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May 2006

PSAF for Windows


Users Guide and
Reference Manual

Copyright CYME International T&D Inc.



All Rights Reserved


This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any
method, for any purpose.

CYME International T&D makes no warranty, either expressed or implied,
including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for
a particular purpose, regarding these materials and makes such materials
available solely on an "as-is" basis.

In no event shall CYME International T&D be liable to anyone for special,
collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out
of purchase or use of these materials. The sole and exclusive liability to CYME
International T&D, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase
price of the materials described herein.

CYME International T&D reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it
sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its
publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future.

The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement.


CYME International T&D Inc.
67 South Bedford Street, Suite 201 East
Burlington, MA 01803-5177
1-800-361-3627 (781) 229-0269
FAX: (781) 229-2336

International and Canada:
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Canada
(450) 461-3655
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Internet : http://www.cyme.com
E-mail : support@cyme.com


Windows 98 and Windows NT, 2000 & XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft. Autocad is a trademark of
Autodesk Inc.


PSAF Basics & Editing Users Guide and Reference Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS 5
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Getting Started.........................................................................................................1
1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................1
1.1.1 About this Manual .........................................................................................1
1.1.2 The PSAF Users and Reference Manuals ..................................................1
1.2 Computer System Requirements ..............................................................................2
1.3 Installing PSAF for Windows .....................................................................................2
1.4 Running PSAF for Windows ......................................................................................3
1.4.1 PSAF Files....................................................................................................3
1.5 PSAF GUI ..................................................................................................................4
1.5.1 Network Window...........................................................................................4
1.5.2 Project View Sidebar ....................................................................................4
1.5.3 Detailed View Sidebar ..................................................................................5
1.5.4 Moving the Toolbars and Sidebars...............................................................7
1.5.5 Mouse Commands........................................................................................7
1.6 Using PSAF .............................................................................................................11
1.6.1 Using the Project view................................................................................11
1.6.2 Creating a new project................................................................................11
1.6.3 Creating a network......................................................................................13
1.6.4 Building a network ......................................................................................15
1.6.5 How to Print the One Line Diagram............................................................16
Chapter 2 Menus and Toolbars..............................................................................................19
2.1 File Menu .................................................................................................................19
2.1.1 Import Wizard .............................................................................................21
2.1.2 Export Wizard .............................................................................................28
2.1.3 Preferences Settings ..................................................................................33
2.2 Edit Menu.................................................................................................................42
2.3 Network Menu..........................................................................................................44
2.4 View Menu ...............................................................................................................45
2.5 Database Menu .......................................................................................................47
2.6 Analysis Menu .........................................................................................................48
2.7 Report Menu............................................................................................................49
2.8 Tools Menu..............................................................................................................53
2.9 Windows Menu ........................................................................................................57
2.10 Help Menu................................................................................................................58
2.11 Toolbars...................................................................................................................58
2.11.1 Standard Toolbar ........................................................................................58
2.11.2 Editing Toolbar............................................................................................59
2.11.3 Study Toolbar .............................................................................................60
2.11.4 O.L.D. Editing Toolbar ................................................................................61
2.11.5 Other Toolbars............................................................................................63
Chapter 3 Network Equipment Data......................................................................................65
3.1 Overview of Dialog Boxes........................................................................................65
3.1.1 Database Dialog Boxes ..............................................................................65
3.1.2 Equipment Dialog Boxes ............................................................................66
3.2 Bus 69
3.3 Bus Tie.....................................................................................................................71
3.4 Bus Way...................................................................................................................72
3.4.1 Bus Way in the Network .............................................................................73
3.5 Cable........................................................................................................................74
3.5.1 Cables in the Network ................................................................................77
3.6 Series Compensation ..............................................................................................78

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3.7 Generator, Synchronous .........................................................................................79
3.7.1 Generators in the Network..........................................................................80
3.8 Generator, Induction (IG).........................................................................................82
3.8.1 Induction Generator in network ..................................................................84
3.9 HVDC Line...............................................................................................................85
3.9.1 How HVDC Lines operate in CYMFLOWHow............................................86
3.9.2 HVDC Lines in the Network........................................................................86
3.10 Line ..........................................................................................................................89
3.10.1 Lines in the Network ...................................................................................92
3.11 Loads, Non-rotating .................................................................................................93
3.11.1 Loads in the Network..................................................................................94
3.12 Motor, Induction.......................................................................................................96
3.12.1 Induction Motors in the Network.................................................................98
3.13 Motor, Synchronous...............................................................................................101
3.13.1 Synchronous Motors in the Network ........................................................102
3.14 Network Protector ..................................................................................................103
3.15 Reactor, Series......................................................................................................105
3.15.1 Series Reactors in the Network................................................................106
3.16 SVC (Static Var Compensator)..............................................................................107
3.16.1 SVCs in the Network................................................................................108
3.17 Switch ....................................................................................................................109
3.18 Switchable Shunt ...................................................................................................110
3.19 Transformer, Fixed-tap ..........................................................................................111
3.19.1 Zig Zag Winding for Transformers............................................................115
3.19.2 Fixed-Tap Transformers in the Network...................................................116
3.20 Inrush current model..............................................................................................117
3.20.1 Inrush current data....................................................................................118
3.20.2 Activation of the inrush current effect in the network................................119
3.21 Transformer, Phase-shifting ..................................................................................120
3.21.1 Phase Shifting Transformers in the Network............................................121
3.22 Transformer, Reactive power regulating ...............................................................122
3.22.1 Reactive Power Regulating Transformers in the Network .......................123
3.23 Transformer, Three-winding ..................................................................................123
3.23.1 Three-Winding Transformers in the Network ...........................................125
3.24 Transformer, Voltage-regulating (TCUL)...............................................................126
3.24.1 Voltage Regulating Transformers in the Network.....................................127
3.25 Utility Connection...................................................................................................128
3.26 Mutual Coupling between Lines or Cables in the Network....................................129
3.27 Grounding Transformer .........................................................................................130
3.27.1 Grounding Transformer in the Network....................................................131
3.28 WECS-IG...............................................................................................................132
3.28.1 WECS-IG in the Network..........................................................................133
3.29 WECS HVDC.........................................................................................................134
3.29.1 WECS HVDC in the Network....................................................................135
3.30 WECS DFIG...........................................................................................................136
3.30.1 WECS DFIG in the Network .....................................................................137
3.31 MCC (Motor Control Center) .................................................................................138
3.31.1 Normal Editing Mode ................................................................................140
3.31.2 Advanced Editing Mode............................................................................141
3.31.3 MCC Naming Convention.........................................................................142
3.32 Auto Transformer...................................................................................................143
3.32.1 Auto Xmer in the network .........................................................................144
3.33 Three-Winding Auto Xmer .....................................................................................146
3.33.1 Three-Winding Auto Xmer in the network ................................................147
3.34 Protection Devices.................................................................................................149
3.34.1 Fuse / LVCB / Recloser / Relay (all of them) / Miscellaneous..................150

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3.34.2 Accessing a protective device through its connected equipment ............150
Chapter 4 Line and Cable Parameter Calculations............................................................153
4.1 Line Parameters Calculations................................................................................153
4.1.1 Line Parameters Calculation with HLINPAR............................................153
4.1.2 Activate HLINPAR ....................................................................................154
4.1.3 HLINPAR Input Data.................................................................................155
4.1.4 Data Input in HLINPAR.............................................................................156
4.1.5 HLINPAR results.......................................................................................158
4.1.6 Data Input in HLINPAR.............................................................................161
4.1.7 HLINPAR results.......................................................................................163
4.2 Special Harmonic Line Models supported by HLINPAR.......................................163
4.2.1 LIN_3PB, Transposed 3-phase distributed ..............................................163
4.2.2 LIN_3PCB, Transposed 3-phase distributed, frequency dependent........164
4.2.3 LIN_3P, Untransposed N-phase distributed.............................................166
4.3 Typical Tower Layouts Supported in HLINPAR ....................................................167
4.4 Cable Parameters Calculations.............................................................................169
4.4.1 Cables Parameters Calculation................................................................169
4.4.2 How to calculate cable parameters ..........................................................170
4.4.3 Cable Input Data.......................................................................................170
Chapter 5 Editing the Network.............................................................................................181
5.1 File extensions.......................................................................................................181
5.2 Overview of creation and editing ...........................................................................182
5.3 Opening a Network................................................................................................182
5.4 One-Line View Mode .............................................................................................183
5.4.1 Creating a new Bus ..................................................................................183
5.4.2 Connect a New Equipment to the Network ..............................................184
5.4.3 Example: Connecting a Generator ..........................................................185
5.4.4 Edit an Equipment in the Network ............................................................186
5.4.5 Move an Equipment from One Bus to Another.........................................186
5.4.6 Move a Bus...............................................................................................187
5.4.7 Move Part of the Network .........................................................................187
5.4.8 Copy an Equipment ..................................................................................187
5.4.9 Copy and Paste Part of the Network ........................................................188
5.4.10 Delete an equipment.................................................................................188
5.4.11 Delete part of the network ........................................................................188
5.4.12 Undelete an equipment ............................................................................188
5.4.13 Disable/Enable an equipment without deleting it......................................189
5.4.14 Locate (Find) a Network component on the One-line-Diagram(OLD)......189
5.4.15 How Center the view on an equipment: ...................................................191
5.4.16 Hide parts of the One-line-Diagram(OLD)................................................191
5.4.17 Colors of the OLD.....................................................................................193
5.4.18 Title Block for the Network (User Defined Label) .....................................195
5.5 Table View Mode...................................................................................................195
5.6 Input Data Report ..................................................................................................198

Appendix A Representation of transformers in zero-sequence


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CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED 1
Chapter 1 Getting Started
1.1 Introduction
CYME PSAF (Power Systems Analysis Framework) is a suite of modular analysis
programs with a common database and network editing facility. The suite includes programs for
topics such as Load Flow, Short Circuit, Harmonic and Transient Stability analyses of electrical
networks.
The highly interactive graphical interface makes it easy to draw the network One-Line
Diagram on the screen and define the parameters of its components. Additions, deletions and
modifications are easily made during the process of creating the network. At any time, you may
display (and edit) the data pertinent to any component on the screen by clicking with the mouse.
As an alternative to the graphic method of entering the network description, PSAF allows you to
enter data in tables.
You may choose which One-Line information is displayed on the screen while you work.
When you open a new window, you can drag and drop only the equipments that you
want to see in the One-Line until the entire network. With this option you can divide a network in
piece that you can see in different windows at the same time.
Calculation results may be displayed on the screen for specified components. Complete
reports of the results may be saved in files and printed. You may design custom reports by
selecting items from a menu. Undesirable load flow conditions such as overloads and
under/over-voltages may be reported.
The auxiliary program CYMVIEW provides a common graphical display for results as a
function of time (MOTOR-START or STABILITY) or frequency (HARMO).
1.1.1 About this Manual
The current manual covers the basics of PSAF. Chapter 1 includes an overview of the
installation steps of the program and describes the graphical users interface. Chapter 2 lists and
briefly describes all the commands available in the PSAF menus and its toolbars. Chapter 3, 4
and 5 provide tips about the creation of the network equipment data.
1.1.2 The PSAF Users and Reference Manuals
The following Users and Reference Manuals are also available from CYME for the registered
users of the PSAF application modules:
Basics of PSAF and overview of editing functions. (this manual)
CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference
Manual.
Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC), ARC Flash & CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference
Manual.
CYMSTAB & UDM Library, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

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CYMOPF, Users Guide and Reference Manual.
CYMVSTAB, Reference Manual.
CYMHARMO, Users Guide and Reference Manual.
Importing/Exporting Databases/Networks, Reference Manual.
1.2 Computer System Requirements
PSAF for Windows requires an IBM PC or compatible computer using Microsoft Windows
NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP or Windows 2003
The minimum hardware requirements are:

A Pentium III - based computer.
256 MB of extended memory (512 MB or more recommended).
150 MB of hard-disk space.
1024 X 768 screen resolution
Any mouse, monitor and printer or plotter supported by Windows.
1.3 Installing PSAF for Windows
The PSAF package includes the installation CD and one protection key (if you have
selected a hardware-type key), which plugs into the parallel or USB port on your computer. You
cannot operate the program without the key in place. You can, however, install it. (In the case of
a computer network installation, the key should be plugged into the server machine.)
Note: Installing a new version of PSAF on a drive where PSAF already exists will not
overwrite the existing databases.

1. Start Microsoft Windows.

3. Insert the CYME CD into the CD-ROM reader.

4. The installation program should start automatically after a few seconds.

If it does not start by itself, use Windows Explorer to inspect the main directory of the
CYME CD. Locate the icon Setup and double-click on it.

5. Click on the option to Install Product.

6. Choose PSAF (+ version #) from the list of software names.

7. Follow the prompts and screen instructions. (You will need the password.)

8. Insert the hardware key into the line printer port (e.g., LPT1) or in an empty USB port.
Please refer to the Appendix, "Setting Up the Protection Key", for further instructions.

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Users of Windows NT must also install the proper driver. Please refer to the
Appendix.
1.4 Running PSAF for Windows
Having activated Windows, double-click on the PSAF program icon. The Main Menu and
Toolbar will be displayed. Note that most of the icons will be disabled until you open a study (see
section 1.5 PSAF GUI).
Since PSAF features more than 20 different modules, the program can take a long time
to load-up (especially if you have a network type protection key). To accelerate the startup
process, you can remove the initial validation on some of the simulation modules that you DONT
have. For more details on this option please see section 2.1 File Menu.
1.4.1 PSAF Files
A PSAF Network is the combination of a network (*.nwt) file, a study (*.stu) file and the
use of a database directory. All of these are linked together through a Project to which the
network belongs (see section 1.6.1 Using the Project view).

The databases store the intrinsic characteristics of the network equipment, such as
nameplate ratings.
The network (*nwt) file refers to items in the databases to establish the data that appear
in the main tab of each equipment dialog box. See Chapter 3.
The study (*.stu) file refers to the databases to establish the supplementary data.
(These data appear in the auxiliary tabs of each equipment dialog box. See Chapter 3.)
Examples: The rated MVA, voltage and impedances of a generator are stored in the
network, but the choice of exciter model (if any) would be stored in the
study.
The torque-speed characteristic for the load on an induction motor may be
changed in a study, but the motor itself is part of the network.


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1.5 PSAF GUI
1.5.1 Network Window
The screen is subdivided into four sections. These sections can be viewed only when a
network has been opened.

1.5.2 Project View Sidebar
The Project View Sidebar (menu View > Project View) provides you quick access to
your network views and to the gallery of symbols you can use in your one-line diagrams.
The Projects tab, shows all projects that you have and all the networks for this
project. Each network can contain one or more views that are displayed in the
projects view in a tree-like fashion.
The Symbols tab, shows all equipment that you can add in your network. Simply
drag and drop one of them in one view to add it into the network. The symbols are
grouped by categories that you can expand by clicking on the Category name. These
include: General Equipment, Harmonic Equipment, Protective Devices and Tools.


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CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED 5


1.5.3 Detailed View Sidebar
The Detailed View Sidebar (menu View > Detailed View) provides a quick access to the
network equipment. This sidebar is divided in three panes that can be displayed by clicking on
the corresponding tabs:
The Network tab shows you a list of every device present in the network. Equipment
types with the green icon are present in the network. Equipment name shown with a
red icon means that this equipment exists in the network but it is not currently
displayed in the one-line diagram. You have access to four options by right clicking
on a selected equipment:
1. Open (the Equipment dialog box).
2. Locate (the equipment will be centered in the one-line diagram window).
3. Hide (the equipment will be hided from the active view).
4. Delete (the equipment).


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The Database tab, shows every equipment database records available in the
active database. You have access to two options by right clicking on an
equipment:
1. Open (the equipment database dialog)
2. Delete (the record from the active database)

The Option tab, includes one-line diagram coloring options. These options are
also available in the menu Tools > Options (from the Main toolbar) + View >
OLD filter (See Hide parts of the One-line-Diagram(OLD), section 5.4.16.)




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1.5.4 Moving the Toolbars and Sidebars


The Symbol Tool Bar is floating at the right instead of docked at the left.


1.5.5 Mouse Commands
1.5.5.1 Pan
CLICK the RIGHT mouse button ONCE and HOLD IT DOWN.
MOVE THE MOUSE and RELEASE THE BUTTON.
The drawing will move as though you had pulled it with the mouse.
1.5.5.2 Zoom
Move the mouse to place the cursor at one corner of the desired area.
DOUBLE-CLICK the RIGHT mouse button and HOLD IT DOWN.
MOVE THE MOUSE so that the outline box surrounds the desired area.
RELEASE THE BUTTON.

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If your mouse is equipped with a scrolling wheel, you may rotate it to zoom in and out.
Hint: The Zoom buttons in the Editing Toolbar function as follows:
zooms out a little.
zooms out until the entire One-line is displayed.
zooms in a little.

Hint:
The Center button in the Editing toolbar brings the selected equipment to
the center of the Network window. Consider using it before zooming. The Find
function also has an option to place the selected item in the center.

1.5.5.3 Select an equipment
Click the LEFT mouse button ONCE on the equipment symbol in the One-line.
or
Click the LEFT mouse button ONCE and HOLD IT DOWN.
MOVE THE MOUSE to draw an outline box around the equipment symbol.
RELEASE THE BUTTON.

Hint: The selected symbol will be outlined in the color selected under Tools >
Options.

1.5.5.4 Show Dialog
Select an equipment.
Right-click on the symbol to display its context-menu and select the Properties
option. (Other methods are available. See section 5.4.4 Edit an Equipment in the
Network for more details)

1.5.5.5 Cancel
To cancel an editing activity, which is in progress, click on the cancel icon. You may also
press the Escape key. You may cancel the following actions: Reconnect, New, Move,
Copy, and Undelete.


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1.5.5.6 Context Menus
To see and use the context menu of a component, click right mouse button on it. Each of
the following components has at least these options:
Properties To open the component dialog box.

Disable / Enable To disconnect or connect the bus.

Re-Connect Useful for reconfigurating selected component on a network.

Copy To copy the selected equipment to the clipboard.

Delete To eliminate an equipment.

Show / Hide Label To make the equipment-label visible or invisible, on the OLD.

Default all tags To reset the component tags to their default positions.

Hide component To make the component invisible on the OLD. If you want to see
it again, simply drag and drop the corresponding component from
de detailed view to the OLD.

The Bus context menu has one additional option: Show first ring; which is used to show
all the connected equipment of this bus.


The Equipment context menu has one specific menu option: Auto-center, used to center
the equipment in the current straight line.

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The Protective Device context menu has one specific menu option, which is Switch To,
to move the protective device on another side of the attached equipment.




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CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED 11
1.6 Using PSAF
1.6.1 Using the Project view
The Project tree view is used to manage all of your studies in a single, easy to find
environment. Through its properties, the link between each of the files (section 1.4.1 PSAF Files)
composing your cases are kept in the project definition. The following sections will tell you how to
create a new project, how to associate the equipment database to it, how to create a network in
this project.
To make a project active, simply right-click on its name and select the Set as Active
Project command.


You may also add a network (1.6.3 Creating a network), rename a project, delete a
project (with the possibility to delete all the associated files at the same time), import (2.1.1
Import Wizard) or Export (2.1.2 Export Wizard) the networks of this project. You may also
change the properties of the project.
1.6.2 Creating a new project
The first step is to create a project to which you will link the network to be created. You
can create any number of projects and each of them can contain one or more networks.
Select the File > New > Project menu item to display the Wizard that will guide you
through the necessary steps. You can also access the Wizard through the Project View sidebar
and by selecting the New Project shortcut, as shown below. You can display the Project View
sidebar by using the View > Project View menu item.

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Clicking on the New Project item will display the Project creation Wizard window:

At the first step Project Settings, you specify the directories that PSAF will use to store
the information related to the project you will create:
Project name The name that you want to give to your project.

Project path The path where all the related networks will be saved.

Symbol file path The path where will be saved the .XML file containing your own
symbols (if you dont have any, use the default one available with
PSAF).
Click the Next button to display the next page of the Project creation Wizard: the
Database settings.

Note: If you click the Finish button instead, then all others parameters will be filled in
for you, using the available defaults.


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CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED 13


The Project creation wizard will display the default paths for the Equipment database
and for the O.L.D. view database.
The Equipment database contains all the information about the available equipment.
You might think of this as making an inventory of the network equipment as though it were all in a
warehouse somewhere. Once an equipment has been defined in the database, you may insert
multiple copies of it in the network. Conveniently, you may edit the databases even while editing
the network One Line diagram.
Hints:
:
Initially, PSAF uses the databases that are stored in the directory called
\DATABASE.vers# (e.g. \database.3.00 for PSAF version 3.00) as default
database and will copy it to the specified DBF Folder. If you wish to change
the default database, use the File > Preferences menu command in PSAF
(see section 2.1.3 Preferences Settings).
The second path, O.L.D. view database, contains all the One Line Diagrams for this
project. Each project can have multiple networks and each of them can have multiple O.L.D.
views. All these views are saved in the MDB file.
At this time, you can press the Finish button and your project will be created.
1.6.3 Creating a network
The creation of a new network is done through the Network creation page of the
Project creation Wizard. You have two ways to access it.
The first one is if you click the Next button (instead of the Finish button) once you are
done with the Database settings. The Project Creation Wizard will take you to the next stage:
the Network creation page that will allow you to specify the name of the network you wish to
create in this project by typing it in and to select the template from which the network will be
created from the drop down list below the name of your network. Once you click Finish, the
wizard will disappear and a new One Line Diagram window will be displayed using the template
you specified.

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The second way is to click on the New Network shortcut in the Project view sidebar:


The Wizard that will be displayed will require specifying the name of the network and its
template, and also specifying to which project it will be added (the Destination Project).

Once you click Finish, the wizard will disappear and a new One Line Diagram window
will be displayed using the template you specified.

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CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED 15

Note: If you create a network using the New Network shortcut in the Project view
sidebar or the File > New > Network menu item, and that no project was
previously specified, PSAF will display the Network creation Wizard that
includes the steps of creating a new project.



