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Distribution

True 6 Phase

Winding

Distribution

1

2

3

4

5

6

Quasi 6 Phase

Winding

Distribution

made from two

3-phase

windings

30 deg phase

shift between

two 3-phase

sets

Analysis and Performance Assessment of 6-pulse

Inverter-Fed 3-Phase and 6-phase Induction machines

David G Dorrell

Dept of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

The University of Glasgow

Glasgow, G12 8LT, UK

d.dorrell@elec.gla.ac.uk

C. Y. Leong and R. A McMahon

Dept of Engineering

The University of Cambridge

Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK

cyl28@eng.cam.ac.uk and ram1@eng.cam.ac.uk

Abstract The paper describes a model for a 6-phase induction

motor driven by an inverter operating in a 6-pulse (square wave)

mode. The model is implemented and performance, in terms of

torque, current, efficiency and pulsating torque, compared to the

performance of a 3-phase motor (both sine and 6-pulse supplied).

The models are verified experimentally, in particular the

efficiency performance, and it is illustrated that the improvement

in inverter efficiency when in 6-pulse operating mode may

improve the performance of the overall system.

Keywords 6-phase induction motor,inverter, 6-pulse operation

I. INTRODUCTION

Six phase induction motors have received some attention in

the past [1-7] and they can offer the opportunity to spread the

load across more half bridge sections so that the device ratings

can be decreased; in terms of motor magnetics they can

increase the winding factor slightly. They have some

interesting characteristics when compared to standard induction

motors; the two most notable are the fact that the phases have

to be distributed around 180 degrees to avoid phases being

opposite each other (where they are then essentially the same

phase) and that if the voltage supply contains time harmonics

then the 5th , 7th, 15th 17th, etc, time harmonics have a short-

circuited magnetizing reactance in the fundamental per-phase

equivalent circuit. The former point is illustrated in Fig 1 for

clarity while the latter point (which was first reported by Jahns

[2] and recently used in another paper [8]) is illustrated by the

equivalent circuits shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The latter point is

relevant if the motor is supplied from an inverter which is

operating in square wave (180 degree conduction period) mode

which produces 6-pulse operation across the phase winding in

a star-connected induction motor and a quasi square-wave

across the windings of a delta-connected machine. While the

efficiency of an induction motor (either 3 or 6 phase) decreases

when moving from sine wave to square wave operation it is

shown in this paper that this is not a large decrease and that

moving from a PWM strategy to a square wave control strategy

can reduce inverter switching losses and, in fact, may lead to a

higher overall system efficiency. The increase in inverter

efficiency, using simple square-wave operation rather than

sine-wave PWM, was reported in [9]; and further discussion of

this will be offered in the full paper. This was verified using

calorimetric measurements [10].

Fig. 1 Three phase and six phase spatial representation

IAS 2005 492 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

Fig. 2 Three-phase and quasi six-phase equivalent circuit for voltage

harmonics but neglecting higher space harmonics

Fig 3 Quasi 6-phase connection when k = 5, 7, 17, 19, etc. when

neglecting space harmonics

II. MOTOR ANALYSIS

The paper will give a description of the motor in terms of a

mathematical model. A modeling technique is put forward that

includes both voltage time harmonics due to the use of 6 pulse

(square wave) excitation and motor space harmonics due to

MMF harmonics in the windings. This is a development on the

work in [8] where only the fundamental MMF waves for each

voltage time harmonics was included.

A. Voltage Harmonics

There are two options for connecting the quasi 6-phase

winding either double star or double delta. If a double star is

used then the phase windings will experience a six-pulse

voltage waveform if the conduction period of the inverter is

180 degrees, whereas if the winding is a double delta

connection then the phase windings will experience a quasi

square-wave voltage, with 120 degree conduction period,

when the inverter conduction period is again 180 degrees. For

the delta connection, the Fourier decomposition of the voltage

across one motor phase and centred on the reference axis is

( )

( ) ( )

Set 1

Phase A

2 3

( ) cos 6 1

1 6

DC

k S

V

V t n t

n

(1)

where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc., k = 6n 1 when n > 0 and k = 1

when n = 0 . This gives k = 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, etc. For the star

connection

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Set 1

Phase A

2

( ) cos 6 1

1 1 6

DC

k S n

V

V t n t

n

=

(2)

