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Test Method for Integrity Testing of Concrete

Deep Foundations by Ultrasonic Crosshole Testing


SLP d.o.o. LJUBLJANA, Ljubljana, SLOVENIA, Ivan LESJAK,B.Sc.Civ.Eng.
NBC Univerzing d.o.o., Beograd, SERBIA, Nikola CVIJANOVI,B.Sc.Civ.Eng.

Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) verifies the integrity of drilled shafts.
Drilled shafts are prepared for integrity testing by CSL during their construction, by installation of at
least three tubes of 2 inch inside diameter. These tubes are usually attached to the reinforcement cage
along the full length of the shafts. After concrete has been poured, the tubes are filled with water.
SLP and NBC Engineers perform cross hole sonic logging with the Cross-Hole Analyzer (CHA).
Starting at the bottom of the shaft, a transmitter emits an ultrasonic signal in one tube. The signal is
sensed some time later by the receiver in another tube. Poor concrete between the tubes will delay or
completely disrupt the signal. The Engineer moves the sensors (transmitter and receiver) some
distance upward along the shaft and the process repeated until the entire shaft length is scanned. The
Engineer repeats the test for each pair of tubes, allowing for the investigation of defects both along
the length and by quadrant.

Figure 1 - Data Acquisition Screen
z vodo
<0.5m 1.0<D<1.5m 0.5<D<1.0m

SLP performs this foundation integrity test in accordance with ASTM D6760-08 - Standard Test Method
for Integrity Testing of Concrete Deep Foundations by Ultrasonic Crosshole Testing.

Concrete quality in relationship with wave speed
Concrete quality Impact wave speed in concrete (m/s)
bad < 2700
acceptable 2700 3300
good 3300 3800
very good 3800 - 4000
excellent 4000 - 4200
not possible in normal conditions >4200

Cross Hole Sonic Logging Cross Hole Sonic Logging
Stress Waves, emi tted Stress Waves, emitted
i n one tube are received in one tube are received
in another one i f concrete i n another one if concrete
qual ity is sati sfactory qual ity i s satisfactory
Recei ve Receive Transmi t Transmit

Signal travel time includes
1. transmitter response
2. signal travels through transmitter wall
3. signal travels through water
4. signal travels though tube
5. signal travels through concrete
6. signal travels through receiver tube
7. signal travels through water
8. signal travels through receiver wall
9. signal generates receiver response

CSL Rating Scale for Shaft Integrity
A CSL log shall be presented for each tube pair. The rating of the shaft integrity considers the increases in
first arrival time (FAT) or alternatively wave speed (WS) decrease.

While the Engineer may adopt any evaluation method and select tolerance or thresholds for FAT the following
criteria for evaluation of the concrete from the CSL test may be considered as starting CSL Rating Scale for
Shaft Integrity.

CSL Rating Scale for Shaft Integrity
(G) (Good) FAT increase 0 to 10%
(Q) (Questionable) FAT increase 11 to 20%
(P/F) (Poor/Flaw) FAT increase 21 to 30% or
(P/D) (Poor/Defect) FAT increase >31%


CSL Rating Scale for Shaft Integrity
(G) (Good) WS decrease 0 to 10% WS >= 3600 m/s
(Q) (Questionable) WS decrease 11 to 20% WS >= 3200 m/s
(P/F) (Poor/Flaw) WS decrease 21 to 30% or WS >= 2800 m/s
(P/D) (Poor/Defect) WS decrease >31% WS >= 2760 m/s