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3 Phase Winding

Distribution
True 6 Phase
Winding
Distribution
1
2
3
4
5
6
Quasi 6 Phase
Winding
Distribution
made from two
3-phase
windings
30 deg phase
shift between
two 3-phase
sets
Analysis and Performance Assessment of 6-pulse
Inverter-Fed 3-Phase and 6-phase Induction machines
David G Dorrell
Dept of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
The University of Glasgow
Glasgow, G12 8LT, UK
d.dorrell@elec.gla.ac.uk
C. Y. Leong and R. A McMahon
Dept of Engineering
The University of Cambridge
Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK
cyl28@eng.cam.ac.uk and ram1@eng.cam.ac.uk

Abstract The paper describes a model for a 6-phase induction
motor driven by an inverter operating in a 6-pulse (square wave)
mode. The model is implemented and performance, in terms of
torque, current, efficiency and pulsating torque, compared to the
performance of a 3-phase motor (both sine and 6-pulse supplied).
The models are verified experimentally, in particular the
efficiency performance, and it is illustrated that the improvement
in inverter efficiency when in 6-pulse operating mode may
improve the performance of the overall system.
Keywords 6-phase induction motor,inverter, 6-pulse operation
I. INTRODUCTION
Six phase induction motors have received some attention in
the past [1-7] and they can offer the opportunity to spread the
load across more half bridge sections so that the device ratings
can be decreased; in terms of motor magnetics they can
increase the winding factor slightly. They have some
interesting characteristics when compared to standard induction
motors; the two most notable are the fact that the phases have
to be distributed around 180 degrees to avoid phases being
opposite each other (where they are then essentially the same
phase) and that if the voltage supply contains time harmonics
then the 5th , 7th, 15th 17th, etc, time harmonics have a short-
circuited magnetizing reactance in the fundamental per-phase
equivalent circuit. The former point is illustrated in Fig 1 for
clarity while the latter point (which was first reported by Jahns
[2] and recently used in another paper [8]) is illustrated by the
equivalent circuits shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The latter point is
relevant if the motor is supplied from an inverter which is
operating in square wave (180 degree conduction period) mode
which produces 6-pulse operation across the phase winding in
a star-connected induction motor and a quasi square-wave
across the windings of a delta-connected machine. While the
efficiency of an induction motor (either 3 or 6 phase) decreases
when moving from sine wave to square wave operation it is
shown in this paper that this is not a large decrease and that
moving from a PWM strategy to a square wave control strategy
can reduce inverter switching losses and, in fact, may lead to a
higher overall system efficiency. The increase in inverter
efficiency, using simple square-wave operation rather than
sine-wave PWM, was reported in [9]; and further discussion of
this will be offered in the full paper. This was verified using
calorimetric measurements [10].



Fig. 1 Three phase and six phase spatial representation
IAS 2005 492 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE

Fig. 2 Three-phase and quasi six-phase equivalent circuit for voltage
harmonics but neglecting higher space harmonics

Fig 3 Quasi 6-phase connection when k = 5, 7, 17, 19, etc. when
neglecting space harmonics

II. MOTOR ANALYSIS

The paper will give a description of the motor in terms of a
mathematical model. A modeling technique is put forward that
includes both voltage time harmonics due to the use of 6 pulse
(square wave) excitation and motor space harmonics due to
MMF harmonics in the windings. This is a development on the
work in [8] where only the fundamental MMF waves for each
voltage time harmonics was included.