The total voltage is then

Set 1

Phase A

1

( ) Re

s

jk t

k

k

V t V e

=

=

(3)

For the voltages in the same 3-phase set

2

Set 1

3

Phase B

1

1

( ) Re

Re

s

s

jk

jk t

k

k

jk t k

k

k

V t V e e

V e a

=

=

=

(4)

and

2

Set 1

3

Phase C

1

1

( ) Re

Re

s

s

jk

jk t

k

k

jk t k

k

k

V t V e e

V e a

=

=

=

(5)

We are using the operator a where

2

3

j

a e

= . For a 3-phase

balanced set we find that the forwards and backwards rotating

sets are defined by

1

1

Forwards rotating set

= Backwards rotating set

a 1 Zero order (no current harmonic)

k

k

k

a a

a a

=

=

When we look at the 3-phase harmonic sets defined by (3), (4)

and (5) we find that we have forwards-rotating sets when k =

1, 7, 13, 19, etc., and backwards-rotating sets when k = 5, 11,

17, etc.

For Set 2 (when we are using a 6-phase arrangement) the

voltages are rotated through 30 electrical degrees (as can be

seen in Fig. 1) so that

Set 2

6

Phase A

1

1

( ) Re

Re

s

s

jk

jk t

k

k

jk t k

k

k

V t V e e

V e b

=

=

=

(6)

where we introduce the operator

6

j

b e

= . If the supply

frequency is f

S

then the harmonic frequency f

k

= kf

S

. Similar

equations exist for Phases B and C for Set 2:

B. Winding Harmonics

Phase A of a 3-phase harmonic winding can be denoted as

( )

Phase A

Set 1

m

( ) cos( )

2

jm jm m

m

N

n N m e e

= = + (7)

where is electrical angle. Phases B and C are:

( )

Phase B

Set 1

m

2 2

3 3

2

'

' ' 3

'

'

2

( ) cos

3

2

2 2

m

jm jm

m

jm

m jm m m

m m

m m

n N m

N

e e

N N

e a e

=

=

=

=

= +

= =

(8)

and

R

c

V

k

jk

s

L

1

R

1

I

1 k I'

2k

I

m k

I

c k

R'

2

s

k

jk

s

L

m

jk

s

L

2

V

k

jk

s

L

1

R

1

I

1 k

IAS 2005 493 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

( )

Phase C

Set 1

m

2 2

3 3

2

'

' ' 3

'

'

2

( ) cos

3

2

2 2

m

jm jm

m

jm

m jm m m

m m

m m

n N m

N

e e

N N

e a e

+ +

+

=

=

= +

= +

= =

(9)

These equations are valid for the 3 phase machine and Set 1 of

the 6 phase machine. For Set 2 in the 6 phase machine

Phase A

' ' Set 2

m

'

( ) cos

12 2

m jm m

m

m m

N

n N m b e

=

= =

(10)

( )

Phase B

' ' ' Set 2

m

'

( )

2

m m jm m

m m

N

n b a e

=

= (11)

( )

Phase C

' ' ' Set 2

m

'

( )

2

m m jm m

m m

N

n b a e

=

= (12)

Fig 4 Per-phase equivalent circuit for fundamental time harmonic but

including higher harmonics

C. MMF generation

If we assume that there are currents of suitable frequency

then the MMF for the 3-phase machine is:

( )

( )

3

Phase Phase

1

' ' '

' 1

( , ) ( ) ( )

Re 1

2

s

Ph

j kw t m m k m k m

k

m k

MMF t n i t

N

a a a a I e

=

= =

=

= + +

(13)

When this is analyzed we obtain the usual spatial relationships

for sinusoidal excitation (m harmonics for k = 1) with the

harmonics existing for m = 1, -5, 7, -11, 13, etc. This is

illustrated in Fig 4 which gives the equivalent circuit including

the 5

th

and 7

th

spatial MMF harmonics. If the rotor equivalent

resistance blocks the circuit at a slip greater than 1 then it is a

backwards rotating field whereas if it is less than 1 then it is a

forwards rotating field. However, for the higher time

harmonics (k > 1) then there exists other sets of spatial MMF

harmonics and this leads to quite a complex double series to

analyze. For example, for k = 5 spatial MMF waves exist for

m = -1, 5, -7, 11, -13, etc. It is more straightforward to state

the synchronous speeds in Table 1. If the synchronous speed is

negative then the torque is negative in the first quadrant; if the

synchronous speed is positive then the torque contribution is

positive when sub-synchronous and negative super-

synchronous.

