

2

. (15.12)

Physically, this corresponds to a particle which is most likely found at the origin, but has

a non-vanishing probability to be found anywhere on the x-axis. The likelihood for nding

the particle away from the origin grows as the parameter a is increased, i.e., as the width

of the Gaussian increases. From our previous work with the Gaussian prole, you can

check that its Fourier transform is (exercise)

C(k) =

1

2

2

Aae

k

2

a

2

4

. (15.13)

C(k) (and hence |C(k)|

2

) is also a Gaussian. Evidently, the momentum is most likely to

be zero in this state, but the likelihood for nding a non-zero momentum increases as the

parameter a decreases. The probability distribution in position has its width increasing

with increasing a, while the probability distribution in momentum, has its width decreas-

ing with increasing a. This is a good example of the uncertainty principle for position

and momentum: as the probability distribution in position (momentum) becomes more

tightly localized around a given value the probability distribution in momentum (position)

becomes more de-localized. Speaking more loosely, as the position of the particle becomes

more (less) uncertain the momentum of the particle becomes less (more) uncertain.

135

Figure 21. Time dependence of the Gaussian wave-packet solution to the

Schr dinger equation. In each graph ( ) ! Re is the dashed line, ( ) ! Im is the

dotted line, and ! ! * is the solid line. Note that the time dependence is

different than for the wave equation.

10 0 10

0.5

0

0.5

1

TIME = 0

10 0 10

0.5

0

0.5

1

TIME = 1.5

10 0 10

0.5

0

0.5

1

TIME = 5

x

136

15.3 The 3-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation

The generalization of the Schrodinger equation for a particle to three dimensions in-

volves the Laplacian again:

h

2

2m

2

+ V (r, t) = ih

t

. (15.14)

Now, of course, the wave function depends on the position in three-dimensional space,

r = xi +yj +zk and the time t, = (r, t). You can easily see that this equation reduces

to (15.3) if the y and z dependence of and V are eliminated. The meaning of the wave

function is a simple extension of the 1-d result: |(r, t)|

2

d

3

x is the probability that the

particle is found in a volume element d

3

x at the point r at time t. The free particle case

(V = 0) is easily treated by separation of variables and/or Fourier methods, as you will

explore in a homework problem.

15.4 Conservation of Probability, Normalization

The Schrodinger equation admits a very important conservation law, which provides

a nice example of the continuity equation formalism we discussed earlier. To derive the

conservation law, we need both the Schrodinger equation (15.14) and its complex conjugate

h

2

2m

+ V (r, t)

= ih

t

. (15.15)

(Note: Here we have used the assumption that the potential energy is a real function.) We

can construct a continuity equation as follows. Multiply the Schrodinger equation (15.14)

by

and multiply the complex conjugate equation (15.15) by . Take the dierence of

the two resulting equations to get (exercise)

ih

t

+

h

2

2m

2

2

= 0. (15.16)

Thus, if satises (15.14) (with V real), then it also satises (15.16). Next, we recall the

identity (10.3). Let us apply (10.3) to the vector eld

:

(

) =

+

2

. (15.17)

Similarly

(

) =

2

. (15.18)

Subtracting these two results and using the fact that the dot product is commutative

(A B = B A) we get (exercise)

[

] =

2

2

. (15.19)

137

Thus the second term in parenthesis in (15.16), involving the Laplacian, can be expressed

as the divergence of a vector eld. It is straightforward to check that the rst term in

parenthesis in (15.16), involving the time derivative, can be expressed as a time derivative

(exercise):

t

+

t

=

t

(

). (15.20)

From these manipulations we see that the result (15.16) can be expressed as a continuity

equation (exercise)

t

+ j = 0 (15.21)

where

=

(15.22)

j =

ih

2m

(

). (15.23)

Note that the reality of the function V was crucial for this result. If we used a complex

potential energy this continuity equation would not arise (see problems).

We can now use our previous experience with continuity equations to derive a conser-

vation law. Recall that a continuity equation such as (15.21) implies that the time rate

of change of the volume integral of over a volume R will be controlled by the ux of j

through the boundary S of R. Thus,

N(t) =

Z

R

(r, t)(r, t) d

3

x (15.24)

satises

dN(t)

dt

=

Z

S

j ndS, (15.25)

provided, of course, that satises the Schrodinger equation (15.14). In particular, with

boundary conditions chosen so that the ux of j through S vanishes, the probability for

nding the particle in the region R will be time-independent. One says that probability

is conserved.

This conservation law allows us to normalize the solutions to the Schrodinger equation.