1.6.4 Building a network
Once your network is created, you are now ready to define how the equipment is
connected in the network. Do this by identifying points of connection between equipment and
creating buses to represent them. Connect the equipment (to one or more buses) either by
adding it to the One Line Diagram using the mouse and icons, or by entering data through tables.
As you connect an equipment, define its service settings (e.g., primary tap position for a
transformer).
Hint: You can choose colors to indicate buses of different voltage levels, etc. See
the Tools > Options command. (see section 2.8 Tools Menu).
Having described the network, select an analysis to perform (e.g., loadflow). If
necessary, you may specify parameters for the calculation (e.g., convergence tolerance). You
may also choose the kinds of reports you would like to obtain, as well as the variables that will be
featured in those reports. (PSAF remembers your choices from one analysis to the next.)
Activate an analysis and view the results.
These steps are summarized below:
1. Describe generic equipment in the databases.
2. Connect equipment together.
3. Customize the equipment as you connect it.
4. Select an analysis to perform.
5. Define calculation parameters and select the reports desired.
6. Perform the analysis and view the reports.


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16 CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED
The remaining chapters of this manual cover the activities related to the creating and
editing a network and its components. The user will find in the CYMFLOW Users Manual the
various analysis options of PSAF.
1.6.5 How to Print the One Line Diagram
To print the contents of the One Line Diagram (OLD):
1. Select the File > Print command, the Print / Preview dialog will appear.
2. Choose one of the three following option and Click Ok,


Output the whole network prints the entire network even when you are seeing a
part of the network on view window.
Output the network as is prints only what is visible in the view window. That
means that if you zoom in on a part of the drawing, only the zoomed portion will be
printed.
Output the selected print zone prints one of specified zones of network.
This option allows the user to print multiple Printing Zones of a study. A Printing zone
is a pre-defined view of a network. To define a printing zone:

A. Select Symbol toolbar > Tools > Define printing zone.

B. Left-click and hold the mouse on the Define printing zone icon and drag the cursor
onto the one-line diagram (OLD).


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CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED 17
C. Click to select the label to make it active. Drag and drop the corners of the rectangle
to define the extent of the printing zone.



D. PSAF automatically assigns a name to each Printing-Zone but you can change it. (The
name is used by the Print command when selecting Printing zones.



By double-clicking the Printing-Zone border, PSAF displays the following dialog;
where you can: change its name and border color, preview and print the zone.

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18 CHAPTER 1 GETTING STARTED

You have the option to make PSAF print according one of above options without asking
you, or to give you the choice to choose one of the options every time. See File > Preferences >
General. (Section 2.1.3 Preferences Settings and illustration below )


Hints: Using color in the One Line Diagram (OLD)
You may find it useful to use different colors to distinguish buses of different
base voltages. If you want to print the diagram in color, make sure to
deactivate the option File > Preferences > General > Force all colors to
black or white.
If you choose a dark background color for the network window, choose the
option keep colors and make background transparent.

Note: Use File > Print Preview to confirm what will be printed.



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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 19
Chapter 2 Menus and Toolbars
2.1 File Menu



New


Project To display the Project creation Wizard, which will help
you during the process of creating a new project.

Network To display the Network creation Wizard, which will help
you during the process of creating a new network and
adding it to a project.

Open
Network/
Study file
To display the Import Wizard, which will help you to use your old nwt/stu
files. Refer to section 2.1.1 Import Wizard, for more details.


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20 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Save


Network To save the current network (.NWT and .STU).

Network As To save the current network under another file name.

All Networks To save all opened networks.

View &
Network
To save the current O.L.D. view in the mdb database
and save the corresponding network (nwt and stu).

View As &
Network
To save the current O.L.D. view using another name
and to save the corresponding network (nwt and stu).

Save All To save all views and networks that are opened.

Close
Network
To close the current network and all his views.


Close All To close all the files that currently opened. The program will prompt you
to save any file that has been modified and not saved yet.

Import To display the Import Wizard. Refer to section 2.1.1 Import Wizard, for
more details.

Export To display the Export Wizard. Refer to section 2.1.2 Export Wizard, for
more details.

Tutorial To see what are a project, a network, an O.L.D view, an equipment
database and a view database, click File Tutorial. This will create
and open files for you. You will be able to access them from the Project
View.


Preferences To access the dialog boxes to set directories, text fonts, text editor, etc.
See section 2.1.3 Preferences Settings, below.


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 21
Load Text
Editor...
To open any text file using the text editor that you have specified in the
Directory tab in the Preferences settings dialog, without leaving the
PSAF environment. See section 2.1.3 Preferences Settings, below.

Note: You should not edit the network files (*.NWT) or the study files
(*.STU) using the text editor.

Print To display the printer dialog box for your printer.

Note: It is recommended to the use Print Preview command instead
of Print.

Print
Preview
To display the image of the One Line diagram that will be printed. If it is
acceptable, you may print it by clicking on the Print button within the
Print Preview dialog box.

Hint: You can specify in the General tab of the Preferences settings
dialog box the type of area PSAF will display when using the
Print Preview command; i.e. only the portion of the diagram that
is visible on the screen, or the entire diagram, or let you select
on a case-by case basis. See section 2.1.3 Preferences
Settings, below.

Print
setup...

To specify a printer and its settings (e.g., Landscape orientation, etc).


Exit

To close the PSAF applications. PSAF will prompt you to save changes
if you have not already done so.

2.1.1 Import Wizard
With PSAF, you have four import possibilities. The Import Wizard will help you go
through all the steps related to your selection. To open the Import Wizard, click on the Import
shortcut in the Project View or select the File > Import menu item.


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22 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
This wizard will open:

You can navigate through the steps using Next and Previous buttons or you can directly
click on the desired step shown on the left. Each option is explained below.
2.1.1.1 Import existing network
With this option you can import any nwt/stu file that you have, like your old versions for
example. Fill in the required information and if these files are related to a database, you can
specify the database path that will be imported.

Next, you must specify the destination of your files. This can be a new project or an
existing one. You also need to select the action to take in case of conflict.

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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 23

Once done, click on the Finish button, and you are ready to use this network.
2.1.1.2 Import zip archive
With this option you can import one zip file that was previously created by the Export
function of PSAF.


Then choose the destination project and the action to take if there is a conflict when the
database will be merged.
Once done, click on the Finish button, and PSAF will extract the zip file and import its
content in the selected project.

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24 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS


2.1.1.3 Import CYME DOS and other formats

Note: The following does not apply to the users of CYMBASE. For those, please
communicate with CYME International; we will make the conversion to PSAF for
you, free of charge.

Locate the file that you want to import, and then your destination project.



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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 25


Parameters for DOS conversion

Select the File > Preferences > DOS Conversion menu item to specify how you want
the network data to be converted into the PSAF format.




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26 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
DOS programs
conversion options
To specify a number of options for converting old data files
(used in CYME DOS programs such as CYMFLOW and
CYMFAULT).
PSAF will identify the network Buses using the bus number
and/or bus name given in CYMFLOW and CYMFAULT. For
example:
Bus number: 2001
Bus-number-name: 2001-BOSTON
Bus-name-number: BOSTON-2001


Hint: If you use Bus number, then PSAF will still keep the
name as the Extra ID. The Extra ID appears in the
Bus dialog box and may be displayed on the One Line
and in the reports. See File > Preferences > Study
Config.

Default all line
lenghts to 1
When activating this check box, the impedance of each Line will
be imported as if it were the impedance per unit of length and
the length will be made equal to 1 unit. Doing this makes it easy
to compare data between the DOS file and the PSAF dialog box
for Lines.

Default unknown
zero sequence
impedance to
Sets the following according to your choice:

Typical Values Same as
CYMFAULT
Lines Z
0
= 1.5 x Z
1
Z
0
= 0.001 p.u.
Transformers Z
0
= Z
1
Winding connection YgD or
DYg (Yg on higher voltage
side)
Z
0
= Z
1
Winding connection Y-Y
Generators MVA = machine MVA
kV = bus base kV
X
d
= 0.20 p.u., R
d
= 0.0 p.u.
X
d
= 0.23 p.u., R
d
= 0.0 p.u.
X
d
= 0.60 p.u., R = 0.02 p.u.
X
0
= 0.066 p.u., R
0
= 0.0 p.u,
Winding connection Yg
MVA = system MVA base
kV = bus base kV
X
d
= 0.20 p.u., R
d
= 0.0
p.u.
X
d
= 0.30 p.u., R
d
= 0.0
p.u.
X
d
= 99 p.u., R = 99 p.u.
X
0
= 99 p.u., R
0
= 99 p.u,
Winding connection Y
(ungrounded)


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 27
2.1.1.4 Import ASCII
Locate the adb file containing all the database information you want to import along with
the corresponding nwt file, if there is one and if you want to import it as well.

Then, select the destination where the data will be imported and one network name if you
have selected to import a nwt file.


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28 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
2.1.2 Export Wizard
With PSAF, you have five import possibilities. The Export Wizard will help you go
through all the steps related to your selection. To open the Export Wizard, click on the Export
shortcut in the Project View or select the File > Export menu item.

This wizard will open:

You can navigate through the steps using Next and Previous buttons or you can click on
the desired step shown in the list on the left of the window. Each option is explained in the
following sections.

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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 29
2.1.2.1 Export Study
With this option you will export the networks that you want into a zip file. The first
step is to select one or more networks to export.

Specify the zip path where all will be exported, and click Finish.


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30 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
2.1.2.2 Export PSS/E
This option will create the zero sequence (.seq) and the positive sequence (.raw)
in PSS/E format version 27. First, select the network to export :

Specify the raw file to create. The seq file will be created in the same path.



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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 31
2.1.2.3 Export CYMFLOW DOS (NND)
This option will create the entrance file for CYMFLOW Dos. First, select the
network to export.


Then, specify the .nnd file that will be created.


CYMFLOW supports numeric ids only, if you check the box, the converter will try
to re-use all your bus ids as is until he will assign automatically new ids.


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32 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
2.1.2.4 Export one line diagram
Use this option to export one line diagrams to a format supported by AutoCAD.
First, select the view that you wish to export.

Specify the Dwg or Dxf file to create and the desired AutoCAD version :



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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 33
2.1.2.5 Export ASCII
This option is used if you want to have your equipment database in a file. Select
the project that contains the desired database.


Then, specify the .adb file path where the database file will be created.


2.1.3 Preferences Settings
The Preferences settings dialog box is composed of six tabs:
Directory To specify the default directories and files where PSAF reads and stores.
O.L.D. To specify the default thickness of lines and appearance of symbols in the
one line diagrams.
Study
Config
To specify a number of parameters about the study, for example the
curve plotting option and the color options.


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34 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
General To specify miscellaneous basic defaults for the display of windows, file
opening and printing; and set default values such as base and operating
voltage and currency.

DOS-
Conversion
To specify a number of options for converting old data files (used in
CYME DOS programs such as CYMFLOW and CYMFAULT).

Advanced Provides options relating to the display of very large networks.



Directory
Tab


Highlight the database type you wish to specify in the Directory selection
list. Its description will be displayed in the Description group box. Select
the path of the desired directory or application in the Path group box (use
the browse button ) and click the APPLY button once you have made
your selection. Click OK to dismiss the dialog box once done.

Default
database
Source database used when creating a new project.


Network Directory where all temproray files to communicate with
engines will be saved.

UdmLibDir Folder containing all the UDM library files needed by the
different networks opened in the application.


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 35
ArcFlash
Label Dir
Folder where the ArcFlash stylesheets for the labels (.xsl)
are stored.

Editor Path to select a text editor application that will be used by
the application to open various files. (This is especially
useful in CYMSTAB for editing UDM files between
simulations).

Projects File Path to the XML file where the contents of the Projects
Tree will be saved.


O.L.D.
Tab


The options available in this dialog box are described below. Click the
APPLY button once you have made your selections. Click OK to dismiss
the dialog box once done.

Thickness
group box
To set the thickness of the symbols lines for Branches
(line segments), Equipment Symbols (such as
transformers) and Bus Symbols.

Bus Tags
group box
You can specify default position of Bus ID and its solution
voltage on the One Line Diagram (left, right or center)
above Bus location.

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36 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Symbol group
box
You can select North American or European symbols for
equipment (essentially transformers, lines and cables).

Size Factor makes symbol of certain equipment types
larger than others. To scale all symbols the same way,
use Apply to all .

To specify text font type, style and size of a label, double
click on it or select the Tools > Tags properties menu
item.

Mouse Wheel Invert the mouse wheel means that you switch the zoom
direction when you go up or down with it.

Others group
box
Dont expand bus when moving an equipment:
With this option checked, when you move the
equipment further than the bus bound, the connection
will remain on the border.
When this option is not checked, when you move the
equipment further than the bus bound, the bus bound
will be increased.


Study
Config
Tab



The options available in this dialog box are described below. Click the
APPLY button once you have made your selections. Click OK to dismiss
the dialog box once done.


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 37
Do not display
reporting unit
on one-line
diagram
Activate this option if you dont want to display every
reporting unit for each equipment in the One Line
Diagram.


Load flow
group box

Activate this check box to display the Extra ID
(description) instead of the Bus ID on the One Line and in
Load Flow reports.

Load ID
displayed
You can enter four differents ids for one load. Here you
select which one you want to display on the One Line.

Curve plotting
option
When you activate the Automatically ask me which
curve I want to plot after each analysis; the Chart
Selector dialog box (see below) will be automatically
displayed after each Motor-Starting, Transient-Stability or
Harmonic analyses to allow you specifying the desired
solution curves. This Chart Selector is same as Chart
Selector dialog box in CYMVIEW (CYMVIEW is covered
in the CYMFLOW, MS-Start and AC Contingency Users
Manual).

After you click on Done (above dialog), you can open
CYMVIEW to plot other solution curve.

Color options In Tools > Options you can specify which color you want
for a case of overload, underload, overvoltage and
undervoltage. Here you specify if you want to display the
specified color or use the default one.



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38 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
General
Tab


When opening network,
use the following mode:
To specify to open network file, by PSAF, in
One-Line-Diagram mode (Graphic mode), in
Tabular (spreadsheet) mode or no one. You
can also ask PSAF to offer you the choice for
each network you open.

Extent the print and the
preview automatically
to:
Four options are available. If you activate Let
me choose the extent, PSAF will allow you to
select one of first three options each time you
print the network diagarm. (About the first 3
options, refer to section 1.6.5 How to Print the
One Line Diagram.


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 39
When printing network: You have three options:
Leave colors untouched: If you are using a
color printer you can activate this option.
Force all color to black and white: Prints
the drawing in black on a white
background. This option is recommended if
your printer is not a color printer, or if you
are using a dark color for the One Line
Diagram background, and also when PSAF
is in black-and-white mode.
Keep colors and make background
transparent: This option would be useful
when OLD background is colored and you
need to print diagrams or tables on
transparent sheet and you want to be sure,
that the printer does not print background
even by white color.

Enable equipment
mouse movement
Activate this check box if you need to move
equipment frequently on One Line Diagram.

Show errors and
messages windows on
startup
Activate this check box display the Messages
window in the PSAF workspace when starting
the application (see section 1.5.1 Network
Window).

Select dialog box style
for entering data

There are some differences between the North
American and the European standard when
you entered some data. Choose which one you
prefer.

Auto-save study and
topology
To activate the Auto-save function, so that at
regular intervals PSAF will save your work,
especially while you are building a Network.
You may want to disable this function
temporarily if you are no longer modifying the
network, and just doing calculations.

Default Value for bus
voltage
To set the default for the voltage of newly
created buses.

Currency type You can use the system currency type or your
own that you can specify here.

When copy diagram to
clipboard
To select if the diagram will be copied with your
defined colors or if you prefer to copy it in black
and white.

Project tree view
options
To show in the tree-view sidebar:
Simple: only the names of the projects, the
networks and the views.
Advanced: to show all names (projects,
networks and views) and all existing
project paths and network paths.


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40 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
DOS
Conversion
Tab
To specify a number of default options for converting old data files (used
in CYME DOS programs like CYMFLOW and CYMFAULT).



Please refer to 2.1.1.3 Import CYME DOS and other formats for more
details.




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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 41
Advanced
Tab
To set options relating to the display of very large networks.



Show network
border
To see network borders on the one line diagram,
activate this option and Show Volt Ctrld Relations
(view-VCR) (from O.L.D. Editing Toolbar, section
2.11.4).

Default bus
visibility
This has to do with not bothering to display
uninteresting parts of large networks. If you open a
network which contains more buses than the number
you specify here, then PSAF will display a dialog
through which you may decide which parts of the
network to display continuously.

Show buses by
group of ##
buses
If you select the Show all option (section 2.11.4 O.L.D.
Editing Toolbar) or if you decide to re-arrange the
network (section 2.2 Edit Menu), and the network have
more than ## buses you can use this option to arrange
the buses on the one line diagram by groups of ##
buses.


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42 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Startup
programs
checking
To specify which engines you want to check for
protection key on startup.




2.2 Edit Menu




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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 43
Cut
Copy
Paste
Used for editing the One Line, but are also available when working with
any text, such as tabular reports.


Copy
Diagram to
Clipboard
To place in the Windows clipboard an image of the One Line as displayed
in the One Line. From the clipboard, you may paste the image into other
opened document that support Windows clipboarding.

Select
Equipment
To select the category of the equipment type (same function as the drop-
down list described in section 2.11.2 Editing Toolbar.

Find
Equipment
(locate)
To search for a particular equipment. First select the type of equipment
inside the Find dialog box, and then select the individual equipment by
name. That equipment will be highlighted and centered on the screen for
you. (See section 5.4.14 Locate (Find) a Network component on the
One-line-Diagram(OLD)

Open
Equipment
Dialog
To display the dialog box of the selected equipment. Does the same thing
as a right double-click on an equipment symbol. (See section 5.4.4 Edit
an Equipment in the Network).

New
Equipment
To connect a new equipment of the selected type. Note that the
equipment tool bar can make this process easier than using this function.
(See section 5.4.2 Connect a New Equipment to the Network)

Copy
Equipment
To create a copy of the selected equipment allowing you to connect it
elsewhere in the One-Line. (see section 5.4.8 Copy an Equipment).

Delete
Equipment
To remove the selected equipment from the One Line. (see section
5.4.10 Delete an equipment).

Undelete
Equipment
To reconnect the most recently deleted equipment. (see section 5.4.12
Undelete an equipment).

Move
Component
Useful for moving Labels. The interface now makes it easy to select and
move symbols on the One Line. (see section 5.4.6 Move a Bus).

Enable
Equipment
Puts the status of an equipment in or out of service without deleting it.
(see section 5.4.13 Disable/Enable an equipment without deleting it

Connect
Equipment
To reconnect an equipment to another bus. (See section 5.4.5 Move an
Equipment from One Bus to Another).

Rotate
Equipment
To rotate an equipment symbol (usually a Bus) according to the mouse
movement as you hold down the mouse button.


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44 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Orthogonal To draw network branches automatically using perpendicular vectors.
De-activate it if you want to draw diagonal vectors.


Lenghten
Bus
To add one segment to the selected bus, starting at the right side (or
bottom if vertical).

Shorten
Bus
To remove one segment of the selected bus, starting at the right side (or
bottom if vertical) if no equipment is connected there.

Rearrange
Network
To redraw the One Line with the selected bus at the top of the diagram.



2.3 Network Menu



Edit Mutual
Data
To define mutual impedances between cables and transmission lines
(See Transformer, Voltage-regulating (TCUL), section 3.24.

Assign
Area
To create areas out of one or more zones of buses, for the purpose of
defining required active (MW) power flows between areas.
See CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide
and Reference Manual.

Network
Stats
To display information about the network.




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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 45
2.4 View Menu


Toolbar To display / hide and customize the appearance of each tool bar. See
also the Tools > Customize menu item. More details about the Toolbars
in section 2.11.

Status Bar To display / hide the status bar at the bottom of the screen.

Viewspaces To display either (or both) of the Table view or the One Line view of the
network. The Editing Toolbar (section 2.11.2) includes two buttons for the
same functions.
Working with the Table View Mode is described in section 5.5.
Working with the One-Line View Mode is described in section 5.4.

Errors and
Messages
window

To display / hide the Message Window normally found at the bottom of
the screen.
Project
View
To display / hide the Project View sidebar. It is composed of two tabs:
the Projects tab and the Symbols tab. See section 1.5.2 for all details
about the Project View Sidebar.

Detailed
View
To display / hide the Detailed View Sidebar, consisting of three tab:
Network, Database and Options. See section 1.5.3 for all details.

Zoom To adjust the detail level of the One Line diagram - zoom to fit, zoom in
and zoom out.


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46 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Center
Selection
To move the One Line diagram by placing the selected network
component symbol at the center of the window. See 2.11.2 Editing
Toolbar.

Filter OLD To hide parts of the One Line diagram. See section 5.4.16 Hide parts of
the One-line-Diagram(OLD).

Monitor To display / hide the Monitor window (see Monitor for Load Flow Results,
in the CYMFLOW Chapter of the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-
AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.)

Images To add an image file to the OLD or create an image file of the OLD.

Show ID &
Base Volt
To display /hide the ID and the base voltage of the buses on the One Line
diagram.

Show Label To display / hide the label associated to the selected equipment, on the
One Line.

Show
Connected
Controllers
To display / hide the letters next to Generator symbols that indicate the
presence of control systems: T = turbine, E = exciter, S = stabilizer.
(These controllers appear in CYMSTAB. For details, see the CYMSTAB
Chapter in the CYMSTAB & UDM Library, Users Guide and Reference
Manual.)



Show
Protective
Devices
To display / hide the symbols and names of any protective devices
attached to equipments.



Show Grid To display / hide the drawing grid (small dots at regular intervals).

Use Snap
to Grid
To make the equipment and bus symbols align themselves with the grid,
as an aid to drawing the One Line in User Mode.


Show
solution
To display the various calculation results on the One Line.



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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 47
Show Volt
Ctrld
Relations
(View VCR)
To display a dashed line between the buses and their VCR (AVR =
Automatic voltage regulator). (e.g., voltage-controlled generator) Note
that swing generators always control the bus-voltage to which they are
connected. Therefore, no dashed line exists for these equipments.

