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A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated P) is a programmable digital electronic

component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single
semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). The microprocessor was born by reducing the word
sie of the CPU from !" bits to # bits$ so that the transistors of its logic circuits would fit onto
a single part. %ne or more microprocessors typically serve as the CPU in a computer system$
embedded system$ or handheld device.
&icroprocessors made possible the advent of the microcomputer in the mid'()*+s. ,efore
this period$ electronic CPUs were typically made from bul-y discrete switching devices (and
later small'scale integrated circuits) containing the e.uivalent of only a few transistors. ,y
integrating the processor onto one or a very few large'scale integrated circuit pac-ages
(containing the e.uivalent of thousands or millions of discrete transistors)$ the cost of
processor power was greatly reduced. /ince the advent of the IC in the mid'()*+s$ the
microprocessor has become the most prevalent implementation of the CPU$ nearly
completely replacing all other forms.
In the future$ microprocessors will become smaller. There is a limit to the sie of how small
they will get. The solution to getting smaller components on smaller chips will eventually not
come down to a physical redesign$ but a mathematical one. In order to ma-e smaller ones.
0or e1ample$ research in nano'technologies will have to loo- beyond binary systems (on2off)
and loo- at possibly trinary systems (on2off2neutral). This may not increase the sie of
memory on a chip but it could open the doors to faster technology.
The evolution of microprocessors has been -nown to follow &oore3s 4aw when it comes to
steadily increasing performance over the years. This law suggests that$ 5the comple1ity of an
integrated circuit$ with respect to minimum component cost$ doubles every "# months.5 This
dictum has generally proven true since the early ()*+s. 0rom their humble beginnings as the
drivers for calculators$ the continued increase in power has led to the dominance of
microprocessors over every other form of computer6 every system from the largest
mainframes to the smallest handheld computers now uses a microprocessor at its core.
The first microprocessors
The #++# with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).
As with many advances in technology$ the microprocessor was an idea whose time had come.
Three pro7ects arguably delivered a complete microprocessor at about the same time$ Intel3s
#++#$ Te1as Instruments3 T&/ (+++$ and 8arrett Ai9esearch3s Central Air :ata Computer.
In ();<$ 8arrett was invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical
systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the U./. =avy3s new
0'(# Tomcat fighter. The design was complete by ()*+$ and used a &%/'based chipset as
the core CPU. The design was smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it
competed against$ and was used in all of the early Tomcat models. >owever$ the system was
considered so advanced that the =avy refused to allow publication of the design$ and
continued to refuse until ())*. 0or this reason the CA:C$ and the &P)## chipset it used$ are
fairly un-nown even today.
TI developed the #'bit T&/ (+++ and stressed pre'programmed embedded applications$
introducing a version called the T&/(<+"=C on /eptember (*$ ()*($ which implemented a
calculator on a chip. The Intel chip was the #'bit #++#$ released on =ovember (?$ ()*($
developed by 0ederico 0aggin.
TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor. 8ary ,oone was awarded U./. Patent !$*?*$!+;
(P:0) for the single'chip microprocessor architecture on /eptember #$ ()*!. It may never be
-nown which company actually had the first wor-ing microprocessor running on the lab
bench. In both ()*( and ()*;$ Intel and TI entered into broad patent cross'licensing
agreements$ with Intel paying royalties to TI for the microprocessor patent. A nice history of
these events is contained in court documentation from a legal dispute between Cyri1 and
Intel$ with TI as intervenor and owner of the microprocessor patent.
Interestingly$ a third party claims to have been awarded a patent which might cover the
5microprocessor.5
A computer'on'a'chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the microprocessor
core (CPU)$ some memory$ and I2% (input2output) lines$ all on one chip. The computer'on'a'
chip patent$ called the 5microcomputer patent5 at the time$ U./. Patent #$+*#$!?( (P:0)$ was
awarded to 8ary ,oone and &ichael @. Cochran of TI. Aside from this patent$ the standard
meaning of microcomputer is a computer using one or more microprocessors as its CPU(s)$
while the concept defined in the patent is perhaps more a-in to a microcontroller.