Recall that (r, t) d

3

x is the probability that the particle is located in an innitesimal

neighborhood d

3

x of r at time t. Suppose that the particle is restricted to a region R of

space (which may in fact be all of space). The total probability for nding the particle

anywhere in R at any given time should be unity. Thus we should demand that at any

time t Z

R

(r, t)(r, t) d

3

x = 1. (15.26)

138

One says that the wave function is normalized (to unity); this normalization is crucial

for the physical interpretation of the wave function in terms of probabilities. In particular,

the initial (say, t = 0) wave function should be normalized:

Z

R

(r, 0)(r, 0) d

3

x = 1. (15.27)

In fact, it is enough specify initial/boundary conditions such that (15.27) holds and the

wave function is guaranteed to be normalized for all time if it satises the Schrodinger

equation. Indeed, if (15.27) is satised, then with boundary conditions chosen such that

the ux of j through the boundary of R vanishes, (15.25) guarantees that (15.26) is satised

(exercise). This result is quite important since the solutions to the Schrodinger equation

are uniquely determined by the initial (normalized) wave function. If the wave function at

later times were not normalized, then the probability interpretation of quantum mechanics

would not work.

15.5 Boundary Conditions, Particle in a Box

Our argument that took us from the Schrodinger equation to the continuity equation

and to the conservation of probability relied upon using appropriate boundary conditions.

Appropriate boundary conditions for the normalization are such that the ux of j through

the boundary of the region of interest should vanish. If this region is all of space, this is

accomplished by using solutions to the Schrodinger equation such that 0 (at a fast

enough rate) as r . Physically, this corresponds to requiring that the particle never

escapes to innity (at any nite time).

It is often physically appropriate to limit the spatial domain of the particle. A common

model system used in quantum mechanics is a particle in a box. This is a model of a

particle which is conned to some nite region in space. For example, a spherical box

would be the points r < a, a = constant, and we would demand that = 0 at r a.

This means that the particle is never outside the spherical box. Let us explore a simplied

model of a particle in a box in a little more detail.

We again restrict our attention to one spatial dimension for simplicity. We consider

a free particle moving in a box in which L < x < L. We look for a solution of the

free particle Schrodinger equation that is non-zero in the box, but is zero outside the box.

Since the zero function always satises the Schrodinger equation, we have already solved

the Schrodinger equation outside the box (exercise). We will restrict our attention to solu-

tions which continuously join this exterior solution, i.e., the solutions must continuously

vanish at the walls of the box:

(L, t) = (L, t) = 0. (15.28)

139

For example, a simple function which vanishes at the boundaries x = L is

f(x) = N sin

n

L

x

, (15.29)

where N is a constant (determined by normalization) and n is an integer. We require

the particle to be somewhere, so it wont do to let = 0 everywhere. Thus we restrict

attention to n 6= 0. Let us choose this sine function to represent the initital wave function

for the particle in the box:

(x, 0) =

N sin

n

L

x

, if L x L;

0, if |x| L.

(15.30)

The constant N is determined by normalization:

Z

||

2

dx = 1.

As an exercise you should do this integral in and show that, up to a phase factor of the

form e

i

, with real,

N =

r

1

L

. (15.31)

We suppose that (15.30) is the initial wave function. To nd the solution at time t with

this initial condition, we can use Fourier analysis, but let us take the following shortcut.

We already have a very simple class of solutions obtained using the separation of variables

technique (see (15.7)). The solutions shown there do not satisfy the boundary conditions

(15.28) because the function X(x) shown there does not satisfy the boundary conditions.

However both the Schrodinger equation as well as the ordinary dierential equations sat-

ised by X and T are linear so we can build new solutions by taking linear combinations.

And it is easy to take appropriate linear combinations to get solutions which do satisfy

(15.28) (exercise). You can easily check (exercise) that with

(x, t) = X(x)T(t), (15.32)

where

X(x) =

r

1

L

sin kx, T(t) = e

i(k)t

, (15.33)

and

k =

n

L

, (k) =

hk

2

2m

(15.34)

we get a solution to the free particle Schrodinger equation that is always normalized, sat-

ises the boundary conditions (L, t) = 0, and agrees with the initial condition (15.30).

Physically, the wave function (15.32)(15.34) represents a particle with energy

E

n

=

h

2

2

2mL

2

n

2

,

140

moving in the region L x L. ( Moving is a bit misleading because the probability

distribution for position (and momentum, too) does not depend upon time (exercise). To

see time-dependent phenomena one needs to consider superpositions of wave functions with

dierent energies.)