TABLE I. 3-PHASE SYNCHRONOUS SPEEDS FOR TIME AND SPACE

HARMONICS

Spatial harmonic m

(s = supply frequency (rad/sec and p = pole pair number)

Time

Har

k

1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25

1

s

p

5

s

p

7

s

p

11

s

p

13

s

p

17

s

p

19

s

p

23

s

p

25

s

p

5

5

s

p

s

p

5

7

s

p

5

11

s

p

5

13

s

p

5

17

s

p

5

19

s

p

5

23

s

p

5

s

p

7

7

s

p

7

5

s

p

s

p

7

11

s

p

7

13

s

p

7

17

s

p

7

19

s

p

7

23

s

p

7

25

s

p

11

11

s

p

11

5

s

p

11

7

s

p

s

p

11

13

s

p

11

17

s

p

11

19

s

p

11

23

s

p

11

25

s

p

13

13

s

p

13

5

s

p

13

7

s

p

13

11

s

p

s

p

13

17

s

p

13

19

s

p

13

23

s

p

13

25

s

p

17

17

s

p

17

5

s

p

17

7

s

p

17

11

s

p

17

13

s

p

s

p

17

19

s

p

17

23

s

p

17

25

s

p

19

19

s

p

19

5

s

p

19

7

s

p

19

11

s

p

19

13

s

p

19

17

s

p

s

p

19

23

s

p

19

25

s

p

23

23

s

p

23

5

s

p

23

7

s

p

23

11

s

p

23

13

s

p

23

17

s

p

23

19

s

p

s

p

23

25

s

p

25

25

s

p

5

s

p

25

7

s

p

25

11

s

p

25

13

s

p

25

17

s

p

25

19

s

p

25

23

s

p

s

p

If a 6 phase winding is used then the MMF breaks down into

( )

( )

( )

( )

Phase Phase 2 3

Set Set

1 1

'

' ' '

' 1

' '

( , ) ( ) ( )

1

Re 1

2

1

s

Set Ph

m k

j kw t m m k m k m

k

m k

m k m k

MMF t n i t

b b

N

a a b b I e

a a b b

= =

= =

=

+

= + +

+ +

(14)

This time if m- k = 6n (where n is an integer) then

IAS 2005 494 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

(1 + b

m

b

-k

) = 0 or 2 (15)

depending on whether n is odd or even. In essence, if n is odd

then the MMF from Set 2 cancels the MMF from Set 1. If n is

even or zero then the MMF from the two sets add. Addressing

the non-zero MMFs seen in the 3-phase analysis and applying

the extra 6-phase MMF cancellation criterion; if k = 1, 13, 25

etc then m = 1, -5, 7, -11, 13, -23, 25, etc, in which case the

zero criterion is met when m = -5, 7, -17, 19, etc. If k = 7, 19,

etc. then the same series for m exists but this time the zero

criterion is met when m = 1, -11, 13, -23, 25, etc. In addition,

with k = 11, 23 etc then m = -1, 5, -7, 11, -13, 23, -25, etc,

which gives zero results for all m = 5, -7, 17, -19, etc and k =

5, 17, etc then the zero criterion is met when m = -1, 11, -13,

23, -25, etc. If a zero result is returned in (15) then the

magnetizing reactance for that space-time harmonic is short-

circuited. Table II illustrates the time and space harmonics. In

the introduction it was discussed that the previous literature

assumes that the MMF was sinusoidal so that the higher MMF

space harmonics, as illustrated in Fig. 4, could be neglected.

From this analysis we can glean that the per-phase equivalent

circuit in Figs. 2 and 3 are not quite correct. In Fig. 2, we can

add in space harmonics for m = 11, 13, 23, 25, etc. and in Fig.

3 there will be space harmonics for m = 5, 7, 17, 19, etc. In

effect, there will be additional blocking capacity in the rotor

circuit for the cases where k = 5, 7, 17, 19, etc due to the space

harmonics. This is a development from the theory put forward

by the authors in [8].

