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 Sreelakshmi.B.

S                             Reg# 200220186

Q1. Why should every manager study the discipline of OB?

The challenge of managing people and organization lead to the origin of study of
Organizational
Behavior. The study of Organizational Behavior is a combination of how people behave in
organizations and how organizations use human resources to achieve goals.
The study of organizational behavior combines planning with the maximum utilization of
human resources through the development of people.

The field of organizational behavior is about understanding people and managing them to
work effectively. The field of organizational behavior is concerned with how organizations
can survive and adapt to change.

Certain behaviors are necessary for survival and adaptation. People have to:

• Be motivated to join and remain in the organization.


• Carry out their basic work reliably.
• Be flexible and innovative.

The accomplishment of the organizational goals depends on the interaction and


coordination among people to accomplish their goals. The field of organizational behavior
is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork.

Organizational Behavior refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in
organizations.

Study of Organizational Behavior is important because it is about people and human


nature. Includes interesting examples of success and failure. Provides tools to find out
why people behave the way they do.

It is important to managers, employees and consumers. Understanding organizational


behavior makes more effective managers, employees and consumers. Organizational
behavior has a powerful influence on the attitudes and behaviors of individuals in
organizations. Organizational behavior can impact financial performance.

Goals of Organizational Behavior:

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• Predicting Organizational behavior


• Explaining Organizational behavior
• Managing Organizational behavior

Managerial roles include:

• Interpersonal roles
• Informational roles
• Decision making roles

Managerial Activities includes:

• Routine communication
• Traditional management
• Networking
• Human resource management

Elements of Organizational Behavior:

The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This
in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization,
informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of
leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers
perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final
outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development.
All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates
from.

Fundamental concept of Organizational behavior :

Fundamental Concepts relating to the nature of human being are four. They are individual
differences, whole person, caused behavior i.e, motivation and dignity.
The concept of individual differences tells us that when it comes to understanding and
solving the behavioral problems there can not be a standard solution.
The concept of whole person tells that the happenings in the life beyond the organizational
life affect the work behavior of an employee.

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The concept of caused behavior tells that a manager makes employees behave in a
particular way by his own behavior. A manager should, there fore, be a role model.
The concepts relating to the nature of the organization are two. They are organization in a
social system and mutuality of interests.
The concept relating to the organization being social system tells us that no organization
can have a value system, which is inconsistent with the social values in which it is
operating.
The concept of relating mutuality on interest tells us that basically the interests of the
employees and the organizations are such that if employees interests suffer the
organization’s interests too suffer and vice-versa.
Manager should have all these qualities to be successful his career. So it is very important
for a manager to study Organizational behavior.

Q2. ‘Organizational Behavior’ and ‘Human Relations are these two terms
complementary or contradictory.

“If you dig deeply into any problem, you will get to people.” —J. Watson Wilson

“The manager's role is that of facilitating goal accomplishment by removing the barriers
limiting the group's performance.” — Raymond E. Miles

Organizational Behavior and Human Relations are two complementary terms. We can
support this statement with the following explanation

Organizations are social systems. If one wishes either to work in them or to manage them,
it is necessary to understand how they operate. Organizations combine science and people-
technology and humanity. Technology is difficult enough by itself, but when you add
people you get an immensely complex social system that almost defies understanding.
However, society must understand organizations and use them well because they are
necessary to reap the cornucopia of goods and services which technology makes possible.
And they are necessary for world peace, good school systems and other desirable goals
which mankind seeks.

Human behavior in organizations is rather unpredictable as we now see it. It is


unpredictable because it arises from deep-seated needs and nebulous value systems of

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 Sreelakshmi.B.S                             Reg# 200220186

individually different people. However, it can be partially understood in terms of the


frameworks of behavioral science, management, and other disciplines. There are no simple
cookbook formulas for working with people. There is no idealistic panacea for
organizational problems. All that can be done at present is to increase understanding and
skills so that human relationships at work can be upgraded. The goals are modest. We can
work effectively with people if we are prepared to think about them in human terms.

Understanding Human Relations

The term “human relations” applies broadly to the interaction of people in all types of
endeavor — in business, government, social clubs, schools, homes. Much of this
interaction is in work organizations, where people have banded together in some sort of
formal structure to achieve an objective. The human interactions that develop are called
employee human relations or organizational human relations. Employee human relations,
therefore, is the study of human behavior at work and an effort to take action in operating
situations in order to produce better results. Another way to say this is “organizational
behavior.” Organizational behavior is an academic discipline concerned with
understanding and describing human behavior in an organizational environment. it seeks to
shed light on the whole, complex human factor in organizations by identifying causes and
effects of that behavior. Don't get the term “human factor” in this instance confused with
the term as used in ergonomic discussions. The human factor we are talking about now
deals with the “human being in relation to other human beings” in the work environment,
not “man, machine interface.” Human relations goes one step further and applies
behavioral knowledge in operating organizations to build human cooperation toward
organizational ends. It is action-oriented, and goal-oriented. While organizational behavior
seeks to gain understanding, human relations seeks to use it in operational situations. The
difference in emphasis between the two terms is similar to the difference between a
pathologist and a physician. The pathologist seeks to understand certain human ills, and the
physician uses that knowledge to achieve results.