141

- Lý thuyết sóngDiunggah olehtiktiktak
- Gauge Fields in the 5D Gravity-Scalar Standing Wave BraneworldDiunggah olehcrocoali
- 10.1.1.130.7375Diunggah olehharry37
- 4a wavesDiunggah olehapi-385938902
- wave test study guideDiunggah olehapi-241402391
- 12 Electric Potential EnergyDiunggah olehJose Galera
- qvp2003Diunggah olehkokisko
- TOWARDS A UNIFIED THEORY OF STRUCTURE AND REACTIONSDiunggah olehAnirvan Shukla
- NOE0415380416%2Ech084.pdfDiunggah olehUmed Abd-alsatar
- RIVAS_UIC__WP5_D5_1_V02_final_01Diunggah olehPedro Henriques
- TWI Ultrasonic Inspection Coursework 5Diunggah olehHassanSoboh
- Lecture 13Diunggah olehAjay Kaladharan
- Atom LightDiunggah olehdrakeequation
- Lec 2Diunggah olehkishorkumarn8212
- lec_6Diunggah olehAli Basiri
- educ0005 - science fpdDiunggah olehapi-409729360
- Chapter 35 InterferenceDiunggah olehMark Reyes
- Standing WavesDiunggah olehLandel Smith
- Paper 2 Past Questions from Units and Measurements - completedDiunggah olehUzair Malik
- science lesson 3-21-18-2Diunggah olehapi-395584259
- sdarticleDiunggah olehPhạm Hùng
- 0801888069 CrystallographyADiunggah olehMateusz Pabiszczak
- Stpm Trial 2012 Physics Qa KelantanDiunggah olehChan Q ON
- Week4Lectch16Diunggah olehAigerim Shintemirova
- AbstractDiunggah olehCassandraRobert
- 2012Science-14+- 2Diunggah oleh박찬우
- Sound Class 9Diunggah olehashmitharaja
- Aits 1819 Jeea Ft Xi Paper 1Diunggah olehGaurang Sharma
- Affiliates_2003_Sen.pdfDiunggah olehSalam AlNabulsi
- Lecture 2Diunggah olehlaura8887

- S Y ph meterDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Python BasicsDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- 4.50-F.Y.B.Sc-Physics.pdfDiunggah olehHussain Mohammad Imran
- Report WheeboxDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- G by Shunting.Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Excel TutorialDiunggah olehJuan Camilo Molano
- Python BasicsDiunggah olehAle Zan
- Python BasicsDiunggah olehIffa Nurfaizah Amatillah Imtisal
- Teachers Statute(1)Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Microcontroller Chapter1Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Microcontroller Chapter1Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- LCR parallelDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- C++ IntroductionDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Microcontroller Chapter1Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- SY Square Wave -NANDDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- MDAS Laborator 6a PrezentareDiunggah olehOvidiu
- TY Bistable MultiDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- G by Shunting.Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Excel TutorialDiunggah olehJuan Camilo Molano
- TYBSc. Physics Applied Component Electronic Instrumentation 18 19Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Ac Bridge 2016Diunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Sy -Integral CalculusDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- mcq div curl.docxDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Fy NuclearDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Diffraction Grating -using LaserDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- 5 - LinestExcel Notes on Making a Least-squares Fit to a Line in Microsoft ExcelDiunggah olehalkimia
- FY Radio McqDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Fy Nuclear ProppertiesDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor
- Lin EstDiunggah olehgeo78br
- TYCRYSTAL simple.docDiunggah olehNeelam Kapoor

- is.10810.62.1993Diunggah olehbalasekar
- zqa35Diunggah olehharde2lah
- stray voltageDiunggah olehAnonymous NGXdt2Bx
- Bake Hardening SteelDiunggah olehAnoop Kizhakath
- JGJDiunggah olehMatteo
- Experiment 1Diunggah olehLai Yen
- Isolation Artimisinin From PlantsDiunggah olehSusan Coleman
- polioli din soiaDiunggah olehLiviu Sacarescu
- An Introduction to Optimization 4th Edition Solution ManualDiunggah olehFaraz Hassan Khan
- Surge Arrester.pdfDiunggah olehChristian Vasquez Medrano
- The Making of Shadow of the ColossusDiunggah olehkeeperofwords
- LectureNote(Practical Analyses of Local Earthquakes)Diunggah olehMuhammad Irpan Kusuma
- (Modern Probability and Statistics) Nikolai G. Ushakov-Selected Topics in Characteristic Functions.-de Gruyter (2011)(1)Diunggah olehAnonymous jjYMBloAwp
- MazakCAMM2ProgrammingManualISO.pdfDiunggah olehhpdoanhung
- Surface TextureDiunggah olehsansagith
- Operation of 2 & 3 Phase-SeparatorsDiunggah olehrieza_f
- Lubriquip 20115 Calculo Req.lubricanteDiunggah olehRaul Castro
- electrical_engineering.pdfDiunggah olehMaz Yhon
- UploadDiunggah olehSalmaAn Malik
- Steel Shield 1200Diunggah olehMoin Altaf
- [PHY-111L] Fall 2017 – Experiment 1 – Temperature Dependence of Different Resistors and Diodes – Student SheetDiunggah olehRahique Shuaib
- Nsejs 2Diunggah olehTusharJindal
- Ansys Mechanical APDL lecture 5 by Haydar Alsalami from IRAQ - Hilla, studied in JNTUH - INDIA .Diunggah olehHaydar
- Passive ArchingDiunggah olehsugurpraveen
- DS_CT3106_en_co_41721Diunggah olehHatem Ragab
- Elimelech 000Diunggah olehHerik Azizi
- 16-1-34-1-10-20170711Diunggah olehFadhillah Fitria
- Ashok Final PresentationDiunggah olehAshok Gadhwal
- Carbon NanotubesDiunggah olehMohamed H. Shedid
- Parrish and Tommelein 2009 - Making Design Decisions Using Choosing by AdvantagesDiunggah olehSantiago Pacheco