Show Print
Zones
To display / hide the border of the area in the one line diagram that has
been specified as the Printing Zone (See section 1.6.5 How to Print the
One Line Diagram).

2.5 Database Menu


Open Equip. DB
Dialog
To display the Database dialog box of the equipment type currently
selected on the Select Tool Bar (see section 2.11.2 Editing
Toolbar).

New Blank
Database
Directory
To create a set of database files in a directory of your choice. To
create a new directory, simply type its name in the Current folder
field in the Browse for folder dialog. (The new database contains
only default entries.)

Copy Active
Database
To create a copy of all database files in the active directory and to
place them in another directory of your choice. To create a new
directory, simply type its name in the Current folder field in the
Browse for folder dialog.

Pack & Reindex
All
To remove excess blank entries in the database files. Usually, this
command is used after modifications are made to the database files
through a third-party software.

Merge Database To combine another database with the active one. After clicking on
this option, enter the path of the database that you want to merge
with the active one.


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48 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Open UDM
Library Manager
Applies to CYMSTAB. It allows you to edit and create User Defined
Models for use in CYMSTAB simulations. Please refer to the
CYMSTAB & UDM Library, Users Guide and Reference Manual.


Note: Close all networks to edit UDM library.


Database Filter
Manager

To specify filters for certain database types. When you open the
database dialog of one of the filtered databases, it will only contain
the data that follows the rules entered in the database filter
manager.

Unlock All
Networks of
Current DB view
This applies to the network views database. When using the
database in a multi-user environment, if more than one user is
using the database, you will not be able to modify the data in the
database as long as another user is connected. If a problem occurs
or if you need to override this lock, you can use this option to clear
all current connections to the database and, by doing so, unlock the
database for modifications.

Note: The active database is the one that belongs to the project
that is currently set as the active one. Refer to section 1.6.1
Using the Project view for more details.

2.6 Analysis Menu



Select
Solver

To select the available analysis programs.

Study To set the calculation and the report parameters / options for the selected
analysis.) (Same as clicking on the icon.)
(See also Study Parameters for Load Flow and for Short Circuit in following
manuals:
CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and
Reference Manual.
Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC), ARC Flash & CYMBREAK, Users Guide and
Reference Manual.

Solve To perform the selected analysis based on the parameters set. (Same as clicking
on the icon.)


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 49
Units... To set the units to express parameters and solution in the reports by using the
following dialog box. (Same as clicking on the icon.)


Reset
LF Bus
solutio
n
To make all bus voltages equal to 1.0 p.u., 0 degrees. (This is accomplished
automatically before you perform a load flow calculation - if you have activated the
Flat Start option. See Solve for Load Flow, in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start &
CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

2.7 Report Menu


Show Text
Report
To display the tabular report of the results of any analysis.


Export
Results to
CymLine
To write results to a file that can be read by CYMLINE.

See:
CYMFLOW Chapter in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.
Short-Circuit (ANSI and IEC) chapters in the Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC),
ARC Flash & CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference Manual.


PSAF Basics & Editing Users Guide and Reference Manual
50 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Input Data
Report
This option produces a report of all
the data that composes the network.
It can produce this report on the one-
line diagram and in a tabular format.

In the Input Data Report dialog box,
you may choose the unit for
Impedances (Ohm or per-unit on the
equipment base or on the system
base), you may decide to combine
the impedances or rated capacity for
duplicated equipment, decide to
report the total impedance of a line or
cable instead of its per length value
and you may decide to report the
transient stability, harmonics or motor
start extra information as well.

The content of the information
displayed on the one-line diagram is
explained below in the Customize
labels option.


If the Show Tabular Reports check box is activated, clicking OK will
display a spreadsheet report of all data pertaining to equipments and buses
connected in the network. For example:


Sample Input Data Report (Bus page shown)

Start
CYMVIEW
Opens the XY charts plotter companion program CYMVIEW in order to
allow you to review previously generated curves. PSAF shows solution
curves of Motor Starting, Transient Stability (CYMSTAB), Harmonic Analysis
(CYMHARMO) and Arc Flash Hazard calculations.

Customiz
e
Keywords
Displays the list of all available keywords, via the Keyword modification
dialog box.

The keywords are classified in a tree-like fashion by types of equipment.
The categories appear on the left side of the window. Click on + or to
expand and collapse the branches. Highlight the equipment of your choice
to display the list of related keywords available.


PSAF Basics & Editing Users Guide and Reference Manual
CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 51

To modify the attributes of a keyword, double-click on the keyword, or select
it and click the Properties button to display the Format editor. Once your
changes are done, click OK.



Customiz
e Labels
To change the contents of labels. Selecting this option displays the Label
Customization dialog box.



Select an equipment in the tree list on the left side of the dialog box. The
editing is done in the right hand part.


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52 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
You can enter a $ to see a menu of available keywords. These labels
are completely user defined, i.e. you may specify the content, the number of
decimals, you may add your own text, etc. You can also use the keywords
to compute another value, simply put your equation between braces { } and
use the normal math operators. See below for an example.

Enter a $ in the Content box to
see active menu of available
Keywords, from which you can
choose and add desire keywords
also you can enter description text.



Note: A Customized Label is a Label that has been changed from its
default configuration. For example: a moved label is a customized
label.

If Show Tabular Reports is not activated via Report > Input-Data-Report,
and you click Ok, you will see label reports for all selected component on
the OLD. Note: You can double click on the label of a component and edit it
(through the tags-properties dialog).


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 53
2.8 Tools Menu



Customize The Customize dialog box that is displayed includes two tabs:


Toolbars
To display / hide standard toolbars or to create new ones
based on Windows standards. To create a new toolbar,
click on the New button, enter a name for it and click
OK. This will display an empty toolbar in the working
window. See the explanations in the Command tab below
to learn how to add buttons to your new toolbar.



The four standard toolbars that are generally used in PSAF
are: Standard, Editing, OLD editing and Study. The
commands available in each are described in section 2.11
Toolbars.


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54 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS

Command
s
To add or remove icons in a toolbar.


To add a button to a toolbar:
1. Under the Categories list, select the name of a
toolbar; the icons of the commands associated to the
category will be displayed in the Buttons group box to
the right.
2. Left click on the icon of the button wanted and hold
down mouse key.
3. Drag and drop the icon, from the Buttons group box
onto a toolbar in your work window.
To remove an icon from a toolbar, drag and drop it out of
the toolbar and release the mouse button.


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 55
Shortcut To assign keyboard shortcuts to the available commands (macros).



1. Select a macro (command) in the list.
2. Click Create Shortcut to display the dialog box where you will specify
the keys you wish to assign.
3. Press and hold down Ctrl , Shift and/or Alt keys and press the key
(letter or number) that you want to finish your shortcut with.
4. Release all keys and click on OK.

Options To select the colors for displaying overloaded lines, under-voltage buses,
buses of different voltage levels, as well as the background and text
display colors, etc.




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56 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Individual coloring is to apply a color for a specific item selected.

Group coloring if for multiple components present in the One Line
Diagram. You can assign one color for a zone that you have in your
network, for one area that you have in your network or for a specific range
of kv base.

Use the Assign one Color per zone option when you want to assign
color by zones, you can automatically assign one color for each zone that
you have in your network by pressing on this button.

Tag
Properties
To specify the categories of tags to be displayed, and the appearance
(text, border and background) of all tags that can be shown on the one
line diagram.



Equipment
symbols
To specify your own symbols for each equipment. Double-click on the
symbol that you want to change, and select the new one is the Symbol
Selection dialog box that will be displayed.




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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 57



Symbol
Editor
To draw your own symbols in the symbol editor application.


Refresh
Symbol
To actualize all the symbols in all opened views with the changes that you
have just done.


2.9 Windows Menu


New To open a new empty view for the currently activated network.

Close To close the active view.

Close All To close all the opened views.

Cascade To rearrange the windows so that they overlap, with all title bars
remaining visible.
Tile
Horizontal
To rearrange the windows so that they appear one above the other and
be all of the same size.

Tile Vertical To rearrange the windows so that they appear side-by-side and be all the
same size.


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58 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS
<List of
views>
The list of opened views appears at the bottom of the menu, below a
menu separator. A check mark appears next to the currently active
window. You can make any window the active one by clicking on its
name in this list.

2.10 Help Menu



General
PSAF Help
Topics
(This document) Presents the list of indexes to the Help facility. (This is
the same as pressing the F1 key.


About
PSAF
Displays the version and revision numbers of the program.


Note: These two numbers are useful when you need to contact CYME
about your software.

2.11 Toolbars
The Toolbars contain icons, which give quick access to many menu commands. PSAF
includes eight toolbars. The Standard, Editing, Study and OLD editing are the most commonly
used. Four additional toolbars are available for more specific uses. These are Equipment,
Harmonic equipment, Grid editing and OLD filtering.
2.11.1 Standard Toolbar
The Standard toolbar includes icons for general commands such as file management,
print, cut & paste, find, etc.



To save the active network.


To save all opened views and networks.


To save the active view and network.

These options are also available in
the File Menu. See also section
2.1 File Menu options.

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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 59

To cut text or an equipment symbol (this puts them in the Windows clipboard).


To copy text or an equipment symbol (this puts them in the Windows clipboard).


To paste the text or equipment symbol from the Windows clipboard.


To find an equipment by type and name. Same as the Edit > Find Equipment
(locate) menu option.


To print the contents of the active window. Same as the File > Print menu option.


To display the selected print out at it will look when printed. Same as the File >
Print Preview menu option.


To specify a printer and its settings (e.g., Landscape orientation, etc). Same as
the File > Print Setup menu option.


To show / hide defined printing zones. See section 1.6.5 How to Print the One
Line Diagram, to learn how to define a printing zone. Same as the View > Show
Print Zones menu option.

To display the version and revision numbers of the program.



2.11.2 Editing Toolbar
The Editing toolbar provides the commands you need to access the needed equipment
databases and select the components for your network. It also comprises zoom
commands.




To display the network diagram in the form of a One-Line Diagram. Same as
View > Viewspaces > One Line Diagram. Working with the One-Line View
Mode is described in section 5.4.


To display a table that will allow you editing the network components. Same as
View > Viewspaces > Table View Working with the Table View Mode is
described in section 5.5.


To select the category of the active
equipment types


To select component by name (ID).


To open the database for selected equipment; show equipment and bus name.
Same as the Database > Open Equip. DB Dialog menu item.


To open the database manager.


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60 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS

To combine another database with the active one. After clicking on this option,
enter the path of the database that you want to merge with the active one. Same
as the Database > Merge Database menu item.


To show the ID of the equipments on the one line diagram. Same as the View >
Show ID & Base Volt. menu option.


To zoom in or out on your network view. Each time you click on these
buttons, your drawing will zoom in or out, by increments.


To fit the size of your network to the space in your window.


To center the selected equipment in the window. Same as the View > Center
Selection menu option.

2.11.3 Study Toolbar
The Study Toolbar contains the same options as the ones available in the Analysis
menu, along with a number of commands to view the results.



To select an analysis engine. Same as the
Analysis > Select Solver menu option.
(section 2.6 Analysis Menu)


Click on this icon to display the dialog box related to the study you have selected
to set its parameters, such as MVA tolerance, number of iterations, System
frequency etc. Same as Analysis > Study.

See also Chapter on Load Flow in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.


To perform the selected analysis based on the parameters set. Same as the
Analysis > Solve menu option.


To set the units to express parameters and solution in the reports. Same as the
Analysis > Units menu option. See section 2.6 Analysis Menu for details on
the dialog box that is displayed.


To reset Load Flow solution voltages to 1 p.u. and 0 degree. Same as Analysis >
Reset LF Bus solution menu option. See Solve for Load Flow, in the Load Flow
Chapter in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users
Guide and Reference Manual, for details.


To display the analysis results on the one line diagram. Same as the View >
Show Solution menu option.


To display a tabular report. Same as the Report > Show Text Report menu
option.


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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 61

To export the results to a file that can be read by CYMLINE. Same as Report >
Export Results to CymLine.

Export results to PSAF-LINE (CYMLINE, *.ACA file)

See:
CYMFLOW Chapter in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.
Short-Circuit (ANSI and IEC) chapters in the Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC), ARC
Flash & CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference Manual.


To open the CYMVIEW module to display curves of results as well as tabular
reports. Same as the Report > Start CYMView menu option. Solutions curves
are available for the motor starting, transient stability (CYMSTAB) and harmonic
(CYMHARMO) analyses.


2.11.4 O.L.D. Editing Toolbar
This toolbar groups the editing and the view commands mostly used when drawing a one
line diagram.



To show all equipments present in the network.


To cancel the current action and return to the Edit mode (cancel operation)


To access the General PSAF help topics


To redraw the one line with the selected bus at top Same as Edit > Rearrange
Network.


Lengthen bus symbol. This adds one segment to the selected bus, starting at the
right side (or bottom if vertical). Same as Edit > Lengthen Bus.


Shorten bus symbol. This removes one segment of the selected bus, starting at
the right side (or bottom if vertical) if no equipment is connected there. Same as
Edit > Shorten Bus.


Orthogonal Mode. To draw network branches automatically using perpendicular
vectors. De-activate it if you want to draw diagonal vectors. Same as Edit >
Orthogonal.


To rotate an equipment symbol (usually a Bus) according to the mouse movement
as you hold down the mouse button. Same as Edit > Rotate Equipment.


To show Voltage Control relationships. To display a dashed line between the
buses and their VCR (AVR = Automatic voltage regulator). (e.g., voltage-
controlled generator). Same as View > Show Volt Ctrld Relations.


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62 CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS

To put the status of an equipment in or out of service without deleting it. (turn on /
off). Same as Edit > Enable Equipment.


To move an equipment or a bus symbol. Useful for moving Labels. The interface
now makes it easy to select and move symbols on the one line. (See section
5.4.6 Move a Bus. Same as Edit > Move Component.


To reconnect an equipment to other bus(es). Same as Edit > Connect
Equipment.


To connect a new equipment of the selected type. Same as Edit > New
Equipment. (See section 5.4.2 Connect a New Equipment to the Network)


To create a copy of the selected equipment allowing you to connect it elsewhere
in the One-Line. Same as Edit > Copy Equipment. (See section 5.4.8 Copy an
Equipment.)


To remove the selected equipment or bus from the one line. Same as Edit >
Delete Equipment. (See section 5.4.10 Delete an equipment)


To reconnect the most recently deleted equipment. Same as Edit > Undelete
Equipment. (See section 5.4.12 Undelete an equipment)


To display the dialog box of the selected equipment. Does the same thing as a
right double-click on an equipment symbol. Same as Edit > Open Equipment
Dialog. (See section 5.4.4 Edit an Equipment in the Network.)


To display / hide the label associated to the selected equipment, on the One Line.
Same as the View > Show Label menu option.


To display / hide the Monitor window. Same as the View > Monitor menu option.

(See Monitor for Load Flow Results, in the Load Flow chapter of the CYMFLOW,
CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.).


To display / hide the drawing grid (small dots at regular intervals). Same as the
View > Show grid menu option.


To make the equipment and bus symbols align themselves with the grid, as an aid
to drawing the One Line in User Mode. Same as View > Use Snap to Grid menu
option.



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CHAPTER 2 MENUS AND TOOLBARS 63
2.11.5 Other Toolbars

Equipment offers icons for all types of equipment, as in previous versions of PSAF,
but the equipment tool bar at the left of the screen is easier to use.
Harmonic equipment offers icons for equipment used only in CYMHARMO
(Example: harmonic current sources)
Grid editing offers control over text alignment and appearance inside tables.
OLD filtering allows you to select network-component that you wish to be shown
appear on the one-line diagram window. PSAF hides unselected-components by this
option (See Hide parts of the One-line-Diagram(OLD), section 5.4.16.)




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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 65
Chapter 3 Network Equipment Data
3.1 Overview of Dialog Boxes
3.1.1 Database Dialog Boxes
This section describes the features that are common to all database dialog boxes.



Group Boxes

Database ID

Identifies the database entries uniquely.
To see a complete list of entries, click on the symbol. You may select
an entry from the list by clicking directly on its ID. To locate an entry in
the list quickly, type its name. The list will scroll to the name you type.

Hint: You cannot change the Database ID. Instead, you should create
a copy with the desired name by using New. Then Delete the
entry with the unwanted name.


Note: If you make changes to the parameters of an entry, then those
changes are saved as soon as you select another Database ID.


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66 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
Rec# / Total Information box that indicates the number of existing database entries
and the position of the currently selected entry.

Command Buttons

New adds a new entry to the database. This new entry can be based on an
existing entry (similar entry). (This reduces the amount of data you have
to enter.) Click on New, choose an existing entry from the list (if
desired), type the name of the new entry in the space provided and click
OK (as shown above).

Delete removes the selected entry from the database. PSAF will ask you to
confirm this action, because you cannot use Cancel to undo the
deletion.

Reload undoes any changes made to the data for the current database entry. It
restores the values that were initially displayed.

OK accepts all changes you have made and exits the dialog box.

Cancel does the same as Reload, but also exits the dialog box.

Help displays a copy of this Reference Manual.

<< and >> allow you to move through the list sequentially (backward or forward).
This allows you to inspect and compare the data for other database
entries more easily.

Note: Some Database dialog boxess offer special function buttons that compute,
estimate, or suggest default parameter values.

3.1.2 Equipment Dialog Boxes
The equipment dialog boxes define specific individual network components. These
components have names (the value in EQ ID field). They have the intrinsic characteristics of one
entry in the database (the Database ID). They have individual settings as well.
These dialogs appear when you:
Connect a new equipment into a network, or
Select an equipment symbol and double-click the right mouse button anywhere, or
Select an equipment symbol and choose Edit > Open Equipment Dialog, or
Select an equipment symbol and click on the Open Equip. Dialog button.
Right-click on an equipment symbol to open its context-menu and left-click on
Properties.


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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 67

Below is a description of the features that are common to all Equipment dialog boxes.



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68 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
Top group box

EQ ID

is the name of the individual equipment. (12 characters maximum.)

is Connected indicates whether the equipment is in service () or not. It is followed
by a multiplication factor which indicates the number of identical
equipments connected in parallel to the same bus(es). In the case of
a load, the multiplier is a percentage.

FROM and TO
buttons
display the properties of the buses to which the equipment is
connected. You may change the buses by clicking on the symbol
.

SWAP button exchanges the FROM and TO buses (in automatic topology mode
only).
(Useful when a transformer has been connected the wrong way.)

Database ID is the database entry that describes the present equipment.

Access DB
button
opens the database dialog for the present equipment type, allowing
you to view, edit, create or delete the database entry.

X field (duplic
factor)
Represent the number of identical parallel device. Only 1 is thus
shown in the one-line diagram
The Settings of the particular equipment will be displayed in the lower part of the dialog
box, and will differ depending on the equipment. For example, the cable length, the transformer
tap, etc.

Command Buttons

List displays a list of the equipment of the same type already connected to
the network.

Reset cancels any changes you have made, but does not close the dialog.

Help displays a copy of this Reference Manual.

OK accepts all changes you have made and exits the dialog box.

Cancel exits the dialog without saving any changes.

<< and >> allows you to move through the List sequentially, either backward or
forward. (This allows you to inspect and change the data for all other
connected equipment of the same type, without having to locate them in
the One Line Diagram.)


EQ / TOTAL Group Box

EQ / TOTAL indicates how many units appear in the List, and the order of the
currently selected one.


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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 69
3.2 Bus

Definition: A Bus (or Node) is a point of connection between two or more components.

Unlike most other types of network equipment, buses are created as needed. There is
no database of buses. (Chapter 5 shows how to create buses.)
In Graphic mode, you enter the bus information through a dialog box. Enter data in the
spaces by first clicking in the space and then typing.


Bus ID is the name that identifies it uniquely in the network. (12 characters
maximum)

Extra ID is another optional name that can be displayed in place of the Bus ID on
the One Line diagram, and used for (load flow) reporting. The Extra ID
may also be used simply to describe what the bus represents, as in the
example above. (You can put up to 30 characters.)


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70 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
Zone is a name, which you can assign to a set of buses that are associated in
some way. These zones could represent geographic regions, for
example. You may create up to 400 zones. Zones are useful in load
flow calculations, because they allow you to modify Load or
Generation by zone. You need to assign zones if you want to apply
Area Interchange (You may use up to 12 characters to identify the
zone.)

(See Study Parameters for Load Flow, in the Load Flow chapter Chapter
of the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users
Guide and Reference Manual.)

Is Node allows you to convert the current bus in node and vice versa. With node
you cannot increase the length of it but you can with a bus. In the
Symbol toolbar, two distinct symbols exist. Simply drag and drop the
node if you want a node or a bus if you want a bus. If you make the
wrong choice, simply go to the properties and check/uncheck this option
depending on what you want.


Note: Disconnecting a bus means disconnecting every equipment
connected to it.

Base
Voltage (kV)
is the nominal voltage at the bus in kilovolts, used as the base for per-
unit expression of voltage.

Operating
Voltage (kV)
is the desired voltage to be maintained at the bus, in kilovolts. (Applies
only if the voltage at the bus is to be controlled by a Generator, Voltage
Regulating Transformer, Static Var Compensator or Switchable Shunt.)

Bus voltage
limits (p.u.)
gives the range of acceptable voltage at the bus in per-unit (for the
Abnormal Conditions Report). This value in no way influence any
analysis. (See the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.)

Previous
Load Flow
Solution
gives the last calculated solution result for the bus voltage in per-unit
and the phase angle. These results are saved with the Network file
(*.NWT) when you save the Study.


Hint: Use the icon or the Analysis > Reset LF Bus sol. command
to reset all bus voltages to 1.0 p.u. - If desired.

SC
Equivalent
Impedance
is the result of fault analysis for selected bus, to calculate RQQ1, XQQ1,
RQQ0 and XQQ0 by PSAF, choose FAULT ANALYSIS, in Study>Fault
analysis parameters, choose Fault selected Bus(es), now CYMFAULT
compute the equivalent fault impedance values (ZQQ-1 and ZQQ-0) and
displays those impedances in the faulted bus dialog.


