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Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional

Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.


Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos
employees. Any material contained in this document which is not
already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given,
or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part,
without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering
Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : Electrical For additional information on this subject, contact
File Reference: EEX21105 W.A. Roussel on 874-1320
Engineering Encyclopedia
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Battery Installation Requirements
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical
Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
CONTENTS PAGES
DETERMINING BATTERY ROOM REQUIREMENTS FOR SAUDI ARAMCO
INSTALLATIONS............................................................................................................. 1
DETERMINING BATTERY AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
FOR SAUDI ARAMCO INSTALLATIONS..................................................................... 8
WORK AID 1: PROCEDURE AND REQUIREMENTS FROM SADP-P-103
AND THE NEC FOR DETERMINING BATTERY ROOM
REQUIREMENTS FOR SAUDI ARAMCO
INSTALLATIONS................................................................................. 18
WORK AID 2: PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FROM SADP-P-
103, THE NEC, AND ESTABLISHED ENGINEERING
PRACTICES FOR DETERMINING BATTERY AUXILIARY
EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR SAUDI ARAMCO
INSTALLATIONS................................................................................. 22
GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................... 25
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical
Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 1
DETERMINING BATTERY ROOM REQUIREMENTS FOR SAUDI ARAMCO
INSTALLATIONS
The first step in the installation of a new battery is to determine the battery room
requirements. The battery room must be designed and constructed to prevent the build up of
explosive gases in the room, to prevent the exhaust of explosive concentrations of gas, to
prevent the ingress of dirt and contaminants, and to minimize the potential of dangerous
explosions and injuries to personnel. The battery room requirements refer to the battery
room's design and support equipment. This section will discuss the following topics that are
pertinent to battery room requirements:
_Physical Requirements
_Ventilation Requirements
_A/C Requirements
Physical Requirements
The physical requirements for a battery room include the following:
_Battery room size
_Interior walls and floors
_Battery room doors
_Lighting fixture requirements
Battery Room Size
The size (ceiling height and floor space area) of a battery room is a key physical requirement.
All battery rooms should be designed with the maximum ceiling height that is possible. The
ceiling height should never be less than 3m. A high ceiling allows the hydrogen (H
2
) to
accumulate at the greatest distance from the battery and from potential sources of ignition. A
high ceiling also increases the total volume of air in the battery room. A larger volume of air
reduces the concentrations of H
2
that are produced during a battery charge cycle; therefore,
false ceilings that would decrease this volume of air are not permitted in battery rooms.
Batteries must not be housed in cabinets or in other similar enclosures that would limit the
dispersion of H
2
. The only exceptions to this requirement are that small batteries can be
placed in a single cabinet with a volume of 2m
3
(70 ft
3
). Work Aid 1 contains a complete list
of the requirements for placement of batteries in a cabinet.
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Battery Installation Requirements
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Working Space
Sufficient access and adequate working space are required in battery rooms to permit safe
operation and maintenance of the battery and the battery support equipment. Adequate
working space is defined as a minimum of 1m (3 ft.) of work space on all four sides of the
battery. The measurement of one meter is defined as the distance from the exposed live
electrical parts of the battery and the associated equipment to ground.
The working space in battery room also must be sufficient to allow the access of two workers
to perform routine inspections, maintenance, and testing of the battery. Additional space must
be allowed for the movement of equipment in and out of the battery room. The working
space and the access space must be kept clear and must not be used for storage of equipment
or materials. Wall-mounted storage facilities should be provided for safety equipment and
other battery-related service equipment.
Interior Walls and Floors
Because battery rooms normally are constructed from porous materials, the interior walls of a
battery room must be sealed to prevent the leakage of potentially flammable gases from the
battery room to the spaces that surround this room. The floor and the lower 150mm (6 in.) of
the walls of the battery room also must be protected with paint that is resistant to acids and to
caustics. The use of the protective paint on the lower portion of the battery room walls
ensures that an electrolyte release will not damage the floor and will not leak into the areas
that surround the battery room.