A. Voltage Harmonics
There are two options for connecting the quasi 6-phase
winding either double star or double delta. If a double star is
used then the phase windings will experience a six-pulse
voltage waveform if the conduction period of the inverter is
180 degrees, whereas if the winding is a double delta
connection then the phase windings will experience a quasi
square-wave voltage, with 120 degree conduction period,
when the inverter conduction period is again 180 degrees. For
the delta connection, the Fourier decomposition of the voltage
across one motor phase and centred on the reference axis is
( )
( ) ( )
Set 1
Phase A
2 3
( ) cos 6 1
1 6
DC
k S
V
V t n t
n

(1)
where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc., k = 6n 1 when n > 0 and k = 1
when n = 0 . This gives k = 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, etc. For the star
connection
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Set 1
Phase A
2
( ) cos 6 1
1 1 6
DC
k S n
V
V t n t
n

=

(2)
The total voltage is then
Set 1
Phase A
1
( ) Re
s
jk t
k
k
V t V e

=
=

(3)
For the voltages in the same 3-phase set
2
Set 1
3
Phase B
1
1
( ) Re
Re
s
s
jk
jk t
k
k
jk t k
k
k
V t V e e
V e a

=
=
=

(4)
and
2
Set 1
3
Phase C
1
1
( ) Re
Re
s
s
jk
jk t
k
k
jk t k
k
k
V t V e e
V e a

=
=
=

(5)
We are using the operator a where
2
3
j
a e

= . For a 3-phase
balanced set we find that the forwards and backwards rotating
sets are defined by
1
1
Forwards rotating set
= Backwards rotating set
a 1 Zero order (no current harmonic)
k
k
k
a a
a a

=
=

When we look at the 3-phase harmonic sets defined by (3), (4)
and (5) we find that we have forwards-rotating sets when k =
1, 7, 13, 19, etc., and backwards-rotating sets when k = 5, 11,
17, etc.
For Set 2 (when we are using a 6-phase arrangement) the
voltages are rotated through 30 electrical degrees (as can be
seen in Fig. 1) so that
Set 2
6
Phase A
1
1
( ) Re
Re
s
s
jk
jk t
k
k
jk t k
k
k
V t V e e
V e b

=
=
=

(6)
where we introduce the operator
6
j
b e

= . If the supply
frequency is f
S
then the harmonic frequency f
k
= kf
S
. Similar
equations exist for Phases B and C for Set 2:

B. Winding Harmonics
Phase A of a 3-phase harmonic winding can be denoted as
( )
Phase A
Set 1
m
( ) cos( )
2
jm jm m
m
N
n N m e e



= = + (7)
where is electrical angle. Phases B and C are:
( )
Phase B
Set 1
m
2 2
3 3
2
'
' ' 3
'
'
2
( ) cos
3
2
2 2
m
jm jm
m
jm
m jm m m
m m
m m
n N m
N
e e
N N
e a e


=
=
=

=



= +



= =


(8)
and
R
c
V
k
jk
s
L
1
R
1
I
1 k I'
2k
I
m k
I
c k
R'
2
s
k
jk
s
L
m
jk
s
L
2
V
k
jk
s
L
1
R
1
I
1 k
IAS 2005 493 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE
( )
Phase C
Set 1
m
2 2
3 3
2
'
' ' 3
'
'
2
( ) cos
3
2
2 2
m
jm jm
m
jm
m jm m m
m m
m m
n N m
N
e e
N N
e a e



+ +



+


=
=

= +



= +



= =


(9)
These equations are valid for the 3 phase machine and Set 1 of
the 6 phase machine. For Set 2 in the 6 phase machine
Phase A
' ' Set 2
m
'
( ) cos
12 2
m jm m
m
m m
N
n N m b e



=

= =


(10)
( )
Phase B
' ' ' Set 2
m
'
( )
2
m m jm m
m m
N
n b a e


=
= (11)
( )
Phase C
' ' ' Set 2
m
'
( )
2
m m jm m
m m
N
n b a e


=
= (12)


Fig 4 Per-phase equivalent circuit for fundamental time harmonic but
including higher harmonics

C. MMF generation
If we assume that there are currents of suitable frequency
then the MMF for the 3-phase machine is:
( )
( )
3
Phase Phase
1
' ' '
' 1
( , ) ( ) ( )
Re 1
2
s
Ph
j kw t m m k m k m
k
m k
MMF t n i t
N
a a a a I e