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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 71
3.3 Bus Tie

Definition: a Bus Tie is a branch of negligible impedance, used to connect two buses
together. It is meant to represent a tie circuit breaker.


Restrictions on usage of Bus Ties
Do not connect a Bus Tie in parallel with other branch (line, cable, etc.)
Do not connect a Bus Tie between buses that have different base voltages.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog box.
Note: there is no database of Bus Ties: they are all identical.



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72 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.4 Bus Way


Definition: Bus Way represents rigid conductors inside a conduit.


Bus Ways must be described in the database.


Two types are available: Feeder and Plug-in.
Positive and Zero sequence impedances R1, X1, R0, X0 must be expressed in / 100.
(100 feet = 30.5 m.)
Ampacity (A) is optional. It is be useful in interpreting load flow results. (See the
CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.)
Estimate R0 X0 will set [R0, X0] = m [R1, X1] , where m = 22 for Plug-in type and 40 for
Feeder type.
Note: The values shown in the illustration above are not typical.


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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 73
3.4.1 Bus Way in the Network
When you connect a Bus Way to the network, you must identify which type it is, how long
it is, etc. You may change this information afterward, by editing the Bus Way.

The length of the Bus Way is expressed in multiples of 100 feet (30.5 m).

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74 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.5 Cable

Definition: Cables are three-phase circuits, either 1 x 3 conductor or 3 x 1 conductor.
They are modeled by the -circuit, with one-half the shunt susceptance
lumped at each end.


General Parameters group box

Level (kV) is the rated voltage for this cable, for your information only if you are
entering Ohmic impedances. If you are entering impedances in per-
unit, however, then PSAF will multiply them by [kV Level]
2
/ Base
MVA to convert them to Ohmic values.

Once you connect a cable into a network, PSAF will calculate its per-
unit impedance according to the base voltage of the buses to which it
is connected.

Note: If you enter impedances in per-unit instead of in Ohms, you
must make the kV level equal to the base voltage of the
buses to which the cable will be connected.

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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 75

Type and Size

are descriptions used for your own information only. If you use the
impedance estimation function, these variable will reflect the data of
your conductor.

Rated Freq.
[Hz)
identifies nominal frequency of the selected cable.

Duct Material identifies the type of duct the cable is installed in. For your information
only.

Construction
Type
refers to the conductor construction type. For your information only.


Temperature
[C]
refers to the conductor resistance rated temperature. This
information, along with the Alpha factor is used when resistance are
derated for the purpose of a simulation.

R
T2
= R
T1
* ( 1 + (T2 T1)*Alpha )

For more details, see the following manuals :
Load Flow: CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.
Short-Circuit: Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC), ARC Flash &
CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

Alpha factor Accounts for the resistivity increase with temperature. This value is
known if the material type is cooper or aluminum but must be
provided for the other type of material. The default is 0.004. This
parameter is only needed if you intend to derate the resistance based
on the temperature in an analysis simulation.

Standard Allows you to specify is this is a North American or European type of
cable. For you information only.

Material Refers to the conductor material. For your information only.

Loading Limits group box

Loading Limits
(A)
Are optional ampacity limits for the cable. CYMFLOW uses them to
indicate the overloaded cables in the Abnormal Conditions Report.
See the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency,
Users Guide and Reference Manual.


Ohms / xyz Xxx is the length reference unit in which the impedance is set to. For
example, the impedances could be in ohms / kM, in ohms / mile, etc.

It is possible to specify a type of unit called Unit length which is
basically a general purpose length type.


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76 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
Sequence Parameters group boxes

Impedances
(R1, X1, R0, X0 )
are to be expressed in / unit length (e.g., /km., /mile).
Susceptances B1 and B0 are the total (not one-half) shunt
susceptances of the cable, expressed in S / unit length.

Hint: PSAF converts the impedance values if you select a different
length unit.

R1 and R0 (not used anymore) are alternative values (for operation
at a different temperature). You may choose which resistance
values to use when you select the power flow parameters or short-
circuit calculations.

To calculate R1, X1, B1, R0, X0 and B0 by PSAF, click Compute.
According to cable type, choose one of the Cable Impedance
Calculation Dialog.
For more information about how to calculate cable parameters and
more explanation about this option, refer to section 4.4 Cable
Parameters Calculations.

Filter List
command button
The Filter list option is used to keep in the database id list only the
elements that correspond to certain specification. You may choose
one or more item to filter the cables on. For example, you may only
want to keep the 60 Hz 3 core cables between 5 and 15 kV in your
main list. Select the filtering and click ok to enable the filter. When the
list is filtered, the Is Filtered radio button turns green. To stop filtering
the main list, click on that button.



Hint: PSAF can compute the reactances and susceptances from the
conductor arrangement. Click Compute to display the
Calculation dialog.

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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 77
3.5.1 Cables in the Network
When you connect a cable to the network, you must identify which kind of cable it is, how
long it is, etc. You may change this information afterward, by editing the cable.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog box:

Cable Data group box

Length is a multiple of the length unit chosen in the database. See above
section 3.5 Cable.

Override
database
ampacity
values
gives the possibility to modify the default ampacity values specified in
the database for that particular cable. This is useful if more than one
cable is modeled in one on the one-line diagram and that the
combined ampacity is not simply the ampacity of one multiplied by the
number of cable represented.

Note: You may define mutual coupling between cables. See section 3.26 Mutual
Coupling between Lines or Cables in the Network.




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3.6 Series Compensation

Definition: Capacitors connected in series on a transmission line in order to reduce
(compensate) the reactance of the line. This enables the line to transmit
more power.


PSAF models series capacitors as compensating a percent of the reactance of a
transmission line (See section 3.10 Line). This representation is correct for all PSAF modules.
Series capacitors are usually provided with a protection system which
bypasses (short-circuits) the capacitor when a certain amount of current
flows through it.
Note:
CYMFAULT takes the series compensation into account, but not the
protection system. If the calculated short-circuit current flowing through
the transmission line with the series capacitor is higher than the threshold
for the capacitors protection system, then you should reset the series
compensation to 0% temporarily and run the fault calculation again. This
situation will arise for faults at buses which are electrically close to the
line with the capacitor.

CYMSTAB takes both the capacitor and its protection into account.

Series compensation modeling is now considered in CYMHARMO as well.

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3.7 Generator, Synchronous


Definition: In PSAFFLOW, three types of synchronous generators are permitted:
Swing, Voltage-controlled and Fixed. More than one generator and more
than one type of generator may be connected to a bus. (See the note about
Generators in parallel, in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.



Default
scheduled
active gen.
[MW]
is the scheduled active power produced by the generator.

Note: The Active Gen value entered in the database is only a
default. PSAF will assume it whenever you connect a
generator of this type into a network, but you may then define
the true Active Gen for each individual generator (See section
3.7.1 Generators in the Network).


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Max. MVAR
And
Min. MVAR
define the limits of the generator's reactive capability. Aside from
being constraints on a load flow solution, they are used by PSAF to
apportion reactive generation among generators connected at the
same bus. See Generators in parallel, in the CYMFLOW, CYM-
Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference
Manual.

Q = f(Pgen) is a way to define the max and min VAR limits but, as a function of
the active power output.

Impedances are expressed on the machines MVA rating, except for the default
grounding impedances Rg and Xg, which are expressed in Ohms.
(See section 3.7.1 Generators in the Network).

Note: If you will perform IEC type fault calculations enter the
saturated direct-axis reactance Xdsat instead of X of Steady-
state Z in above dialog box. (see Short-Circuit IEC Version in
the Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC), ARC Flash & CYMBREAK,
Users Guide and Reference Manual.
3.7.1 Generators in the Network
When you connect a generator to the network, you must identify which database entry to
use, what type it will be, etc. You may make changes afterward, by editing the generator.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:


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Generator Type defines the generators behavior in CYMFLOW and CYMFAULT-IEC.

A Voltage Controlled generator produces the active power
(Pgen) specified here and varies its reactive power to maintain
the Operating Voltage at the Voltage Control Bus.
A Fixed generator produces the active and reactive power (Pgen
and Qgen) specified here. It does not control the voltage at any
bus.
A Swing generator produces (or absorbs) excess power not
accounted for by other generators. It always controls the voltage
at the bus where it is connected.

Note: There must be at least one Swing generator in every
network (or isolated sub-network) if that network is to be
solved by CYMFLOW.

See:
Chapter on CYMFLOW in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start &
CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.
And Chapter on CYMFAULT-IEC in the Short-Circuit (ANSI &
IEC), ARC Flash & CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference
Manual.

Voltage Control
Bus
is a bus whose voltage is controlled by this generator.


Hint: Specify the desired Operating Voltage in the Bus Dialog.

Initial (voltage)
Angle
(optional) Default initial angle is 0 degree. This Angle is the initial
angle for all bus in an analysis but it is fixed for Swing generators.
Note: If two or more swing generators exist in a network, the swing
angles affect load-flow analysis. Even a swing angle would
be the reason for analysis failure.

Grounding Z
defines the Rg and Xg of this particular generator. These values will
be used only if the winding connection is Yg (star-grounded) in the
database (See 3.7 Generator, Synchronous, above).
Model as power
system unit
refers to fault analysis based on IEC 60909-0 Standard.
When this option is selected, that means that the generator will be
considered as a power system unit as far as there is one step-up
transformer connected to its terminal bus and also the option Apply
impedance correction factors to Power station units (PSU) located
in the IEC Conformable Parametrs tab of the Short Circuit IEC
Study Dialog is checked.

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82 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.8 Generator, Induction (IG)

Definition: An Induction generator is an induction machine that is driven by a prime
mover, which receives its excitation from the grid. Therefore, Induction
Generator generates active power to the system and draws reactive power
from it.




Voltage is the Generator rated voltage in kilovolts.

Rating [kW] is the active power generation and may be entered as MVA,
Horsepower[HP] or kW. Enter one value and the other two will be
calculated, using the power factor and efficiency. (You should enter
the power factor and efficiency before the rating.)

Subtransient
Impedance
is given in per-unit on the IGs own base power. (See section 3.12
Motor, Induction). You may estimate it from the NEMA code letter and
other (American) nameplate data, if you click on the Estimate
button.


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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 83
Motor Group
(ANSI)
group box
Choose and enter Induction Generator group [ANSI] or let PSAF
estimate it according to other IG parameters.

Note: The Active Gen entered in the database is only a default
value. PSAF will assume it, whenever you connect a
generator of this type into a network, you may then define the
true Active Gen for each individual generator (See section
3.7.1 Generators in the Network).

Eq. Circuit tab

To enter parameters of the equivalent circuit, choose the Eq.
Circuit tab. Select the Rotor type and enter its parameters. If the
parameters are not available, you can estimate them by PSAF.



To estimate the Induction generation parameters of equivalent circuit
(in the above dialog), select Rotor Type and estimation method based
on known values. Click Estimate .


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84 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.8.1 Induction Generator in network
To connect an induction generator to a network, you must identify which database entry
to use (Database ID), desired active generation [MW] and negative reactive power [MVAR].


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3.9 HVDC Line

Definition: HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) Line controls the active
power flow between two buses. The reactive power absorbed at both ends depend on
the voltages available there.


The converter bridges are taken to be in series, fed by one transformer each.


CYMFLOW approximates the commutating reactance of the rectifier and the inverter as
Xc = (# bridges) (reactance of transformer). The reactance presented by the rest of the AC
network is neglected. (The network is assumed to have a high short circuit level.) The
commutating reactance, DC current and firing angle determine the overlap angle.


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86 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.9.1 How HVDC Lines operate in CYMFLOWHow
The converter transformer taps are adjusted to maintain roughly the desired AC voltage
at the rectifier and inverter buses.
Normally, the inverter controls the DC voltage by adjusting its firing (delay) angle to
maintain the minimum extinction angle in the presence of overlap [
inv
=
min
]. This
maintains the highest possible power factor at the inverter. The rectifier controls the DC current
[I
DC
= (V
DCrec
V
DCinv
)/R] by maintaining its DC voltage slightly above the inverter DC
voltage. The active power delivered at the inverter is P
DC
= V
DCinv
I
DC
.
If the AC voltage is depressed at the rectifier side, so that the rectifier cannot produce
enough DC voltage, even with its firing angle reduced to 0, then the rectifier takes over voltage
control and current control passes to the inverter. The rectifier is set to produce the most voltage
that it can (
rec
=
min
= 0) and the inverter lowers its voltage to maintain 85% of the normal
I
DC
. This means that P
DC
< 85% of the desired value.
3.9.2 HVDC Lines in the Network
When you connect a DC Line to the network, you must identify which database entry to
use, desired MW flow, etc. In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

Desired Power [MW] or Desired [A] are the DC power or current which are destination
for HVDC system to transfer to end of HVDC line, and DC Current Margin [%] can be deferent
between possible DC current and desired value.

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Note: Both terminals of a DC Line must be connected to buses that are connected to
and controlled by Voltage Regulating Transformers (TCUL). No other
equipment is to be connected to these buses, including capacitors.

Note: Both the rectifier and inverter transformers must be connected to networks that
contain voltage sources (generators).



Connect the DC line to AC network by one typical transformer (TcuL Xmer) on each side
of the DC line. PSAF consider one such transformer per bridge, in series.

Example (4 bridges): Put one 220-100kv, 250/333 MVA transformer to obtain 400 kV at the
rectifier and 1000/1333 MVA capacity


27 . 1
_
_

bridges of Number
Voltage DC Desired
inverter or rectifire at Voltage AC

The dotted lines show that the transformers are controlling the AC voltages at the rectifier
and Inverter buses.
The capacitors are optional, they illustrate where capacitors (closest to rectifier and
inverter) can be connected (not on the secondary of the transformers).
Note that the DC voltage output at the rectifier is higher than the AC voltage input.
Neglecting the voltage drop due to commutation overlap, we estimate:
VDC = 1.35 VAC cos () = 1.27 VAC for = 20
Hence, in the example above, 400 kV AC is sufficient to produce 500 kV DC.

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88 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.9.2.1 Some practical advice:
It is recommended that before connecting a DC line, you represent it by
constant-power Loads at the rectifier and inverter buses, and run a load flow (see section
4.2 Special Harmonic Line Models supported by HLINPAR). Doing this will help you
make consistent choices for transformer data and the firing and extinction angles when
you replace the loads with the DC line.
The load at the inverter:
Pinv = [Desired DC Power (MW)]
Qinv Pinv tan (min + /2)
where overlap 30 usually.
The load at the rectifier:
Prec = [Desired DC Power (MW)] + R(IDC)2
Qrec Prec tan ( + /2)
where overlap 30 usually.

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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 89
3.10 Line

Definition: For the purposes of CYMFLOW and FAULT, Lines represent three-phase
transmission lines transposed such that the impedance is equal in all
phases. They are modeled by the -circuit, with one-half the shunt
susceptance lumped at each end. This model is suitable for lines up to 200
km (125 miles) long. Longer lines can be modeled by connecting several
lines in series. Other models are for use in CYMHARMO.



General parameters group box

Level (kV) is the rated voltage for this line, for your information only if you are
entering Ohmic impedances. If you are entering impedances in per-
unit, however, then PSAF will multiply them by [kV Level]
2
/ Base
MVA to convert them to Ohmic values.

Once you connect a line into a network, PSAF will calculate its per-unit
impedance according to the base voltage of the buses to which it is
connected.



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90 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
Note: If you enter impedances in per-unit instead of in Ohms, you must make the
voltage level [kV] equal to the base voltage of the buses, which the line will be
connected.


Type
and
Size

are descriptions used for your own information only. If you use the
impedance estimation function, these variables will reflect the data of
your conductor.
Rated Freq.
[Hz]
identifies nominal frequency of the selected cable.


Type refers to the conductor construction type. For your information only.

Temperature
[C]
refers to the conductor resistance rated temperature. This information,
along with the Alpha factor is used when resistance are derated for
the purpose of a simulation.

R
T2
= R
T1
* ( 1 + (T2 T1)*Alpha )

For more details, see the following manuals :
Load Flow: CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.
Short-Circuit: Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC), ARC Flash &
CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

Alpha factor that accounts for the resistivity increase with temperature. This
value is known if the material type is cooper or aluminum but must be
provided for the other type of material. The default is 0.004. This
parameter is only needed if you intend to derate the resistance based
on the temperature in an analysis simulation.

Standard allows you to specify is this is a North American or European type of
cable. For you information only.

Material Refers to the conductor material. For your information only.


Loading limit [A] group box

Loading Limits (A) are optional ampacity limits for the line.
CYMFLOW uses them to indicate overloaded lines in the reports.
(Abnormal Conditions Report in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start &
CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.).


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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 91
Sequence parameters group boxes

Impedances R1, X1, R0, X0 are to be expressed in / unit length
(e.g., /km., /mile). Susceptances B1 and B0 are the total (not
one-half) shunt susceptances of the line, expressed in S / unit length.

Hint: PSAF converts the impedance values if you select a different
length unit.

R1 and R0 are alternative values (for operation at a different
temperature). You may choose which resistance values to use when
you select the parameters for power flow or short-circuit calculations.

Example: Suppose you enter the values of R1 and R0 at 25C, to
represent the night-time or cold-weather situation. You
might want to enter R1 and R0 at 50C, to represent the
day-time or hot-weather situation. Since the resistivities
of both copper and aluminum conductors increase with
temperature at about 4% /10C rise, you could compute
R1 = R1 x (1 + 0.004dT), where dT is the rise in
temperature in C. In this example, dT = 25 C , and R1
= 1.1R1.

Filter List
command
button
The Filer list option is used to keep in the database id list only the
elements that correspond to certain specification. You may choose
one or more item to filter the cables on. For example, you may only
want to keep the 60 Hz 3 core cables between 5 and 15 kV in your
main list. Select the filtering and click ok to enable the filter. When the
list is filtered, the Is Filtered radio button turns green. To stop filtering
the main list, click on that button.



Hint: PSAF can compute the reactance and susceptance from the
conductor arrangement. Click Compute to display the Line
Impedances Calculation dialog.

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92 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA

3.10.1 Lines in the Network
When you connect a line to the network, you must identify which kind of line it is, how
long it is, etc. You may change this information afterward, by editing the line. In Graphic mode,
you enter the information through a dialog:


Length is a multiple of the length unit chosen in the database (See section
3.10 Line, above). This unit (example: km, mile) is displayed for
convenience. The impedance of the line is proportional to its length.
Degree of
series
compensation
refers to the presence of a series capacitor. (See 3.6 Series
Compensation.) The reactance of the capacitor partially cancels out
the reactance of the line, allowing greater power transit and less
voltage drop across the line. The capacitor itself is not retained as a
separate component:

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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 93


Note: You may define mutual coupling between lines. See section 3.26 Mutual
Coupling between Lines or Cables in the Network.

3.11 Loads, Non-rotating

Definition: A load is a specified quantity of MW and MVAR drawn from a bus. It will not
contribute to short circuit current.



Active Power is given in MW. Reactive Power is given in MVAR. The values assigned
to the database entry are the default values that PSAF will suggest every time you connect a load
of this type to a bus. At that time you may redefine either value for the individual load.

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94 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
Exponents nP and nQ determine how the active and reactive load powers change when
the bus voltage changes. The formulas given below define this relationship.
P = Po
nP
V
Vbase

Q = Qo
nQ
V
Vbase


Where:
Po = active power declared in the dialog box.
Qo = reactive power declared in the dialog box.

Hint: Exponent = 0 for constant power load.
Exponent = 1 for constant current load.
Exponent = 2 for constant impedance load.
nP and nQ may have different values. Non-integer values are permitted.

3.11.1 Loads in the Network
When you connect a Load to the network, you must identify which database entry to use.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:


Extra ID 1,2 and
3
are text field where you may enter additional name for this load. For
example, it could refer to its location, meter number, etc. You may
select which ID to display through the Preferences Settings dialog
box. (see section 2.1.3)

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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 95
x 100% is a multiplier applied to both the active and reactive load. (100% by
default).
Active Power /
Reactive Power /
Apparent Power
/ Power Factor
You may enter the Active and Reactive Power values. The Apparent
Power and Power Factor will then be automatically calculated.
Alternatively, you may enter the Apparent Power and the Power
Factor and the two other values will be calculated automatically.
Load
informations
were entered on
(date)
field is not used by PSAF. It is only there for your own information.
By default, when the load is created, PSAF uses the current date to
initialize this field.


Hint: You dont need to make more than a few database entries. Each type represents a
different response to voltage (exponents nP and nQ), because you can define the size of
each load individually.

Note: It is recommended to connect only one load per bus (if possible).
If you connect two or more loads which have different values of nP or nQ to the same
bus, PSAF will compute the average values for nP and nQ and apply them to all loads
on the bus. This average value will be the weighted sum given by the following:

( )
nP
P nP
P
i
i
i
i
i
=


( )
nQ =
Q nQ
Q
i
i
i
i
i



where:
Pi and Qi are the MW and MVAR values of the i-th load.
nPi and nQi are the nP and nQ exponents assigned to the i-th load.
If you connect a non-rotating load(s) and an induction motor on the same bus, then the
load(s) will have nP = nQ = 0, regardless of the values you specify.


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96 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.12 Motor, Induction

Definition: Induction motors represent 3-phase motor load. In ANSI short-circuit
studies, they are classed according to their power and speed. (Refer to
ANSI Std. C37.010.) Motor power and speed (MW / pole-pair) also
influence IEC short-circuit studies. (Refer to IEC 909).




Voltage is the motor rated voltage in kilovolts.
Rating may be entered as MVA, Horsepower or kW. Enter one value and
the other two will be calculated, using the power factor and
efficiency. (You should enter the power factor and efficiency before
the rating.)
Subtransient
Impedance
is given in per-unit on the motors own base power. You may
estimate it from the NEMA code letter and other (American)
nameplate data, if you click on the Estimate button. (The NEMA
letter identifies the ratio of inrush starting current to rated full-load
current.)
Motor group
[ANSI]
Choose and enter Motor group [ANSI] or let the PSAF estimate it
according to other motor parameters.