Except for air conditioning (A/C) and ventilation ducts, penetrations through the interior walls
of battery rooms cannot be more than 2.1m (7 ft) from the floor. Where penetrations for A/C
and ventilation ducts exist in the battery room, the area around the penetrations must have
vapor-tight seals to prevent the leakage of H
2
gas to other parts of the building. These
penetration requirements prevent the leakage of H
2
gas to other parts of the building because
H
2
gas is lighter than air and will accumulate near the ceiling. Through maintenance of all
penetrations near the floor, the only means through which the H
2
gas can escape is through
the exhaust duct.
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Battery Installation Requirements
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Battery Room Doors
The doors to a battery room must be designed to open out and away from the battery. This
requirement allows for a rapid exit from the battery room in the case of an emergency. A
door that opens inward would seal shut in the event of a positive pressure in the battery room.
Because a door that opens inward also would require additional space to open, use of such a
door would increase the effective size of the battery room. Devices that could prevent the
door from opening cannot be installed. Such devices could prevent personnel from exiting
the battery room in the event of an emergency.
Lighting Fixture Requirements
The lighting fixtures in battery rooms must be suspended from the ceiling so that the fixtures
are below the level at which H
2
gas accumulates. The fixtures must be positioned directly
over the battery racks. Such placement of the lighting fixtures will ensure that adequate air
space exists above the fixtures for the dispersion of H
2
gas, and that the battery area receives
maximum illumination for maintenance. The lighting fixtures that are installed must be
enclosed and must be gasketed to prevent H
2
leakage into the lighting fixture. The lighting
fixtures also must be resistant to corrosion that is caused by sulfuric acid fumes.
Because the atmosphere in a battery room has the potential to become explosive, devices that
produce arcs, such as a light switches, must be installed at least 1.5m (5 ft) from the battery
cells. This distance is considered sufficient to ensure that an explosive concentration of H
2
gas will not exist in the vicinity of the switch.
Ventilation Requirements
The goal of a battery room ventilation system is to ensure that H
2
gas does not reach an
explosive concentration. H
2
gas is generated by the electrolysis of the battery electrolyte
during the charge cycle. The rate at which H
2
gas is produced depends on the rate at which
the battery is charged; high battery charging rates produce more H
2
than do low battery
charging rates. If sufficient ventilation does not exist, the H
2
that is produced will accumulate
and eventually will reach an explosive concentration.
H
2
can be explosive when its concentrations in air are between 4% and 79%. H
2
concentrations that are below 4% are too low to cause an explosion. H
2
concentrations that
are above 79% do not contain enough oxygen to cause an explosion.
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Battery Installation Requirements
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A battery room ventilation system must be designed so that the H
2
concentration does not
exceed 2% of the air volume in the battery room. The 2% requirement provides an adequate
safety margin between the actual concentration and the concentration that would be necessary
to cause an explosion. Battery room exhaust must be vented to the outside atmosphere so that
no H
2
is transferred into the adjacent rooms and buildings.
In most battery installations, exhaust fans are not required because the positive pressure that is
created by the battery room ventilation supply will produce sufficient exhaust air flow.
Battery room exhaust ducts, without exhaust fans, must be large enough to pass the necessary
volume of air. In cases where exhaust fans are necessary to produce the required air flow, the
exhaust fan motors are not required to be explosion-proof.
A battery room that meets requirements for ventilation is regarded as a non-hazardous area;
therefore, special electrical equipment enclosures to prevent fire and explosion are not
required. However, physical location of electrical equipment enclosures is to comply with
Saudi Aramco design specifications.
The following four steps must be used in the determination of the proper amount of
ventilation air flow:
Step 1: Determine the total air volume of the battery room and the 2% air
volume of the battery room.
Step 2: Determine the H
2
production rate of the battery.
Step 3: Determine the number of air changes that are required per hour to
maintain the H
2
concentration at less than 2% of total volume of the
battery room.
Step 4: Determine the volumetric air flow to produce the necessary air turnover
rate.
Step 1 in the calculation of air flow is to determine the battery room air volume. The air
volume of the battery room is determined through use of the following formula (see Work
Aid 1):
Battery Room Air Volume = Total Room Volume - Battery and Battery Rack Volume
where: the total room volume is equal to the product of the length, width, and height of
the room.
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Battery Installation Requirements
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The battery room air volume is multiplied by .02 to determine the 2% air volume of the
battery room.
