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Andy Hargreaves
Sustainable
Leadership
Welcome to
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Sustainable development
Sustainable development, democracy
and peace are indivisible as an idea
whose time has come.
Wangari Maathai
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3
Development of the term sustainability
1980 Term first coined by Lester Brown, founder of the World
Watch Institute
1987 Sustainable development defined by Brundtland Report of
the World Commission on Environment and Development
1992 Agenda 21, United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development, Rio De Janeiro systematically
addressed sustainable development
2002 United Nations Johannesburg Summit developed
practical goals for sustainable development
2005 Beginning of UN Decade of Education for Sustainable
Development
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United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable
Development 2005-2015
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5
Sustainability
Sustainability does not simply mean
whether something can last. It
addresses how particular initiatives can
be developed without compromising
the development of others in the
surrounding environment, now and in
the future.
Hargreaves& Fink 2000
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Sustainable leadership
Sustainable leadership matters, spreads
and lasts. It is a shared responsibility
that does not unduly deplete human or
financial resources, and that cares for
and avoids exerting damage on the
surrounding educational and
community environment.
Hargreaves& Fink 2003
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Sustainability
Sustainability is the capacity of a
system to engage in the
complexities of continuous
improvement consistent with deep
values of human purpose.
Fullan 2004
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Seven principles of sustainable
leadership
1 Depth
2 Endurance
3 Breadth
4 Justice
It matters
It lasts
It spreads
It does not harm
the surrounding
environment
Continued
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9
Seven principles of sustainable
leadership
5 Diversity
6 Resourcefulness
7 Conservation
It promotes
diversity &
cohesion
It conserves
expenditure
It honours the past
in creating the
future
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10
Unsustainability
Repetitive change syndrome is
Initiative overload
+
Change-related chaos
Abrahamson 2004
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Unsustainability
Imposed, short-term targets (or
adequate yearly progress)
transgress every principle of
sustainable leadership and
learning
Hargreaves& Fink 2006
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12
Principle 1: Depth
Sustainable
leadership
matters. It
preserves,
protects, and
promotes deep
and broad
learning for all in
relationships of
care for others.
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13
Nelson Mandela
The human body has an
enormous capacity for
adjusting to trying
circumstances. I have
found that one can bear
the unbearable if one
can keep ones spirits
strong even when ones
body is being tested.
Strong convictions are
the secret of surviving
deprivation: your spirit
can be full even when
your stomach is empty.
1. Depth
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Standards and Sustainability
Learning Achievement Testing
NOT
Testing Achievement Learning
Hargreaves& Fink, 2006
1. Depth
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The five pillars of learning
1. Learning to know
2. Learning to do
3. Learning to be
4. Learning to live together
UNESCO 1996
5. Learning to live sustainably
Hargreaves& Fink, 2006
1. Depth
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Basics
Old basics
Literacy
Numeracy
Obedience
Punctuality
New basics
Multiliteracy
Creativity
Communication
IT
Teamwork
Lifelong Learning
Adaptation &
Change
Environmental
Responsibility
1. Depth
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What does the doctor reply?
1. Depth
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Activity
1. Depth
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Slow schooling
starts formal learning later
reduces testing
increases curriculum flexibility
emphasizes enjoyment
doesnt hurry the child
rehabilitates play alongside purpose
Honore, 2004
1. Depth
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Principle 2: Endurance
Sustainable
leadership lasts. It
preserves and
advances the
most valuable
aspects of
learning and life
over time, year
upon year, from
one leader to the
next.
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21
Endurance
It is a common defect in men not to
consider in good weather the possibility
of a tempest
Machiavelli, 1532
All leaders, no matter how charismatic
or visionary, eventually die
Collins & Porras, 1994
Few things succeed less than leadership
succession
Hargreaves& Fink, 2006
2. Endurance
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Four Issues in Succession
1. Succession Planning
2. Succession Management
3. Succession Duration & Frequency
4. Succession and the Self
2. Endurance
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Succession Planning Patterns
Planned
(purposeful)
Unplanned
(accidental/
unintentional)
Hargreaves& Fink
2006
Continuity Discontinuity
Planned Planned
Continuity Discontinuity
Unplanned Unplanned
Continuity Discontinuity
2. Endurance
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Good succession plans
Are prepared long before leaders anticipated
departure or even from the outset of their appointment
Give other people proper time to prepare
Are incorporated in all school improvement plans
Are the responsibility of many, rather than the
prerogative of lone leaders who tend to want to clone
themselves
Are based on a clear diagnosis of the schools existing
stage of development and future needs for
improvement
Are transparently linked to clearly defined leadership
standards and competencies that are needed for the
next phase of improvement
2. Endurance
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Successful Succession Management
Distributes leadership effectively
Builds strong professional communities
Deepens and broadens the pools of leadership
talent
Establishes leadership development schools
Stresses future leadership competencies