According to A History of Modern Computing, (&IT Press)$ Intel entered into a contract with
Computer Terminals Corporation$ later called :atapoint$ of /an Antonio$ Te1as$ for a chip
for a terminal they were designing. :atapoint later decided not to use the chip$ and Intel
mar-eted it as the <++< in April ()*". This was the world3s first <'bit microprocessor. It was
the basis for the famous 5&ar-'<5 computer -it advertised in the magaine 9adio'Alectronics
in ()*#. The <++< and its successor$ the world'famous <+<+$ opened up the microprocessor
component mar-etplace.
Notable 8-bit designs
The #++# was later followed in ()*"$ by the <++<$ the world3s first <'bit microprocessor.
These processors are the precursors to the very successful Intel <+<+ (()*#)$ Bilog B<+
(()*;)$ and derivative Intel <'bit processors. The competing &otorola ;<++ was released
August ()*#. Its architecture was cloned and improved in the &%/ Technology ;?+" in
()*?$ rivaling the B<+ in popularity during the ()<+s.
,oth the B<+ and ;?+" concentrated on low overall cost$ through a combination of small
pac-aging$ simple computer bus re.uirements$ and the inclusion of circuitry that would
normally have to be provided in a separate chip (for instance$ the B<+ included a memory
controller). It was these features that allowed the home computer 5revolution5 to ta-e off in
the early ()<+s$ eventually delivering semi'usable machines that sold for U/C)).
The Destern :esign Center$ Inc. (D:C) introduced the C&%/ ;?C+" in ()<"$ and licensed
the design to several companies which became the core of the Apple IIc and IIe personal
computers$ medical implantable grade pacema-ers and defibrillators$ automotive$ industrial$
and consumer devices. D:C pioneered the licensing of microprocessor technology which
was later followed by A9& and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in
the ())+s.
&otorola trumped the entire <'bit world by introducing the &C;<+) in ()*<$ arguably one of
the most powerful$ orthogonal$ and clean <'bit microprocessor designs ever fieldedEand also
one of the most comple1 hardwired logic designs that ever made it into production for any
microprocessor. &icrocoding replaced hardwired logic at about this point in time for all
designs more powerful than the &C;<+)Especifically because the design re.uirements were
getting too comple1 for hardwired logic.
Another early <'bit microprocessor was the /ignetics ";?+$ which en7oyed a brief flurry of
interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture.
A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was 9CA3s 9CA (<+" (also called the
C:P(<+" or 9CA C%/&AC) (introduced in ()*;) which was used in =A/A3s Voyager and
Viking space probes of the ()*+s$ and onboard the Galileo probe to @upiter (launched ()<)$
arrived ())?). 9CA C%/&AC was the first to implement C&%/ technology. The C:P(<+"
was used because it could be run at very low power$ and because its production process
(/ilicon on /apphire) ensured much better protection against cosmic radiation and
electrostatic discharges than that of any other processor of the era. Thus$ the (<+" is said to
be the first radiation'hardened microprocessor.
16-bit designs
&icroprocessors$ including an Intel <+#<;:F" and an Intel <+!<;.
The first multi'chip (;'bit microprocessor was the =ational /emiconductor I&P'(;$
introduced in early ()*!. An <'bit version of the chipset was introduced in ()*# as the I&P'
<. In ()*?$ =ational introduced the first (;'bit single'chip microprocessor$ the PACA$ which
was later followed by an =&%/ version$ the I=/<)++.
%ther early multi'chip (;'bit microprocessors include one used by :igital A.uipment
Corporation (:AC) in the 4/I'(( %A& board set and the pac-aged P:P ((2+! minicomputer$
and the 0airchild /emiconductor &icro0lame )##+$ both of which were introduced in the
()*? to ()*; time frame.