Step 2 in the calculation of air is to determine the amount of H
2
that is generated by the
battery. The volume of hydrogen that is generated by a storage battery is determined through
use of the following formula (see Work Aid 1):
Step 3 in the calculation of air flow is to determine the number of air changes that are required
to keep the H
2
concentration below the 2% limit. The number of air changes that are required
per hour can be determined through use of the following formula (see Work Aid 1):
Step 4 in the calculation of air flow is to determine the volumetric air flow that is required to
produce the necessary air turnover rate. The volumetric air flow that is required can be
determined through use of the following formula (see Work Aid 1):
Example Calculation of Battery Room Ventilation
In order to perform the four steps in the determination of the proper amount of ventilation air
flow, the following information that pertains to the battery installation must be known:
_Type of battery.
_Ah rating of the battery.
_Number of cells in the battery installation.
_The dimensions of the battery room.
_The dimensions of the battery racks and batteries.
_The battery charging current rate that will result in the maximum H
2
production.
For this example calculation, the following information is given:
_The type of battery is lead-acid.
_The battery is rated for 100 Ah.
_The installation contains 120 cells.
_The volume of the battery room is 43.74 m
3
.
_The volume of the battery racks and batteries is 2.68 m
3
.
_The charge rate that results in maximum H
2
production is 7.19 amperes.
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Battery Installation Requirements
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The following steps must be performed to determine the proper amount of ventilation air flow
for this example:
_The first step is to determine the battery room air volume and the 2% air
volume of the battery room.
Battery Room Air Volume = Total Room Volume - Battery and
Battery Rack Volume
= 43.74 m
3
- 2.68 m
3
= 41.06 m
3
2% Air Volume of Battery Room = (Battery Room Air Volume) (2%)
= (41.06 m
3
) (.02)
= .8212 m
3
_The next step is to determine the H
2
production rate for the example battery in
m
3
/h.
_ The next step is to determine the number of air changes that are required
per hour.
_The last step is to determine the volumetric air flow (liters/second) that is
required to provide the required number of air changes per hour.
Air Flow Required =(Battery Room Air Volume)(Required Air Changes/Hour)(Conversion Factors)
To maintain the Battery Room H
2
concentration at less than the 2% by volume, the
ventilation system for the example installation must provide a volumetric flowrate of 5.5 l/s.
The Electrical Engineer can use this information to check existing systems or can provide this
information to the Mechanical Engineers for design purposes.
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Battery Installation Requirements
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A/C Requirements
Batteries are designed to operate at an optimum level when the operating temperature (of the
electrolyte) is maintained at 25
o
C (77
o
F). The service life of a battery depends on the
operating temperature of the battery. The service life of a lead-acid battery is approximately
halved for every 10
o
C (18
o
F) rise in the operating temperature above the 25
o
C (77
o
F)
optimum value.
All lead-acid storage battery installations at Saudi Aramco, whether manned or unmanned,
should be air-conditioned to maintain the battery room temperature below 25
o
C (77
o
F). In
unmanned areas where provision of air conditioning is not feasible, the use of nickel-
cadmium batteries should be considered. Nickel-cadmium batteries are less susceptible to
service life degradation that results from heat. In unmanned areas where A/C is feasible, the
A/C system should be designed with a 100% backup capacity. This requirement is to ensure
that a loss of the normal A/C supply does not result in damage to the battery. A backup
source of A/C is not required in manned installations because the personnel that work in these
installations should be able to detect and to correct the A/C problems before battery damage
occurs.
The air conditioning ducts that supply battery rooms must be sized to ensure that the
following criteria are met:
_That an adequate positive pressure is provided to ensure that the required
number of air changes occur per hour.
_That adequate cooling is provided to maintain the battery room temperature at
25
o
C (77
o
F).
A/C return ducts are not permitted in battery room installations to prevent fumes and H
2
from
mixing with the building air.
The actual design and construction of air conditioning systems is beyond the scope of this
Module and should be addressed by the Mechanical Engineer. The Electrical Engineer must
understand the function of the air conditioning system and its importance in the efficient
operation of the battery.