Fig 5 One phase of a distributed 3-phase winding

Fig 6 One phase of a concentrated 3-phase winding to represent the

quasi 6-phase machine

TABLE II. 6-PHASE SYNCHRONOUS SPEEDS FOR TIME AND SPACE

HARMONICS

Spatial harmonic m

(s = supply frequency (rad/sec and p = pole pair number)

Time

Har

k

1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25

1

s

p

s/c s/c

11

s

p

13

s

p

s/c s/c

23

s

p

25

s

p

5 s/c

s

p

5

7

s

p

s/c s/c

5

17

s

p

5

19

s

p

s/c s/c

7 s/c

7

5

s

p

s

p

s/c s/c

7

17

s

p

7

19

s

p

s/c s/c

11

11

s

p

s/c s/c

s

p

11

13

s

p

s/c s/c

11

23

s

p

11

25

s

p

13

13

s

p

s/c s/c

13

11

s

p

s

p

s/c s/c

13

23

s

p

13

25

s

p

17 s/c

17

5

s

p

17

7

s

p

s/c s/c

s

p

17

19

s

p

s/c s/c

19 s/c

19

5

s

p

19

7

s

p

s/c s/c

19

17

s

p

s

p

s/c s/c

23

23

s

p

s/c s/c

23

11

s

p

23

13

s

p

s/c s/c

s

p

23

25

s

p

25

25

s

p

s/c s/c

25

11

s

p

25

13

s

p

s/c s/c

25

23

s

p

s

p

III. SIMULATION

In this simulation we will assume that the only space

harmonics of any significance are the 5

th

, 7

th

, 11

th

, 13

th

, 23

rd

and 25

th

. We can consider that for each voltage harmonic there

is a shaft machine which allows us to split the analysis up so

that each harmonic is treated in a standard fashion, we will

simulate the operation of both the 3-phase and 6-phase

machine. We can then extract the current as a set of harmonics

with magnitude and phase and then reconstruct the current

waveform for comparison to the measured.

By inspection of (14) and comparison of Tables I and II it

can be seen that we can actually use a 3-phase simulation

package to obtain results, or at least to obtain the equivalent

circuit parameters, and short-circuit the space harmonics. For

a standard package, a simulation has to be run for each time

harmonic where the voltage and frequency is set for each.

Here, we will use PC-IMD from the SPEED laboratory,

University of Glasgow, UK. In the case of the machine we are

using here, it is a 4 pole machine with 24 slots and a single

layer winding so that for 3-phase connection there are 2 coils

per pole-pair per phase as shown in Fig. 5. For 6-phase

winding this is 1 coil per pole-pair per phase However, (14)

IAS 2005 495 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

illustrates that Set 2 has the same MMF alignment as Set 1,

which are concentrated windings. Therefore we can represent

the 6 coils of Set 2 in the 6 phase machine as a parallel set of

coils to the 6 coils in Set 1. We then end up with only 12 slots

being used; this is shown in Fig 6. However adjustments must

be made here to correct the phase resistance, phase leakage

reactance and shorted harmonic winding reactances. The

resistance of the phases in the 6 phase arrangement has to be

doubled to that of the 3-phase pseudo arrangement and the

slot leakage is incorrect. If we assume slot leakage is a square

of the turns then there is no change here because of the

parallel paths. The simulation assumes separate coils so that

no change in end winding reactance is required. However, in

terms of the pseudo calculation, the slot permeance should be

halved to remove the mutual inductance in the simulation; the

slot reactance should then be doubled when extracting the

values.

If we assumed that the MMF harmonic content is minimal

then we can simply sum the results from the simulation of each

shaft machine and that is what the Authors carried out in [8]

with fair results in terms of the current waveform correlation. A

full set of tests and machine data were not available however

these have now been carried out and the machines

disassembled to get a more complete specification. To include

the space harmonics, the equivalent circuit parameters have to

be extracted and then a simulation conducted with the correct

shorted harmonic reactances. The results from the simulations

are put forward in the results section for comparison to the

measurements.

Experience suggests that the correct harmonics to include

are the 5

th

, 7

th

, 11

th

, 13

th

and also the harmonics either side of

stator slot number, i.e., the 23

rd

and 25

th

harmonics [12]. In

[8], space harmonics were not included in the 6-phase square-

wave machine with only the fundamental MMF wave being

considered. While fair agreement was found this was only

obtained when a 9mH line inductance was included to cover

stray and inverter inductance. In reality, the inverters were

voltage fed and these inductances could not be traced. With

the inclusion of the MMF space harmonics, the additional

inductance was not needed since the stray inductance was in

fact the inductance due to the MMF space harmonics.