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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 97
Click on the Equivalent circuit tab to define additional parameters needed for motor
starting (For details, see Motor Start Input Data in the CYMVIEW section of the CYMFLOW,
CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.).


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98 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
3.12.1 Induction Motors in the Network
When you connect a motor to the network, you must identify which database entry to
use, the operating load factor, etc. You may make changes afterward, by editing the motor.

There are four choices for Load Factor: three percentage multipliers and Locked Rotor.
Locked Rotor replaces the motor load by the motors starting impedance, Rst + j
Xd, where Xd is the motors subtransient reactance and Rst is
determined by the Starting Power Factor, which you may define in
this dialog box when you select Locked Rotor.

Load Factors 1,
2 and 3
are percentages of full load (example: 100%, 75% and 50%)


Power Factor is the rated p.f. (at 100% load) by default, but you can change it to
reflect the power factor of the motor when it is operating at less than
full load, for example. You may also associate a different power factor
for each load factor. To do so, activate the Calculate power factor
automatically based on: option and choose to estimate them from
the Equivalent circuit parameters, the general parameters of the
motor (rated slip, kW, etc) or you may enter them yourself (user
defined)

To simulate Induction-Generator by Induction-Motor model, you can activate the Model
as an induction generator option, by choosing this option, active motor load convert to active
generation by changing polarity but reactive motor load remain inductive and you can change it
as you wish. (See below)


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Note:

If you are not using the option to specify the power factor for a dedicated load
factor - Motors are not operating at 100% load factor and rated power factor.

Enter Load Factor = (rated PF / operating PF) x intended load factor, if the
operating power factor is different from the rated power factor. This approximation
neglects any change in efficiency at less than 100% load, but the error is very small
( -1%). This adjustment is needed to avoid underestimating the load.




Example:

A motor is rated at 100 kW (135 kVA), 0.87 p.f. If it is operating at 75% load (75
kW), the p.f. drops to 0.83. Enter p.f. = 0.83, but make the load factor 78.6% =
(0.87 / 0.83) x 75%. Otherwise, the motor will draw only 71.5 kW.

PSAF holds the MVA constant, which is true of generators, but in motors the rated
MW is constant and the MVA varies. The load factor applies directly to the rated
MW, not MVA.

PSAF computes the MW load as (rated MVA) x (operating Power Factor) x (Load
Factor)

In the real motor, the MW load = (rated MVA) x (rated Power Factor) x (intended
LF).




Note:

Proper Equivalent for a large group of small motors

Particularly in industrial networks, it is desirable to simplify the One Line Diagram by
combining many small motors into some sort of equivalent. Because both the
short-circuit analysis methods supported by PSAF include adjustments to motor
short-circuit current based on motor power and speed, the recommended way to
represent a group of small motors is not as one large one, but as a number of
identical small ones.


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100 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA


Note:

It is suggested that the total HP (or kW) of all motors smaller than 50 HP (37 kW)
be represented by the necessary number of 20 HP (15 kW) motors, and the total of
motors each rated more than 50 HP be represented by the necessary number of 50
HP motors.




Example:

Suppose a total of 600 HP of small motors is connected to a bus. Most of the
motors are rated less than 50 HP, but there are two rated 75 HP and one rated 150
HP. You could connect a 50 HP motor (quantity 6) to represent the 300 HP of
larger motors and a 20 HP motor (quantity 15) to represent the 300 HP of smaller
motors.

Click on the Load characterization tab to define additional parameters needed for motor
starting. (For details, see Motor Start Input Data, in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC
Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.


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CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA 101
3.13 Motor, Synchronous

Definition: Synchronous motors represent a load that may absorb or furnish reactive
power. Their contribution to a short circuit is distinguished from that of
induction motors.




Voltage
is the rated motor voltage in kilovolts.
Rating
may be entered as MVA, Horsepower or kW. Enter one value and
the other two will be calculated, using the power factor and efficiency.
(You may enter the power factor and efficiency before the rating.)

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102 CHAPTER 3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT DATA
Impedances
are expressed in per-unit on the motor base MVA, except Rg and Xg,
which are given in Ohms. The internal impedance X
dsat
is for use in
the IEC version of CYMFAULT.
(see the CYMFAULT-IEC Chapter in the Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC),
ARC Flash & CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference Manual).
Winding
connection
allows you to tell the program how the internal winding of the motor is
connected. Yg means star-grounded.

3.13.1 Synchronous Motors in the Network
When connecting a motor to the network, you must identify which database entry to use,
the operating power factor, etc. You may make changes afterward, by editing the motor.


Load Factor should be set to LF = (rated PF / operating PF) x load factor, if the
operating power factor is different from the rated power factor. See
the explanation at section 3.12 Motor, Induction. This approximation
neglects any change in efficiency at other than 100% load, but the
error is very small ( -1%).
Example: A 10MVA motor with rated PF = 0.8 is operating at PF
= 0.9 leading and 100% load. You enter PF = -0.9,
and LF = (0.8 / 0.9) x 100% = 88.9%. Otherwise the
motor draws 9 MW and exceed its rating of 8 MW by
12.5%).

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Define the load factors you want in the fields: factor 1, factor 2 and factor 3. To choose
one, click on the symbol to see the list and click on the desired one. Note that another
choice is available. Locked Rotor will represent the motor by an impedance Z = R +
jXd with R related to Xd by the starting power factor (this is not correct, see note
below).
Note: Locked Rotor will normally overestimate the inrush
power, since it assumes starting MVA rated MVA / Xd.
This is true for induction motors, but synchronous motors
typically draw less (starting MVA = 275%-400% of rated
MVA). If you want to use Locked Rotor on Synchronous
Motors, try increasing the Xd in the database
temporarily.
Power Factor is the operating power factor. It may be different from the rated
power factor given in the database. In that case, see Load Factor,
above. Identify a leading power factor by a negative value.
Ground
impedance
defines the grounding resistance and reactance of the motor. These
values will be used only if the winding connection is Yg.
3.14 Network Protector

Definition: A Network Protector is a branch of negligible impedance, used to connect
two buses together. It is meant to represent a limited ampacity tie circuit
breaker.

Restrictions on use of Network Protector
Do not connect a Network Protector in parallel with any other branch (line, cable,
etc.)
Do not connect a Network Protector between buses that have different base
voltages.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

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Note: Because network protectors have their own ampacity limit, they need their own
protection.

There is no database of Network Protector.

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3.15 Reactor, Series

Definition: Series Reactors provide extra reactance, usually to reduce short-circuit
currents.




Rating is the three-phase rating in kVA (not MVA).
Amperes is the rated current.
Rating kV is the rated line-to-line voltage in kilovolts (kV).
Z is the impedance in Ohms. You should calculate it yourself and enter it
directly.
PSAF can calculate the impedance for you from data that may appear on
the reactor nameplate, or you can enter the value of Z directly.

X/R is the ratio of the reactance of the resistance. Typically, it is about 20 - 100.

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3.15.1 Series Reactors in the Network
When you connect an inductor to the network, you must identify which database entry to
use. You may change this information afterward, by editing the inductor.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:


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3.16 SVC (Static Var Compensator)

Definition: Static Var Compensators are shunt capacitors and/or reactors which are
controlled by power electronic circuits so that the reactive power they
absorb or furnish is continuously adjustable over a given range
[Qmin,Qmax]. They are used for voltage control where the reactive power
demand varies considerably.

In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:


NP is a multiple of 6.
V is the nominal voltage in kilovolts.
Qmax
and
Qmin
are the upper and lower limits of VAR injection. Qmin can be negative, so
that the SVC can absorb VARs.
L is the inductance of the shunt reactor. PSAF computes it for you.

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3.16.1 SVCs in the Network
When you connect a SVC to the network, you must identify which database entry to use.
You may change this information afterward, by editing the SVC.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

The SVC does not have to control the voltage at the bus where it is connected. You may
select another controlled bus if you desire.
You may specify a value of Q and use the Estimate button to estimate the firing angle
for the thyristors controlling the reactor if you are interested, but the Q output of the SVC will be
determined by the power flow calculation, not by your input value. (CYMHARMO will use the
value of angle Alpha to compute harmonic current injections.)


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3.17 Switch

Definition: A Switch or circuit breaker (of negligible impedance), used to connect two
buses together.


Restrictions on use of Bus Ties
Do not connect a Switch in parallel with another branch (line, cable, etc.)
Do not connect a Switch between buses that have different base voltages.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

There is no database of Switches (all switches are all identical).

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3.18 Switchable Shunt

Definition: A switch-able-shunt is a bank of capacitors and reactors used to absorb or
generate reactive power in discrete steps by switching its blocks in or out of
service. Like SVCs they are used for voltage or power factor control in
location where the reactive power demand varies.

In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog.
.
In PSAF switch-able-shunt has up to 8 banks of capacitors or reactors. Each bank
contains one or more blocks. The banks switch in service in order of banks number. For
example, all capacitors in Bank#1 come in service before any in Bank #2.
Define the rating of each block (Q value of each block) in MVAR. Enter positive number
for capacitors and negative for reactors.
Enter Number of blocks in bank to define reactive power rating of each bank.
Chose the Blocks connection configuration Yg (star-grounded), Y (star-ungrounded) and
D (delta). Operating mode; In Fixed mode, enter the Initial Q value. This value will be maintained
regardless of the voltage at the bus. In Discrete mode, choose the bus voltage (which is to be
controlled) and define tolerances above and below the voltage set-point (Tolerance min and
max). In this mode the shunt varies to control the above mentioned bus voltage.

Note: There is no database of switchable shunts.


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3.19 Transformer, Fixed-tap

Definition: A fixed-tap transformer has a tap that can be changed only by you (Off-line
tap-changer). The tap is taken to be on the primary side of the transformer.




Rating is the self-cooled rating. You may enter higher numbers under loading
limits to allow for forced cooling by ventilating fans.

Connection may be selected for the primary and secondary windings by clicking on
the symbol and then on the desired connection. Yg means
grounded star, ZZ means ZigZag connection (See section 3.19.1 Zig
Zag Winding for Transformers)

Phase shift is defined as the angle by which the secondary leads the primary. For
example, according to ANSI, a step-down transformer connected D-Y
or Y-D, has phase shift = 30.

ZZ shift applies to zig-zag windings.


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Positive
Impedance
section of the
dialog box

require Z
1
and B1 in per-unit on the transformer base (self-cooled)
rating and X1/R1. See also following Estimate Impedance
(Est.Impedance).

Zero
Sequence
Impedance
[p.u.]
section of the
dialog box

Requires type of transformer (Shell or Core)
Choice of
Core-type /
Shell-type
transformer
type.
It is important to distinguish between a bank of 3 identical single phase
transformers interconnected to form a "three-phase transformer" and
one unit of "three-phase core-form" transformer. To specify transformer
type, choose "Shell-type or Core-type" in the transformer database
dialog (above dialog box).

For shell-type you can enter Z
0,
B
0
and X
0
/R
0
directly as you see
on the above dialog (Z
0
and

B
0
are express in per-unit on the
transformer base rating)
For core-type transformer Click , to enter zero
sequence Impedance parameters in the following dialog.


According to the convention (APPENDIX A) for two-winding
transformer Tertiary is grounded and, Left and Right means Primary
and secondary.
For example: In D-Yg connection Z0 is connected between Y winding
(Right) and Ground (Tertiary) and nothing is connected to L (Left), See
below.

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Hint: Generally Z
0
= Z
1
for shell type and Z
0
0.85Z
1
for D-Yg and
Yg-D core type transformers
Grounding impedances apply only to windings connection Yg or ZZ.

Loading Limit Allows to report this device as in overload.

See chapter on Load Flow in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start &
CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

Primary Tap % may be redefined when you connect the transformer to the network.

Est.Impedanc
e
command
button
displays a dialog box in which you may enter some information about
the transformer, if you do not know the impedances and wish to
estimate them.

Choose one of three transformer types (power, distribution, load
center). Enter the requested data for the selected type. Then choose
from the options and click on Calculate. If you like the results, click
OK to use them. Otherwise, click Cancel.

Hint: The MVA rating given here should correspond to the choice
OA / FA / FOA, where OA = oil-air (no fans, no oil pumps), FA
= forced-air (fans), and FOA = forced-oil-air (fans and oil
pumps)


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Note: PSAF permits negative values for transformer impedances. This
facility is necessary to allow PSAF to cope with data converted
from the DOS-based programs CYMBASE, CYMFLOW and
CYMFAULT. These programs had no model for the three-
winding transformer (cf. section 3.18 Switchable Shunt) and
represented them by three two-winding transformers, one of
which usually had a negative impedance. In PSAF, a negative Z
means a negative resistance and a negative X/R means a
negative reactance.

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3.19.1 Zig Zag Winding for Transformers
Zig-zag transformers have compound secondaries, based on a principal secondary
which is connected in Star. The zig-zag winding in each phase is another winding connected
electrically in series with the principal winding, but magnetically coupled to another phase. By
appropriate choice of turns ratios in the principal and zig-zag windings, special phase shifts may
be arranged. In PSAF, the phase shift is given as the zig-zag phase shift (

). The phase shift


from the primary to principal secondary is taken into account separately. Hence, a zig-zag shift
of 15 on a transformer with a Delta primary implies that the total phase shift is 30 + 15 = 45.
See illustration below:

Zig-zag Transformer with Delta primary and zig-zag shift

> 0
Usually zig-zag transformers are used in groups to feed distorting loads. Each
transformer has a different phase shift, and they are connected together on the primary to cancel
certain harmonic currents.
Another important use for zig-zag transformers is for grounding. In this case the
transformer is designed to present a low impedance to zero sequence currents, and a grounding
impedance may be connected between its neutral and ground. Connect the transformer primary
to the bus where the grounding point is to be provided, connect the primary as ZZ, and connect
the secondary to a dummy bus which is otherwise not used.

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3.19.2 Fixed-Tap Transformers in the Network
When you connect a fixed-tap transformer (Off Load Tap changer) to the network, you
must identify which database entry to use, the tap position, etc. You may change this information
afterward, by editing the transformer.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

Primary Tap is the tap setting for this particular transformer. Decreasing the primary tap
will increase the secondary voltage. (Example: Applying 100% voltage to a winding on 95% tap
gives (100 / 0.95) % = 105.3% voltage on the secondary at no load).
In the case of using Corner-Delta-Grounding-Resistors to make a connection between
system and ground, click in the Apply corner delta grounding box and enter the grounding
resistor in Ohm.
PSAF consider off-load tap-changer and taps for Fixed-Tap transformer, so enter the
desired tap position in percent of base-primary-voltage in the Primary tap [%] box. (Default is
100%). Optionally, you may enter the discrete tap position to calculate the primary tap [%].
In the As reference only section you can enter the values for Min & Max taps ranges
and for Number-of-tap, but they are for information only.

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3.20 Inrush current model
This option is not meant to compute the inrush current. It is intended to reflect, on
the entire system, the impact of energizing a transformer.
The inrush current effect appears in transformers when they are energized. The
characteristic of this current is that it becomes larger than twice the nominal. The I
inrush
depends
on a variety of non-linear factors. PSAF does not model the entire inrush current phenomenon. It
will only give an approximation of the effect of that current on the system.
The regular transformer model (without considering the inrush current) is the following:

The magnetization branch is not represented. So, to include the inrush effect, we have
modified the model : (Rm is neglected in the simulations)


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3.20.1 Inrush current data
To enter the inrush current data, select the Inrush Current Effect tab window in the
transformers database dialog boxes, and enter the required data as follows:


Rp is the value of the resistance of the winding that will be energized.
It can be estimated from the positive sequence impedance of the
transformer.
Maximum
currents (Peak or
RMS)
are the expected inrush currents of each phase.



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To switch from Peak to RMS data entry, click the Options button, and select the type of
current value in the dialog box that will be displayed.


3.20.2 Activation of the inrush current effect in the network
To model the inrush current effect in the load flow simulation, select the corresponding
Transformer Dialog tab window and check the option Apply inrush current effect as shown
below.


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3.21 Transformer, Phase-shifting

Definition: A phase-shifting transformer is designed to control the flow of active power
by varying the phase angle shift from its primary to its secondary.



For information on Transformer, Fixed-tap refer to section 3.19.
P flow is the specified active power to be passed by this transformer.
You may redefine it when you connect the transformer to the
network.
Tolerance is the desired accuracy with which the active power transfer will be
maintained, if possible, by adjusting the tap.
Discrete Taps is the number of (equal) taps into which the phase shift range is
divided. It is usually an odd number, to provide a center tap.

Example: Setting Discrete Taps = 5 with a phase shift range of -10
o
to 10
o
provides
possible phase shifts of -10
o
, -5
o
, 0
o
, 5
o
, and 10
o
.


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Hint: To fix the tap at a certain value, set Min. phase shift = Max. phase shift.
3.21.1 Phase Shifting Transformers in the Network
When you connect a phase shifting transformer to the network, you must identify which
database entry to use, the desired MW flow, etc. You may change this information afterward, by
editing the transformer.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:


Desired MW is the active power to be transferred by this transformer.
Initial angle tells CYMFLOW what angle (i.e., tap position) to assume at the
beginning of the power flow calculation.
Transformer impedance may be a function of its phase shift angle. By selecting the
option: Use transformer impedance correction table and clicking on the nearby Access DB
button, the user may enter the table of the impedance correction factors vs phase shift angles.

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3.22 Transformer, Reactive power regulating

Definition: A reactive power-regulating transformer is capable of changing taps under
load to force a specified amount of reactive power to flow through it.




For information on Transformer, Fixed-tap refer to section 3.19.
Q flow is the specified reactive power to be passed by this transformer.
You may redefine it when you connect the transformer to the
network.
Tolerance is the desired accuracy with which the reactive power transfer will
be maintained, if possible, by adjusting the tap.
Discrete Taps is the number of (equal) taps into which the voltage range is
divided. It is usually an odd number, to provide a center tap.
Example: Setting Discrete Taps = 5 with a tap range of 95% to
105% means taps at 95%, 97.5%, 100%, 102.5%, and
105%.
Min. Volt and
Max. Volt
define the tap range on the primary, in percent of the transformer
primary base voltage (not the bus base voltage).
To fix the tap at a certain value, set Min. Volt = Max. Volt.

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3.22.1 Reactive Power Regulating Transformers in the Network
When you connect a reactive power-regulating transformer to the network, you must
identify which database entry to use, the desired MVAR flow, etc. You may change this
information afterward, by editing the transformer.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:


Desired MVAR is the reactive power to be transferred by this transformer.
Initial position of
primary tap[%]
tells CYMFLOW which tap to start from, in the power flow
calculation.
3.23 Transformer, Three-winding

Definition: A three-winding transformer is capable of tap changing under load, to try to
maintain a desired voltage at a particular bus. CYMFLOW will find the best
(primary) tap position, based on the allowed range of voltage and the
control tolerance.



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Z1 and Z0 Impedances Z1 (positive sequence) and Z0 (zero sequence) are
expressed as follows:
Ps measured from Primary to Secondary, in per-unit on primary
base power.
Pt measured from Primary to Tertiary, in per-unit on primary base
power.
St measured from Secondary to Tertiary, in per-unit on secondary
base power.
RG and XG Grounding impedances RG and XG are expressed in Ohms. These
values apply only if the corresponding winding is connected as Yg.
Identify the connection of each winding by clicking on the symbol
and then on the desired connection (D = Delta, Y = Star and Yg = Star
grounded).
Phase shift
P/S
is the angle by which the secondary leads the primary. Phase shift
P/T is the angle by which the tertiary leads the primary.
Control
tolerance
is no longer used.
# Taps is the number of (equal) taps into which the voltage range is divided. It
is usually an odd number, to provide a center tap.
Range (Min
and Max) %
define the tap range on the primary, in percent of the transformer
primary base voltage (not the bus base voltage). To fix the tap at a
certain value, set Min = Max.

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Loading
limits
correspond to the standard and emergency load limits in MVA.
3.23.1 Three-Winding Transformers in the Network
When you connect a three-winding transformer to the network, you must identify which
database entry to use, the controlled bus, etc. You may change this information afterward, by
editing the transformer.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:


If you activate the Model primary as Fixed tap transformer option, the VCR of
transformer will not be active in analysis, and you have 2 option to specify fixed position of the
tap:
Last LF solution let PSAF consider the last position of tap after a power flow
analysis when the VCR was active.
Specify value sets the position equal to the specified Initial position of primary
tap[%].
If Model primary as Fixed tap transformer and the Fixed tap for Tcul txfo (in the
Power Flow Solver Dialog) are not activated, then the primary tap will be adjusted to try to
maintain the specified operating voltage at the Controlled bus. Choose a Control tolerance
smaller than the difference between the two taps. Note that the upper and lower tolerances may
now be asymmetrical. Both may be positive (or negative), if you want the voltage to be held
slightly higher (or lower) than the set-point.

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Initial position of primary tap[%] tells CYMFLOW which tap to start from, in the power
flow calculation.
3.24 Transformer, Voltage-regulating (TCUL)

Definition: Voltage regulating transformers are capable of tap changing under load, to
maintain a desired voltage at a particular bus. CYMFLOW will find the best
tap position, based on the allowed range of voltages and the control
tolerance. The tap is located on the primary side.



For information on Transformer, Fixed-tap refer to section 3.19.
Discrete Taps is the number of (equal) taps into which the voltage range is
divided. It is usually an odd number, so as to provide a center tap.
Example: Setting Discrete Taps = 5 with a tap range of 95% to
105% provides taps at 95%, 97.5%, 100%, 102.5%,
and 105%.
Min. Volt and
Max. Volt
define the tap range on the primary, in percent of the transformer
primary base voltage (not bus base). To fix the tap at a certain
value, set Min. Volt = Max. Volt.