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Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8
DETERMINING BATTERY AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR
SAUDI ARAMCO INSTALLATIONS
Battery auxiliary equipment includes all of the equipment that is necessary to ensure the safe
and proper operation of the battery. Battery auxiliary equipment that is improper or that is
improperly installed can lead to personnel injuries, equipment damage, and unplanned
outages. The requirements for the following battery auxiliary equipment will be discussed in
this section:
_Battery racks
_Wiring
_Grounding
_Maintenance instruction plates
_Drains
_Safety
Battery Racks
Battery racks are insulated metal racks that are designed to provide a stable surface on which
the individual battery cells of an installation can be arranged. The arrangement of the battery
cells on the battery rack supports the cells above the floor and also provides for ease of access
to the battery cells for maintenance.
Battery racks can be categorized in accordance with their physical configurations. Figure 1
shows a front view, a side view, and an isometric view of three different types of battery
racks. Figure 1A shows a single row, one tier rack that is used for batteries that contain a
small number of battery cells.
Figure 1B shows a single row, two-tier rack in which the battery cells are stacked on top of
each other. This single row, two-tier rack provides, without the use of additional floor space,
more space for a larger number of cells than the one-tier rack. The disadvantages of the single
row, two-tier rack are the inaccessibility of the bottom row of cells and an increased difficulty
of cell installation. This single row, two-tier rack should not be used with larger battery cells
that weigh more than 75 lbs.
Figure 1C shows a single row, two-step rack that is designed to hold the same number of cells
as the single row, two-tier rack. The design of the single row, two-step rack eliminates the
disadvantages that are associated with the single-row, two-tier rack. The access to the top of
each cell is not impeded, and the installation of the battery cells can be accomplished from the
top. Although the two-step configuration takes up more room than the single row, two-tier
rack, the advantages of the two-step configuration make it more practical.
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Battery Installation Requirements
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Battery Installation Requirements
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Battery Rack Configurations
Figure 1
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Battery Installation Requirements
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The configuration of a battery rack will be determined through use of the following
information:
_The cell dimensions.
_The number of cells.
_The dimension of the battery room.
_The maximum weight allowance per square meter of battery room floor.
_The cell access requirements for inspections and maintenance.
_Seismic requirements.
No compromise should be made that affects the accessibility of the battery cells. The
technician should be able to service the individual battery cells without being crowded by
adjacent cabinets or other facilities.
Battery racks are available from most manufacturers in four basic designs configurations.
Each configuration fulfills the need of different seismic criteria. Seismic criteria is normally
expressed in g-levels and seismic zones. The g or g-level is the symbol or value that is used
for the unit of acceleration that is defined as the acceleration that is produced by the force of
gravity at the surface of the earth. The exact value of one g will vary with lattitude and
elevation of the point of observation. The g-level requirements for a particular equipment
application will be provided by the specifying geological engineer.
The chart that is shown in Figure 2 lists two g-level coefficients: Static and Dynamic Zero
Period Acceleration. The static coefficient relates to bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium,
while the Dynamic Zero Period Acceleration coefficient values are obtained from floor
response spectra based on g-levels at the "zero period" (approximately 35 Hz). If more than
one method of designating the g-level is provided by the geological engineer, use the worse
case value that is provided to select the proper battery rack. If a worse case value is not
obvious, use the following order of selection:
_g-level, Dynamic Zero Period Acceleration
_g-level, Static
Seismic zones that are normally associated with a seismic risk map represent risk damage
magnitudes that result from earthquake intensity. The four basic battery rack configurations
are:
_Standard battery racks
_Shock-protected battery racks
_Seismic Zone 2, Zone 3, and Zone 4 battery racks
_High seismic battery racks
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The standard battery rack should be used where there is no seismic activity. However, side
rails and end rails are recommended for all types of battery installations to provide added
support to the battery cells.
The shock protected battery rack should be used where there is a low seismic g-level
requirement. The shock protected design consists of side rails, end rails, and related hardware
that adapt to the standard battery rack configuration. The Zone 2, Zone 3, and Zone 4 battery
racks should be used where there is a moderate to a high seismic g-level requirement. The
high seismic battery rack is used where there is a very high g-level requirement. The Zone 2,
Zone 3, and Zone 4, and the high seismic battery racks are designed and constructed to meet
the applicable g-level requirements. As a result, these racks are much heavier and much
larger than the standard and the shock protected designs.
The following guidelines can be followed to select the proper battery rack for a given battery
installation:
_Determine the g-level requirement of the area in which the battery will be
installed.