=


= =
=

= + +


(13)
When this is analyzed we obtain the usual spatial relationships
for sinusoidal excitation (m harmonics for k = 1) with the
harmonics existing for m = 1, -5, 7, -11, 13, etc. This is
illustrated in Fig 4 which gives the equivalent circuit including
the 5
th
and 7
th
spatial MMF harmonics. If the rotor equivalent
resistance blocks the circuit at a slip greater than 1 then it is a
backwards rotating field whereas if it is less than 1 then it is a
forwards rotating field. However, for the higher time
harmonics (k > 1) then there exists other sets of spatial MMF
harmonics and this leads to quite a complex double series to
analyze. For example, for k = 5 spatial MMF waves exist for
m = -1, 5, -7, 11, -13, etc. It is more straightforward to state
the synchronous speeds in Table 1. If the synchronous speed is
negative then the torque is negative in the first quadrant; if the
synchronous speed is positive then the torque contribution is
positive when sub-synchronous and negative super-
synchronous.
TABLE I. 3-PHASE SYNCHRONOUS SPEEDS FOR TIME AND SPACE
HARMONICS
Spatial harmonic m
(s = supply frequency (rad/sec and p = pole pair number)
Time
Har
k
1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25
1
s
p


5
s
p

7
s
p


11
s
p


13
s
p


17
s
p


19
s
p

23
s
p

25
s
p

5
5
s
p

s
p


5
7
s
p
5
11
s
p


5
13
s
p


5
17
s
p


5
19
s
p
5
23
s
p

5
s
p

7
7
s
p


7
5
s
p

s
p


7
11
s
p


7
13
s
p


7
17
s
p


7
19
s
p
7
23
s
p
7
25
s
p

11
11
s
p
11
5
s
p


11
7
s
p

s
p


11
13
s
p


11
17
s
p


11
19
s
p
11
23
s
p


11
25
s
p

13
13
s
p
13
5
s
p
13
7
s
p
13
11
s
p


s
p


13
17
s
p


13
19
s
p
13
23
s
p
13
25
s
p

17
17
s
p


17
5
s
p

17
7
s
p


17
11
s
p


17
13
s
p


s
p


17
19
s
p


17
23
s
p

17
25
s
p


19
19
s
p

19
5
s
p


19
7
s
p

19
11
s
p


19
13
s
p


19
17
s
p


s
p


19
23
s
p


19
25
s
p

23
23
s
p
23
5
s
p
23
7
s
p
23
11
s
p


23
13
s
p


23
17
s
p


23
19
s
p

s
p


23
25
s
p

25
25
s
p
5
s
p
25
7
s
p

25
11
s
p


25
13
s
p


25
17
s
p


25
19
s
p

25
23
s
p


s
p



If a 6 phase winding is used then the MMF breaks down into
( )
( )
( )
( )
Phase Phase 2 3
Set Set
1 1
'
' ' '
' 1
' '
( , ) ( ) ( )
1
Re 1
2
1
s
Set Ph
m k
j kw t m m k m k m
k
m k
m k m k
MMF t n i t
b b
N
a a b b I e
a a b b