The first single'chip (;'bit microprocessor was TI3s T&/ ))++$ which was also compatible
with their TI'))+ line of minicomputers. The ))++ was used in the TI ))+2# minicomputer$
the TI'))2#A home computer$ and the T&))+ line of %A& microcomputer boards. The chip
was pac-aged in a large ceramic ;#'pin :IP pac-age pac-age$ while most <'bit
microprocessors such as the Intel <+<+ used the more common$ smaller$ and less e1pensive
plastic #+'pin :IP. A follow'on chip$ the T&/ ))<+$ was designed to compete with the Intel
<+<+$ had the full TI ))+ (;'bit instruction set$ used a plastic #+'pin pac-age$ moved data <
bits at a time$ but could only address (;G,. A third chip$ the T&/ )))?$ was a new design.
The family later e1panded to include the ))(+? and ))((+.
The Destern :esign Center$ Inc. (D:C) introduced the C&%/ ;?<(; (;'bit upgrade of the
D:C C&%/ ;?C+" in ()<#. The ;?<(; (;'bit microprocessor was the core of the Apple
IIgs and later the /uper =intendo Antertainment /ystem$ ma-ing it one of the most popular
(;'bit designs of all time.
Intel followed a different path$ having no minicomputers to emulate$ and instead 5upsied5
their <+<+ design into the (;'bit Intel <+<;$ the first member of the 1<; family which powers
most modern PC type computers. Intel introduced the <+<; as a cost effective way of porting
software from the <+<+ lines$ and succeeded in winning much business on that premise. The
<+<<$ a version of the <+<; that used an e1ternal <'bit data bus$ was the microprocessor in the
first I,& PC$ the model ?(?+. 0ollowing up their <+<; and <+<<$ Intel released the <+(<;$
<+"<; and$ in ()<?$ the !"'bit <+!<;$ cementing their PC mar-et dominance with the
processor family3s bac-wards compatibility.
The integrated microprocessor memory management unit (&&U) was developed by Childs
et al. of Intel$ and awarded U./. patent number #$##"$#<#.
32-bit designs
Upper interconnect layers on an Intel <+#<; :F" die.
(;'bit designs were in the mar-et only briefly when full !"'bit implementations started to
appear.
The most famous of the !"'bit designs is the &C;<+++$ introduced in ()*). The ;<G$ as it
was widely -nown$ had !"'bit registers but used (;'bit internal data paths$ and a (;'bit
e1ternal data bus to reduce pin count$ and supported only "#'bit addresses. &otorola
generally described it as a (;'bit processor$ though it clearly has !"'bit architecture. The
combination of high speed$ large ((; megabyte) memory space and fairly low costs made it
the most popular CPU design of its class. The Apple 4isa and &acintosh designs made use of
the ;<+++$ as did a host of other designs in the mid'()<+s$ including the Atari /T and
Commodore Amiga.
The world3s first single'chip fully'!"'bit microprocessor$ with !"'bit data paths$ !"'bit buses$
and !"'bit addresses$ was the ATHT ,ell 4abs ,A44&AC'!"A$ with first samples in ()<+$
and general production in ()<". After the divestiture of ATHT in ()<#$ it was renamed the
DA !"+++ (DA for Destern Alectric)$ and had two follow'on generations$ the DA !"(++ and
DA !""++. These microprocessors were used in the ATHT !,? and !,(? minicomputers6 in
the !,"$ the world3s first des-top supermicrocomputer6 in the 5Companion$5 the world3s first
!"'bit laptop computer6 and in 5Ale1ander$5 the world3s first boo-'sied supermicrocomputer$
featuring 9%&'pac- memory cartridges similar to today3s gaming consoles. All these
systems ran the U=IF /ystem I operating system.
Intel3s first !"'bit microprocessor was the iAPF #!"$ which was introduced in ()<($ but was
not a commercial success. It had an advanced capability'based ob7ect'oriented architecture$
but poor performance compared to other competing architectures such as the &otorola
;<+++.
&otorola3s success with the ;<+++ led to the &C;<+(+$ which added virtual memory support.