_Determine if the battery and the battery rack are considered essential or non-
essential equipment. (Essential facilities are those structures or buildings that
must be safe and usable for emergency purposes after an earthquake in order to
preserve the health and the safety of the general public. Such facilities should
include but should not be limited to hospitals, police stations, fire stations,
disaster operation, and communication centers.)
_Use Figure 2 to determine the correct battery rack type. Find the proper
heading for the g-level requirement and follow down the table until the g-level
that is equal to or that is greater than the required g-level is found. The
corresponding battery rack would be the proper selection.
_Determine the proper physical configuration of the battery rack on the basis of
the cell dimensions, number of cells, dimensions of the battery room, the
maximum weight allowance per square meter of battery room floor, and the
cell access requirements for inspections and maintenance.
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Battery Rack Selection Chart
Figure 2
Wiring
The guard requirements for wiring in a battery installation are similar to the requirements for
wiring in other electrical installations; the wiring must be rated to carry the connected load on
the dc system without overload, and the voltage drop across the wiring must not exceed a
predetermined value. The maximum voltage drop that is allowed across battery cables and
battery connectors is 3%.
The caustic atmosphere that is inside of a battery room can create potential problems with the
installed wiring that do not exist in non-caustic atmospheres. These potential problems
include short-circuits and ground faults. The fumes and the electrolyte deposits that result
from the normal operation of a battery can break down the insulation on wires. Such
insulation breakdown can then directly result in short-circuits and in ground faults.
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Because they conduct electricity, the electrolyte deposits also can indirectly result in short-
circuits and in ground faults. A large buildup of electrolyte on the battery cell jars can cause a
high resistance short-circuit between the terminals of the cell; this short-circuit will increase
the rate of self-discharge. Such deposits also can provide a high resistance path to ground;
this path will result in a ground fault.
To compensate for these potential problems, all of the wires, the inter-cell connectors, and the
battery cables should be corrosion resistant and should be compatible with the fumes from the
electrolyte. The types of insulation that are recommended for use in sulfuric acid
environments and in potassium hydroxide environments are polyvinylchloride, neoprene, and
polyethylene. One of these insulation materials should be used for conductor insulation. In
addition, all exposed conductors and exposed connections should be coated with a suitable
corrosion inhibitor to mitigate the buildup of corrosion.
Grounding
Grounding of battery systems is divided into two categories: system grounding and equipment
grounding.
System grounds and circuit grounds are installed to limit the impressed voltages that are
caused by lightning, line surges, or unintentional contact with higher voltage lines and to
stabilize the voltage to ground during normal circuit operation. Batteries that are associated
with communication systems use a ground on the positive bus of the battery. The positive and
the negative buses of a non-communication dc system battery are isolated from ground.
Equipment grounding refers to the connection of all non-current-carrying components of a
system to ground. Equipment grounding conductors are bonded to the system grounded
conductor to provide a low impedance path for fault current; this path will facilitate the
operation of overcurrent devices under ground-fault conditions. All battery racks must be
grounded through a suitable grounding conductor.
Maintenance Instruction Plates
Maintenance instruction plates are installed in battery rooms to ensure that the proper
maintenance procedures are followed. Performance of maintenance in strict accord with
instructions on these plates will promote equipment and personnel safety. The maintenance
instruction plates are mounted on the wall to ensure easy access to the instructions and to
ensure that all personnel use the same, most up-to-date revisions of the instructions.
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Maintenance instruction plates should provide enough information to perform the
maintenance action without the occurrence of undue complications. All danger and caution
statements must be highlighted to ensure that personnel are aware of the safety concerns. The
battery maintenance instruction plates also should provide the minimum requirements for
battery operation, equalizing charges, and recharging.
Battery maintenance instruction plates are developed from the information in the
manufacturers' technical manuals and should be written in English and Arabic to ensure that
all personnel can read the instructions. Instructions must be engraved on permanent-type
plastic, on stainless steel, or in some other permanent marking method.
Drains
Floor drains should be installed and should be located near the battery rack to permit
electrolyte that is accidentally spilled to be flushed away. The floor drain also serves as an
eyewash drain. The battery room floor drain should be a trapped, vented drain that is
connected to a neutralization tank before any drainage enters the sanitation or the sewer
system. All piping that is upstream of the neutralization tank and the drain vent should be
acid resistant.
