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drinking water sources can become contaminated, causing sickness and disease from

waterborne germs, such as Cryptosporidium, E. coli, Hepatitis A, Giardia intestinalis, and other
pathogens.
The Stages of
Water Treatment
Preliminary treatment or pretreatment is any physical, chemical or mechanical process
used on water before it undergoes the main treatment process. During preliminary
treatment:
screens may be used to remove rocks, sticks, leaves and other debris;
chemicals may be added to control the growth of algae; and
a presedimentation stage can settle out sand, grit and gravel from raw water.
After preliminary treatment, the next step is coagulation. Coagulation removes small particles
that are made up of microbes, silt and other suspended material in the water. Treatment
chemicals such as alum are added to the water and mixed rapidly in a large basin. The
chemicals cause small particles to clump together (coagulate). Gentle mixing brings smaller
clumps of particles together to form larger groups called "floc". Some of the floc begins to settle
during this stage.
During the flocculation stage, the heavy, dense floc settles to the bottom of the water in large
tanks. As you can imagine, this can be a slow process! Once the floc settles, the water is ready
for the next stage of treatment.

Coagulation and Flocculation
Coagulation and flocculation are often the first steps in water treatment. Chemicals with
a positive charge are added to the water. The positive charge of these chemicals
neutralizes the negative charge of dirt and other dissolved particles in the water. When
this occurs, the particles bind with the chemicals and form larger particles, called floc.

Clarification occurs in a large basin where water is again allowed to flow very
slowly. Sludge, a residue of solids and water, accumulates at the basin's bottom
and is pumped or scraped out for eventual disposal. Clarification is also
sometimes called sedimentation Sedimentation
During sedimentation, floc settles to the bottom of the water supply, due to
its weight. This settling process is called sedimentation.
.
Filtration
Once the floc has settled to the bottom of the water supply, the clear water on top
will pass through filters of varying compositions (sand, gravel, and charcoal) and
pore sizes, in order to remove dissolved particles, such as dust, parasites,
bacteria, viruses, and chemicals.
Turbidity is a physical characteristic that makes water appear cloudy when suspended
matter is present. The filtration process removes suspended matter, which can consist
of floc, microorganisms (including protozoan cysts such as Giardia and
Cyrptosporidium), algae, silt, iron, and manganese precipitates from ground-water
sources, as well as precipitants which remain after the softening process.
These suspended materials are filtered out when water passes through beds of granular
material, usually composed of layers of sand, gravel, coal, garnet, or related
substances. (Measure turbidity with a Hach turbidimeter.)


Disinfection
After the water has been filtered, a disinfectant (for example, chlorine,
chloramine) may be added in order to kill any remaining parasites, bacteria, and
viruses, and to protect the water from germs when it is piped to homes and
businesses.
During disinfection, disease-causing organisms are destroyed or disabled. Chlorine
(Cl
2
) is the most common disinfectant used in the United States because it is practical,
effective and economical.
Because chlorine dissipates rapidly, it is important to add the right amount of chlorine at
the water treatment plant to make sure disinfection continues while the water is flowing
through the distribution system. (Use a USEPA-approved Hach method to measure
chlorine in water.)

Sedimentation
TYPE 1
(discrete
particle settling)
settling of discrete particles in dilute suspensions
particles have no tendency to flocculate
they settle as individual entities and there is no
significant interaction with neighboring particles
Example:
removal of grit and sand in
wastewater treatment
TYPE 2
(flocculant
settling)
settling of flocculant particles in dilute suspensions
as particle settle and coalesce with other particles,
the sizes of particles and their settling velocity
increases
Examples:
removal of SS in
primary sedimentation
tanks of WWTP
settling of chemically
coagulated waters
TYPE 3
(hindered
settling)
or
(zone settling)
settling of intermediate concentration of flocculant
particles
particles are so close together that interparticle
forces are able to hold them in fixed positions
relative to each other and the mass of particles
settles as a zone at a constant velocity
Example:
biological floc removal in
secondary settling basins of
WWTP
TYPE 4
(compression
settling)
settling of particles that are of such a high
concentration that the particles touch each other
and settling can occur only by compression which
takes place from the weight of particles
Examples:
occurs in the bottom of
deep secondary clarifiers
in sludge thickening
Facilities