The simulation of the 6-phase and 3-phase machines with 6-

pulse operation required the writing of a special MATLAB

script which broke the voltage down into the correct harmonic

components and called, using Active-X, PC-IMD for each

shaft machine. The correct input powers, output powers,

torque were extracted (remembering that some harmonic

voltages rotate forwards and some backwards) and summed.

The current waveform was then reconstructed so that it could

be compared to the measured waveform. The 3-phase

simulation was carried out directly using PC-IMD.

One point that had to be address is that the core loss

resistance was only present in the fundamental frequency

shaft machine as shown in Fig. 4. It was set to a very high

value in the higher harmonic voltage shaft machines in PC-

IMD to negate the effect. Obviously the effect of the harmonic

currents on iron losses needs further work but it is envisaged

that this is a stray loss of small magnitude, and this is verified

in the experimental results.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE

Two identical 4-pole machines were used in the

experimental work however one was rewound as illustrated in

Fig. 7. The 3-phase machine (on the left) has a distributed 3-

phase winding with 57 turns per coil and 12 coils. There are 4

series-connected coils per phase with a wire diameter of 0.6

mm. The 6-phase winding also has 12 coils with 2 series-

connected coils per phase. Each coil has 110 turns formed

from two parallel strands each with a diameter of 0.4 mm. The

rated full load torque was nominally 2 Nm which gives an

approximate rating of 300 W. More parameters for the

machines are in Table III. However it should be emphasized

that these machines were purchased and the parameter table

for use in PC-IMD was drawn up by measurement, lamination

drawing and a manufacturer specification sheet. One of the

main problems that the Authors have found with small

machines such as these is the difficulty with parameter

variation in manufacture. The issues here include steel

lamination variation, stray losses due to surface losses in the

rotor and stator, variation of resistivity and incorrect casting of

the rotor cage aluminum, etc.

The 6-phase machine was fed from two 3-phase inverters

with 180 conduction period. The line voltage under these

conditions is a quasi square wave with a peak equal to the DC

link voltage. The phase voltage is a 6 pulse wave shape. The

3-phase machine is also studied under similar 6-pulse inverter

control conditions and with sinusoidal PWM control.

The inverters were rated 1.5 kW (which is somewhat larger

than required) which used IGBTs type IRG4BC20F (fast

switching) with 600V and 10 A ratings.

The DC link voltage could be varied and the efficiency of

the drive system was analyzed by measurement of the DC link

voltage and current, the input power (via a 3-phase power

analyzer the values from this had to be doubled for the 6-

phase machine) and the output mechanical power, torque and

speed via a torque transducer. The motors were loaded via a

MAGTROL load unit.

Fig 7 3-phase (left) and 6-phase test motors

IAS 2005 496 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

TABLE III. MOTOR PARAMETERS

Pole number 4

Stator OD 90 mm

Axial length 90 mm

Stator Slots 24

Slot opening 1.9 mm

Rotor diameter 55 mm

Rotor bars 22

Rotor Fabrication Aluminum, closed slots

Skew 1 stator slot

Air-gap length 0.35 mm

V. RESULTS

The 6-phase and 3-phase machines were simulated using the

software and compared to the measured values in terms of

current and voltage waveforms and also the power and

efficiency values to illustrate that the there can be an

improvement in overall efficiency on some circumstances.

The results in [8] used only the fundamental MMF (but with

added line inductances) so a comparison is made under these

conditions but without the added line inductance. There is

obviously numerous load conditions that could be tested

however it was decided to test the machines at no load,

nominal half-load (1 Nm) and full load (2 Nm) for a DC link

voltage of 110 volts for the 6-phase machine. The 6-phase and

3-phase machines had different windings; however it is worth

comparing the results directly since the required line voltages

are similar. For the 3-phase sine and square wave operation, it

was attempted to maintain the half load and full load speeds

constant and to adjust the line voltage to obtain the correct

torques. However, this is not easy and in fact the full load

speed for square wave operation was at a higher speed and

voltage to prevent stalling of the system.