= =



= =

=

+


= + +


+ +



(14)
This time if m- k = 6n (where n is an integer) then
IAS 2005 494 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE
(1 + b
m
b
-k
) = 0 or 2 (15)
depending on whether n is odd or even. In essence, if n is odd
then the MMF from Set 2 cancels the MMF from Set 1. If n is
even or zero then the MMF from the two sets add. Addressing
the non-zero MMFs seen in the 3-phase analysis and applying
the extra 6-phase MMF cancellation criterion; if k = 1, 13, 25
etc then m = 1, -5, 7, -11, 13, -23, 25, etc, in which case the
zero criterion is met when m = -5, 7, -17, 19, etc. If k = 7, 19,
etc. then the same series for m exists but this time the zero
criterion is met when m = 1, -11, 13, -23, 25, etc. In addition,
with k = 11, 23 etc then m = -1, 5, -7, 11, -13, 23, -25, etc,
which gives zero results for all m = 5, -7, 17, -19, etc and k =
5, 17, etc then the zero criterion is met when m = -1, 11, -13,
23, -25, etc. If a zero result is returned in (15) then the
magnetizing reactance for that space-time harmonic is short-
circuited. Table II illustrates the time and space harmonics. In
the introduction it was discussed that the previous literature
assumes that the MMF was sinusoidal so that the higher MMF
space harmonics, as illustrated in Fig. 4, could be neglected.
From this analysis we can glean that the per-phase equivalent
circuit in Figs. 2 and 3 are not quite correct. In Fig. 2, we can
add in space harmonics for m = 11, 13, 23, 25, etc. and in Fig.
3 there will be space harmonics for m = 5, 7, 17, 19, etc. In
effect, there will be additional blocking capacity in the rotor
circuit for the cases where k = 5, 7, 17, 19, etc due to the space
harmonics. This is a development from the theory put forward
by the authors in [8].

Fig 5 One phase of a distributed 3-phase winding


Fig 6 One phase of a concentrated 3-phase winding to represent the
quasi 6-phase machine

TABLE II. 6-PHASE SYNCHRONOUS SPEEDS FOR TIME AND SPACE
HARMONICS
Spatial harmonic m
(s = supply frequency (rad/sec and p = pole pair number)
Time
Har
k
1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25
1
s
p

s/c s/c
11
s
p


13
s
p

s/c s/c
23
s
p

25
s
p

5 s/c
s
p


5
7
s
p

s/c s/c
5
17
s
p


5
19
s
p

s/c s/c
7 s/c
7
5
s
p

s
p

s/c s/c
7
17
s
p


7
19
s
p

s/c s/c
11
11
s
p

s/c s/c
s
p


11
13
s
p

s/c s/c
11
23
s
p


11
25
s
p

13
13
s
p

s/c s/c
13
11
s
p


s
p

s/c s/c
13
23
s
p
13
25
s
p

17 s/c
17
5
s
p

17
7
s
p


s/c s/c
s
p


17
19
s
p


s/c s/c
19 s/c
19
5
s
p


19
7
s
p

s/c s/c
19
17
s
p


s
p

s/c s/c
23
23
s
p

s/c s/c
23
11
s
p


23
13
s
p

s/c s/c
s
p


23
25
s
p

25
25
s
p

s/c s/c
25
11
s
p


25
13
s
p


s/c s/c
25
23
s
p


s
p



III. SIMULATION
In this simulation we will assume that the only space
harmonics of any significance are the 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
, 23
rd