The &C;<+"+$ introduced in ()<? added full !"'bit data and address busses. The ;<+"+
became hugely popular in the Uni1 supermicrocomputer mar-et$ and many small companies
(for e1ample$ Altos$ Charles 9iver :ata /ystems) produced des-top'sie systems. 0ollowing
this with the &C;<+!+$ which added the &&U into the chip$ the ;<G family became the
processor for everything that wasn3t running :%/. The continued success led to the
&C;<+#+$ which included an 0PU for better math performance. A ;<+?+ failed to achieve its
performance goals and was not released$ and the follow'up &C;<+;+ was released into a
mar-et saturated by much faster 9I/C designs. The ;<G family faded from the des-top in the
early ())+s.
%ther large companies designed the ;<+"+ and follow'ons into embedded e.uipment. At one
point$ there were more ;<+"+s in embedded e.uipment than there were Intel Pentiums in
PCs. The Cold0ire processor cores are derivatives of the venerable ;<+"+.
:uring this time (early to mid ()<+s)$ =ational /emiconductor introduced a very similar (;'
bit pinout$ !"'bit internal microprocessor called the =/ (;+!" (later renamed !"+(;)$ the full
!"'bit version named the =/ !"+!"$ and a line of !"'bit industrial %A& microcomputers. ,y
the mid'()<+s$ /e.uent introduced the first symmetric multiprocessor (/&P) server'class
computer using the =/ !"+!". This was one of the design3s few wins$ and it disappeared in
the late ()<+s.
The &IP/ 9"+++ (()<#) and 9!+++ (()<)) were highly successful !"'bit 9I/C
microprocessors. They were used in high'end wor-stations and servers by /8I$ among
others.
%ther designs included the interesting Bilog B<+++$ which arrived too late to mar-et to stand
a chance and disappeared .uic-ly.
In the late ()<+s$ 5microprocessor wars5 started -illing off some of the microprocessors.
Apparently$ with only one ma7or design win$ /e.uent$ the =/ !"+!" 7ust faded out of
e1istence$ and /e.uent switched to Intel microprocessors.
0rom ()<? to "++!$ the !"'bit 1<; architectures became increasingly dominant in des-top$
laptop$ and server mar-ets$ and these microprocessors became faster and more capable. Intel
had licensed early versions of the architecture to other companies$ but declined to license the
Pentium$ so A&: and Cyri1 built later versions of the architecture based on their own
designs. :uring this span$ these processors increased in comple1ity (transistor count) and
capability (instructions2second) by at least a factor of (+++.
64-bit microchips on the desktop
Dhile ;#'bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several mar-ets since the early
())+s$ the early "+++s have seen the introduction of ;#'bit microchips targeted at the PC
mar-et.
Dith A&:3s introduction of the first ;#'bit IA'!" bac-wards'compatible architecture$
A&:;#$ in /eptember "++!$ followed by Intel3s own 1<;';# chips$ the ;#'bit des-top era
began. ,oth processors can run !"'bit legacy apps as well as the new ;#'bit software. Dith
;#'bit Dindows FP and 4inu1 that run ;#'bit native$ the software too is geared to utilie the
full power of such processors. The move to ;# bits is more than 7ust an increase in register
sie from the IA'!" as it also doubles the number of general'purpose registers for the aging
CI/C designs.
The move to ;# bits by PowerPC processors had been intended since the processors3 design in
the early )+s and was not a ma7or cause of incompatibility. A1isting integer registers are
e1tended as are all related data pathways$ but$ as was the case with IA'!"$ both floating point
and vector units had been operating at or above ;# bits for several years. Unli-e what
happened with IA'!" was e1tended to 1<;';#$ no new general purpose registers were added
in ;#'bit PowerPC$ so any performance gained when using the ;#'bit mode for applications
ma-ing no use of the larger address space is minimal.
Mlti-core processors
A&: F" !;++ :ual core processor.
A different approach to improving a computer3s performance is to add e1tra processors$ as in
symmetric multiprocessing designs which have been popular in servers and wor-stations
since the early ())+s. Geeping up with &oore3s 4aw is becoming increasingly challenging as
chip'ma-ing technologies approach the physical limits of the technology.
In response$ the microprocessor manufacturers loo- for other ways to improve performance$
in order to hold on to the momentum of constant upgrades in the mar-et.