All the tests and simulations were conducted with delta

connection. While star connection is possible, and this was

simulated in [8], space constraints prevents reporting of

operation under these conditions, but it was found to follow

similar trends and returned similar results.

A. Direct comparision for Power, Torque and Speed

Table IV shows a comparison of the performances of the

machines under full load operation. There are three sets

simulations and tests: 6-phase 6-pulse (square wave

operation), 3-phase 6-pulse and 3-phase sine wave (via a

PWM inverter control). The inverter was not simulated

although the efficiency of the inverter (or inverters in the case

of 6-phase operation) was measured. There is a degree or

variation between the simulated and measured due to

parameter variation in these small motors as discussed above.

However it can be seen that there is improved inverter

efficiency when using the 6 pulse strategy of 3 to 4 %. It was

found that the 6 phase machine had a much lower efficiency

that than predicted although the 3 phase machine, under both 6

pulse and sinusoidal control, gave close results.

TABLE IV. COMPARISION BETWEEN SIMULATED AND MEASURED

OPERATION AT FULL LOAD (T = 2 NM)

Motor operation (2 Nm) nominal)

6-phase Square 3-phase Square 3-phase Sine Variable

Sim Test Sim Test Sim Test

V

dc

link

[V]

110 109 121 121 --- 133

I

dc

link

[I]

--- 4.62 --- 3.90 --- 3.91

V

rms

line

motor [V]

89.5 88.5 98.6 96.4 74.3 74.3

I

rms

motor

[A]

2.34 2.26 3.43 3.81 4.07 4.39

Q

in

motor

[VAr]

539.7 558 367 506.4 311 303

Frequency

[Hz]

50 50 51.6 51.6 51.6 51.6

Torque

[Nm]

2.4 2 1.97 1.96 1.86 2.01

Speed

[rpm]

1343 1343 1427 1451 1337 1338

Inverter P

[W]

--- 503.6 --- 471.9 --- 520.0

P

in

motor

[W]

484.8 486.4 456.2 449.5 421 481.2

P

out

motor

[W]

335.9 281.3 295.1 297.6 261 281.0

Inverter

Efficiency

[%]

--- 96.6 --- 95.3 --- 92.5

Motor

Efficiency

[%]

69.3 57.8 64.7 66.2 61.2 58.4

Overall

Efficiency

[%]

--- 55.9 --- 63.1 --- 54.0

It is difficult to compare the results for full load therefore a

half load set of tests were conducted and these are tabulated in

Table V. The efficiencies between the simulation and test

motors are now closer. Again, the inverter (or inverters) in 6

pulse operation is shown to be 3 or 4 % more efficient than the

sinusoidal PWM operation.

The main problem with the results put forward here is that

the two motors are different. To compare like with like then

the simulations were run using the same motor and windings

which are connected and controlled in either 6-pulse or

sinusoidal operation. This is shown in Table VI where we take

the 6-phase machine model and reconnect the windings for 3-

phase operation then attempt to simulate the machine

operation for different control strategies but the same loading.

Table VI more clearly illustrates two points. Firstly that the

6-phase machine, under 6-pulse operation, appears to absorb

more reactive power and secondly that the 6-pulse system

appears to deliver improved overall performance only under

high loading conditions.

To address the first point, the 6-pulse 6-phase operation has

high harmonic current content which will lead to an increased

reactive power requirement. This is illustrated in the next

section that compares the simulated and experimental

IAS 2005 497 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

waveforms. The second point is a little more complex

however most machines are rated such that their rated

operation is beyond the peak efficiency point (when increasing

the load from zero. This is seen in Table VI when comparing

the half load and full load. Also, the input power due the time

harmonics tends to be electrical dissipation rather than torque

production and also they are more constant with respect to

load. Therefore as the motor is loaded up then the harmonic

power becomes a smaller proportion of the loss and hence has

less effect on the efficiency. This is illustrated in Table VII.

Note that only the 5

th

and 7

th

space harmonics have input

powers that can be considered as more than negligible. This

illustrates that the harmonic currents generate reactive rather

than active power.