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3.24.1 Voltage Regulating Transformers in the Network
When you connect a voltage-regulating transformer to the network, you must identify
which database entry to use, which bus voltage it controls, etc. You may change this information
afterward, by editing the transformer.
In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

Set tap on secondary changes the tap location from primary to secondary, so that the
secondary wind vary to set the voltage.
If Model primary as Fixed tap transformer and Fixed tap for Tcul txfo (in Power Flow
Solver Dialog) are not activated, then he primary tap will be adjusted to maintain the specified
operating voltage at the Controlled bus. Choose a Control tolerance smaller than the
difference between two taps. Note that the upper and lower tolerances may now be
asymmetrical. Both may be positive (or negative), if you want the voltage to be held slightly
higher (or lower) than the set-point.
Initial position of primary tap[%] tells CYMFLOW which tap to start from, in the power
flow calculation.
If you activate Freeze transformer tap, the VCR of transformer will not be active in the
analysis, and you have 2 option to specify fixed position of the tap:
Last LF solution let PSAF consider the last tap position after a power flow analysis
when the VCR was active.
Specify value sets the position equal to specified Initial position of primary tap[%].

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3.25 Utility Connection

Definition: Utility Connections represent other electrical networks connected to the
network being studied. They behave as generators, but CYMFAULT IEC
treats them as network feeders, instead of as discrete synchronous
machines. (see CYMFAULT IEC chapter in the Short-Circuit (ANSI & IEC),
ARC Flash & CYMBREAK, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

In Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

CYMFLOW requires only the data in the bottom half of the dialog. CYMFAULT, however,
requires the impedance of the utility. PSAF computes the positive-sequence impedance from the
3-phase Fault MVA level and X/R ratio. To compute the zero-sequence impedance, it needs also
the L-G Fault MVA level and X0/R0 ratio.
If you do not have any numerical data, PSAF can suggest it for you, from the voltage and
the location. Click on the Estimate button, make your choice and click on Estimate.



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Warning: Please do not depend on this data, especially if the utility is the major source
of fault current in your network. Always, obtain realistic data.
3.26 Mutual Coupling between Lines or Cables in the Network
CYMFAULT allows you to take into account zero-sequence coupling between lines (and
cables). The lines are assumed to be perfectly transposed and also transposed with respect to
each other, so that there is no coupling except in zero-sequence. Mutual coupling affects only
those fault calculations involving the ground (single-line-to-ground and double-line-to-ground
faults). It does not affect load flow calculations at all. Mutual Impedance can be entered in the
Line Mutual Coupling dialog box accessed through the Network > Edit Mutual Data menu
option.


Mutual
impedance
is the total impedance, not given per unit of length.
Length is the distance over which two lines are coupled. (CYMHARMO
needs it.)
To define mutual coupling among three lines, define the coupling between the first two
and separately define the coupling between the second and third lines. Include both mutual
impedances in the same mutual group. Otherwise, each set of two coupled lines should go into
its own group (G0 to G9).
Procedure:
1. Select lines or cables by clicking on the corresponding option in the lower-right
corner of the dialog box.

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2. Select the two lines (or cables) between which you want to enter a mutual
impedance between them.
3. Enter the total R+jX mutual impedance value (in Ohms). Enter the percent of length
of both line (or cable), as a connection point for the mutual impedance.
4. Add this mutual to one of the ten groups of mutuals, (G0-G9) in the list.
5. Press the Add button to insert this new mutual in the list.
6. To remove a mutual, select it from the list and press the Remove button.

Note: Mutual coupling is taken into account in CYMHARMO as well.

3.27 Grounding Transformer

Definition: A grounding transformer is connected at a bus in order to specify the zero
voltage and/or make safe connection to ground to assist the measurement
and protection.



Rating [KVA] is expressed in kilovolt-ampere and can be estimated according
LG-current, rated voltage and K factor (from T&D reference book
ABB) after 60 seconds.
Voltage is the rated line-to-line voltage.

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Winding
connection
same as one side of transformer by clicking on the desired
connection. Note: generally for this kind of transformer Winding-
Connect is Yg or ZZ.
Rated neutral
current [A]
is current rating for LG or LLG fault current for Yg (grounded star)
or ZZ (ZigZag) connection, it is expressed in ampere.
Impedance Z1
and Z0
(positive and zero sequence) is expressed in per-unit on
transformer base.
X1/R1 and X0/R0 ratios are reactance versus resistance for Z1 and Z0.
3.27.1 Grounding Transformer in the Network
When you connect a grounding transformer to the network, you must identify which
database entry to use, grounding impedance, etc. you may change this information afterwards,
by editing the transformer.
Note: Due to grounding transformer is for measurement, its current must be
negligible so it doesnt affect load-flow analysis.


Grounding impedance is impedance between Zero point of Yg or ZZ connections and
ground, in order to reduce and control fault current through the transformer.

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3.28 WECS-IG

Definition: (WECS-IG) is one of the types of Wind Energy Conversion Systems in
PSAF, which includes induction generator directly connected with an ac grid
as shown below:

AC BUS
Gear IG
Wind Turbine
P + jQ
Pw


As you can see in above picture the system includes Induction-Generator (IG) connect
with Wind Turbine via a Gear box so WECS-IG Database Dialog box (see below) is same as
Generator, Induction (IG) Database Dialog Box, which is explained in section 3.8.


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3.28.1 WECS-IG in the Network
When you connect a WECS-IG to the network, you must identify which database entry to
use, what type it will be (Database ID), etc. You may make changes afterwards. In Graphic
mode, you enter the information through a dialog box:

Power generation by WECS-IG is determined entirely by wind speed. At a high wind
speed, the input wind power may reach the maximum turbine power limit. To see the operating
characteristic of WECS-IG, choose Stability model tab > Wind Turbine Open > View diag on
above dialog box. PSAF considers dynamic characteristic of WECS-IG (Wind Turbine + Induction
Generator) in transient stability analysis and takes into account constant generation by WECS-IG
in power flow analysis.
Note: Although you can enter positive reactive power generation (Qgen) in above
dialog box but in practical Case, WECS-IG only absorbs reactive power from
the ac network to generate active power.


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3.29 WECS HVDC

Definition: WECS-HVDC is one of types of Wind Energy Converter systems in PSAF,
which includes induction generator connected with an ac grid via Voltage-
Source Converters (VSC) and dc-link as shown below:

AC BUS
Gear IG
VSC
1
VSC
2
Wind Turbine
P + jQ
Pw

Ps + jQs

As you can see in above picture the system includes Induction-Generator (IG) connect
with Wind Turbine via a Gear box, so WECS-HVDC Database Dialog box (see below) is same as
Generator, Induction (IG) Database Dialog Box, which is explained in section 3.8.


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3.29.1 WECS HVDC in the Network
When you connect a WECS-HVDC to the network, you must identify which database
entry to use, what type it will be (Database ID), etc. You may make changes afterwards. In
Graphic mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

Power generation by WECS-HVDC is determined entirely by wind speed. At a high wind
speed, the input wind power may reach the maximum turbine power limit. To see the operating
characteristic of WECS-HVDC, choose Stability model tab > Wind Turbine Open > View
diag on above dialog box. PSAF considers entire dynamic characteristic of WECS-HVDC in
transient stability analysis and takes into account constant generation by WECS-HVDC in power
flow analysis.
Note: WECS-HVDC is capable to absorb or generate reactive power.


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3.30 WECS DFIG

Definition: WECS-DFIG is one of the types of Wind Energy Convert systems in PSAF
which using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) as shown below:

AC BUS
Gear DFIG
VSC
1
VSC
2
Wind Turbine
Ps + jQs
Pr + jQr
P + jQ
Pw


WECS-DFIG Database Dialog box (see below) is same as Generator, Induction (IG)
Database Dialog Box, which is explained in section 3.8.


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3.30.1 WECS DFIG in the Network
When you connect a WECS-DFIG to the network, you must identify which database entry
to use, what type it will be (Database ID), etc. You may make changes afterwards. In Graphic
mode, you enter the information through a dialog:

Power generation by WECS-DFIG is determined entirely by wind speed. To see the
operating characteristic of WECS-DFIG, choose Stability model tab > Wind Turbine Open >
View diag on above dialog box. PSAF considers entire dynamic characteristic of WECS-DFIG in
transient stability analysis and takes into account constant generation by WECS-DFIG in power
flow analysis.
Note: WECS-DFIG is capable to absorb or generate reactive power.


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3.31 MCC (Motor Control Center)

Definition: The MCC, or Motor Control Center, groups together the controls of several
motors that have a common power bus. The following figure demonstrates
how a rather exhaustive network can be simplified to a single MCC.


Between a motor and its power bus, there is generally a combination of the following: a
protective device, a cable, a transformer, and another cable.
In addition to induction and synchronous motors, an MCC can contain static loads.
The MCC dialog box, illustrated below, includes all the functionalities necessary to define
an MCC.

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Branch
Selector
Located to the left of the dialog box, it contains a listing of all the
branches in the MCC. The branch selector serves many functions,
such as selecting a particular branch for modification.

Add Branch Used to add a branch to the list.

Remove
Branch
Used to remove a branch from the list.


Advanced
Mode
Used to enable (or disable the advanced editing mode).


Editing Area Contains the controls fro the configuration of each component of a
branch. The editing area also contains a simplified one-line diagram
for the branch that is being modified.

The screen capture above shows the dialog box for normal editing
that contains the basic parameters. When you click the Advanced
Mode button, the window will show all parameters for the component
selected. More details below.


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3.31.1 Normal Editing Mode
The normal editing mode allows defining an MCC with the minimum amount of
information, as illustrated below.

Each component requires a small number of parameters to be set. For cables, the
information needed is length and database ID. For transformers, primary tap and database ID are
required.
Motors are defined through the usual dialog box for motors, by clicking the Access EQ
button. The reason is that many parameters, such as load characterization and motor starting
parameters, are not available in the database for motors. Therefore, it would not be sufficient to
provide motors a database ID.

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3.31.2 Advanced Editing Mode
The Advanced Editing mode allows defining an MCC with the level of completeness that
the usual dialog boxes provide. When the Advanced Editing mode is enabled, the editing area
changes to contain the specific information for the selected component. If the selected
component is a motor, the editing area will resemble the illustration below.


Selecting a branch
(or selecting a
branch component)
To select a branch, click any element of that branch in the
Branch Selector.
In the Advanced Editing mode, it is necessary to select
individual branch components. To select a branch component,
do one of the following:
Select the appropriate branch and click the components
icon in the simplified one-line diagram in the Editing Area.
Click the element corresponding to the component in the
Branch Selector.
Adding a branch To add a branch to an MCC, do one of the following:

Click the Add Branch button. (This adds a new branch
with an induction motor.)
Right click in the blank portion of the Branch Selector and
select the type of motor to add.

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Removing a branch To remove a branch from an MCC, do one of the following:
Select the branch in the Branch Selector and click the
Remove Branch button.
Right click on a branch in the Branch Selector and select
Remove.
Copying a branch To copy (duplicate) a branch, right click the branch in the
Branch Selector and select Copy.
Changing the type of
motor connected to
a branch
To change the type of motor connected to a branch, do one of
the following:
Right click the branch in the Branch Selector and select
the new type of motor.
In normal editing mode, change the type of motor in the
Editing Area.
Changing the
configuration of a
branch
To change the configuration of a branch, do one of the
following:
Right click on the simplified one-line diagram in the
Editing Area and select the desired configuration.
In normal editing mode, either enable or disable the
isUsed checkbox of each component.
3.31.3 MCC Naming Convention
Like most other components, an MCC must have a unique ID among all MCCs in the
network. Furthermore, motors inside an MCC must have unique IDs among all motors in the
network, including motors inside MCCs.
Motors are the only components inside an MCC for which an ID can be specified. The
other components are named automatically after the ID of the motor in their respective branch.
For example, given a motor with ID M1, the first cable in that motors branch (if any) would have
ID M1C1. Similarly, the transformer and the second cable would have ID M1TX and M1C2,
respectively.

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3.32 Auto Transformer

Definition: An autotransformer (Auto Xmer) is a voltage-regulating transformer that
uses a single winding for both primary and secondary. It is capable of tap
changing under load, to maintain a desired voltage at a particular bus.
CYMFLOW will find the best tap position, based on the allowed range of
voltages and the control tolerance.

The database for autotransformers can be edited through the following dialog:


Rating represents the self-cooled rating. Higher numbers can be entered
under loading limits to allow for forced cooling by ventilating fans.

Primary and
Secondary
require rated voltages for primary and secondary, respectively.


Positive
Sequence
Impedance
requires Z
1
(in per-unit on the transformer base, self-cooled rating)
and the ratio X
1
/R
1
.


Zero Sequence
Impedance
requires Z
0
(in per-unit on the transformer base, self-cooled rating)
and the ratio X
0
/R
0
.


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Connection represents the primary/secondary winding connection. Can be set to
Y (wye), Yg (grounded star) or D (delta).

Grounding
Impedance
requires R and X (in ohms) for the grounding connection. (Applies to
Yg winding connection only.)

Loading limits Is used to report this device as being in overload.

See chapter on Load Flow in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start &
CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

Tap controls requires the number of discrete taps and the minimum and maximum
tap positions (in % of the primary rated voltage).
3.32.1 Auto Xmer in the network
When an autotransformer is connected to the network, it can be defined through the
following dialog:


Note: The primary and secondary connections correspond to the FROM and TO
buses, respectively.


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Set tap on
secondary
changes tap control location from primary to secondary.


Controlled Bus
ID
bus for which the specified operation voltage is maintained.


Voltage set-
point
corresponds to the operating voltage of the controlled bus. This value
is read-only inside this dialog.

Tolerance
minimum and
maximum
defines the control tolerance relative to the voltage set-point.


Example: Given a voltage set-point of 69.0 kV and tolerance
minimum and maximum of -1.5% and 1.0%, respectively.
The control tolerance will range from:
Minimum: 69.0 x 0.985 = 68.0 kV
Maximum: 69.0 x 1.010 = 69.7 kV
Initial position
of primary tap
represents the tap position to start from in a power flow calculation.


Freeze
transformer tap
is used to disable monitoring of the controlled bus and set the tap
position to either the specified value (initial position of primary tap) or
the last tap position after a previous power flow analysis.

Note: For explanations about the inrush current effect, please refer to section 3.19
Transformer, Fixed-tap.


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3.33 Three-Winding Auto Xmer

Definition: A three-winding autotransformer (Three-Winding Auto Xmer) is a three-
winding transformer that uses a single winding for both primary and
secondary. It is capable of tap changing under load, to maintain a desired
voltage at a particular bus. CYMFLOW will find the best tap position, based
on the allowed range of voltages and the control tolerance.


Note: Although the three-winding autotransformer is actually a two-winding device, it
is appropriate to keep the three-winding appellation because of its similitude
to the non-auto three-winding transformer.

The database for three-winding autotransformers can be edited through the following
dialog box:


PS measured from primary to secondary, in per-unit on primary base
power.

PT measured from primary to tertiary, in per unit on primary base power.

ST measured from secondary to tertiary, in per unit on secondary base
power.


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Primary/
Secondary/
Tertiary
Grounding
Impedances
require R and G (in ohms) for the grounding connection of the
primary/secondary and the tertiary, respectively. (Applies to Yg
winding connection only.)



Connection represents the primary/secondary and tertiary winding connections.
Can be set to Y (wye), Yg (grounded star) or D (delta).

Tap controls requires the number of discrete taps and the minimum and maximum
tap positions (in % of the primary rated voltage).

Loading limits is used to report this device in the overload report.

See chapter on Load Flow in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start &
CYM-AC Contingency, Users Guide and Reference Manual.

Phase shift is the angle by which the tertiary leads the primary.

3.33.1 Three-Winding Auto Xmer in the network
When a three-winding autotransformer is connected to the network, it can be defined
through the following dialog:



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Note: The primary, secondary and tertiary connections correspond to the FROM,
SEC and TERT buses, respectively.

Model primary
as fixed-tap
transformer
is used to disable monitoring of the controlled bus and set the tap
position to either the specified value (initial position of primary tap) or
the last tap position after a previous power flow analysis.

Initial position
of primary tap
represents the tap position to start from in a power flow calculation.


Controlled Bus
ID
bus for which the specified operation voltage is maintained.


Voltage set-
point
corresponds to the operating voltage of the controlled bus. This value
is read-only inside this dialog.

Tolerance
minimum and
maximum
define the control tolerance relative to the voltage set-point.

Example: Given a voltage set-point of 69.0 kV and tolerance
minimum and maximum of -1.5% and 1.0%, respectively.
The control tolerance will range from:
Minimum: 69.0 x 0.985 = 68.0 kV
Maximum: 69.0 x 1.010 = 69.7 kV


Note: For explanations about the inrush current effect, please refer to section 3.19
Transformer, Fixed-tap.


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3.34 Protection Devices
To add protective devices to an equipment, in the Project View sidebar, select the
Protective Devices group under the Symbols tab. Drag and drop it from the symbols toolbar on
an equipment in your network.

A dialog box like this one will be displayed:

To use all the database options, you must have CYMTCC installed on your computer.
New ID & Access DB opens the database dialog but the first one will show an empty ID.




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Fill in all the information and click save to keep it. Your new id will be selected in the
protective device dialog box.
Connector Type allows you to select at which of the equipment terminal the protective
device should be.

3.34.1 Fuse / LVCB / Recloser / Relay (all of them) / Miscellaneous
Every protective device types are seen the same in PSAF. Refer to the information above
for more details. For specific information about a protective device, please consult the CYMTCC
users guide.

3.34.2 Accessing a protective device through its connected equipment
Protective devices can also be accessed through the Prot. Coordination tab on the
connected equipment dialog box.



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To create a new device, click on the new button:



First, select the protective device type into the list. After, type the id that you want to use
for this protective device. The list of all protective devices of this type that are already in your
network is shown below.
Delete removes the selected protective device from the network.
Open will open the selected protective device dialog box (you can also access it by
double clicking on the protective device via the OLD).


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Chapter 4 Line and Cable Parameter Calculations
4.1 Line Parameters Calculations
4.1.1 Line Parameters Calculation with HLINPAR
The electrical parameters of overhead transmission lines, i.e line resistance, line
inductance (reactance) and line capacitance, are needed for a wide variety of system studies.
The most commonly used line parameters are the ones used at fundamental network frequency,
i.e. 50 or 60 Hz for power flow studies. These are the so-called positive sequence parameters
and normally assume a completely balanced network in all there phases. The same assumption
holds for the so-called zero sequence line parameters used in fault analysis studies simulating
system unbalances involving ground.
Line parameters can be conveniently obtained from tables for most of the cases
encountered in practice. More detailed studies however, require parameters that are not available
from tables. E.g. frequency-dependent models used for harmonic penetration studies in
transmission and/or industrial distribution networks. Moreover, the sequence approach,
applicable only to balanced networks, defies the very nature of demanding harmonic penetration
and distortion studies, often involving phase unbalances and asymmetrical loading, thus
necessitating full three-phase system modeling.
HLINPAR is a module that calculates transmission line parameters in either sequence or phase
domain with the additional capability of catering for modal analysis models as well as frequency-
dependency.
The analytical approach used by HLINPAR is based on the complex depth of return
method [1] which, computationally, departs from the more commonly used technique of
equivalent depth return method, a direct extension of Carsons modeling, although it is
essentially a closed-form approximation to Carsons solution. There are studies in the literature
[2] that confirm the remarkable accuracy of the technique, as compared with the full Carson
solution, for a wide variety of frequencies (up to 10MHZ) and for typical overhead line
configurations.
References:
[1] A. Semlyen and A. Deri, Time Domain Modeling of Frequency Dependent Three-
phase Transmission Lines, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems,
Vol. PAS 104,No6, pp.1549-1555, June 1985.
[2] H.W.Dommel, Overhead Line Parameters from Handbook Formulas and Computer
programs, , IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS 104,
No2, pp.366-372, June February 1985.

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4.1.2 Activate HLINPAR
HLINPAR can be used either for CYMFLOW, CYMFAULT studies or for CYMHARMO
studies.
HLINPAR is accessible from the Compute button in the Line Database dialog box (see
section 3.10).
The following are the steps to access HLINPAR from the Line Database dialog box:
1. Select the Line equipment type (See section 2.11.2 Editing Toolbar)
2. Click on the Open Equip. DB icon in the Editing Toolbar (section 2.11.2) to open
the database entry dialog box of the Transmission Line. This first tab of this dialog
box is Line for the entry of basic information on the line such as kV level, loading
limits and fundamental frequency impedance values. Once the data is defined, it will
be available to all PSAF analysis modules.
3. Click Compute to display the HLINPAR dialog, which will allow you to calculate the
50 or 60 Hz series impedance and shunt capacitance of the selected line.
By default, the Nominal PI model parameters are computed.
Freq. Filter allows you to a bring list of IDs from the database with desired nominal
frequency in the following dialog. For example, 60 HZ has been selected (see below), it
means you can see database IDs with 60HZ nominal frequency only.


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The remaining tabs of the dialog box are for specifying line models for harmonic analysis
studies:
Dist. Trans. LIN_3PB, Transposed 3-phase distributed parameter line.

Dist. Trans.
Freq.
LIN_3PCB, Transposed 3-phase distributed parameter line,
frequency dependent.

Dist. Untrans. LIN_3P, Untransposed N-phase distributed parameter line

4.1.3 HLINPAR Input Data
4.1.3.1 Example 1 - Data entry of a 3-phase 345 kV line
The following example illustrates the data entry by utilizing one of the standard
tower configurations provided with the program.
Geometrical Configuration and Line Data
Geometrical layout of Transmission Line is detailed in the following figure.

a is the conductor spacing
b is the conductor ground clearance
c is the distance between the neutral and phase conductors
d is the distance between the two neutral conductors
e is the bundle spacing
Two ACSR conductors per phase bundle spaced 18 inches or 1.5 ft apart.
The Line has also two ground wires, which are 3/8 inch NTRL steel.
Spacing dimensions:
a 24 ft
b 45 ft
c 15 ft
d 24 ft
e 1.5 ft

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4.1.4 Data Input in HLINPAR
Click on the Compute button of the Line Database dialog box to display the Line
Impedance Calculation Dialog.
Select the single circuit tower configuration as shown below.

The selected tower geometrical configuration is shown in the bitmap adjacent to the
list of available tower types.
Enter study parameters such as choice of units, earth resistivity (typical value 100
Ohm-Meter) and fundamental frequency of the system.
Specify the phase and/or neutral conductor external and internal radius along with
the DC resistance.