and 25
th
. We can consider that for each voltage harmonic there
is a shaft machine which allows us to split the analysis up so
that each harmonic is treated in a standard fashion, we will
simulate the operation of both the 3-phase and 6-phase
machine. We can then extract the current as a set of harmonics
with magnitude and phase and then reconstruct the current
waveform for comparison to the measured.
By inspection of (14) and comparison of Tables I and II it
can be seen that we can actually use a 3-phase simulation
package to obtain results, or at least to obtain the equivalent
circuit parameters, and short-circuit the space harmonics. For
a standard package, a simulation has to be run for each time
harmonic where the voltage and frequency is set for each.
Here, we will use PC-IMD from the SPEED laboratory,
University of Glasgow, UK. In the case of the machine we are
using here, it is a 4 pole machine with 24 slots and a single
layer winding so that for 3-phase connection there are 2 coils
per pole-pair per phase as shown in Fig. 5. For 6-phase
winding this is 1 coil per pole-pair per phase However, (14)
IAS 2005 495 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE
illustrates that Set 2 has the same MMF alignment as Set 1,
which are concentrated windings. Therefore we can represent
the 6 coils of Set 2 in the 6 phase machine as a parallel set of
coils to the 6 coils in Set 1. We then end up with only 12 slots
being used; this is shown in Fig 6. However adjustments must
be made here to correct the phase resistance, phase leakage
reactance and shorted harmonic winding reactances. The
resistance of the phases in the 6 phase arrangement has to be
doubled to that of the 3-phase pseudo arrangement and the
slot leakage is incorrect. If we assume slot leakage is a square
of the turns then there is no change here because of the
parallel paths. The simulation assumes separate coils so that
no change in end winding reactance is required. However, in
terms of the pseudo calculation, the slot permeance should be
halved to remove the mutual inductance in the simulation; the
slot reactance should then be doubled when extracting the
values.
If we assumed that the MMF harmonic content is minimal
then we can simply sum the results from the simulation of each
shaft machine and that is what the Authors carried out in [8]
with fair results in terms of the current waveform correlation. A
full set of tests and machine data were not available however
these have now been carried out and the machines
disassembled to get a more complete specification. To include
the space harmonics, the equivalent circuit parameters have to
be extracted and then a simulation conducted with the correct
shorted harmonic reactances. The results from the simulations
are put forward in the results section for comparison to the
measurements.
Experience suggests that the correct harmonics to include
are the 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
and also the harmonics either side of
stator slot number, i.e., the 23
rd
and 25
th
harmonics [12]. In
[8], space harmonics were not included in the 6-phase square-
wave machine with only the fundamental MMF wave being
considered. While fair agreement was found this was only
obtained when a 9mH line inductance was included to cover
stray and inverter inductance. In reality, the inverters were
voltage fed and these inductances could not be traced. With
the inclusion of the MMF space harmonics, the additional
inductance was not needed since the stray inductance was in
fact the inductance due to the MMF space harmonics.
The simulation of the 6-phase and 3-phase machines with 6-
pulse operation required the writing of a special MATLAB
script which broke the voltage down into the correct harmonic
components and called, using Active-X, PC-IMD for each
shaft machine. The correct input powers, output powers,
torque were extracted (remembering that some harmonic
voltages rotate forwards and some backwards) and summed.
The current waveform was then reconstructed so that it could
be compared to the measured waveform. The 3-phase
simulation was carried out directly using PC-IMD.
One point that had to be address is that the core loss
resistance was only present in the fundamental frequency
shaft machine as shown in Fig. 4. It was set to a very high
value in the higher harmonic voltage shaft machines in PC-
IMD to negate the effect. Obviously the effect of the harmonic
currents on iron losses needs further work but it is envisaged
that this is a stray loss of small magnitude, and this is verified
in the experimental results.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE
Two identical 4-pole machines were used in the
experimental work however one was rewound as illustrated in
Fig. 7. The 3-phase machine (on the left) has a distributed 3-
phase winding with 57 turns per coil and 12 coils. There are 4
series-connected coils per phase with a wire diameter of 0.6
mm. The 6-phase winding also has 12 coils with 2 series-
connected coils per phase. Each coil has 110 turns formed
from two parallel strands each with a diameter of 0.4 mm. The
rated full load torque was nominally 2 Nm which gives an
approximate rating of 300 W. More parameters for the
machines are in Table III. However it should be emphasized
that these machines were purchased and the parameter table
for use in PC-IMD was drawn up by measurement, lamination
drawing and a manufacturer specification sheet. One of the
main problems that the Authors have found with small
machines such as these is the difficulty with parameter
variation in manufacture. The issues here include steel
lamination variation, stray losses due to surface losses in the
rotor and stator, variation of resistivity and incorrect casting of
the rotor cage aluminum, etc.
The 6-phase machine was fed from two 3-phase inverters
with 180 conduction period. The line voltage under these
conditions is a quasi square wave with a peak equal to the DC
link voltage. The phase voltage is a 6 pulse wave shape. The
3-phase machine is also studied under similar 6-pulse inverter
control conditions and with sinusoidal PWM control.
The inverters were rated 1.5 kW (which is somewhat larger
than required) which used IGBTs type IRG4BC20F (fast
switching) with 600V and 10 A ratings.
The DC link voltage could be varied and the efficiency of
the drive system was analyzed by measurement of the DC link
voltage and current, the input power (via a 3-phase power
analyzer the values from this had to be doubled for the 6-
phase machine) and the output mechanical power, torque and
speed via a torque transducer. The motors were loaded via a
MAGTROL load unit.