TABLE V. COMPARISION BETWEEN SIMULATED AND MEASURED

OPERATION AT HALF LOAD (T = 1 NM)

Motor operation (1 Nm) nominal)

6-phase Square 3-phase Square 3-phase Sine Variable

Sim Test Sim Test Sim Test

V

dc

link

[V]

110 109 86 86 --- 107

I

dc

link

[I]

--- 2.48 --- 2.78 --- 2.29

V

rms

line

motor [V]

89.5 89.4 70 67.9 60 60

I

rms

motor

[A]

1.77 1.71 2.35 2.66 2.57 2.75

Q

in

motor

[VAr]

493.7 497 176.5 243 189 172

Frequency

[Hz]

50 50 51.6 51.6 51.6 51.6

Torque

[Nm]

0.979 1.0 0.98 1.0 0.81 1.01

Speed

[rpm]

1442 1443 1430 1445 1423 1424

Inverter P

[W]

--- 270.3 --- 239.1 --- 245.0

P

in

motor

[W]

239.6 261.3 223.7 227.7 188.0 228.7

P

out

motor

[W]

147.8 151.1 147.0 151.3 121.0 151.1

Inverter

Efficiency

[%]

--- 96.7 --- 95.2 --- 93.3

Motor

Efficiency

[%]

61.7 57.8 65.7 66.4 64.6 66.1

Overall

Efficiency

[%]

--- 55.9 --- 63.3 --- 61.7

B. Comparision of current waveforms

Fig. 8 shows a comparison between the measured and

simulated current waveforms. This shows good agreement and

this should be expected since the current and input power and

reactive power comparisons in Table IV are close for 6-phase

full-load operation. It was discussed earlier that the

fundamental MMF wave should not only be considered since

the higher MMF waves add additional line inductances which

are necessary to limit harmonic currents. This is illustrated in

Fig. 9 where the harmonic currents are higher for the

fundamental MMF only

TABLE VI. COMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT DRIIVE

SIMULATIONS AT HALF AND FULL LOAD

Full Load (2 Nm) Half Load (1 Nm)

Variable

6

phase

square

3

phase

sine

3

phase

sine

6

phase

square

3

phase

sine

3

phase

sine

V

line

[V]

89.5 78.8 78.8 89.5 78.8 78.8

I

line

[A]

2.34 4.17 4.4 1.77 2.96 3.03

Speed

[rpm]

1343 1343 1327 1442 1443 1435

Torque

[Nm]

2.4 2.21 2.4 0.98 0.86 0.98

P

in

[W]

484.8 428.2 463.4 239.6 190.8 209.6

Q

in

[W]

539.7 375.7 382.8 493.7 356.1 355.9

P

out

[W]

335.9 310.8 333.2 147.8 130.8 146.9

Efficiency

[%]

69.3 72.58 71.89 61.7 68.56 70.1

TABLE VII. INPUT AND OUTPUT HARMONIC POWERS FOR 6-PHASE

MACHINE

No Load [W] Half Load [W] Full load [W] Time

harmonic Pin Pout Pin Pout Pin Pout

1 82.267 5.532 233.191 147.565 477.778 335.183

5 4.358 -0.001 4.678 0.305 5.162 0.660

7 1.327 -0.047 1.329 -0.033 1.345 -0.023

11 0.206 -0.013 0.204 -0.012 0.204 -0.011

13 0.059 0.006 0.059 0.006 0.059 0.006

17 0.047 0.003 0.046 0.003 0.046 0.002

19 0.028 -0.001 0.028 -0.001 0.028 -0.001

23 0.016 -0.001 0.016 -0.001 0.016 -0.001

25 0.006 0.000 0.006 0.000 0.006 0.000

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

0 100 200 300

Angle [Elec Deg]

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

[

A

]

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

[

V

]

Simulated

Measured

line voltage

Fig 8 Comparison between simulated and measured currents for 6 pulse

6-phase operation at full load

IAS 2005 498 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Angle [Elec Deg]

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

[

A

]

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

[

V

]

Simulated

Simulated with fundamental MMF

line voltage

Fig 9 Comparison between simulated currents with and without higher

MMF harmonics for 6 pulse 6-phase operation at full load

The measured and simulated current with 6-pulse operation

at full load for the 3-phase machine is shown in Fig.10. Again

good agreement is found. It can be observed that this

waveform has a little less harmonic content than the 6-phase

machine when comparing Fig. 8 with Fig. 10.

