Vertical Oil Well Performance

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Vertical Oil Well Performance

© All Rights Reserved

- Well Performance and Artifical Lift Rev 3
- Well Performance
- Well Performance Manual.pdf
- Petroleum Production System 2nd Ed.pdf
- UserGuides Tutorials Examples OFM 2014
- 7. Sand Control Methods
- Petroleum Production Engineering
- Outflow Performance
- Nodal Analysis
- OFM 2009 Forecast Analysis Fundamentals H A5
- Inflow Performance Relationship
- inflow performance "IPR"
- IPR Methods
- INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS (IPR) FOR SOLUTION GAS DRIVE RESERVOIRS — A SEMI-ANALYTICAL APPROACH_Thesis_TAMU_(May_2010)
- Practical Gas Lift Manual
- Golan Michael - Well Performance 2nd Ed
- History Matching
- Petroleum Reservoir Simulation Aziz
- Flowing Well Performance
- Reservoir Engineering

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st

Ed.)

1. Turbulent Flow

2. Superposition

A. Multiple Well

B. Multi Rate

C. Reservoir Boundary

1. Productivity Index (PI)

2. Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)

3. Generating IPR

A. Vogels Method

B. Vogels Method (Undersaturated Reservoirs)

These lectures presents the practical reservoir

engineering equations that are designed to predict

the performance of vertical and horizontal wells.

Also describe some of the factors that are governing the

flow of fluids from the formation to the wellbore and

how these factors may affect the production

performance of the well.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 5

The analysis of the production performance is

essentially based on the following fluid and well

characteristics:

Fluid PVT properties

Relative permeability data

Inflow-performance-relationship (IPR)

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 6

A commonly used measure

of the ability of the well to

produce is the Productivity

Index.

Defined by the symbol J,

the productivity index is the

ratio of the total liquid flow

rate to the pressure

drawdown.

For a water-free oil

production, the

productivity index is given

by:

Where

Qo = oil flow rate,

STB/day

J = productivity index,

STB/day/psi

pr = volumetric

average drainage area

pressure (static

pressure)

pwf = bottom-hole

flowing pressure

p = drawdown, psi

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 7

The productivity index is generally measured during

a production test on the well.

The well is shut-in until the static reservoir pressure is

reached.

The well is then allowed to produce at a constant flow rate of Q

and a stabilized bottom-hole flow pressure of pwf.

Since a stabilized pressure at surface does not necessarily

indicate a stabilized pwf, the bottom-hole flowing pressure

should be recorded continuously from the time the well is to

flow.

The productivity index is then calculated from:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 8

It is important to note that the productivity index is

a valid measure of the well productivity potential

only if the well is flowing at pseudosteady-state

conditions.

Therefore, in order to accurately measure the

productivity index of a well, it is essential that the well is

allowed to flow at a constant flow rate for a sufficient

amount of time to reach the pseudosteady-state.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 9

Productivity Index during Flow

Regimes

The figure

indicates that

during the

transient flow

period,

the calculated

values of the

productivity

index will vary

depending

upon the time

at which the

measurement

s of pwf are

made.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 10

The productivity index can be numerically

calculated by recognizing that J must be defined in

terms of semisteady-state flow conditions.

Recalling below Equation:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 11

Since most of the well life is spent in a flow regime

that is approximating the pseudosteady-state, the

productivity index is a valuable methodology for

predicting the future performance of wells.

Further, by monitoring the productivity index during the

life of a well, it is possible to determine if the well has

become damaged due to completion, workover,

production, injection operations, or mechanical

problems.

If a measured J has an unexpected decline, one of the indicated

problems should be investigated.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 12

A comparison of productivity indices of different

wells in the same reservoir should also indicate

some of the wells might have experienced unusual

difficulties or damage during completion.

Since the productivity indices may vary from well to well

because of the variation in thickness of the reservoir, it is

helpful to normalize the indices by dividing each by the

thickness of the well.

This is defined as the specific productivity index Js, or:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 13

Assuming that the wells

productivity index is

constant:

Where

p = drawdown, psi

J = productivity index

The Equation indicates

that the relationship

between Qo and p is a

straight line passing

through the origin with a

slope of J as shown in

Figure.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 15

Alternatively, productivity

Index Equation can be written

as:

The above expression shows

that the plot pwf against Qo is

a straight line with a slope of

(1/J) as shown schematically

in Figure.

This graphical representation

of the relationship that exists

between the oil flow rate and

bottom-hole flowing pressure

is called the inflow

performance relationship and

referred to as IPR.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 16

Several important features of the straight-line IPR

can be seen in Figure:

When pwf equals average reservoir pressure, the flow

rate is zero due to the absence of any pressure

drawdown.

Maximum rate of flow occurs when pwf is zero. This

maximum rate is called absolute open flow and referred

to as AOF.

The slope of the straight line equals the reciprocal of the

productivity index.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 17

Although in practice AOF may not be a condition at

which the well can produce,

It is a useful definition that has widespread applications

in the petroleum industry

(e.g., comparing flow potential of different wells in the field).

The AOF is then calculated by:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 18

(Qo=JP) suggests that the

inflow into a well is directly

proportional to the

pressure drawdown and

the constant of

proportionality is the

productivity index.

Muskat and Evinger (1942)

and Vogel (1968) observed

that when the pressure

drops below the bubble-

point pressure, the IPR

deviates from that of the

simple straight-line

relationship as shown in

Figure.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 19

Pressure Dependent Variables

Affecting PI

Recalling following

Equation:

Treating the term

between the two

brackets as a constant c,

the above equation can

be written in the

following form:

that the variables

affecting the

productivity index are

essentially those that

are pressure

dependent, i.e.:

Oil viscosity o

Oil formation volume

factor Bo

Relative permeability to

oil kro

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 20

Schematically Illustration of the

Variables as a Function of P

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 21

Behavior of Pressure Dependent

Variables

Above the bubble-point pressure pb

The relative oil permeability kro equals unity (kro = 1)

and the term (kro/oBo) is almost constant.

As the pressure declines below pb:

The gas is released from solution, which can cause a

large decrease in both kro and (kro/oBo).

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 22

Figure shows

qualitatively

the effect of

reservoir

depletion on

the IPR.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 23

Empirical Methods

to Predict NL Behavior of IPR

Several empirical methods are designed to predict

the non-linearity behavior of the IPR for solution

gas drive reservoirs.

Most of these methods require at least one stabilized

flow test in which Qo and pwf are measured.

All the methods include the following two computational

steps:

Using the stabilized flow test data, construct the IPR curve at

the current average reservoir pressure pr.

Predict future inflow performance relationships as to the

function of average reservoir pressures.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 24

The following empirical methods that are designed

to generate the current and future inflow

performance relationships:

Vogels Method

Wiggins Method

Standings Method

Fetkovichs Method

The Klins-Clark Method

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 25

Vogel (1968) used a computer model to generate

IPRs for several hypothetical saturated-oil reservoirs

that are producing under a wide range of

conditions.

Vogel normalized the calculated IPRs and expressed the

relationships in a dimensionless form. He normalized the

IPRs by introducing the following dimensionless

parameters:

Where (Qo) max is the flow rate at zero wellbore

pressure, i.e., AOF.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 28

Vogel plotted the dimensionless IPR curves for all the

reservoir cases and arrived at the following relationship

between the above dimensionless parameters:

Where Qo = oil rate at pwf

(Qo) max = maximum oil flow rate at zero wellbore

pressure, i.e., AOF

pr = current average reservoir pressure, psig

pwf = wellbore pressure, psig

Notice that pwf and pr must be expressed in psig.

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 29

Vogels Method for Comingle

Production of Water and Oil

Vogels method can be extended to account for

water production by replacing the dimensionless

rate with QL/(QL) max where QL = Qo + Qw.

This has proved to be valid for wells producing at water

cuts as high as 97%.

The method requires the following data:

Current average reservoir pressure pr

Bubble-point pressure pb

Stabilized flow test data that include Qo at pwf

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 30

Vogels methodology can be used to predict the IPR

curve for the following two types of reservoirs:

Saturated oil reservoirs pr pb

Undersaturated oil reservoirs pr > pb

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 31

Vogels Method:

Saturated Oil Reservoirs

When the reservoir pressure equals the bubble-

point pressure, the oil reservoir is referred to as a

saturated-oil reservoir.

The computational procedure of applying Vogels

method in a saturated oil reservoir to generate the

IPR curve for a well with a stabilized flow data

point, i.e., a recorded Qo value at pwf, is

summarized below:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 32

Vogels Method:

Saturated Oil Reservoirs (Cont.)

Step 1. Using the stabilized flow data, i.e., Qo and

pwf, calculate (Qo)max from:

Step 2. Construct the IPR curve by assuming various

values for pwf and calculating the corresponding Qo

from:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 33

Vogels Method:

Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs

Beggs (1991) pointed out that in applying Vogels

method for undersaturated reservoirs, there are

two possible outcomes to the recorded stabilized

flow test data that must be considered, as shown

schematically in next slide:

The recorded stabilized Pwf is greater than or equal to

the bubble-point pressure, i.e. pwf pb

The recorded stabilized pwf is less than the bubble-point

pressure pwf < pb

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 35

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 36

Vogels Method: Undersaturated Oil

Reservoirs (PwfPb)

Beggs outlined the following procedure for

determining the IPR when the stabilized bottom-

hole pressure is greater than or equal to the bubble

point pressure:

Step 1. Using the stabilized test data point

(Qo and pwf) calculate the productivity index J:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 37

Vogels Method: Undersaturated Oil

Reservoirs (PwfPb) (Cont.)

Step 2. Calculate the oil flow rate at the bubble-

point pressure:

Where Qob is the oil flow rate at pb

Step 3. Generate the IPR values below the bubble-

point pressure by assuming different values of pwf

< pb and calculating the corresponding oil flow

rates by applying the following relationship:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 38

Vogels Method: Undersaturated Oil

Reservoirs (PwfPb) (Cont.)

The maximum oil flow rate (Qo max or AOF) occurs

when the bottom hole flowing pressure is zero, i.e.

pwf = 0, which can be determined from the above

expression as:

It should be pointed out that when pwf pb, the

IPR is linear and is described by:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 39

Vogels Method: Undersaturated Oil

Reservoirs (Pwf<Pb)

When the recorded pwf from the stabilized flow

test is below the bubble point pressure, the

following procedure for generating the IPR data is

proposed:

Step 1. Using the stabilized well flow test data and

combining above equations, solve for the productivity

index J to give:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 40

Vogels Method: Undersaturated Oil

Reservoirs (Pwf<Pb) (Cont.)

Step 2. Calculate Qob by using:

Step 3. Generate the IPR for pwf pb by assuming

several values for pwf above the bubble point pressure

and calculating the corresponding Qo from:

Step 4. Use below Equation to calculate Qo at various

values of pwf below pb, or:

2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: Vertical Oil Well Performance 41

1. Ahmed, T. (2006). Reservoir engineering

handbook (Gulf Professional Publishing). Ch7

1. Future IPR Approximation

2. Generating IPR for Oil Wells

A. Wiggins Method

B. Standings Method

C. Fetkovichs Method

3. Horizontal Oil Well Performance

4. Horizontal Well Productivity

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