A multi'core processor is simply a single chip containing more than one microprocessor core$
effectively multiplying the potential performance with the number of cores (as long as the
operating system and software is designed to ta-e advantage of more than one processor).
/ome components$ such as bus interface and second level cache$ may be shared between
cores. ,ecause the cores are physically very close they interface at much faster cloc- speeds
compared to discrete multiprocessor systems$ improving overall system performance.
In "++?$ the first mass'mar-et dual'core processors were announced and as of "++;$ dual'
core processors are widely used in high'end servers and wor-stations while .uad'core
processors for servers are beginning to become available.
!"#$
In the mid'()<+s to early'())+s$ a crop of new high'performance 9I/C (reduced instruction
set computer) microprocessors appeared$ which were initially used in special purpose
machines and Uni1 wor-stations$ but have since become almost universal in all roles e1cept
the Intel'standard des-top.
The first commercial design was released by &IP/ Technologies$ the !"'bit 9"+++ (the
9(+++ was not released). The 9!+++ made the design truly practical$ and the 9#+++
introduced the world3s first ;#'bit design. Competing pro7ects would result in the I,&
P%DA9 and /un /PA9C systems$ respectively. /oon every ma7or vendor was releasing a
9I/C design$ including the ATHT C9I/P$ A&: ")+++$ Intel i<;+ and Intel i);+$ &otorola
<<+++$ :AC Alpha$ and the >P'PA.
&ar-et forces have 5weeded out5 many of these designs$ leaving the PowerPC as the main
des-top 9I/C processor$ with the /PA9C being used in /un designs only. &IP/ continues to
supply some /8I systems$ but is primarily used as an embedded design$ notably in Cisco
routers. The rest of the original crop of designs have either disappeared$ or are about to. %ther
companies have attac-ed niches in the mar-et$ notably A9&$ originally intended for home
computer use but since focussed at the embedded processor mar-et. Today 9I/C designs
based on the &IP/$ A9&$ or PowerPC core power the vast ma7ority of computing devices.
As of "++;$ several ;#'bit architectures are still produced. These include 1<;';#$ &IP/$
/PA9C$ Power Architecture$ and IA';#.
%M&
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
")+++ ()<< !" !"'bit embedded 9I/C microprocessor
")+!+ ())K !" !"'bit embedded 9I/C microprocessor
")+#+ ())K !"
!"'bit high'performance embedded 9I/C
microprocessor
")+?+ ())+ !"
!"'bit embedded 9I/C microprocessor with integrated
0PU
G? ()); !" Pentium'class processor
G; ())* !" Pentium2Pentium II'class processor
G;'" ())< !" Pentium II'class processor$ enhanced version of G;
G;'III ())) !" Pentium II'class processor$ enhanced version of G;'"
G* ())) !" Pentium III2II class processor
G< "++! ;# Aighth generation of 1<; processors
G(+ "++* ;# =inth generation of 1<; processors
,obcat "+(( ;# 0amily of low'power 1<; microprocessors
,ulldoer "+(( ;# 0amily of high'performance 1<; microprocessors
%!M
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
/A'((+ ()KK !" 4ow'power embedded /trongA9& microprocessor
$'ri(
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
?1<; ())K !" <+#<;2Pentium class processor
;1<; ())K !" Pentium2Pentium II class processor
8F( ())K !" >ighly integrated Pentium2Pentium II class processor
8Fm ())K !" >ighly integrated Pentium2Pentium II class processor
&II ())K !" Pentium II class processor
&Fi !"
Anhanced version of &edia8F processor (never
released)
&igital )*ipment $orporation
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
"(+;# ())K ;# "(+;# and "(+;#A 9I/C processors
+erranti
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
0(++'4 ()*; (; ,ipolar microprocessor for military applications
"&T
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
Dinchip C; ())K !" Pentium class processor
Dinchip " ())K !" Pentium II class processor
"ntel
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
#++# ()*( # 0irst microprocessor.
#+#+ ()*" # Anhanced version of the Intel #++# processor.