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Angle [Elec Deg]

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

[

A

]

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

[

V

]

Simulated

Measured

line voltage

Fig 10 Comparison between simulated and measured currents for 6

pulse 3-phase operation at full load

VI. CONCLUSIONS

The work put forward here illustrates that under certain

circumstances an induction motor drive system can operate

more efficiently when fed from a 6-pulse inverter system

rather than a PWM inverter supplying a sinusoidal voltage

(although this is marginal for the small 300 W motors tested

here). While the motor may be more inefficient, the inverter

has reduced switching losses so that the overall system may be

more efficient. The theory of operation of the induction motor

is developed when operating firstly under 6-pulse 3-phase

conditions and then as a 6-phase machine. It shows that

careful consideration has to be made of both the spatial and

time harmonics, especially for the 6-phase machine. Once this

is done, standard analysis packages and techniques can be

used; with the machine broken down into different shaft

machines in order to account for different voltage time

harmonics. The model is verified experimentally using a small

3-phase and 6-phase machine. Efficiency measurements were

taken to illustrate the possibility of improved efficiency under

some circumstances. However, it was found that this was

really only possible at high loading. One point that should be

made is that further work will investigate larger drive

machines that have different characteristics; and this can

easily be achieved using the inverter used here as a model and

conducting simulations of known induction motors of high

power. Also further work is to investigate if there are any

design improvements possible for the induction motor

operating under 6 pulse supply conditions and also if there is

any further improvements in supply operation.

REFERENCES

[1] R. O. C Lyra and T. A. Lipo, Torque Density Improvements in a Six-

Phase Induction Motor with Third Harmonic Current Injection, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol 38, No 5, pp 1351-1360,

Sept 2001.

[2] T. M. Jahns, Improved Reliability in Solid State AC Drives by Means

of Multiple Independent Phase-Drive Units, IEEE Transactions on

Industry Applications, Vol IA-16, No 3, pp 32-331, May 1980.

[3] K. Gopakumar, V. T. Ranganthan and S. R. Bhat, Split Phase Induction

Motor Operation from PWM voltage Source Inverter, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, vol 29, No 5, pp 927-933, Sept

1993.

[4] E. A. Klingshirn, High Phase Order induction motors Part 1,

Description and theoretical considerations, IEEE Transactions PAS,

Vol 112, No 1, Jan 1983.

[5] K. Oguchi, A. Kawaguchi, T. Kubota and N. Hoshi, A Novel Six-Phase

Inverter System with 60-Step Output voltages for High-Power motor

Drives, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol 35, No 5, pp

1141-1149, Sept 1999.

[6] K. K. Mohapatra, K. Gopakumar, V. T. Somasekhar and L. Umanand,

A Novel Modulation Scheme for a Six phase Induction motor with

Open-End Windings, IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Annual

Conference, pp 810-815, 5-8 Nov 2002.

[7] Y. Zhao and T. A. Lipo, Space Vector PWM Control of Dual Three-

Phase Induction Machine Using Space Vector Decomposition, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol 31, pp 1100-1109, Sept

1995.

[8] D G Dorrell, R A McMahon and C Y Leong, Analysis of an Inverter-

Fed 6-phase Induction machine the Effects of Voltage Harmonics on

the Operation, International Conference on Electrical Machines,

Krakow, Poland, Sept 2004.

[9] N.P. van der Duijn Schouten, N. G. Damasius and R. A. McMahon,

New Drive Concepts using Single Chip Inverters, 36th IEEE Industry

Applications meeting, Vol 3 pp 1715-1720, 30th Sept-1st Oct 2001.

[10] P. D. Milliband and R. A. McMahon, Implementation and calorimetric

verification of models for wide speed range three-phase induction

motors for use in washing machines, 39th IEEE Industry Applications

meeting, Vol 4 pp 2485-2492, 3rd-7st Oct 2004.

[11] A. C. Smith and D. G. Dorrell, "The calculation and measurement of

unbalanced magnetic pull in cage induction motors with eccentric rotors.

Part 1: Analytical model", 1996 Proc. IEE Electric Power Applications,

Vol. 143, No. 3, pp 193-201.

[12] P. L. Alger, Induction Machines, Their Behavior and Uses, Gordon

and Breach Publishers, Third Edition, 1995, ISBN 2-88449-199-6.

IAS 2005 499 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

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