For remote battery room locations that do not have sewer or drainage lines available, the drain
may be pumped to a dry sump. Drains are not required for sealed battery installations.
Safety
As part of the installation process, safety cannot be overlooked. Each battery room must have
the following signs posted to inform workers of the special requirements and possible
hazards:
"DANGER CAUSTIC/ACID"
"DANGER NO SMOKING"
Eye wash facilities are required at all battery installations with the exception of sealed battery
installations. Stationary and portable eyewash facilities are acceptable for use in all
installations; however, all remote location facilities require a self-contained water supply.
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The following safety items should be installed or should be made available for immediate use:
_Chemical worker's gloves
_Face shield
_Rubber apron
_Acid and alkali resistant gloves
_Wall-mounted storage for safety equipment
_Supply of bicarbonate of soda for the neutralization of battery acid
_Supply of citric acid to neutralize potassium hydroxide in nickel-cadmium
batteries
_Cell lifting straps
_Electrolyte thermometer
_Hydrometer
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WORK AID 1: PROCEDURE AND REQUIREMENTS FROM SADP-P-103 AND
THE NEC FOR DETERMINING BATTERY ROOM
REQUIREMENTS FOR SAUDI ARAMCO INSTALLATIONS
Work Aid 1A: Procedure for Determining Battery Room Equipment.
1. Determine whether the battery can fit in a single cabinet that has a volume that is less
than 2m
3
. If the battery will fit in such a cabinet, design the cabinet to meet the
criteria. If the battery will not fit in such a cabinet, continue to follow the next step of
the procedure.
2. Determine the physical requirements of the battery room in terms of size, illumination,
doors, sealing, and switching devices.
3. Determine the amount of ventilation that is required.
4. Determine whether the battery requires air conditioning. If the battery does require air
conditioning, determine the temperature and the safeguards that are required by the
system.
Work Aid 1B: Battery Room Requirements
Small Batteries
Small batteries that will fit into a single cabinet that has a volume that is less than 2m
3
are
permitted as long as the following criteria are met:
a. The enclosure and the cell supports must be constructed of steel that has been
coated with an appropriate acid resistant or alkali resistant paint. The supports
for nickel-cadmium batteries can be constructed of wood.
b. A drip tray that is constructed of an acid/alkali-resistant plastic or of stainless
steel must be installed under each tier of cells.
c. The enclosure must be ventilated at the top and the bottom.
d. An adequate clearance must be maintained above each cell to permit filling and
testing operations.
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e. No more than two rows of cells can be installed on each tier.
f. The enclosure must be provided with a bottom drain outlet.
Exception: items b, d, and f are not required for enclosures that house sealed batteries.
Battery Room Physical Requirements
Size - The battery room must be of sufficient size to
allow for 1m of workspace on each side of the battery.
The height of the battery room ceiling must be at least
3m, and the preferred height for battery room ceilings is
the maximum possible height.
Note: In order to avoid ventilation difficulties, false
ceilings are not permitted in battery rooms.
Illumination - Lights must be suspended at least 600mm (2 ft)
from the ceiling. The lights must be enclosed, gasketed,
and corrosion resistant to sulfuric acid fumes or to
potassium hydroxide fumes as applicable. Light fixtures
must be placed directly above the battery.
Doors - Battery room doors must open outward, away
from the room, and must be fitted with closing devices
and panic hardware. Hasps, padlocks, or other side
devices can not be installed because such devices will
hinder the operation of emergency door opening devices.
Sealing - The battery room must be coated with a finish to
seal the building material.
The floors and the lower 150mm (6 in.) must be sealed
with an acid resistant and caustic resistant epoxy.
With the exception of ventilation and A/C ducts,
penetrations through the walls of the battery room that are
more than 2.1m (7 ft) from the floor are not permitted.
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Switching Devices - Because the atmosphere in the battery room is
potentially explosive, light switches, circuit breakers, or
other devices that produce arcs must be installed a
minimum of 1.5m (5 ft) from the battery cells.
Ventilation Requirements
- Sufficient volumetric flow must be provided to maintain the H
2
concentration
at or below 2% by volume.
- Determine the necessary ventilation flow rate through use of the following
procedure:
1. Determine the air volume of the battery room and the 2% air volume of
the battery room.
a. Battery Room Air Volume = Total Room Volume - Battery and
Battery Rack Volume
Volume = (length) (width) (height)
b. 2% Air Volume of Battery Room = (Battery Room Air Volume)
(2%).