Fig 7 3-phase (left) and 6-phase test motors
IAS 2005 496 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE
TABLE III. MOTOR PARAMETERS
Pole number 4
Stator OD 90 mm
Axial length 90 mm
Stator Slots 24
Slot opening 1.9 mm
Rotor diameter 55 mm
Rotor bars 22
Rotor Fabrication Aluminum, closed slots
Skew 1 stator slot
Air-gap length 0.35 mm

V. RESULTS
The 6-phase and 3-phase machines were simulated using the
software and compared to the measured values in terms of
current and voltage waveforms and also the power and
efficiency values to illustrate that the there can be an
improvement in overall efficiency on some circumstances.
The results in [8] used only the fundamental MMF (but with
added line inductances) so a comparison is made under these
conditions but without the added line inductance. There is
obviously numerous load conditions that could be tested
however it was decided to test the machines at no load,
nominal half-load (1 Nm) and full load (2 Nm) for a DC link
voltage of 110 volts for the 6-phase machine. The 6-phase and
3-phase machines had different windings; however it is worth
comparing the results directly since the required line voltages
are similar. For the 3-phase sine and square wave operation, it
was attempted to maintain the half load and full load speeds
constant and to adjust the line voltage to obtain the correct
torques. However, this is not easy and in fact the full load
speed for square wave operation was at a higher speed and
voltage to prevent stalling of the system.
All the tests and simulations were conducted with delta
connection. While star connection is possible, and this was
simulated in [8], space constraints prevents reporting of
operation under these conditions, but it was found to follow
similar trends and returned similar results.

A. Direct comparision for Power, Torque and Speed
Table IV shows a comparison of the performances of the
machines under full load operation. There are three sets
simulations and tests: 6-phase 6-pulse (square wave
operation), 3-phase 6-pulse and 3-phase sine wave (via a
PWM inverter control). The inverter was not simulated
although the efficiency of the inverter (or inverters in the case
of 6-phase operation) was measured. There is a degree or
variation between the simulated and measured due to
parameter variation in these small motors as discussed above.
However it can be seen that there is improved inverter
efficiency when using the 6 pulse strategy of 3 to 4 %. It was
found that the 6 phase machine had a much lower efficiency
that than predicted although the 3 phase machine, under both 6
pulse and sinusoidal control, gave close results.
TABLE IV. COMPARISION BETWEEN SIMULATED AND MEASURED
OPERATION AT FULL LOAD (T = 2 NM)
Motor operation (2 Nm) nominal)
6-phase Square 3-phase Square 3-phase Sine Variable
Sim Test Sim Test Sim Test
V
dc
link
[V]
110 109 121 121 --- 133
I
dc
link
[I]
--- 4.62 --- 3.90 --- 3.91
V
rms
line
motor [V]
89.5 88.5 98.6 96.4 74.3 74.3
I
rms
motor
[A]
2.34 2.26 3.43 3.81 4.07 4.39
Q
in
motor
[VAr]
539.7 558 367 506.4 311 303
Frequency
[Hz]
50 50 51.6 51.6 51.6 51.6
Torque
[Nm]
2.4 2 1.97 1.96 1.86 2.01
Speed
[rpm]
1343 1343 1427 1451 1337 1338
Inverter P
[W]
--- 503.6 --- 471.9 --- 520.0
P
in
motor
[W]
484.8 486.4 456.2 449.5 421 481.2
P
out
motor
[W]
335.9 281.3 295.1 297.6 261 281.0
Inverter
Efficiency
[%]
--- 96.6 --- 95.3 --- 92.5
Motor
Efficiency
[%]
69.3 57.8 64.7 66.2 61.2 58.4
Overall
Efficiency
[%]
--- 55.9 --- 63.1 --- 54.0