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Notes:
If the center axis of a conductor is made of dielectric materials or is hollow, the
diameter of the dielectric-axis is Internal Diameter, so for Solid conductors, the
internal diameter is zero.
Stranded conductors can usually be approximated as solid conductors of the same
cross-sectional area.
Tubular conductors like steel-reinforced aluminum cables, the internal diameter is
the one corresponding to the cross-sectional area of the reinforcing metal like steel
here.

To enter the phase or neutral conductor data click on the respective Access DB button
to access the Conductor Database dialog (as shown below) for the ACSR500 conductor.
These values can be found from the tables.
Follow the same procedure to create the database of the 3/8 NTRL steel conductor of
the neutral wires.

The line tower layout could be either one of the following:
The line tower types include
Standard single-circuit structures to cross-rope suspension towers.
Single and Double circuit generic types to deal with any special configurations (User
defined model).

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In our example, we assume that the 345 kV line towers are single-circuit steel structure,
two ACSR conductors per phase bundle spaced 18 inches or 1.5 ft apart and having the following
spacing:
a = 24, b = 45, c = 15, d = 24, e = 1.5 in ft

The above dimension letter notations in the Geometrical arrangement table are also
indicated on the bitmap for easier reference to the tower layout.
The neutral conductor(s) status: each neutral conductor may be Eliminated, Segmented
or Retained:
Eliminated means that the conductor potential is assumed to be zero
Segmented means that the conductor is not continuous along the length of the line
Retained means that the conductor is continuous from one end of the line to the
other and is connected to ground periodically (span interval). In this case, the tower
span and tower footing resistance must also be specified. The tower footing
resistance is the equivalent resistance of all the ground connections in parallel.
The letters N1 and N2 in the Neutral Conductor Status box refer to the left neutral and
the right neutral respectively.
The Retained neutral conductor is only allowed for LIN_3P, UN-Transposed N-phase
distributed parameter line.
In our example, we assume that the two neutral 3/8 NTRL steel ground wires are
eliminated.
4.1.5 HLINPAR results
Once all the required data are entered, click Compute to calculate the line
parameters. The output of HLINPAR is displayed in the window just above the
Compute button.
Click OK to update the main Line Database dialog with the computed values.
Double-circuit line is modeled by two separate lines in PSAF single-line diagram.
Thus, clicking the OK button of the Line Impedance Calculation below will update
only the main database of the second line circuit (CIR. #2). The user needs to take
notes of the parameters of the first line circuit CIR. #1 (see red box below) i.e: R0
and R1 in Ohms/m, L0 and L1 in Henry/m, C0 and C1 in Farad/m and with them,
build a separate Line database entry for that circuit. Finally, he has to connect
graphically this second line circuit in parallel with the existing one.

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4.1.5.1 Example 2 Generic data entry example of a 3-phase 345 kV line
The generic single circuit tower configuration is different from the standard configuration
detailed in Example 1 - Data entry of a 3-phase 345 kV line (section 4.1.3.1).
When a standard tower configuration is selected the number of neutral wires and bundle
spacing are grayed in the generic tower type. These values are specifically required in the
Generic Tower Type box of the Line Impedance Calculation dialog box.
In the previous Example 1, the 345 kV line data was entered by selecting the standard
single-circuit steel structure available in the tower selection list.
This example will highlight the data entry of the same line with the single circuit option.
Geometrical Configuration and Line Data
Geometrical layout of Transmission Line is shown in section 4.3 Typical Tower
Layouts Supported in HLINPAR.


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Phase X Axis Y Axis
A -24 45 ft
B 0 45 ft
C 24 45 ft
Neutral -(N1) -12 60 ft
The (X, Y) coordinates of each phase A, B, C and the neutral conductors N have to be
specified.
As can be noticed the conductor spacing is 24ft (a in Example 1).
The height of the conductors is 45 ft (b in Example 1).
Two ACSR conductors per phase bundle spacing 18 inches or 1.5 ft apart. ( e of
Example 1)
The Line has also two neutral wires, which are 3/8 EBB steel.
The height of the neutrals are at 60 ft (b + c of Example 1) and spaced at 24 ft (d of
Example 1)
It is important to note that the Y axis is centered between the two neutrals.
This implies the following:
If there is only one neutral N then the Y axis should be laid out through this neutral.
If there are two neutrals N1 and N2, then the Y axis should is centered between the
two neutrals. Therefore it is sufficient to specify the coordinates of one of the neutral
conductors.

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4.1.6 Data Input in HLINPAR
Click on the Compute button of the Line Database dialog box to display the Line
Impedance Calculation dialog box.
Select the single circuit generic type tower configuration as shown below.

The selected tower geometrical configuration is shown in the bitmap adjacent to the
list of available tower types.
Enter study parameters such as choice of units, earth resistivity (typical value 100
Ohm-Meter) and fundamental frequency of the system.
Specify the phase and/or neutral conductor external and internal radius along with
the DC resistance. (These values can be found from the tables.)


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Notes:
Solid conductors have an internal radius of zero.
Stranded conductors can usually be approximated as solid conductors of
the same cross-sectional area.
Tubular conductors like steel-reinforced aluminum cables, the internal
radius is the one corresponding to the cross-sectional area of the
reinforcing metal like steel here.

To enter the phase or neutral conductor data click on the respective Access DB button
to access the Conductor Database dialog as shown above for the ACSR500 conductor.
Follow the same procedure to create the database of 3/8 EBB steel conductor with
neutral wires.
The line tower layout could be either one of the following (i.e. the line tower types
include):
Standard single-circuit structures to cross-rope suspension towers.
Single and Double circuit generic types to deal with any special configurations (User
defined model).
In our example, we assume that the 345 kV line towers are single-circuit steel
structure, two ACSR conductors per phase bundle spaced 18 inches or 1.5 ft apart and
having the following (X,Y) coordinates:
Phase X Axis Y Axis
A -24 45 ft
B 0 45 ft
C 24 45 ft
Note: The bundle spacing has to be entered for generic tower configurations.
The neutral conductor(s) status: each neutral conductor may be Eliminated, Segmented
or Retained:
Eliminated means that the conductor potential is assumed to be zero
Segmented means that the conductor is not continuous along the length of the line
Retained means that the conductor is continuous from one end of the line to the
other and is connected to ground periodically (span interval). In this case, the tower
span and tower footing resistance must also be specified. The tower footing
resistance is the equivalent resistance of all the ground connections in parallel.
The letters N1 and N2 in the Neutral Conductor Status box refer to the left neutral and
to the right neutral respectively.
The Retained neutral conductor is only allowed for LIN_3P, UN-Transposed N-phase
distributed parameter line.
In our example, we assume that the two neutral 3/8 EBB steel ground wires are
eliminated.

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4.1.7 HLINPAR results
Once all the required data are entered, click on the Compute button to calculate the line
parameters. The output of HLINPAR is displayed in the window just above the
Compute button.
Click on OK to update the main Line Database dialog box with the computed values.
4.2 Special Harmonic Line Models supported by HLINPAR
4.2.1 LIN_3PB, Transposed 3-phase distributed
The required parameters for this model are illustrated in the Dist. Trans. tab below.
They are obtained from the [Z] and [C] matrices - which methods of calculation are explained
below.
Note: Specified system frequency (50 or 60HZ) in first tab (Line tab)

The method of calculation for series-impedance matrix [Z] follows the complex in depth
approach introduced by Gari, Semlyen and Deri (ref.: Deri, A. and al., The Complex Ground

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Return Plane, IEEE Trans. on PAS, vol. 100, Aug. 1981, pp. 3686-3693). The results are close
to those obtained using Carsons formulas, and the calculation is much simpler.
The self-impedance Zs is calculated as the average of the diagonal elements of [Z], while
the mutual impedance Zm is the average of the off-diagonal elements.
The positive and zero sequence impedances are derived from Zs and Zm by the
relations:

Z1 = R1 + jwL1 = Zs Zm


Z0 = R0 + jwL0 = Zs + (N-1)Zm

The line capacitance matrix [C] is computed by inverting the potential coefficient matrix
[P]. Ground wires are taken into account when [P] is calculated. The shunt admittance matrix [Y]
is computed directly from the reduced [C] matrix for each frequency. Note that [Y] is a matrix of
imaginary numbers.
Note: Click Compute to perform the above calculation.
(Line database dialog > Line >Compute >Line Impedance Calculation Dialog > Compute)

4.2.2 LIN_3PCB, Transposed 3-phase distributed, frequency dependent

For this model, the series resistance and inductance are defined as piece-wise linear
functions of frequency. For example, the resistance value for each frequency in the {FR0} vector
is to be given at the same order as in the {R0} vector.

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{FR0} = {f1 f2 f3
f9}
the frequencies.
{R0} = {R1 R2 R3 R9} the zero sequence resistance at each
of these frequencies.
HLINPAR calculates the positive / zero sequence series resistance and inductance for a
number of discrete frequencies.
These frequencies are defined by the following:
Starting decade D0
The number of decades ND
The number of frequency points per decade NP
The number of frequencies is given by the product NF = ND x NP
All decade parameters as well as the tolerances may be entered by clicking on the
Frequency Data button of the Line Database dialog box, and which results to:

The nth frequency is defined by F(n) = 10exp[D0 + (n-1)/NP]
The following values are calculated at each frequency, to produce four curves
Log(F): Log(R0), Log(R1), L0 and L1
Next, HLINPAR performs a piece-wise straight-line approximation to the curves while
respecting the tolerances entered. It will select as many break points as needed (to a maximum
of 9).
Each straight-line approximation guarantees for example that:
Log(R0 -R0.Tol_R0) < Log(R0 < Log(R0 + R0.Tol_R0)
L0 - L0.Tol_L0 < L0 < L0 + L0.Tol_L0
(Tol_R0 and Tol_L0 are tolerances in %)
The same applies for the positive sequence values of R1 and L1.

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The program will warn you if it is not possible to achieve an approximation without
exceeding the error tolerance you specified. You may increase the tolerance and try again.
4.2.3 LIN_3P, Untransposed N-phase distributed

The required parameters for this model are illustrated:
{R} Resistances for characteristic modes 1, N
{L} Inductances for characteristic modes 1, N
{C} Capacitances for characteristic modes 1, N
{G} Conductances for characteristic modes 1, N
[T], [U] Transformation matrices

The untransposed line model (LIN_3P) requires the current transformation of
eigenvectors as well as the modal parameters.
HLINPAR calculates the [Z], [Y] matrices and determines the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors of the product [Z] x [Y]. The current transformation matrix [Ti] and the modal
impedances corresponding to the eigenvalues are then calculated.
Although the transformation matrix [Ti] is frequency-dependent, it is assumed constant
over the frequency range of interest (f <= 3000 Hz). It is calculated at the nominal frequency as
defined in the HLINPAR dialog.

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The number of phases N is generally 3, but if at least one of the ground wires of the
concerned line is retained, N will be 4.
4.3 Typical Tower Layouts Supported in HLINPAR


Double Circuit Special Steel Tower
2- Neutrals
Conductors per phase: 1,2,3,or 4



Double Circuit Steel Tower
1- Neutral
Conductors per phase: 1,2,3,or 4


Double Circuit Steel Tower
2- Neutrals
Conductors per phase: 1,2,3,or 4


Single Circuit Steel Tower
2- Neutrals
Conductors per phase: 1,2,3,or 4



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Single Circuit Cross Rope Suspension Steel
Tower
2- Neutrals
Conductors per phase: 4


Single Circuit Guyed Steel Tower
2- Neutrals
Conductors per phase: 4


Single Circuit Rigid Tower
2- Neutrals
Conductors per phase: 4


Single Circuit Wood Tower
2- Neutrals
Conductors per phase 1,2,3,or 4


Single Circuit Generic Configuration
Neutrals: 0,1,or 2
Conductors per phase:1,2,3 or 4


Double Circuit Generic Configuration
Neutrals: 0,1,or 2
Conductors per phase:1,2,3 or 4



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Bundle
spacing
is the distance (center-to-center) between two adjacent conductors in
the same phase. Expressed in m.
Radius, GMR (Geometric Mean Radius) and resistance for the phase and neutral
conductors are to be given in the Conductor database. (See section
4.4.3 Cable Input Data). Select the conductors, or add new ones to
the database.
Geometrical
Arrangement
defines the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) distance from some
arbitrary reference point on the ground plane to the center of each
phase bundle and neutral conductor. If two neutral wires are present,
enter the position of only one. The other is assumed to be
symmetrically arranged about a vertical line drawn through the
reference point.
Earth
Resistivity
influences the zero-sequence parameters. It is expressed in Ohm-m.
Hint: If you have no better information, you could use these typical
values:
- Loam, chalk, clay 30 Ohm-m
- Moist organic soil -- 100 Ohm-m
- Stony ground -- 400 Ohm-m
- Rock, sand, gravel 1000 Ohm-m or more
Base
Frequency
is defined in the Study parameters.
4.4 Cable Parameters Calculations
4.4.1 Cables Parameters Calculation
Much like overhead transmission lines, the fundamental frequency electrical parameters
of underground cables are equally essential for system studies. The vast variety of cable
installations as well as the wide array of the various constructions encountered for underground
cables of all voltage classes makes it difficult to apply simple and unified analysis techniques for
this type of problem. The PSAF module, nevertheless, contains several standard, industry-
accepted techniques, in the form of Compute functions that provide the sought electrical
parameters with sufficient accuracy. More specifically, the calculating techniques embedded in
PSAF cover:
Three-conductor belted cables (up to 15 kV).
Three-conductor common sheath cables, (15 to 35 kV).
Single-conductor shielded cables (up to 69 kV).
Unshielded cables, of the low-voltage class-type, featuring no metallic parts.
Multi-wire concentric-neutral cables (for underground distribution circuits).
It is important to realize that the calculating techniques supported by PSAF do not
support additional metallic layers like armours, over sheaths, metallic binders, etc. that are often

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encountered besides the standard sheath/concentric neutral arrangements, normally reserved for
return and/or circulating currents. The schematics, provided along with the support function data
requirements dialog boxes, clarify these issues beyond any doubt.
Either round or sector-type conductors are used in the three-conductor types. Consider
the diameter of a sector-shaped conductor to be 82 to 86% of the diameter of a round conductor
having the same cross-sectional area.
The interested reader can probe for further analytical details or for a closer look at the
techniques used by these PSAF supported functions in the following references:
The Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book (ABB), Chapter 4,
Electrical characteristics of cables.
Impedance and Fault Current calculations. Monogram by D.R. Smith,
Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
4.4.2 How to calculate cable parameters
The following are the steps to proceed for the calculation of the cable parameters from
the Cable Database dialog.
1. Select the Cable equipment type (See section 2.11.2 Editing Toolbar)
2. Click on the icon on the Editing Toolbar (section 2.11.2) to open the Cable
database entry dialog (section 3.5). As you know, the first tab Cable is for the entry
of basic information such as kV Level, Loading Limits and fundamental frequency
Impedance values. Once the data is defined, it will be available for all PSAF Analysis
modules.
3. Push the Compute button in that dialog box to open the Cable Impedance
Calculation dialog box - to calculate the 50 or 60 Hz series impedance and shunt
capacitance of the selected cable.
4.4.3 Cable Input Data
To better illustrate the cable impedance calculation, we will proceed, in the following
examples, to the data entry and the calculation of each cable type supported by this PSAF
module.
The following is covered in this section:
Data entry and calculation of a three-conductor cable, below
Data entry and calculation of a 3 single-conductor cables, page 173
Data entry and calculation of an unshielded cable, page 175
Data entry and calculation of a multi-wire concentric neutral cable, page 177


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4.4.3.1 Data entry and calculation of a three-conductor cable
Lets find the 60-Hz impedance of a 750-MCM three-conductor belted cable
having 0.1563 inches of conductor insulation and 0.133 inches of lead sheath. The
overall cable diameter is 2.833 inches and the conductors are sector-shaped with a
sector depth of 0.78 inches, a resistance of 0.091/mile and a GMR of 0.366 inches. The
diameter of an equivalent round conductor with the same cross-sectional area is 0.998
inches.
When you click on the Compute button as explained above, the following dialog
box is displayed:

This Cable Impedance Calculation dialog has three tabs: the first is designed
for shielded cables, the second for unshielded cables and the last one for the multi-wire
concentric neutral cables.
For this example, we should select the Shielded Cables tab and enter the
required parameters based on the given data.
Enter study parameters such as choice of units, earth resistivity (typical value
100 Ohm-m), and fundamental frequency of the system. These parameters
are used for the calculation of the zero-sequence electrical parameters. In
fact, PSAF calculates the zero-sequence electrical parameters of
shielded cables by assuming that part of the current returns through
the sheath while the rest through the ground.

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Specify, in the Phase conductor characteristics group box, the conductor
data i.e.; external radius, GMR and DC resistance. A typical conductor can
be selected in the combo box displaying all conductors are already entered
in the current study database. To create a new conductor database or
modify an existing one, click the Access DB button to access the Conductor
Database dialog box, as shown below, for the 750 MCM conductor.

Recall that the 750 MCM conductor used in this example is not round but sector-
shaped; so the external radius to enter here is approximately 84% of the External
Diameter of an equivalent round conductor with same cross-sectional area which
diameter is 0.998 inches.
If the center axis of a conductor is made of dielectric materials or is hollow, then
the radius of the dielectric-axis is Internal Radius, but for 750-MCM in this example, all
cross-section is made of conductor material and it doesnt have dielectric axis so
Internal Diameter= 0.0 .
Therefore, from this assumption and the given data, we are able to type the
required data in this (above) dialog as follows:
External Diameter = 0.84*0.998 = 0.83832 inches
Internal Diameter = 0.0 inches
GMR = 0.366 inches

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DC Resistance (25C) = 0.0910 ohms/mile
DC Resistance (50C) 0.1 ohms/mile
Click OK to update the Phase conductor characteristics values.
Identify the cable construction (3-core cable or 3 single-core cables) in the
Cable type section of the dialog box. Here, we select 3-core cable as stated
in the example. A bitmap illustrating the cable with the required data was
displayed above.
In the Sheath radius section of the dialog box, enter the inner sheath radius
(ri) and the outer sheath radius (ro) as illustrated in the cable bitmap. Since
the overall diameter of the cable is 2.833 inches, so the outer sheath radius
is half of this diameter i.e. ro = 2.833/2 = 1.417 inches.
Since lead sheath thickness is 0.133 inches so the inner sheath radius is the
outer sheath radius minus this value: ri = 1.417 0.133 = 1.284 inches.
Select the insulation of the cable from the registered materials and the
dielectric constant of this insulation will be displayed in the adjacent field. If
the cable insulation is not in the registered list, select Other insulation and
type in the value of the dielectric constant. The assumption made here is
that the belted insulation is of the same type as the core insulation.
Enter the distances between phases a, b and c. These distances Da-b, Db-
c, Da-c are illustrated also in the bitmap. In fact, in this example, these
distances are equal to the equivalent distance between the sectors, which
can be taken as the sector depth (0.78 inches), plus twice the conductor
insulation (0.156 inches). Therefore,
Da-b = Db-c = Da-c = 0.78 + 2*0.156 = 1.090 inches
Finally, once the required data are entered, click Compute to perform the
calculation. If the input data are correct, the 60-Hz impedance parameters
i.e. R1, X1, B1, R0, X0 and B0 are calculated and displayed in the window
next to the Compute button. Clicking OK will update the main cable database
with the calculated parameters expressed in the selected units.
4.4.3.2 Data entry and calculation of a 3 single-conductor cables
Lets determine the 60-Hz impedance of 3-1 MCM single-conductor cables that
have been drawn into fiber conduits in the same horizontal plane (4.125 inches) between
adjacent conductors. The conductor insulation is 0.469 inches and the lead sheath is
0.125 inches thick.
Since we are dealing with a shielded cable, we stay in the same tab Shielded
Cables as the previous example.
The study parameters i.e. system of units, earth resistivity and fundamental
frequency of the system remain the same as in the first example.
From the PSAF conductors database, we select the conductor 1MCM, which
is the phase conductor of this cable. The parameters of this conductor i.e. its
external radius, its GMR and its DC resistance are displayed.
As for the cable construction, we select 3 single-core cables as specified in
the problem. With this cable type, we have the choice to take into account of
the sheath loss or not. For that, see the 3 single-core cables sheath

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bonding section in the dialog. It is specified here that the term sheath
losses, signifies the sheath circulating losses due to currents flowing
driven by the sheath-induced voltages. The option Single-point (open)
means that the sheath losses are neglected since no circulating currents can
flow. Instead, the option Two point (shorted) means that they are taken into
account. In this example, we will neglect the sheath losses.
The conductor radius of 0.576 inches plus the insulation thickness of 0.469
inches makes the inner sheath radius (ri) = 1.045 inches. This ri plus the
sheath thickness 0.125 inches makes the outer sheath radius (ro) = 1.170
inches.
The 3 single-core cables are in the same horizontal plane and distant 4.125
inches to each other, therefore:
Da-b = Db-c = 4.125 inches and Da-c = 2*4.125 = 8.250 inches
Finally, once all the required data are entered, click Compute to perform the
calculation. If the input data are correct, the 60-Hz impedance parameters
(i.e. R1, X1, B1, R0, X0 and B0) are calculated and displayed in the window
next to the Compute button.



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CHAPTER 4 - LINE AND CABLE PARAMETER CALCULATIONS 175
4.4.3.3 Data entry and calculation of an unshielded cable
Now, lets calculate the 60-Hz impedance of an unshielded 3-phase 120/208 Volt
cable which is an assembly of three 500 MCM phase conductors arranged triangularly
and a 0000 AWG neutral conductor interposed between phases B and C. The insulation
thickness of the 500 MCM conductor is 0.156 inches and the one for the 0000 AWG
conductor is 0.078 inches.
For this cable type, the appropriate tab is Unshielded Cables from the Cable
Impedance Calculation dialog box.
As you can see in the following figures, up to three different arrangements for the
multiple conductors cables are supported:
Three-conductor triangular grouping
Three-conductor cradled grouping
Six-conductor bunched grouping
Concerning the 3 single-core cables, a generic arrangement with up to three
neutral conductors is supported.
Any random configuration of the phase and neutral conductors are allowed as
long as they are realistic.