<++< ()*" < 0irst <'bit microprocessor.
<+<+ ()*# < /uccessor to Intel <++< CPU.
<+<? ()*; < Anhanced version of Intel <+<+ CPU.
<+<; ()*< (; 0irst generation of Intel <+1<; processors.
<+<< ()*) <2(; < bit (e1ternal) version of Intel <+<; CPU.
<+(<; ()<" (;
=e1t generation of <+1<; processors. Used mostly as
embedded processor.
<+(<< ()<" <2(;
=e1t generation of <+1<; processors. Used mostly as
embedded processor.
<+"<; ()<" (;
/econd generation of <+1<; processorsL
new instructions$ protected mode$ support for (;&, of
memory.
<+!*; ()<) !" Ambedded !"'bit microprocessor based on Intel <+!<;.
<+!<; ()<? !"
Third generation of <+1<; processorsL !" bit
architecture$ new processor modes.
<+#<; ()<) !"
0ourth generation of <+1<; processorsL integrated 0PU$
internal cloc- multiplier.
<+#<; overdrive ()KK !" %verdrive2Upgrade processors for Intel <+#<; family.
Pentium ())! !"
0ifth generation of 1<; processorsL superscalar
architecture$ &&F.
Pentium II ())* !" /i1th generation of 1<; processors.
Celeron ())< !"
4ow'cost version of Pentium II$ Pentium III and
Pentium # processors.
Timna !"
4ow'cost microprocessor with integrated peripherals
(never released)
Pentium III ())) !" Anhanced and faster version of Pentium II.
Pentium # "+++ !"$ ;# =ew generation of Pentium processors.
Pentium & "++! !"
Pentium microprocessor specifically designed for
mobile applications
Celeron : "++# !"$ ;# 4ow'cost version Pentium # des-top processors.
Celeron & "++# !"
4ow'cost microprocessor specifically designed for
mobile applications
Pentium : "++? ;# :ual'core CPUs based on Pentium # architecture.
Pentium A1treme
Adition
"++? ;# :ual'core CPUs based on Pentium # architecture.
Feon "++K !"$ ;# >igh'performance version of Pentium # CPU.
<+<;+ ()<) !"
Ambedded !"'bit microprocessor with integrated !:
graphics.
<+);+ ()<<K !" Ambedded !"'bit microprocessor.
Itanium "++( ;# >igh'performance ;#'bit microprocessor.
Itanium " "++" ;# >igh'performance ;#'bit microprocessor.
Core /olo "++; !" !"'bit single'core microprocessor.
Core :uo "++; !" !"'bit dual'core microprocessor.
Core " "++; ;# ;#'bit microprocessor.
Pentium :ual'
Core
"++* ;# ;#'bit low'cost microprocessor.
Celeron :ual'
Core
"++< ;# ;#'bit low'cost microprocessor.
Atom "++< !"$ ;# Ultra'low power microprocessor.
Core i* "++< !"$ ;# ;#'bit microprocessor.
Core i? "++) !"$ ;# ;#'bit microprocessor.
Core i! "+(+ !"$ ;# ;#'bit microprocessor.
"ntersil
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
;(++ ()KK (" C&%/ microprocessor
M"P# Technologies
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
9!+++ ()<< !" !"'bit 9I/C microprocessor.
9#+++ ())( ;# 9I/C processor.
9##++ ())! ;# Anhanced version of 9#+++ 9I/C processor.
9#;++ ())K ;# Anhanced version of 9##++PC 9I/C processor.
9?+++ ()); ;# /uper'scalar ;#'bit 9I/C microprocessor
9(++++ ())K ;# /uper'scalar ;#'bit 9I/C microprocessor
M,# Technolog'
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
;?+1 ()*? < Iery popular version of < bit processor.
Motorola
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
;<++ ()*# < ;<++ microprocessor.
;<+) ()*K < Anhanced version of ;<++ microprocessor.
&C(#?++, ()*K ( Industrial Control Unit
;<+++ ()*) (;2!" 0irst generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of processors.
;<++< ()KK <2!" 0irst generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of processors.