It is difficult to compare the results for full load therefore a
half load set of tests were conducted and these are tabulated in
Table V. The efficiencies between the simulation and test
motors are now closer. Again, the inverter (or inverters) in 6
pulse operation is shown to be 3 or 4 % more efficient than the
sinusoidal PWM operation.
The main problem with the results put forward here is that
the two motors are different. To compare like with like then
the simulations were run using the same motor and windings
which are connected and controlled in either 6-pulse or
sinusoidal operation. This is shown in Table VI where we take
the 6-phase machine model and reconnect the windings for 3-
phase operation then attempt to simulate the machine
operation for different control strategies but the same loading.
Table VI more clearly illustrates two points. Firstly that the
6-phase machine, under 6-pulse operation, appears to absorb
more reactive power and secondly that the 6-pulse system
appears to deliver improved overall performance only under
high loading conditions.
To address the first point, the 6-pulse 6-phase operation has
high harmonic current content which will lead to an increased
reactive power requirement. This is illustrated in the next
section that compares the simulated and experimental
IAS 2005 497 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE
waveforms. The second point is a little more complex
however most machines are rated such that their rated
operation is beyond the peak efficiency point (when increasing
the load from zero. This is seen in Table VI when comparing
the half load and full load. Also, the input power due the time
harmonics tends to be electrical dissipation rather than torque
production and also they are more constant with respect to
load. Therefore as the motor is loaded up then the harmonic
power becomes a smaller proportion of the loss and hence has
less effect on the efficiency. This is illustrated in Table VII.
Note that only the 5
th
and 7
th
space harmonics have input
powers that can be considered as more than negligible. This
illustrates that the harmonic currents generate reactive rather
than active power.
TABLE V. COMPARISION BETWEEN SIMULATED AND MEASURED
OPERATION AT HALF LOAD (T = 1 NM)
Motor operation (1 Nm) nominal)
6-phase Square 3-phase Square 3-phase Sine Variable
Sim Test Sim Test Sim Test
V
dc
link
[V]
110 109 86 86 --- 107
I
dc
link
[I]
--- 2.48 --- 2.78 --- 2.29
V
rms
line
motor [V]
89.5 89.4 70 67.9 60 60
I
rms
motor
[A]
1.77 1.71 2.35 2.66 2.57 2.75
Q
in
motor
[VAr]
493.7 497 176.5 243 189 172
Frequency
[Hz]
50 50 51.6 51.6 51.6 51.6
Torque
[Nm]
0.979 1.0 0.98 1.0 0.81 1.01
Speed
[rpm]
1442 1443 1430 1445 1423 1424
Inverter P
[W]
--- 270.3 --- 239.1 --- 245.0
P
in
motor
[W]
239.6 261.3 223.7 227.7 188.0 228.7
P
out
motor
[W]
147.8 151.1 147.0 151.3 121.0 151.1
Inverter
Efficiency
[%]
--- 96.7 --- 95.2 --- 93.3
Motor
Efficiency
[%]
61.7 57.8 65.7 66.4 64.6 66.1
Overall
Efficiency
[%]
--- 55.9 --- 63.3 --- 61.7

B. Comparision of current waveforms
Fig. 8 shows a comparison between the measured and
simulated current waveforms. This shows good agreement and
this should be expected since the current and input power and
reactive power comparisons in Table IV are close for 6-phase
full-load operation. It was discussed earlier that the
fundamental MMF wave should not only be considered since
the higher MMF waves add additional line inductances which
are necessary to limit harmonic currents. This is illustrated in
Fig. 9 where the harmonic currents are higher for the
fundamental MMF only
TABLE VI. COMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT DRIIVE
SIMULATIONS AT HALF AND FULL LOAD
Full Load (2 Nm) Half Load (1 Nm)
Variable
6
phase
square
3
phase
sine
3
phase
sine
6
phase
square
3
phase
sine
3
phase
sine
V
line