Supports and sponsors aspiring school leaders
Replaces charismatic leadership with
inspirational leadership
Plans early for the incumbent leaders exit
Moderates and monitors leadership
succession frequency
2. Endurance
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Sound succession, strong selves, through
Availability of counselling and coaching for exiting
leaders
Quick, clear and open communication of reasons for
departure
Acceptance of emotional confusion and vulnerability
Celebration of the leaders contributions
Recognition that succession is subject to the four stages
of grief denial, awakening, reflection and execution
Confrontation of the Messiah and Rebecca myths
Prepares oneself and others early for the possibility of
succession
Hargreaves& Fink, 2006
2. Endurance
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Principle 3: Breadth
Sustainable
leadership
spreads. It
sustains as well as
depends on the
leadership of
others
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28
Professional learning community
Collaboration
Learning,
reflection
& review
Use of
evidence
Learning &
teaching
focus
Achievement
and
Engagement
3. Breadth
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Professional learning
communities arent
X Merely convivial and congenial they are
demanding and critical
X Just a collection of stilted teams looking at
data together
X Obsessed with scores and results, instead of
depth of learning
X Forced and imposed, they are facilitated and
supported
X Ways to hijack teachers to carry out
administrative agendas
3. Breadth
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Relationships
Its hard to eat something youve
had a relationship with
Hargreaves& Fullan, 1998
3. Breadth
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Distributed leadership
sees leadership practice as a product of the
interaction of school leaders, followers and their
situation.
Leadership practice involves multiple
individuals within and outside formal
leadership positions
Leadership practice is not done to followers.
Followers are themselves part of leadership
practice.
It is not the actions of individuals, but the
interactions among them that matter most in
leadership practice.
Spillane, 2005
3. Breadth
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Raising the temperature of
distributed leadership
Anarchy
Assertive distribution
Emergent distribution
Guided distribution
Progressive delegation
Traditional delegation
Autocracy
Too hot
Too cold
3. Breadth
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Principle 4: J ustice
Sustainable
leadership does no
harm to and actively
improves the
surrounding
environment by
finding ways to share
knowledge and
resources with
neighboring schools
and the local
communities.
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34
Sustainability and Social J ustice
do not steal your neighbors capacity
use multiple indicators of accountability
emphasize collective accountability
coach a less successful partner school
make a definable contribution to the
community your school is in
pair with a school in a different social or
natural environment
collaborate with your competitors
4. J ustice
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Responsible leadership
Mutual relationships among the domains
of ethical responsibility
Starratt, 2005
4. J ustice
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Principle 5: Diversity
Sustainable leadership
promotes cohesive
diversity and avoids
aligned standardization
of policy, curriculum,
assessment, and staff
development and
training in teaching and
learning. It fosters and
learns from diversity and
creates cohesion and
networking among its
richly varying
components.
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37
Differences
You learn more
from people who
are different from
you, than ones
who are the same
Hargreaves& Fullan, 1998
5. Diversity
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Networked learning communities
Share and transfer knowledge
Stimulate professional fulfilment & motivation
Capitalize on positive diversity
Provide for lateral leadership
Are evidence-informed
Promote innovation
Give teachers voice
Personalize schools as learning communities
Are flexible and resilient
Continued
5. Diversity
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Network risks
Restricted to enthusiasts
Shared delusions
Self-indulgent
Limited scale
Unaccountable
Over-regulation
Over-participation
5. Diversity
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Strong networks have
Strong branding, definite products
Clear moral purpose
Clarity, focus, discipline
Evidence informed substance
Accessibility in real and chosen time
Hacker ethic
Embedded in altered structures
Support from lateral leadership
PLCsas nodes
5. Diversity
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Networking and interaction
Paired schools
University-school
partnerships
Internet communities
Families of schools
Collaborative
accountability
Professional
networks
5. Diversity
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42
Principle 6: Resourcefulness
Sustainable
leadership develops
and does not
deplete material and
human resources. It
renews peoples
energy. Sustainable
leadership is prudent
and resourceful
leadership that
wastes neither its
money nor its
people.
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43
Energy Restraint
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Energy Renewal
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Energy Release
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46
Four Forms of Energy Renewal
1. Physical Renewal
2. Emotional Renewal
3. Intellectual Renewal
4. Spiritual Renewal
Loehr & Schwartz
6. Resourcefulness
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Energy restraint
No achievement without
investment
Shared targets, not imposed ones
Slow leading, slow learning
Time
Political continuity and stability
6. Resourcefulness
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Three Sources of Renewal
Trust
Confidence Positive emotion
6. Resourcefulness
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Three forms of trust & betrayal
Communication
Contract Competence
Hargreaves, 2002
6. Resourcefulness
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Principle 7: Conservation
Sustainable
leadership
respects and
builds on the past
in its quest to
create a better
future.
Page 83
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51
Modes of organisational
forgetting
New Knowledge
Established
Knowledge
Accidental
Purposeful
Failure to
consolidate
DISSIPATION
Failure to
maintain
DEGRADATION
Abandoned
innovation
SUSPENSION
Managed
unlearning
PURGING
DeHolan & Phillips, 2004
7. Conservation
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52
The Past, Present & Future of
Change
Acknowledge the past. Preserve the best.
Learn from the rest.
Wildness, diversity and disorder have
value.
The past is not pure. Do not romanticize it.
The past has no Golden Age to which
we should return.
We view the past differently. We
must therefore interpret it together.
When we dismiss or demean the past,
we fuel defensive nostalgia among its
bearers.
7. Conservation
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53
Three Cultures of Teaching
Veteran dominated
serves experienced teacher interests
feels exclusionary
offers few leadership opportunities
Novice orientated
surrounded by fellow novices
feels inclusive
driven by enthusiasm rather than expertise
Blended
provides mentoring
offers leadership
reciprocal learning
J ohnson et al, 2004
2. Endurance
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Stop, Start, Continue
STOP
What is less
valuable
START
What is more
valuable
CONTINUE
What remains
highly
valuable
SUBVERT
What is formally required
but threatens what is
valuable
7. Conservation
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55
Conserving the past through
Retreats that renew the vision
Audits of the organizations memories of analogous
change
Asset inventories of existing experience and knowledge
Organizational abandonment meetings
Appointments made mid-term to cultivate learning of
the culture
Storytelling to pass on wisdom
Mentoring that runs in both directions
Good written records
Creation of blended professional cultures
Creative recombination, not repetitive change
7. Conservation
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56
The Long and Short of
Sustainable Improvement
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57
RATL
A Network of Over 300 Underachieving Secondary Schools Helping
Schools
An Invitational Process to Three Annual Cohorts
A No Strings Attached Stipend of 9,000 pounds per annum
Conferences
Expert Analysis of School Achievement Data
Mentor Schools and Consultant Heads
Data-Informed Reflection and Decision Making
A Menu of Short, Medium, and Long-term Strategies
A Web Portal with a Chat Room and Discussion Forum
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58
Research Design
Individual and focus group interviews with school heads,
teachers, and policy makers
Conference attendance, site visits to schools, and
ethnographic observations of instruction
Review of pupil achievement data
Analysis of RATLs web portal
Targeted interviews of heads in the top and bottom quartiles
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59
QuickTime and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
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60
The Failures Car Park
there was a bit of a joke that were going to
have our wrists slapped because we didnt do
terribly well, and we met a whole lot of other
headteacherswho we knew who said, well,
youre in the failures car park, you know,
those sorts of things.
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61
Achievement Gains
63.2% of Cohort A Schools (141 of 224) maintained or improved
GCSE results from 2003 to 2004--an increase of 2.4% in
contrast to .8% among all secondary schools
82% of Cohort B Schools (86 of 105) maintained or improved
GCSE results from 2004 to 2005--an increase of 5.4% in
contrast to 2.9% among all secondary schools
73% of Cohort A Schools (173 of 224) maintained or improved
their performance from 2003 to 2005--an increase of 4.7%
compared to 3.7% among all secondary schools
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62
What about the schools without gains?
Leadership transitions
Leadership instability
Leadership isolation
No prior networking experience
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63
Short-Term Strategies
Providing students with test-taking strategies
Offering revision sessions after school and on weekends
Creating tutoring opportunities with peer and subject
specialists
Celebrating student accomplishments
Implementing supplementary materials using ICT
Initiating parent-teacher conferences
Providing nutrients before exams
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64
Medium-Term Strategies
Teacher mentor programs to assist struggling or coasting
colleagues to improve instruction
SAM technology learning program to track and encourage
pupil homework on challenging curricula
Data-informed assessment to target specific groups of
pupil for further study and customized interventions
School training days to enhance awareness of new
approaches to raise achievement and transforming
learning
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65
Long-Term Strategies
Organizational restructuring of a schools leadership team
Increasing student voice through Learning to Learn
Emphasizing continuing assessment and improvement
Building professional learning communities that
continuously review upon and revise instruction
Developing new strategies for creating local capacity that
include parents and other community constituencies
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66
Short Term Necessity
The new reality is that governments
have to show progress in relation to
social prioritieswithin one election
term[typically four years.] Our
knowledge base is such that there is no
excuse for failing to design and
implement strategies that get short-term
results.
Fullan, M., Leadership and Sustainability
2005.
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67
Unsustainability
Imposed, short-term targets (or
adequate yearly progress)
transgress every principle of
sustainable leadership and
learning
Hargreaves& Fink 2006
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68
The Long and Short of Change
Hargreavesand Finks Proposition
The urgency of targets is inversely
related to the degree of power
held by those responsible for
implementing them.
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69
SHORT
LONG
cynical,
opportunistic
evasive,
unaccountable
urgent,
confidence-boosting
enduring,
sustainable

+
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70
SHORT
LONG
Government-imposed
short-term
achievement targets
UN MilleniumGoals
shared targets,
quick wins
authentic transformations
In practices and beliefs

+
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71
Negative Longs
Long-term targets, such as Millenium
Goals, that are evasions of political and
corporate responsibility
Mission and vision building processes
that do not survive the leaders who
initiated them
Long-range plans that are soon made
obsolete by unanticipated events
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72
Negative Shorts
Targets that are
Imposed upon the powerless
Do not engage those responsible
for reaching them
Are politically convenient and
arbitrary
Are imposed in cultures of distrust
and fear
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73
Positive Shorts
Also demand changed behavior
among the powerful
Are collectively shared
Are inspired by cultures of trust and
hope
Build confidence to persevere with
longer term struggles
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74
Positive Longs
Promote and depend on
patience, discipline and
perseverance
Inspire people to see beyond the
present
Symbolically guide and articulate
short-term measures
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75
Happiness
Comes from
Choice, but not too much
Control over ones own destiny
Achievement of purposes along
the way
J onathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis
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76
Sustainable Leadership


























One of themost impor tant andneg lectedaspectsof leadershipi sl eaderships uccession. Schools tend to focuson improv ingschoo ls
or remakingt hem anew rather than sustaining what has been created by past leader s. Similarly, leaders rarely think about how the
improve ments they make wil l surviv e their own departur e. I n this book, Andy Hargreav es and Dean Fink examine what wekno w
about making leaders hip last andoffer sevenp rinci ples of sustainability. They provide anov ervi ew of the topi c, a summary of
research, examples of good practi ce, and guidelines for the future. This is a volume in The Jos sey-Bass Lead ershi p Library in
Educa tion, Andy Hargreaves, Consulting Editor.

This l andmark book focuses on the importa nt (but neglected) topic of leadership successioninschool s.
Offers a concise, practical, andeasy -to-read guide for the busy professio nal.
Wri tten for both aspi ring and practicingl eader s who must keep current inthi s dynamic field.

Andy Hargrea ves is co-director of the International Centre for Education al Change at the Uni versity of Toronto, and professor of
educational l eadership and change at the Univer si ty of Nottingham and the National Col lege for School L eadership in England. Dr.
Hargreav es consul ts widely in the United States, Europe, and Austr alia and is the author of numerous books including Learning to
Change . Dean Fink isprof essor of educationat theOntario I nstitute for Studiesin Educationat theUniversity of Toront o.


Jossey-Bas s, A Wiley Imprint 10475 Cr osspoint Drive, India napolis, IN 46256 PH: 800.956.7739 FX: 800.605.2665 www.jbp .com

and Learning.








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Seve n Principles of Sus tai nabi lity
Depth Learning and Integrity
Length Enduran ce and Succession
Breadth Distribution not Delegation
J ustice Others and Ou rselves
Diversity Complexity and Cohesion
Resour cefulness Restraint and Renewal
Conservation History and Legacy
ISBN: 0-7879 -6838 -2 ~ $25.00 ~ Pap er ~ 304p ~ www.jbp.com
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By Andy Har greaves and Dean Fink

Copyright Andy Hargreaves. Not to be used in professional development or other settings including publication without proper attribution
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Thank you