;<+(+ ()<" (;2!"
/econd generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of
processors.
;<+(" ()<K (;2!"
/econd generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of
processors.
;<+"+ ()<# !"
Third generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of
processors.
;<+!+ ()<* !"
0ourth generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of
processors.
;<+#+ ())( !"
0ifth generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of
processors.
;<+;+ ())# !"
/i1th generation of &otorola ;<+1+ series of
processors.
PowerPC ;+! ())K !" 9I/C microprocessor
National #emicondctor
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
PACA ()*# (; (;'bit P&%/ microprocessor
/C2&P ()*; < <'bit microprocessor
I=/<)++ ()*K (; (;'bit =&%/ microprocessor
/C2&P II ()KK < <'bit microprocessor
=/C<++ ()<K < B<+ compatible microprocessor
!"+(; ()KK (;2!" !"'bit microprocessor with (;'bit data bus
N)$
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
I"+ ()<# <2(; <+<<'compatible processor with <+<+ emulation mode.
I!+ ()<# (; <+<;'compatible processor with <+<+ emulation mode.
I#+ ()<K <2(;
<+<<'compatible processor with integrated peripherals
and <+<+ emulation mode.
I?+ ()<K (; <+<;'compatible processor with integrated peripherals
and <+<+ emulation mode.
Ne(-en
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
=1?<; ()KK !" Pentium class processor.
Philips
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
;<+*+ ()<<K !" >ighly integrated CPU$ based on &otorola ;<+++
!$%
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
(<+" ()*K <
<'bit microprocessor from 9CA. Includes (<+"$ (<+#
and (<+;.
!ise Technolog'
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
&P; ()KK !" Pentium class processor.
#ignetics
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
";?+ ()*K < <'bit processor
<F!++ ()*K < <'bit 9I/C'li-e microprocessor
#n Micros'stems
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
Ultra/parc I ())?K ;# 0irst generation of Ultra/parc processors
Ultra/parc II ())* ;# /econd generation of Ultra/parc processors
Ultra/parc IIi ())<K ;# /econd generation of Ultra/parc processors
Ultra/parc IIe "++(K ;# /econd generation of Ultra/parc processors
Ultra/parc III "+++ ;# Third generation of Ultra/parc processors
Ultra/parc IIIi "++!K ;# Third generation of Ultra/parc processors
Ultra/parc II "++#K ;# 0ourth generation of Ultra/parc processors
Ultra/parc IIM "++?K ;# 0ourth generation of Ultra/parc processors
Te(as "nstrments
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
T&/))++ ()*;K (; (;'bit microprocessor
T&/))<+ ()*K (; (;'bit microprocessor with <'bit data bus
T&/)))? ()KK (; Anhanced version of T&/))++ (;'bit microprocessor
T&/))(+? ()<( (; Anhanced version of T&/)))? (;'bit microprocessor
T&/))((+ ()<( (; Anhanced version of T&/)))? (;'bit microprocessor
Transmeta
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
T&?;++ ()KK !" 4ow power microprocessor.
T&?<++ "++( !" 4ow power microprocessor.
.##!
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
(<+( ()<K (; :AC (P:P'(() compatible microprocessor
/"%
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
Cyri1 III (C!) "+++ !" Pentium2Pentium II class processor
Aden A/P ()KK !"
Ambedded ultra low'power 1<;'compatible
microprocessor
C*'& "++? !" 4ow'power mobile microprocessor
C*': "++; !" 4ow'power des-top microprocessor
=ano "++< ;# 4ow'power ;#'bit microprocessor
0estern &esign $enter
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
;?<(; ()KK (; (;'bit microprocessor with ;?+" emulation mode
0estern )lectric
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
DA !"(++ ()<?K !" !"'bit microprocessor
DA !""++ ()<K !" !"'bit microprocessor
1ilog
Processor Jear ,us width:escription
B<+ ()*; <
Improved version of Intel <+<+ processorL new
instructions.
B<++1 ()*)K (; (;'bit microprocessor.
B(<+ ()KK < >igh'integration version of B<+ processor.