It is essential to recognize that organizational behavior and human relations are not two
schools of thought in opposition to each other. They are complementary, essentially
covering the same subject and having the same goals of improved behavior, but human
relations is more directed toward application.

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In summary, its distinguishing features are that it is action oriented, and operational. Rather
than merely studying human behavior, human relations seek to do something constructive
about it. That “something” is to develop more productive and humanly rewarding results.
Human relations therefore, are an applied art and science. It is concerned with getting
things done. Ultimately it always involves the basic proposition of applied art and science.
It cannot be merely descriptive of what DOES happen; rather it seeks to influence what
WILL happen. It assumes some choices are better than others and attempts to achieve those
better choices.

Organizational behavior aims at understanding where as human relations aims its


application in work settings. According to Keith Devis the difference between the two
terms, is that of between a pathologist and physician. While the pathologist attempts to
understand illness the physician tends to employ that knowledge to gain results.
Organizational behavior and human relations are not two schools of thought opposed to
same general objectives of modified human behavior, How ever the human relations goes
one step further towards application. The characteristic feature of human approach, instead
of merely studying human behavior it tries to provide more efficient results. Thus it is an
applied science and art related to the primary objective of getting things done.
Organizational behavior is a study of the intra organizational behavior and attitudes of
people in an organizational setting; the organization's effect on perceptions, feelings, and
actions; and the consequences of behavior on the organization, particularly how it affects
the achievement of the organization's purposes.

Q3. The informal groups operating within the work settings exert strong social controls
over the work habits and performance of individual works-Appraise.

Q4. a. Why it is easy to motivate employees?

It is easy to motivate employees because employees want to be motivated.


Unlike teachers and parents, who also have a motivation challenge, managers do not have
to work with whoever who shows up. Employees are carefully screened before hiring to
have
relevant skills and to be compatible with the organization. And they can be fired if there is
a well documented pattern of failing to perform according to clear instructions and

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policies. So managers have the luxury of a special selection of people to work with, people
who are
reasonably well suited to their work, chose to apply for the work, and are therefore ready
and
willing to get motivated.
Therefore it should be easy to motivate employees. And it is, in theory at least. However,
easy
does not mean quick or simple. It is a full-time job to create and maintain an environment
in which employees are inspired to perform well. To do so, you need to think about
motivation regularly. And you need to think about the linkages between a wide variety of
factors and the
motivation levels of your employees. For example, the way in which you share information
with
employees can have a profound impact on motivation levels. And the way in which you
structure
their tasks and give them feedback about how they perform those tasks also drives
motivation
levels.
The attempt to explain the human behavior can be traced to the writings of the Greek
Philosopher. They presented the hedonistic concept as the explanation of the human
behavior. Hedonistic concept postulates that human beings avoid pain and/or discomfort
and engage in the activity that gives comfort and pleasure. This concept held away over
thinking of the philosopher and the writers alike for along time. Springing from this
thinking is the concept of “economic man” who is rational and tries to maximize his
economic gains.
It is therefore, very easy to motivate employees. Whenever the management wishes to
encourage a certain behavior recommended of that behavior would fetch reward for the
person. On the other hand certain behavior can be discouraged by punishment. This is the
essence of the theory of “reward and punishment” which is also known as the “connect and
stick” theory. However experience tells that adhesive to reward/punishment does not cause
the continuance of desired and sustained behavior over a longer time. Not all can be
motivated by reward and or punishment for all the time.

b. Explain “Primary” and “Secondary” motive with few examples of each.

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Psychologists generally acknowledge that some of the motives are unlearned and are
physiological based. There are the primary motives. Although, the procedure of primary
needs is employed in some motivation theories there are some situations when their needs
are pushed into background. Thus fasting for a religion or social or political cause or
celibacy among priests are the examples. Defined this way the most commonly recognized
primary motives include hunger, thirst, sleep avoidance of pain, sex etc

Secondary motives are the results of the increasing social complexity and economic and
social developments. These motives are learned and psychologically based. Important
among the secondary motives are the motives for power achievements and affiliation. Few
egs. For secondary motives are:

• doing better than competitors


• Having a secure job
• Influencing people to change their attitude or behavior

The examples of secondary motives are needs of power, need for affiliation, need for a

chievement, need for security and need for status etc.

c. What is Coping behavior?


Some times need fulfillment is blocked. A human being may try to overcome the blockage
by trial and error method. This is a rational way of behavior. This is known as coping
behavior.

Q5. What are interpersonal conflicts? Define and discuss some of the
common defense mechanisms with illustration.

Conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive
incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from the other party in achieving their
goals.
A conflict can exist only when both parties are aware of a disagreement. As long a people
perceive their goals to be mutually exclusive, a conflict exists. Conflicts also exist when
people believe there isn't enough of something to go around. Money and time often fit into
this category. Conflict between two individuals is known as interpersonal conflicts.

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Interpersonally, different individual’s maps of reality are sometimes so diverse that


“bumps” arise when they attempt to communicate or interact together. Basic assumptions,
beliefs, values and presuppositions about the world become clustered together to create
different models of reality. When these models or maps don’t contain mechanisms for
responding creatively to “bumps” with other maps, energy is released in the form of
disagreement, dispute, fighting, or other forms of conflict. Negotiation, mediation and
arbitration are all various forms of managing interpersonal conflicts.
When need fulfillment is continually blocked a person gets frustrated. At the same time a
person’s self image is also threatened by the activities from the world. In order to protect
his self image a human indulges in certain behaviors which are known as “defense
mechanisms”. Defense mechanisms are the behaviors, which are logical and automatic for
the person frustrated.
They serve an important purpose of keeping the personality integrated. The following are
the some of the common defense mechanism we come across in our work life.

a. Rationalization

This is sliding back in terms of mental age certain patterns of behavior are learnt
during the childhood, which is subsequently replaced by the behavior acceptable to
the society. At an unguarded moment, however in the adult age in the flush of
emotions an adult takes recourse to the childhood behavior. A superior getting
angry with his subordinate and throwing files at him or throwing a pen because the
ink not flowing are the most common example of this behavior.

b. Aggression:

This is also known as emotional displacement. This insists of giving vent to the
tension by offensive behavior towards an object or an individual unconnected with
the source of frustration. A superior getting angry on his subordinates because of
something happening at his home could be cited as an example of this behavior.

c. Fantasy:

This is building castles in the air in order to escape the pinching situations. Fantasy
is temporarily removing oneself from reality and losing oneself the imaginary
happy world. The frequency of fantasizing signals needs consultation of a
psychiatrist.

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d. Resignation:

This is accepting the situation and ceasing any efforts to dial with the problem
when this occurs the personality stunts

e. Flight or withdrawal

This is a complete surrender to the problematic situation and complete withdrawal


away from the situation.

Q6. “Human needs that spark off on activity can be arranged in hierarchy of
prepotency and probability of occurrence”. – Discuss

This was thought of by Abraham Maslow based his model on the theory that deprived need
dominates the behavior sparking off an activity for its satisfaction. This need, when
satisfied in its turn activates the higher need. This sequence can be denoted as: -
Deprivation – Domination – Gratification - Activation
As a theory of motivation, Maslow reasoned that needs can be structured in a hierarchy

Self

Self Esteem (self worth needs)

Social i.e. belonging needs

Security needs

Physiological Needs

Physiological needs:- The fulfillment of physiological needs, such as thirst, sleep et. takes
precedence over all other needs. Physiological needs have a tendency of recurrence.

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Money represents the best means to satisfy physiological. Money is valued not for it’s
over sake of what it can buy for us. This is one of the dimensions of money motive.

Safety Needs:
Once physiological needs are satisfied ' Safety needs become important. While
physiological needs have a reference to the present, the safety needs lead to the future.
This is to satisfy the future needs. A man so long as he is young and working and earning
is able to satisfy the physiological needs as and when they occur. But he needs to think
about the same comfort when he is old, not earning. Implicit is the fulfillment of these
safety needs is the origin of many labor enactments in India today. The pension plans, the
payment of gratuity Act, Provident Fund etc and other retrial benefits go basically to
ensure security for the man in his old age.

Too much security makes a man reckless and careless or lazy disobedient and under
productive. At the same time c also makes a man under productive. How much
enough is enough security is as ever present dilemma before the management providing
security of jobs to their employees.

Social and belonging needs:


The needs for social belongings have their origin in the gregarines nature of the
human being. Since man is a social being, he has a need to belong and to be accepted by
various groups. When social needs become dominant, a person will strive for meaningful
relation with others. People interact simply because they enjoy it. Even such interactions
which give no apparent tangible rewards are entered into simply because they reasonably
assure one that one is a part of the society is accepted by the society.

Esteem Needs:
It is not only sufficient for a human being to "belong" what he cares for and strives
towards is that others should recognize his worth. An employee stays in an organization
not merely because he gets his salary and other material rewards but he is there because
others recognize that he is worthy of the job and other material benefits that he gets. This
need manifests itself in 3 forms a) the need for status b) the need for power c) need for
recognition.

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Self Actualization Needs:


In the words of Maslow these needs denote "what a man can be should be" A self
actualized person has a cause an ideology to fight for the goal set for himself. He
concentrates on the feedback which is task oriented and is not taken in by the personal
criticism on praise criticism.
In a very rough manner, Maslow's theory can be converted into a content model of
work situation.
Part of the appeal of Maslow's theory is that it provides both a theory of human
motives reg. classifying basic human needs in a hierarchy and the theory of human
motivations that relates these needs to general behavior. Maslow's major contribution lies
in the hierarchical concept. He was the first to recognize that a need once satisfied is a
spent free and cause to be a motivator.

Q7. Discuss critically Fredric Herzberg’s Theory of job loading. What do you
understand by “Job Content” and “Job Context” factors?

Hygiene factors (job context) or dissatisfies are necessary for the performance but what is
required of the Manager is to provide these factors to the required level and focus his
attention to provide more and more on the motivators. Motivators cater to the higher order
needs of the human being and, therefore, they are more important. In order to build these
factors into the job design a manager should load the job with motivators. This is the
“Fredric Herzberg’s Theory of job loading”. Job loading can be done bye either by
horizontally loading or by vertically loading the job.
The horizontal job loading is known as “job enlargement” while vertical job loading is
known as “job enrichment”.
Even though Herzberg model of job enrichment or vertical job loading was employed in
some companies, the results were not uniform. One of the main criticisms against the
theory is that it is not corroborated by subsequent research. Many critics do not agree to the
straight jacketing of certain items in to hygiene factors and motivators. Depending on the
environment and perception what a hygiene factor is to one may be a motivator to others.
Herzberg implies building challenges and freedom into the jobs. However, some may
perceive what a challenge is to one as a threat.
More over all jobs cannot be re-designed and enriched. E.g. routine programmed jobs
cannot be enriched.

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In spite of the seemingly legitimate criticism, Herzberg has to be given credit for
contributing substantially to the study of work motivation. He extended Maslow concept
and made it more applicable to the work motivation. Herzberg added much to the better
understanding of the job content factors and employee satisfaction, but fell short of
comprehensive theory of work motivation.

Job Content :
Job content factors are those which by absence does not inhibit performance, but any
addition in them increases efficiency. These factors make the job itself a tool for
motivation. These factors are called “satisfies”.
Job Content is the "relative" component in the Overall Relative Contribution score.
Managers determine the job content score by using a scale from 1 to 5 to compare the
difficulty and impact of an employee's job against other jobs in their peer group. Some jobs
are markedly more demanding and more complex than others. Managers may choose to
refine scores to tenths.
Managers evaluate tasks and assignments based upon the employee's current position and
responsibilities. It may be helpful to use categories (like those listed in the following
section) when going through the evaluation process for determining job content. A Group,
Division, or Directorate may have different interpretations of these categories and
descriptions. The list is not exhaustive and managers may chose to consider using other
categories.
Managers should evaluate what was to be done during the review period and break down
the overall activity into component tasks, if necessary. They will determine the importance
of each activity in relation to the total job (from normal to significant, for example). Do not
rate or consider categories that do not apply to the position. Consider the ways in which the
current job can be expanded subject to developmental progress and accomplishments.

Job context:
Job Context factors that occur at the time of doing the job. These factors by their presence
inhibit performance but any addition in them does not increase efficiency or productivity.
These factors are call “dissatisfies”.
What an employee comes to at the office every day is job context. Job context includes a
wide range of issues. The daily routine, the day-to-day tasks employees carry out each day
on the job are important. So are goals and how they are set. Employees want to be

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involved in the process. They look for communication and feedback. How does
management supervise? For example, we often pay attention to our own management style
and that of our lawyers, but what about the mid-level managers we appoint? These are the
many “assistants” we hire to help us. They may be damaging employee morale without
our knowing it. What are the working conditions? Crowded? Cold or hot? Safe part of
town? Available parking or bus

Q8. What do you understand by Personality? Discuss in a nutshell some theories of


personality.
The word personality comes from the Latin root persona, meaning "mask." According to
this root, personality is the impression we make on others; the mask we present to the
world.
Personality refers to an individual's pattern of behavior and traits that are long-standing and
present since adolescence or early adulthood. Some aspects of personality include:

• the way people tend to think about themselves (e.g., self-confident or lacking
confidence),
• how they relate to people (e.g., shy vs. friendly),
• how they interpret and deal with events in the environment (e.g., paranoid people
believe that others are out to get them and may try to attack first before being attacked),
and
• how they react emotionally to all of this.

Personality can be defined as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and
interacts with others.
Personality Theories
Personality theories can be grouped as follows :
1. Intra psychic theory
2. Type theories
3. Trait theories
4. social learning theory
5. Self-theory

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These theories differ in the constructs they propose as forming the structure of the
personality, and also the way they relate these constructs to behavior. They also differ in
the methods they use to assess or measure an individual’s personality.
1. Intra psychic Theory of Sigmund Freud :
According to Freud human mind is composed of three elements i) preconscious, ii) the
conscious iii) the unconscious. The items in the mind that can be recognized only through
Freud’s association method are “preconscious”. The conscious element is concerned with
thoughts, feelings, beliefs and desires that we probe during introspection. The final
componenet ‘unconscious’ is basically concerned with ideas and wishes that can not be
learned through introspection but can be determined by hypnotism, analysis of dreams, and
Freudian therapeutic techniques.
According to Freud the ‘Conscious ‘ is guided by a ‘reasoned reality’ principle and
‘unconscious’ is guided by the famous ‘hedonistic principle’ of pleasure. Freud developed
an organization of personality consisting of three structures within the human mind the id,
the ego and the superego. These parts of the mind are primarily responsible for originating
human actions and reactions and modifications.
2. Type Theories :
The type theories represent an attempt to scientifically describe personalities by classifying
individuals into convenient categories. Sheldon’s physiognomy theory; Carl Jung’s
“extravert” and “introvert” theories are some examples of type theories.
Sheldon’s Physiognomy theory
William Sheldon has presented a unique body-type-temperamental model that represents a
link between anatomic and psychological traits and characteristics of an individual with his
behavior. Sheldon identifies some relationship between the physique types of individuals
and their personality temperaments. He identifies three body types – emorphic,
mesomorphic and ectomorphic.
Carl Jung’s Extrovert-introvert Theory
Carl jung proposed two-part theory of personality. Jung’s approach is also termed as
analytical psychology. Extroverts are optimistic, outgoing, gregarious and sociable.
Extrovert is basically objective, a reality oriented individual who is much more than a
thinker. Extroverts are friendly, enjoy interaction with others, crave excitement and dislike
solitude.
Introverts, however, are quite, retiring, enjoying solitude etc. These two types i.e.
extroverts and introverts thus represent extreme situations. Introverts are more inward

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directed people. They are not so sociable, are withdrawn and absorbed in inner life; their
own ideals and philosophy guide them. They are rigid and less flexible and subjective-
oriented. Normally he is person who has few friends, avoids social contacts, and rarely
speaks to others unless they speak.
Few people are completely introverts or extroverts. But the mixture of these two
ingredients determines the kind of overall personality on an individual.
3. Trait Theories :
Trait theory is realistic and give recognition to continuity of personalities.
Trait theorists view personality from the standpoint of understanding traits. Among trait
theorist are included Allport, Cattell and Sheldon.
Allport is of the opinion that each individual possesses a set of traits that are not shared by
any other individuals. He emphasizes the uniqueness of personality.
Catell has extensively worked on traits in various work settings employing a number of
psychological measures. On the basis of factor analysis he developed factor concepts such
as tender-mindedness, somatic anxiety, dominance etc.
Sheldon extended physical structuring by asserting that physique consists of three
components endomorphs, mesomorph and ectomorph. The relative existence of these three
physical elements indicates specific personality patterns. Corresponding to these three
physical aspects, he assumed three aspects of temperament; viscerotonia, somatotonia and
cerebrotonia. Although he assumed a close relationship between respective aspects of
structure and personality, there is no evidence to support this view.
4. Social learning theory :
Social learning theory considers the situation as an important determinant of behavior.
An individuals actions in a given situation depend on the specific characteristics of the
situation, individual’s appraisal of the situation, and post reinforcement to behavior in
somewhat similar situations. When the situations they encounter are relatively stable,
individual’s behavior will be more or less consistent.
The main focus of social learning approach is on the patterns of behavior individuals learn
in coping with environment. Some behavior patters are learned or acquired through direct
experience. Responses can also be acquired or learned without direct reinforcement. For
instance, learning by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequence of
these actions. Thus, social learning theorists believe that reinforcement facilitates learning
by focusing attention. According to social learning school, much of human learning is
vicarious or observational.

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The reinforcement that controls the expression of learned behavior may be –


i) direct ii) vicarious iii) self-administered.
5. Self Theory:
The intra psychic, physiognomy and trait theories represent the traditional approaches to
understanding the complex human personality. Self-theory rejects both psychoanalytic and
behaviorist conception of human nature as too mechanistic portraying people as creatures
helplessly tossed about by internal instincts or external stimuli. Carl Rogers and his
associates have developed the self-theory that places emphasis on the individuals as an
initiating, creating, influential determinant of behavior within the environmental
framework.

Q9. What is perception? Discuss factors influencing Perception

Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their
sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, as we have
noted, what one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality. It need not
be, but there is often disagreement.
Perception is important because people´s behavior is based on their perception of what
reality is, not on reality itself. The factors influencing perception are:

• Perceiver
• Target
• situation
A. Factors in the Perceiver

When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees, that
interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver.

The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception are attitudes, motives,
interests, past experiences, and expectations.

1. Attitude :

a) Example, Terri likes small classes because she enjoys asking a lot of
questions to her teachers. Scott, on the other hand, prefers the
anonymity of large lectures. In their introductory course in
psychology, they will be among some 800 students.

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b) Teri sulks, while Scott smile does little to hide his relief in being
able to blend unnoticed into the large crowd. They both see the same
thing, but they interpret it differently.

2. Motive :

Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a


strong influence on their perceptions.

a. Dramatically demonstrated in research on hunger


b. A plastic surgeon is more likely to notice an imperfect nose than a
plumber is.
c. The supervisor who has just been reprimanded by her boss for the
high level of lateness among her staff is more likely to notice
lateness by an employee tomorrow than she was last week.

3. Interest :

As interests narrow ones focus, so do ones past experiences.

a. You perceive those things to which you can relate.

4. Experience :

Objects or events that have never been experienced before are more noticeable
than those that have been experienced in the past.

a. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, women and minorities in


managerial positions were highly visible because, historically, those
positions were the province of white males.

5. Expectations :

Expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you
expect to see.

A. Factors in the Target

2. Characteristics of the target that is being observed can affect what is


perceived.
a) Motion, sounds, size, and other attributes of a target shape the way
we see it.
3. Because targets are not looked at in isolation, the relationship of a target to
its background influences perception, as does our tendency to group close
things and similar things together.
a) What we see is dependent on how we separate a figure from its
general background.
b) Exhibit 5-1 dramatizes this effect.
4. Objects that are close to each other will tend to be perceived together rather
than separately.

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a) As a result of physical or time proximity, we often put together


objects or events that are unrelated.
5. Persons, objects, or events that are similar to each other also tend to be
grouped together.
a) The greater the similarity, the greater the probability that we will
perceive them as a common group.

B. Factors in the Situation

6. The context in which we see objects or events is important.


7. Elements in the surrounding environment influence our perceptions.
8. The time at which an object or event is seen can influence attention, as can
location, light, heat, or any number of situational factors.

The factors influencing perception can be classified in as:


External Attention factors & Internal set factors.
External attention factors:
a. Intensity :
The intensity of stimulus implies that the more intense the stimulus audio or visual, the
more is the likelihood it will be perceived. A loud noise, strong odour or bright colours will
be more readily perceived than soft sound, weak odour or dim light. It is because of this
advantage that advertisers employ intensity to draw the consumers attention.
b. Size :
As regards the size of the stimulus, any odd size attracts attention. A Great Den dog which
is tall attracts the attention. At the same time a pocket dog also attracts attention because of
its size. However, generally the larger the object the more likely it will be perceived. The
amount of attention enhances with the size of the newspaper advertisement exposed to the
individuals, although the increase in attention may not be directly proportional to the
increase in size.
c. Contrast :
The contrast principle states that external stimuli, which stand out against the background
or which are not what the people expect will receive attention. Plant safety signs, which
have black lettering on a yellow background or white lettering on a red background, are
attentions getting.
d. Repetition :
The factor of repetition implies that a repeated external stimulus attracts more attention
than the one that occurs at one time alone. Perhaps, it is because of this that supervisors
tend to repeat directions regarding job instructions several times for even simple tasks to

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hold the attention of their workers. Advertisers while putting T.V or Radio advertisements
repeat the brand name they are advertising.
e. Motion :
The factor of motion implies the individual attend to changing objects in their field of
vision than to static objects. It is because of this advantage that advertisers involve signs,
which include moving objects in their campaigns. At an unconscious level the animals in
the jungles make use of this principle. A tiger lying in wait is motionless until his prey is
nearer him and then jumps at an appropriate moment.
f. Novelty and familiarity :
A novel object in the familiar situation or a familiar object in a novel situation tends to
attract attention. Thus a white person or black person in India catches attention faster.
Job rotation is an example of this principle. Recent research indicates that job rotation not
only increased attention but also employees acquisition of new skills.
Internal set factors:
a. Habit :
A hindu will bow and do namaskar when he sees a temple while walking on road, because
of his well-established habit. The motor set may cause the likelihood of inappropriate
responses. These are several instances in life settings where individuals tend to react with
the right response to the wrong signals. Thus a retired soldier may throw himself on the
ground when he hears a sudden burst of car tyre.
b. Motivation and Interest :
Two examples of motivational factors are hunger and thirst. Motivational factors increase
the individual’s sensitivity to those stimuli which he considers as relevant to the
satisfaction of his needs in view of his past experience with them.
A thirsty individual has a perceptual set to seek a water fountain or a hotel to quench his
thirst, which increases for him the likelihood of perceiving restaurant signs and decreases
the likelihood of visualizing other objects at that moment in time.
A worker who has a strong need for affiliation, when walks into the lunchroom, the table
where several coworkers are sitting tends to be perceived and the empty table or the table
where only one person is sitting will attract no attention.
c. Learning and Perception :
The process of learning plays a crucial role even in primitive organization. However, it
should be recognized that the role of learning is more pronounced in respect of complex
forms of perception where the symbolic content creeps into the process. Although

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interrelated with motivation and personality, learning may play the single biggest role in
developing perceptual set.
d. Organizational role or specialization
The modern organizations value specialization. Consequently the speciality of a person
that casts him in a particular organizational role predisposes him to select certain stimuli
and to disregard others. Thus in a lengthy report a departmental head will first notice the
text relating to his department.

Q10. “Leadership is practiced by the Leadership style” – Elaborate


Leadership is a challenge! However, it is an exciting challenge, one that can be met
effectively with the development and refinement of certain characteristics or style.
Leadership is an exciting professional experience of leading people and organizations to
accomplish positive goals in providing services and/or products for society. The greatness
of leadership in a society and in a free enterprise system has been demonstrated over and
over again.
Leadership is the telescope through which people and organizations focus their origins,
their challenges, and their futures. All leaders and organizations experience good times,
times of question and uncertainty, and even tough times. The degree to which leadership is
practiced and demonstrated will determine how well the people and organizations face
each of these challenging situations. Max DePree suggests, “The measure of leadership is
not the quality of the head, but the tone of the body. The signs of outstanding leadership
appear primarily among the followers.” It is important to assess the style and personality of
both the leaders around you and yourself to increase your understanding of the different
leadership styles. The following leadership styles and personalities are the most common
and well-known. They may be typified by individuals who are providing leadership, or
they may be encountered by individuals who are developing their leadership skills.
• Autocratic: This type of leadership style is also known as classical or traditional
leadership. The leader usually enjoys the role of being the person in charge, and authority
resides with the leader. The old saying “The buck stops here” captures the essence of this
type of
leader. The autocratic leader is a top-centered leader who retains most of the power for
decision-making. The autocratic leader depends upon the people in levels below to help
implement decisions; however, most of the decision-making falls to the leader. Autocratic
leaders are viewed as task-oriented people with a total focus on the outcome rather than the

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processes. One advantage of an autocratic leadership style includes a clear identity of who
makes the decisions. Decision-making is usually a quick process. There is also a high level
of confidentiality in an autocratic environment since few people are involved in the
decision-making. Conversely, some disadvantages include little input from others in the
decision-making process, limiting the viewpoints of a diverse group of people. Also, the
perception may exist that the opinions and knowledge of others are not valued. This can
lead to low morale or the lack of input from subordinates.
• Participative: This type of leadership style is also known as consultative or consensus
leadership. The leader values the input of others and usually brings people together to
make decisions. The opinions and insights of others are important in the decision-making
process. Decision making is a shared process that can be complex and time-consuming.
However, the consensus of all participants usually contributes significantly to everyone
feeling a part of the decision-making process and therefore supportive of the decisions.
“All for one, and one for all” is a statement that characterizes participative leadership.
Participative leadership has several advantages. Since this style involves others, people
believe their input is valued. More information is usually provided for consideration in the
decision-making process. The spirit of consensus is usually present with a participative
leadership style. Disadvantages may include very little confidentiality about decisions and
a lack of focus on who is responsible for the implementation of a decision.
Two types of leadership personalities can be identified:
• Charismatic: This type of personality is focused on the excitement of leadership and on
providing inspiration and motivation. Charisma is considered a positive characteristic and
one that most people wish to possess. Leaders with charisma are very convincing and
almost intoxicating to those with whom they interact. Charisma is an important aspect of
leadership for those who are visionary but perhaps lack the skills to implement. Usually, an
effective charismatic leader has many efficient people working for him or her to implement
the dreams and ideas of the leader.
• Transformational: This type of personality is focused on being a change factor in the
world of leadership. The leader is many times identified with an invention or event that
brought about significant change. These leaders are known for what they have
accomplished rather than their leadership style. Transformational leaders are often selected
to address a certain situation and bring about changes for improvement in a negative
situation. Transformational leaders are sometimes known as “visionaries.”
Transformational leaders and charismatic leaders have many common qualities, and both

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are usually inspirational in their relationships with others. Most effective leaders are a
combination of autocratic and participative leadership styles and charismatic and
transformational personality styles. In addition, their own unique characteristics contribute
to the total approach of the individual. One may wonder which leadership style is best. In
most leadership situations, some things work better than others at different times. You will
develop a sense of when to use which leadership style and when to call upon certain
personality characteristics to enact a desired outcome. The ability to determine how to
handle different situations is very important in the development of a leader; it is known as
situational leadership. Most effective leaders are aware of the importance of assessing a
situation and applying the style of leadership needed to accomplish the objective while
maintaining the integrity of the process and people involved.

The task of management in modern organizations is to get the best out of people so that
organizational objectives can be achieved. Many organizations are developing new cultures
with flatter, responsive team structures, empowered to take action to meet goals and
targets. There is less emphasis on the classical command and control role of multi-layered
management hierarchies.

To meet this revolution leadership and attendant behaviors and approaches to team
building has changed. Today leadership and team building endeavors provides a consistent,
flexible approach to management across an organizations functions

Leadership is practiced by leadership step, which is the total pattern of leaders action in
relation to followers. It represents this philosophy discussed are used in combination, not
separately, but they are discussed separately, to clarify difference among them.

The way in which a leader uses power also establishes a type of style. Each style has its
benefits and limitations. Leaders behavior is the mixture of all these styles over a period of
time, but one style tends to be the dominant one.
Automatic leaders:
Centralize the power and decision orderly in them. They structure the complete work
situation for these employees, who are supposed to do what they are told. The leader takes
full authority and assumes full responsibility. Leadership behavior typically is negative
based on treats and punishment but it can be positive because an automatic leader can
choose to give rewards to employees in which the style "benevolent -automatic”

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Participative Leaders:
Style is expression of leaders' trust in the abilities of his subordinate. The leader believes
that his people are as devious of contributing to the organizational efforts as well as they
have requisite capacities. Participative leader decentralize the authority.
Free rein leaders:
On the continuation of leadership style free rein style is the extreme. Free rein leaders
avoid powers or responsibility. They depend largely upon the group to establish its aim
goods and work out its own problems.

Q11. As a Manager, What steps would you take to reduce the stress on your
employees.
Q12. “Organizational change is a complex phenomenon involving considerable
diligence on the part of Management – To deal with Resistance to change as
well as to Introduce the change” – Discuss.
Q13. Define “Work”. What are basic concepts involved in the work performance?
Q14. Write Short Notes on (Any two)
a. Content and Process Theory of Motivation
b. Attitudes and Values
Value is defined as a “concept of the desirable, an internalized criterion or standard of
evaluation a person possesses”. Such concepts and standards are relatively few and
determine our guide an individual’s evaluations of the many objects encountered in
everyday life.
Values are tinged with moral flavor, involving an individual’s judgment of what is right,
good or desirable. Thus values –
a. Provide standards of competence and morality
b. Are fewer in number than attitudes
c. Transcend specific objects, situations or persons
d. Are relatively permanent and resistant to change
e. Are most central to the core of a person.
There are differences between values and attitudes. Attitudes essentially represent
predisposition to respond. Values focus on the judgment of what ought to be. This
judgment can represent the specific manifestation of a determining tendency below the
surface of the behavior. Attitudes represent several beliefs focused on specific object or
situation. Value, on the other hand, represents a single belief that transcendentally guides

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actions and judgments across objects and situations. Finally, a value stands in relation to
some social or cultural standards or norms while attitudes are mostly personal experiences.
There are similarities between values and attitudes. Both are powerful instruments
influencing cognitive process and behavior of people. Both are learned and acquired from
the same source – experiences with people and objects. Values and attitudes are relatively
permanent and resistant to change. Finally, values and attitudes influence each other and
are more often than not, used interchangeable.
c. Perception
d. The Id and Ego
The Id : It is the original and the most basic system of human personality. At the base of the
Freudian theory lies the id that is primitive, instinctual and governed by the principles of
greed and pleasure. Id represents a storehouse of all instincts, containing in its dark depths
all wishes, and desires that unconsciously direct and determines our behavior. Id is largely
childish, irrational, never satisfied, demanding and destructive of others. But id is the
foundation upon which all other parts of personality are erected. Like a newly born baby id
has no perception of reality. It is primitive, immoral, insistent and rash. Id is the reservoir of
the “psychic energy” which Freud calls “Libido”. According to Freud id is totally oriented
towards increasing pleasure and avoiding pain, and it strives for immediate satisfaction of
desires.
One notable characteristic of id is that it cannot tolerate uncomfortable levels of tension
within it and seeks to release the tension as soon as it develops. The methods of dealing
with tension by id are primary processes and reflex actions. The former attempts to
discharge a tension by forming mental image of desirable means of releasing the tension.
But this kind of tension release is temporary and mental, and would not satisfy the real
need. For instance, if a person is hungry the id deals with the situation by creating a mental
image of desirable and good food that is palatable. The later method (reflex action) of
tension release is reflected in the behavior of individuals such as blinking of eyes, raising
eyebrows, rubbing the cheeks etc. Id, in fact, is capable of resolving the tension in reality.
Id basically represents an individual’s natural urges and feelings.
The Ego: As an individual learns to separate the unreality from reality in childhood, the ego
develops. The ego is reality oriented part of thinking; it is largely practical and works in an
executive capacity. Ego is rational and logical, and in essence, it is the conscious mediator
between the realities of world and the id’s demands. It constantly works to keep a healthy
psychological balance between id’s impulsive demands and superego’s restrictive guidance.

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Ego is rational master. The ego is said to be the executive part of the personality because it
controls the gateway to action, selects the features of the environment to which it will
respond, and decides what instincts will be satisfied.
The most important characteristic of ego is that it has the ability to distinguish between
mental images and actual sources of tension release, and it responds to the real sources of
tension reduction. The ego performs task by :
a. Observing accurately what exists in the outside world (perceiving)
b. Recording these experiences carefully (remembering)
c. Modifying the external world in such a way as to satisfy the instinctual
wishes(acting)

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