[V]
89.5 78.8 78.8 89.5 78.8 78.8
I
line

[A]
2.34 4.17 4.4 1.77 2.96 3.03
Speed
[rpm]
1343 1343 1327 1442 1443 1435
Torque
[Nm]
2.4 2.21 2.4 0.98 0.86 0.98
P
in

[W]
484.8 428.2 463.4 239.6 190.8 209.6
Q
in

[W]
539.7 375.7 382.8 493.7 356.1 355.9
P
out

[W]
335.9 310.8 333.2 147.8 130.8 146.9
Efficiency
[%]
69.3 72.58 71.89 61.7 68.56 70.1

TABLE VII. INPUT AND OUTPUT HARMONIC POWERS FOR 6-PHASE
MACHINE
No Load [W] Half Load [W] Full load [W] Time
harmonic Pin Pout Pin Pout Pin Pout
1 82.267 5.532 233.191 147.565 477.778 335.183
5 4.358 -0.001 4.678 0.305 5.162 0.660
7 1.327 -0.047 1.329 -0.033 1.345 -0.023
11 0.206 -0.013 0.204 -0.012 0.204 -0.011
13 0.059 0.006 0.059 0.006 0.059 0.006
17 0.047 0.003 0.046 0.003 0.046 0.002
19 0.028 -0.001 0.028 -0.001 0.028 -0.001
23 0.016 -0.001 0.016 -0.001 0.016 -0.001
25 0.006 0.000 0.006 0.000 0.006 0.000
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 100 200 300
Angle [Elec Deg]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Simulated
Measured
line voltage

Fig 8 Comparison between simulated and measured currents for 6 pulse
6-phase operation at full load
IAS 2005 498 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Angle [Elec Deg]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Simulated
Simulated with fundamental MMF
line voltage

Fig 9 Comparison between simulated currents with and without higher
MMF harmonics for 6 pulse 6-phase operation at full load

The measured and simulated current with 6-pulse operation
at full load for the 3-phase machine is shown in Fig.10. Again
good agreement is found. It can be observed that this
waveform has a little less harmonic content than the 6-phase
machine when comparing Fig. 8 with Fig. 10.
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Angle [Elec Deg]
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

[
A
]
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

[
V
]
Simulated
Measured
line voltage

Fig 10 Comparison between simulated and measured currents for 6
pulse 3-phase operation at full load

VI. CONCLUSIONS
The work put forward here illustrates that under certain
circumstances an induction motor drive system can operate
more efficiently when fed from a 6-pulse inverter system
rather than a PWM inverter supplying a sinusoidal voltage
(although this is marginal for the small 300 W motors tested
here). While the motor may be more inefficient, the inverter
has reduced switching losses so that the overall system may be
more efficient. The theory of operation of the induction motor
is developed when operating firstly under 6-pulse 3-phase
conditions and then as a 6-phase machine. It shows that
careful consideration has to be made of both the spatial and
time harmonics, especially for the 6-phase machine. Once this
is done, standard analysis packages and techniques can be
used; with the machine broken down into different shaft
machines in order to account for different voltage time
harmonics. The model is verified experimentally using a small
3-phase and 6-phase machine. Efficiency measurements were
taken to illustrate the possibility of improved efficiency under
some circumstances. However, it was found that this was
really only possible at high loading. One point that should be
made is that further work will investigate larger drive
machines that have different characteristics; and this can
easily be achieved using the inverter used here as a model and
conducting simulations of known induction motors of high
power. Also further work is to investigate if there are any
design improvements possible for the induction motor
operating under 6 pulse supply conditions and also if there is
any further improvements in supply operation.

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IAS 2005 499 0-7803-9208-6/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE