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Group 1 Hotties o!pi"#tio$
A"%#re&' Au(uis' De!#o' M#)t#*ir' M#!#ri' N#""#$o' R#&o' S#+so$' ,#i$o)e$

1. Describe the development of the Nervous System
T*e -or!#tio$ o- t*e $eur#" p"#te' $eur#" (roo%e' #$) $eur#" tu.e
Before the formation of the nervous system in the embryo three main cell types layers become differentiated. The
innermost layer, the e$)o)er!, give rise to the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs, and the liver. The !eso)er! gives rise
to the muscle , connective tissues and the vascular system. The third and outermost layer, the ecto)er!, formed of the
columnar epithelium, gives rise to the entire nervous system.
During the 3
week of development, ectoderm on the dorsal surface of the embryo between the primitive knot and
buccopharyngeal membrane becomes thickened to form $eur#" p"#te. The plate, which is pear-shaped and wider
cranially, develops a longitudinal $eur#" (roo%e. The groove now deepens so that it is bounded on the either side by
$eur#" -o")s.With further development ,the neural folds fuse, converting the neural groove into a neural tube. usion
starts at about the midpoint along the groove and e!tends cranially and caudally so that in the earliest stage the cavity of
the tube remains in communication of the amniotic fluid through the anterior and posterior neuropores, the anterior
neuropore closes first, and " days later the posterior neuopore closes. Thus, normally the neural tube closure is complet
wihin "# days. $eanwhile, the neural tube has sunk beneath the surface of ectoderm.
T*e pri!#r+ #$) seco$)#r+ .r#i$ %esic"es #$) t*eir #)u"t )eri%#ti%es
%rimary &esicle %rimary division 'econdary vesicles (dult 'tructure
orebrain vesicle %rosencephalon Telencephalon )erebral hemispher,
basal ganglia,
Diencephalon Thalamus,
hypothalamus, pineal
body, infundibulum
$idbrain $esencephalon $esencephalon Tectum, tegmentum.
)rus cerebri
*indbrain +hombencephalon $etencephalon,
%ons, cerebellum,
$edulla oblongata
T*e )e%e"op!e$t o- t*e spi$#" cor)' #$) .r#i$
Spi$#" cor)
The wall of the neural tube consists of single layer pseudostratified columnar epithelial cell,called the !#tri/ ce""s
$atri! cells undergo repeated divisions which results in an increase in length and diameter, $euro."#st is formed
The early neuroblasts are incapable of further division. These cells migrate to form the i$ter!e)i#te &o$e
The intermediate ,one will form the (r#+ !#tter
The neuroblast now give rise to nerve fibers that grow peripherally and form a layer e!ternal to the intermediate
,one called the !#r(i$#" &o$e
The nerve fibers in the marginal ,one become myelinated and form the 0*ite !#tter
While the neuroblast are being formed, the matri! cells also give rise to the #stroc+tes and o"i(o$)e$)roc+tes
of the neuroglia
Micro("i#" ce""s' which are derived from the surrounding mesenchyme, migrate into the developing spinal cord
along with blood vessels
Epe$)+!#" ce""s are formed from the matri! cells that line the neural tube
The cavity of the neural tube now becomes narrowed to form a dorsoventral cleft with thick lateral walls a thin
floor and roo- p"#tes
The intermediate ,one of the lateral wall of the tube forms a large anterior thickening known as .#s#" p"#te
'maller posterior thickening known as #"#r p"#te
The neuroblasts in the basal plate will form the !otor ce""s of the anterior column, while the neroblasts in the alar
plate will become the se$sor+ ce""s of the posterior column.
The motor basal plate and the sensory alar plate re sepatrated on each side by the sulcus limitans
)ontinued growth the basal plate on each side form #$terior !e)i#$ -issure
The walls of the posterior potion of the tube fuse forming posterior !e)i#$ -issure
The lumen of the neural tube becomes ce$tr#" c#$#"
-nce the neural tube closed the three primary vesicles compete their development
orebrain divides into telencephalon with its primitve cerebral hemisphere and diencephalons which develop optic
$idbrain vesicles formed the !ete$cep*#"o$, that will be future po$s #$) cere.e""u! and the
!+e"e$cep*#"o$ or !e)u""# o."o$(#t#
The cavity in early cerebral hemisphere is as "#ter#" %e$tric"e1 The cavity of the diencephalons is known as the
t*ir) %e$tric"e
The cavity of the midbrain vesicle becomes small and forms the cere.e#" e2ue)uct or e2ue)uct o- S+"%ius
The cavity of the hindbrain vesicles form the fourth bentricle, which is continous with the central can of the spinal
2. Review the organization of the Nervous System
3*#t !#4es up ce$tr#" #$) perip*er#" $er%ous s+ste! #$) t*eir co!po$e$ts
Descri.e t*e re"#tio$s*ip o- spi$#" cor) se(!e$ts to %erte.r#" i$5uries
3. Review the following regarding the neuron and its supporting cells
structure' t+pes' c"#ssi-ic#tio$ #$) ro"e
io$ic #$) e"ectric#" c*#$(es i$ $euro$ 0*e$ it is sti!u"#te)
so)iu! #$) pot#ssiu! c*#$$e"s
s+$#pse' $eurotr#$s!itters #$) $euro!o)u"#tors
T*e %#rious $euro("i#" ce""s
31611 respecti%e structure #$) -u$ctio$#" si($i-ic#$ce
. Review the peripheral nerves
/0+&0 1B0+'
1t is the name given to an a!on 2or a dendrite3 of a nerve cell
Bundles of nerve fibers found in the central nervous system are often referred to as $er%e tr#cts
Bundles of nerve fibers found in the peripheral nervous system are called perip*er#" $er%es
Two types of nerve fibers are present both in the )/' and %/'4
o M+e"i$#te)
o No$7!+e"i$#te)
Descriptio$ o- co!po$e$ts #$) -or!#tio$ o- !+e"i$
M+e"i$#te) Ner%e 8i.ers
1t is surrounded by a myelin sheath
$yelin sheath is not part of the neuron but is formed by a supporting cell
o )/' 5 o"i(o)e$)roc+te
6 oligodendrocyte478 nerve fibers
o %/' 5 Sc*0#$$ ce""
6 'chwann cell46 segment of nerve fiber
o $yelin sheath is a segmented, discontinuous layer interrupted at regular intervals by the No)es
o- R#$%ier
No$!+e"i$#te) Ner%e 8i.ers
'maller a!ons of the )/'
%ostganglionic a!ons of the autonomic part of the nervous system
'ome fine sensory a!ons associated with the reception of pain are nonmyelinated
1n the %/',
o 0ach a!on indents the surface of the schwann cell so that it lies within a trough
o (s many as 6. or more a!ons may share a single schwann cell
o 'ometimes troughs are deep forming the mesa!on
o 'chwann cells lie close to one another along the length of the a!ons and there are no nodes of
1n the )/',
o /onmyelinated nerve fibers run in small groups and are not particularly related to the

$yelin sheaths begin to form before birth and during the first year postnatally
1n the %/',
o /erve fiber or a!on first indents the side of the 'chwann cell
o 0!ternal plasma membrane of the 'chwann cell forms the a !es#/o$
o 'chwann cell rotates on the a!on so that the plasma membrane becomes wrapped around and
around the a!on
o Wrappings become tight with maturation of the nerve fiber
o 0ach lamella measures 63 to 6#mm thick
Dark !#5or )e$se "i$e
9ight !i$or )e$se "i$e
o 1ncisures of 'chmidt-9anterman are seen on longitudinal sections of myelinated nerve fibers
o +epresent areas where dark makor dense line is not formed as a result of the locali,ed
persistence of 'chwann cell cytoplasm.
1n the )/',
o -ligodendrocytes are responsible for the formation of the myelin sheaths
o %lasma membrane of the oligodendrocytes becomes wrapped around the a!on and the number
of layers will determine the thickness of the myelin sheath
o /odes of +anvier are situated in the intervals between ad:acent oligodendrocytes
6 oligodendrocyte may be connected to the myelin sheaths fo as many as 78 nerve fibers
*ence, the process of myelination in the )/' cannot take place by rotation of the
oligodendrocyte on the a!on
$yelination in )/' occurs by the growth in length of the process of the oligodendrocyte.
$;091/(T1-/ 1/ T*0 %0+1%*0+(9 (/D )0/T+(9 /0+&-<' ';'T0$
Loc#tio$ e"" Respo$si."e Nu!.er o- Ner%e
-i.ers ser%e) .+
No)es o-
%eripheral nerve 'chwann cell 6 %resent %resent %resent
)/' tract -ligodendrocyte <p to 78 %resent %resent (bsent
)lassification of nerve fibers
)omposed of the cranial and spinal nerves
0ach consists of parallel bundles which may be4
o (fferent or efferent a!ons
o $yelinated or nonmyelinated
/erve trunk is surrounded by a dense connective tissue sheath called the epi$euriu!
Within the sheaths are bundles of nerve fibers, each of which is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
called the peri$euriu! .
Between the individual nerve fibers is a loose, delicate connective tissue referred to as the e$)o$euriu!
)onnective tissue sheaths serve to support the nerve fibers and their associated blood vessels and lymph
Spi$#" Ner%es #$) Spi$#" Roots
31 p#irs o- spi$#" $er%es
o leaves via the spinal cord and pass through the intervertebral foramina in the vertebral column
0ach spinal nerve is connected to the spinal cord by t0o roots:
o A$terior root
)onsists of bundles of nerve fibers carrying nerve impulses away from the central nervous
/erve fibers are called e--ere$t -i.ers
o 9osterior root
)onsists of bundle of nerve fibers carrying nerve impulses to the central nervous system
These nerve fibers are called #--ere$t -i.ers
They are called se$sor+ -i.ers because they convey information to the central nervous system
)ell bodies of these nerve fibers are situated in a swelling on the posterior root called the posterior root
r#$i#" Ner%es
16 p#irs o- cr#$i#" $er%es
o 9eaves the brain and pass through the foramina in the skull
'ome nerves are composed entirely of #--ere$t $er%e -i.ers .ri$(i$( se$s#tio$s to t*e .r#i$
o -lfactory
o -ptic
o &estibulocochlear
-thers are co!pose) e$tire"+ o- e--ere$t -i.ers
o -culomotor
o Trochlear
o (ducent
o (ccessory
o *ypoglossal
The remainder possess both #--ere$t #$) e--ere$t -i.ers
o Trigeminal
o acial
o =lossopharyngeal
o &agus
)9(''11)(T1-/ - /0+&0 1B0+' B; '%00D )-/D<)T1-/ (/D '1>0 t+pe o$)uctio$
%e"ocit+ )i#!eter 8u$cito$s M+e"i$
( fibers
$otor, skeletal muscle
'ensory, touch, pressure, vibration
$uscle spindle
%ain 2sharp, locali,ed3, temperature, touch
B fibers 3-6. A3 %reganglionic autonomic ;es
) fibers 8..-".8 8.@-6." %ain 2diffuse, deep3, temperature,
postganglionic autonomic
Descriptio$ o- se$sor+ #$) #uto$o!ic (#$("i#
Se$sor+ G#$("i#
'ame structures4
o %osterior spinal nerve roots
o Trunks of the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal cranial nerves
0ach ganglion is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue that is continuous with the epineurium and
perineurium of the peripheral nerve
/eurons are u$ipo"#r
)ell bodies are rounded or oval in shape
)ell bodies tend to aggregate and separate by bundles of nerve fibers
0ach nerve cell body is closely surrounded by a layer of flattened cells called c#psu"#r ce""s or s#te""ite
)apsular cells are continuous with the schwann cells as they envelope the peripheral and central
processes of each neuron
Auto$o!ic G#$("i# 2sympathetic and parasympathetic3
'ituated at a distance from the brain and spinal cord
ound in the sympathetic trunks and in prevertebral autonomic ple!uses
/eurons are !u"tipo"#r
)ell bodies are irregular in shape
Dendrites of the neurons make synaptic connections with the myelinated a!ons of preganglionic neurons
(!ons of the neurons are of small diameter and unmyelinated
o %ass to viscera, blood vessels and sweat glands
0ach nerve cell body is closely surrounded by a layer of flattened cells called c#psu"#r or s#te""ite ce""s
Descriptio$ o- receptors #$) t+pes #$) #ssoci#te) -u$ctio$s: e--ector e$)i$(s
'ensory receptors can be classified into ; .#sic -u$ctio$#" t+pes4
o Mec*#$oreceptors
respond to mechanical deformation
o T*er!oreceptors
+espond to changes in temperature
'ome receptors respond to cold and others to heat
o Nociceptors
+espond to any stimuli that bring about damage to the tissue
o E"ectr!#($etic receptors
'ensitive to changes in light intensity and wavelength
o *e!oreceptors
+espond to chemical changes associated with taste and smell and o!ygen and carbon
dio!ide concentrations in the blood
(natomical types of +eceptors
o (ccording to structure4
No$ec#psu"#te) receptors
ree /erve 0ndings
$erkelBs Disc
*air follicle receptors
E$c#psu"#te) receptors
$eissnerBs corpuscles
%acinian corpuscles
+uffiniBs corpuscles
)9(''11)(T1-/ (/D )-$%(+1'1-/ - +0)0%T-+ T;%0'
T+pe o- receptor Loc#tio$ Sti!u"us Se$sor+
A)#pt#.i"it+ Ner%e
No$e$c#psu"#te) receptors
ree nerve endings
$erkelBs disc
*air follicle receptors
0pidermis, cornea, gut,
dermis, ligaments, :oint
capsules, bone, dental
pulp, periosteum,
tympanic membrane
*airless skin
*airy skin
%ain 2fast3,
pain 2slow3,
pressure, C
heat and cold
( delta
( beta
( beta
E$c#psu"#te) receptors
$eissnerBs corpuscles
2enables and individual
to distinguish between
two pointed structures
when they are placed
close together on the
%acinian corpuscles
+uffiniBs corpuscles
Dermal papillae of skin
of palm and sole of
foot, skin of the nipple
and e!ternal genitalia
Dermis, ligaments, :oint
capsules, peritoneum,
pleura, nipples,
e!ternal genitalia
Dermis of hairy skin
( beta
( beta
( beta
Neuro!uscu"#r spi$)"es 'keletal muscle $echanoreceptor 'trech-
ast ( alpha
( beta
Neurote$)i$ous spi$)"es Tendons $echanoreceptor )ompression
ast ( alpha
Neuro!uscu"#r spi$)"es <!uscu"#r spi$)"es=
ound in skeletal muscle and are most numerous toward the tendious attachment of the muscle
They provide sensory information that is used by the central nervous system in the control of muscle
Within the capsule are 7 to 6@ slender i$tr#-us#" !usc"e -i.ers
o T0o t+pes o- i$tr#-us#" -i.ers:
Nuc"e#r .#( -i.ers
+ecogni,ed by the presence of numerous nuclei in the eDuatorial region
)ross-striations are absent in this region
Nuc"e#r c*#i$ -i.ers
/uclei form a single longitudinal row or chain in the center of each fiber at the
eDuatorial region
9arger in diameter than the nuclear bag fibers
-rdinary muscle fibers situated outside the spindles are referred to as e/tr#us#" -i.ers
Two types of sensory innervation of muscle spindles4
o A$$u"ospir#" e$)i$(s
'ituated at the eDuator of the intrafusal fibers
o 8"o0er spr#+ e$)i$(s
'ituated mainly on the nuclear chain fibers some distance away from the eDuatorial
'tretching of the intrafusal fibers result in stimulation of the annulospiral and flower spray endings, and
nerve impulses pass to the spinal cord in the afferent neurons 2Stretc* re"-"e/3
unctions of the neurospindle fibers
o <nder resting conditions they give rise to afferent nerve impulses all the time
o When muscle activity occurs, the intrafusal fibers are stretched and there is an increase in the
rate of passage of nerve impulses to the spinal cord or brain in the afferent neurons.
o 1t is important in keeping the )/' informed about muscle activity, thereby indirectly influencing
the control of voluntary muscle
Neurote$)i$ous spi$)"es <Go"(i te$)o$ or(#$s=
present in tendons and are located near the :unctions of tendons with muscles
each spindle consists of a fibrous capsule that surrounds a small bundle of loosely arranged tendon
2collagen3 fibers 2intrafusal fibers3.
Tendon cells are larger and more numerous than those found elsewhere in the tendon
/erve endings are activated by being sDuee,ed by the ad:acent tendon fibers
Detects changes in muscle tension
unctions of the neurotendinous spindles4
o 1ncreased muscle tension stimulates the neurotendinous spindles and an increased number of
nerve impulses reach the spinal cord through the afferent nerve fibers
o +efle! is inhibitory and inhibits muscle contraction
o 1t provides the )/' with information that can influence voluntary muscle activity
our types of sensory endings
Three of these endings are encapsulated and resemble pacinian, +uffiniBs and tendon stretch receptors
o They provide the central nervous system with information regarding the position and movements
of the :oint
ourth type of ending is nonencapsulated
o 'ensitive to e!cessive movements and to transmit pain sensations
'keletal muscle
Der!#to!e #$) i$$er%#tio$ o- t*e .o)+
Descriptio$ o- respo$se o- $euro$s #$) processes to i$5ur+