2. Determine the H
2
production rate during charging.
a. Determine hourly charging current
where: BIF = Battery inefficiency factor: 1.15 for lead-acid
batteries, and 1.4 for nickel-cadmium batteries.
Ah = Ampere hours removed during discharge
RT = Recharge time
b. Determine the H
2
production rate.
3. Determine the required number of air changes per hour.
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Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21
4. Determine the necessary volumetric air flow in liters/second.
Air flow required = (Air Battery Room Volume) (Required Air Changes/Hour)
(Conversion to liters/second)
- The necessary volumetric air flow normally can be provided through provision
of adequately sized exhaust ducts. In cases where such ducts will not provide
the necessary volumetric air flow, an exhaust fan should be installed.
Air Conditioning Requirements.
- A/C is required in all lead-acid battery installations.
- If A/C cannot be provided, nickel-cadmium batteries should be installed.
- Battery room A/C systems in unmanned locations must be designed with a
100% backup capacity.
- The A/C must maintain the battery room temperature at 25
o
C (77
o
F).
- In manned buildings, battery rooms must be air conditioned to 25
o
C (77
o
F).
- A/C return ducts cannot be installed in battery rooms.
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Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22
WORK AID 2: PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENT S FROM SADP-P-103, THE
NEC, AND ESTABLISHED ENGINEERING PRACTICES FOR
DETERMINING BATTERY AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
REQUIREMENTS FOR SAUDI ARAMCO INSTALLATIONS
Work Aid 2A: Procedures
1. Determine the required battery rack configuration.
2. Determine the necessary dimensions (length, depth, height) of the battery rack.
3. Determine the required battery rack construction.
4. Determine the allowable wiring voltage drop.
5. Determine the battery grounding requirements.
6. Determine the formation that is required to be on the maintenance instruction plates.
Work Aid 2B: Requirements
Battery Racks
- Not more than two rows of cells should be installed on a tier level.
- No more than two battery levels are allowed.
- Battery rack construction
_Welded steel with floor-mounting connections
- All material must be coated with an acid resistant plastic or an equivalent
material.
- The maximum height of the batteries that are installed will not exceed 110 cm
(44 in.).
- The length of the battery rack should be sufficient to provide at least two to
three centimeters of separation between the individual cells.
Engineering Encyclopedia Electrical
Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23
Wiring
- All of the conductors must be insulated to prevent corrosion.
- The battery cables must be sized for a voltage drop of less than 3%.
- The positive and the negative cables must be run in the same conduit.
- Connectors
_For lead-acid batteries, the connectors must be lead-plated brass or
stainless steel.
_For Nickel-Cadmium batteries, the connectors must be nickel plated.
Grounding
- The battery racks must have a safety ground.
- The positive and the negative buses on non-communication dc systems must be
isolated from earth ground.
- In dc systems that are shared between industrial and communication circuits,
Consulting Services must be consulted to determine the grounding
requirements.
- The positive bus of communication system batteries must be grounded.
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Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24
Maintenance Instruction Plates
- The following types of information must appear on the maintenance installation
plates:
_Dangers
_Cautions
_Procedure for float operation
_Procedure for equalizing operation
_Procedure for recharging operation
- The maintenance instruction plates must be marked through use of one of the
following methods:
_The words must be engraved on permanent-type plastic.
_The words must be etched on stainless steel.
- The maintenance instruction plates must be mounted on the wall.
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Battery Installation Requirements
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25
GLOSSARY
earth ground - A path that is provided by a connection to a piece of electrical
equipment through which fault current can travel to ground.
electrolysis - The passage of an electric current through an electrolyte that results
in a chemical change.
electrolyte - A conducting medium in which the flow of electric current takes
place by migration of ions.
g-level - The unit of acceleration that is defined as the unit of acceleration
that is produced by the force of gravity at the surface of the earth.
gassing - The evolution of gases from one or more of the electrodes of a
battery during a charge.
seismic - Describes objects that are subject to earth vibrations or that are
caused by earth vibrations.
service life - The expected length of time that a battery can perform its design
function.
2% air - 2% value of the Total Room Volume less the Battery and Battery
Rack
volume Volume.