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As usual, the study parameters i.e. system of units, earth resistivity and
fundamental frequency of the system should be specified.
From the PSAF conductors database, we select the phase conductor
500MCM. The parameters of this conductor (i.e. its external radius), its
internal radius and its DC resistance are displayed. The same process is
repeated for the neutral conductor, namely the 0000 AWG conductor.
As for the cable arrangement, this example dictates us to select Three-
conductor triangular grouping with one neutral conductor. A bitmap just
aside will display the selected cable configuration - giving the user a broad
picture to enter the coordinates of the conductors based on the reference
axis (X,Y).
The spreadsheet table requires the coordinates of each cable conductors to
be identified by its name: A, B, C or N (for example). The bitmap clearly
identifies theses names and the user has only to enter the correct
coordinates. The external radius of phase and neutral conductors, as well as
their insulation thickness, allow us to calculate the entered coordinates as
shown in the spreadsheet table.
Finally, once all the required data are entered, click Compute to perform the
calculation. If the input data are correct, the 60-Hz impedance parameters
i.e. R1, L1, B1, R0, L0 and B0 are calculated and displayed in the window
next to the Compute button. Clicking OK will update the main cable
database with the calculated parameters expressed in the selected units.
Note: The capacitance of single core unshielded cables is not normally of
interest. From the calculation point of view the capacitance is really not
determinable, since no metallic sheaths are present. What the
program calculates therefore is simply the capacitance with respect to
the ground level (as if calculating the transmission line capacitances).

4.4.3.4 Data entry and calculation of a multi-wire concentric neutral cable
The following example calculation demonstrates the calculation of the sequence
self-impedances of a three-phase circuit with multi-wire concentric neutral. Consider a
15 kV class circuit made from cables with 1000 MCM aluminum phase conductor and 20
#10 copper neutral wires.
The three-phase conductors A, B and C have a flat spacing with Da-b, Db-c and
Da-c equal to 8, 8 and 16 inches respectively. The diameter over the phase conductor
insulation is 1.729 inches.
By following the same steps as the previous examples, all the required data are
entered in the Multi-wire Concentric Neutral Cables tab of the Cable Impedance
Calculation dialog box as indicated below.
The new data to be considered are:
The number of the concentric neutral wires around a phase conductor: 20.
The diameter over the phase conductor insulation that is 1.729 inches (in this
case).
As before, click Compute to perform the calculation. If the input data are correct,
the 60-Hz impedance parameters (i.e. R1, L1, B1, R0, L0 and B0) are calculated and

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CHAPTER 4 - LINE AND CABLE PARAMETER CALCULATIONS 177
displayed in the window next to the Compute button. Clicking OK will update the cable
database with the calculated parameters expressed in the selected units.


4.4.3.5 Notes
The conductor radius, GMR (Geometric Mean Radius) and the resistance may
be found in published tables, such as the ones in the ABB T&D Reference Book. You
have the choice between Imperial units (inches) and SI units (cm.).
If the middle core axis of a conductor is made from dielectric materials, or is
hollow, then the radius of the middle core is Internal Radius for conductor.
The GMR is defined as the radius of a tubular conductor with an infinitesimally
thin wall that has the same external flux out to a radius of one foot (30.5 cm.) as the
internal and external flux of a solid conductor out to a radius of one foot. (ABB T&D
Book, p.36.) It is calculated as the N
2
root of the product of the N
2
distances between the
N subconductors (strands) of the conductor.
N
GMR
N
k
N
m
km D
2
1 1

= =
= where Dmm = 0.7788 x radius of a cylindrical strand.


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Example: A conductor made up of 7 identical copper strands, each of radius R.
(From Elements of Power System Analysis by W.D. Stevenson)


Distances between conductors = measured center-to-center
Inner and outer radii of the sheath: Losses in the sheath are represented
by a small additional resistance computed using these values. A lead sheath
is assumed.

Geometric factor: It is applicable to the calculation of shunt susceptance. It
is determined from the ratio of the sheath inner radius, r
i
, to the conductor
radius, r. (It can also be expressed in terms of the conductor diameter d and
insulation thickness T.)
G = 2.303 log
10
(ri / r) = 2.303 log
10
(1 + 2T/d)

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CHAPTER 4 - LINE AND CABLE PARAMETER CALCULATIONS 179


The shunt susceptance
( )( )
B=
0.3483 f k
G
S km / /
where f is the frequency in Hz and k is the dielectric constant of the
insulation.
Frequency is defined in the Study parameters (e.g. Study Parameters for
Load Flow , in the CYMFLOW, CYM-Motor-Start & CYM-AC Contingency,
Users Guide and Reference Manual.).
Dielectric constant

Hint: k = 3.0 for EPR, 2.5 for XLPE, 4.0 for Butyl Rubber, 8.0 for PVC.

Note: The calculation is valid for single-conductor cables and three-
conductor shielded cables. For three-conductor belted non-shielded
cables, reduce the calculated B1 by 20% to 40% and reduce B0 by
50%. (Pages 68 and 77 of ABB T&D Book.)




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CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK 181
Chapter 5 Editing the Network
5.1 File extensions
A PSAF Study (*.stu) is the combination of a Network and a set of simulation
parameters.
A PSAF Network is the combination of a network (*.nwt) file and a set of databases,
which are stored together in a directory.


The Network (*.nwt) file not only contains a description of the buses and the
equipment connected to them, but also contains a reference to the appropriate
database directory. This ensures that PSAF looks to the correct databases each
time the network is opened, even if another set of databases was in use previously.
The databases store the intrinsic characteristics of the network equipment, such as
nameplate ratings.
The network file refers to items in the databases to establish the data that appear in
the main tab of each equipment dialog box. See Chapter 3.
The study (*.stu) file refers to the databases to establish the supplementary data.
(These data appear in the auxiliary tabs of each equipment dialog box. See
Chapter 3.)
Examples: The rated MVA, voltage and impedances of a generator are stored in the
network, but the choice of exciter model (if any) would be stored in the
study.
The torque-speed characteristic for the load on an induction motor may
be changed in a study, but the motor itself is part of the network.

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182 CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK
5.2 Overview of creation and editing
Creating and editing the network description consists of four activities:
creating buses
creating equipment in the databases (if not already defined there)
connecting equipments to the buses
fine-tuning the equipment settings
Note: Initially, the Network Window is absent from the screen. To begin work, it is
necessary to open a network. Refer to section 1.6 Using PSAF for steps on how
to open a new or existing network.
PSAF offers two methods of viewing and editing the network: on the One Line Diagram
(OLD) and through Tables. Use the View > Viewspaces options to display your network using
either or both methods. See section 2.4 View Menu. The Editing Toolbar (section 2.11.2)
comprises two buttons to do the same.
Editing directly on the One Line diagram is convenient for small networks (< 200 buses)
such as industrial systems, but you may find it more convenient to edit very large networks
through the tables.
If you edit the network using the One-Line View Mode (section 5.4), PSAF
continuously displays the network graphically, and you use the mouse and icons to connect
equipment to the network buses. Clicking on equipment symbols opens Dialog boxes in which
you choose specific devices from the databases and adjust their settings. You may arrange the
network appearance.
If you edit the network using the Table View Mode (section 5.5), you open tables for
buses and equipment types (such as lines or loads). You connect equipment by identifying the
bus(es) to which it is connected. You may choose specific equipment from the available
database entries and open the Dialog boxes to edit their settings.
Note: You may keep the One Line Diagram view open while you work in the tables.
Your changes appear on the One Line Diagram as you make them.
5.3 Opening a Network
To create a project or a network, please refer to section 1.6 Using PSAF.
Once your file is active:
To open the One Line view, click on the icon in the Editing Toolbar. This is
equivalent to selecting the View > Viewspaces > One Line Diagram command.
To open the Table view, click on the icon in the Editing Toolbar. This is
equivalent to selecting the View > Viewspaces > Table Edit menu command.

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CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK 183
5.4 One-Line View Mode
To edit a new or existing network using the One-Line View Mode, you will need the
Symbol sidebar and the OLD Editing toolbar.
To display the Symbol sidebar, refer to section 1.5.2 Project View Sidebar.
To display the OLD Editing toolbar, select the View > Toolbar menu option. The buttons
included in the O.L.D. Editing are described in section 2.11.4 See also the Tools > Customize >
Toolbars menu option in section 2.8 for further details.

5.4.1 Creating a new Bus
1. Click on the Bus symbol on the Symbol sidebar, as shown below.
2. Hold the mouse button down and drag the bus symbol into the One Line window.
3. Place the bus where desired and release the mouse button.
The Bus dialog box then opens. See section 3.2 Bus dialog box. Once you click OK in
that dialog box, the symbol will be created on the one-line.



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184 CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK
The Bus symbol is oriented horizontally by default. You may orient it vertically BEFORE
you place the bus by pressing the arrow keys ().
To change the orientation AFTER placing the bus, click on the bus symbol and click the
Rotate button in the toolbar.
Hint:
Enable the Grid and Snap-to-grid options to help you align buses and
equipment symbols so that the drawing looks better. The grid is an array of colored dots,
and snap-to-grid forces the bus or equipment symbol to align itself to the nearest grid
point(s) as you drag it with the mouse.

Hint:
The Orthogonal option helps you to connect branches by vertical and horizontal
lines. To connect by diagonal lines, de-activate it. PSAF will help you to draw vertically
and horizontally. See section 2.11.4 O.L.D. Editing Toolbar.
5.4.2 Connect a New Equipment to the Network
1. Zoom in a little on the work area. (See section 1.5.5.2 Zoom)
2. Click on the appropriate equipment symbol on the SymbolTool Bar.
3. Hold down the mouse button and drag the symbol into the One Line. (You may
release the mouse button.)
4. Press one of the arrow keys () to set the direction in which to draw the
symbol. If you try to connect an equipment horizontally, then the bus(es) should
be vertical, and vice versa.
5. Click on a bus in the One-line to connect the equipment to it.
6. Click on a second bus to connect the other end of the equipment, if it is a branch.
Click on a third bus if you are connecting a three-port equipment.
The equipment symbol appears in the One-line when the connection is complete.
Hint
:
When connecting to a bus (Figure 1), click and hold down the mouse button.
Then slide the cursor over the bus symbol until the cursor becomes thicker and
brighter (Figure 2). Release the mouse button.


Figure 1

Figure 2

Hint
:
To interrupt the connection process, click on the icon, or press the
Escape key or click on both the left and right mouse buttons simultaneously.

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CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK 185
5.4.3 Example: Connecting a Generator
Step 1 Click and drag the generator symbol. The cross-hair cursor displays an
arrowhead indicating the direction in which the symbol will be drawn. The generator
symbol is also shown in dotted lines if you hold the mouse button down. (Press an
arrow key to change the direction, if desired.)



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186 CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK
Step 2 Drag the cursor onto a bus, click and release the mouse button


Step 3 Click on the generator symbol and drag it along the bus or flip it above


5.4.4 Edit an Equipment in the Network
1. Select the equipment by clicking on its symbol (Section 1.5.5.3 Select an
equipment).
2. Double-right-click anywhere on OLD. OR click on the Show dialog icon in
the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section 2.11.4). OR right-click on the symbol to
display its context-menu and select the Properties option (See section 1.5.5.6 -
Context Menus).. OR double left click on the component symbol.
3. Edit the data in the equipment dialog box. (See Chapter 3.)
5.4.5 Move an Equipment from One Bus to Another
1. Zoom in a little on the work area.
2. Select the equipment by clicking on its symbol.
3. Click on the Re-connect equipment icon in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar
(Section 2.11.4). Or right click on the equipment to display its Context-menu and
select the Re-Connect option.

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4. If you wish, you may rotate your equipment by pressing an arrow key ().
5. Click on the other bus(es) to connect the equipment there.
Hint: Once you have selected your equipment (step 2), you may also use Edit >
Cut followed by Edit > Paste.
5.4.6 Move a Bus
1. Select the bus by clicking on its symbol.
2. Click and hold down the left mouse button. Move the mouse.
3. Release the mouse button.
5.4.7 Move Part of the Network
1. Select all the buses you want to move by pressing and holding down the Shift
key while left-clicking on each of the bus symbols. Release the "Shift" key. You
can also hold down the Shift key and click and drag a box around all the items
you want to select.
2. Click on the move icon in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section 2.11.4).
3. Click and hold down the left mouse button. Move the mouse.
4. Release the mouse button.
Hint: Use the Grid and Snap-to-grid options to help you to align buses and
equipment symbols so that the drawing looks better.
5.4.8 Copy an Equipment
1. Zoom in a little on the work area.
2. Select the equipment by clicking on its symbol.
3. Click on the Copy button in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section 2.11.4) or
right-click on the equipment symbol to open its Context-menu and select the
Copy option.
Hint: You can use the Edit > Copy menu option followed by Edit > Paste if you
prefer.

Hint: Don't forget you can simply increase the quantity of an equipment (Duplic
factor) (See section 3.1.2 Equipment Dialog Boxes).

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5.4.9 Copy and Paste Part of the Network
This tool is very useful when the network has many similar sub-networks.
1. Zoom in a little on the work area.
2. Hold the Shift key down and select the components you wish to copy by
clicking on their symbols. Release the "Shift" key. You can also hold down the
Shift key and click and drag a box around all the items you want to select, to
get them all at once.
3. Click on the Copy button in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section 2.11.4) or
press Ctrl-C or Ctrl-Insert.
4. Press Ctrl+V or Shift+Insert to paste your selection into the One Line
Diagram and place it where you want it. All the pasted equipment and buses will
be assigned generic names (example: L1, L2, etc. for lines).
Note
:
If you are trying to copy some equipment other than buses, only the ones
that have all their connected buses also selected will be copied.
5.4.10 Delete an equipment
1. Select the equipment by clicking on its symbol.
2. Click on the Delete button in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section 2.11.4) or
press the Del key. You can also right-click on the equipment symbol to open
context-menu and select the Delete option.
5.4.11 Delete part of the network
1. Select all the components you want to delete by pressing and holding down the
Shift key and by clicking on the components symbols. Note that if you select a
bus without selecting all its connected equipment, it will not be deleted. Release
the "Shift" key.
2. Click on the Delete button in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section 2.11.4) or
press the Del key.
5.4.12 Undelete an equipment
1. Click the Undelete button in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section 2.11.4).
2. Connect the equipment as though it were new (Section 5.4.2 Connect a New
Equipment to the Network).

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5.4.13 Disable/Enable an equipment without deleting it
1. Select the equipment by clicking on its symbol.
2. Click on the Disable/Enable icon in the O.L.D. Editing Toolbar (Section
2.11.4) or right-click on the equipment symbol to open its context-menu and
select the Disable/Enable option.
5.4.14 Locate (Find) a Network component on the One-line-Diagram(OLD)
PSAF offers at least three ways to center and highlight a network component on OLD, as
follows:
1. Double click on the Component-ID in the Network tab of the Detailed View
Sidebar (section 1.5.3):


2. Using the combo boxes of the Editing Toolbar (section 2.11.2) at the top of the
window:
a. Choose the type of equipment in the combo-box on the left.
b. Then, select the desired component ID name in the combo-box on the
right, as illustrated below:

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3. By using the Select a component to locate dialog box (Refer to following image
for visual details) :
a. Click on the Find button in the Standard Toolbar (section 2.11.1) or
use the Edit > Find Equipment menu option. The dialog box will
appear.
b. Select a group type. The groups are Equipment, Controllers or UDMs
(Controllers and UDMs are used with CYMSTAB). In our example, we
select Equipment.
c. Select the equipment type by using the Select a type combo-box. Then
the corresponding list of equipments will appear at the top of the dialog
box. Double-click on one of the equipment IDs in this list (or click on the
one of equipment IDs and click on the Locate button inside the dialog
box). PSAF will then will highlight the equipment on the OLD and center
the center the diagram based on that point.

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5.4.15 How Center the view on an equipment:
1. Select the equipment by clicking on its symbol.
2. Click on the Center Selection button in the Editing Toolbar (section 2.11.2).
5.4.16 Hide parts of the One-line-Diagram(OLD)
If the network is large, you might want to display only part of it.
1. Select the View > Filter O.L.D. menu option, and the following window will
appear.

2. Select one of the options in the drop down list and then click on to set the
selection part of network as necessary.
By area gives you the possibility to filter the network according to its
areas.


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192 CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK
By kV shows you the list of Voltage Levels in the network and by
choosing each voltage, PSAF will only show you the
components of the selected voltage.

By rings
(1, 2, 3, or 4)
will show the equipments connected to the bus(es) you choose,
up to 1, 2, 3 or 4 branches away.

By Zone will show you the list of available zones from which you can
filter the network.

Show All is the default option.

Example: showing only the network buses up to one branch away (by rings1)
from a given bus (B-1)




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CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK 193
5.4.17 Colors of the OLD
You may change the colors on the OLD using the Options dialog box displayed from
Tools-> Options menu option.


To change equipment symbols color in OLD:
1. Open the Options dialog box.
2. In the Individual Coloring group box, select One-line diagram.
3. Click the Modify combo-box to open the colors menu, and from there you can
choose the desired color.
You proceed the same way for any other item listed in the Individual coloring box, such
as the network window background, selected components (Highlighted), overloaded equipments,
etc.
To choose a color for a specific group of network components, use the Group Coloring
options at the bottom of the dialog:



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194 CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK
Example: To define group coloring by Kv Base:
1. Select by Kv Base in the Group coloring section.
2. Click the New or the Modify button depending on if you already have coloring
options or not, and the following dialog will open:


3. Enter the description and desired settings. (The width ratio is the thickness at
which the connection lines between equipments and buses will be drawn)
4. Click the OK button and you should see the new group coloring option appear in
the list, as follow:



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CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK 195
5.4.18 Title Block for the Network (User Defined Label)
To add a title, description or any text on the OLD:, click on the User-defined label button
in the symbol sidebar and drag the label on the OLD at the desired location. Then double-click on
the label to display its corresponding Tag Properties dialog box and change the text to whatever
you need and click OK.

5.5 Table View Mode
The Table View mode allows you to work with one equipment type per table. You may
open as many of the Tables as you wish. This method of data entry is faster for large networks.

To open a Table for a specific equipment type:
1. Click on the equipment symbol in the Symbol Tool Bar (See Section 1.5.2
Project View Sidebar).
OR
Select the desired equipment type in the list at the top of the screen.
2. Click on the Show Table icon in the Editing Toolbar (section 2.11.2). See
the example below.




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196 CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK

You may open more than one table, by repeating the above steps. Each table appears
as a tab in the dialog box, as illustrated above for Lines and Buses. (You can close a tab by
right-clicking on any cell of the active sheet and choosing Close Current Page from the
contextual menu described below.)
The tables feature the same information than the equipment dialog boxes (see Chapter
3) used in One Line View. Please refer to the explanations found in Chapter 3.
You can increase or decrease the width of each column by placing the mouse cursor
on the edge of the column heading, clicking and dragging.
You can sort the rows according to a column heading by double-clicking on the
column heading. Double-click again to sort in reverse order.

Hint: It is recommended to start by creating the table of buses. Then it is easier to connect
equipment in their respective tables.

Enter new buses or equipment by typing the ID name in the ID field of a blank row.
Default data will be filled in for the other cells (copied from the immediately previous row if there
is one).
Change the text in a cell by clicking (or double-clicking to highlight) on the text inside the
cell. When you click on a cell that requests a bus or equipment name or a database entry, PSAF
offers you a list from which to choose, so that you do not have to type the name. This is
illustrated below for the database entry of a Line. Press the Enter key or click in another cell to
register the change.

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CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK 197
Edit the database by clicking on the browse button, as illustrated below.

You can choose the position of each tables tab. See following illustration.



Open the Equipment dialog box, as if working in One Line View, by right-clicking in any
cell in the row and then choosing Open Equipment Dialog from the contextual menu.
Locate the row for a bus or an equipment by clicking right in any cell and choosing
Find Equipment from the menu. Select from the list and click Locate.

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198 CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK


Delete rows by selecting their row numbers and pressing the Del key.
Disable an equipment by unchecking the checkbox next to its name under the Status
column.
5.6 Input Data Report
(Main menu>Report>Input Data Report)

This option produces a report of all the data that composes the network. It can produce
this report on the one-line diagram and in a tabular format.
Impedances may be expressed in Ohms, or in per-unit on equipment or network base.
Numerical data for Duplicated Equipments may be combined as if for a single equivalent
equipment (The heading Duplic Info = combined) or shown for one of the identical units (Duplic
Info = individual). Example: Three 200 MVA generators may be described as one 600 MVA
unit (combined) or as three 200 MVA units (individual). You may also decide to report the total
impedance of a line or cable instead of its per length value and you may decide to report the
transient stability, harmonics or motor start extra information as well.



The content of the information displayed on the one-line diagram is explained in the
Customize labels option (See section 2.7 Report Menu).

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CHAPTER 5 - EDITING THE NETWORK 199
If the Show Tabular Reports check box is activated, clicking OK will display a
spreadsheet report of all data pertaining to equipments and buses connected in the network. For
example:




Right-click to obtain the menu shown. You may print each page separately, or you may
export the report to MS Excel or to an HTML format readable with Internet Explorer.




PSAF Basics & Editing Users Guide and Reference Manual
APPENDIX A REPRESENTATION OF TRANSFORMERS IN ZERO-SEQUENCE 201
Appendix A Representation of Transformers in Zero-
Sequence





PSAF Basics & Editing Users Guide and Reference Manual
INDEX 1




INDEX
Accessing a protective device............... 151
Activate HLINPAR................................. 154
Activation of the inrush current effect in the
network............................................... 119
Advanced Editing Mode......................... 142
Analysis Menu ......................................... 48
Auto Transformer................................... 144
Auto Xmer in the network ...................... 145
Building a network ................................... 15
Bus........................................................... 69
Bus Tie..................................................... 71
Bus Way .................................................. 72
Bus Way in the Network .......................... 73
Cable ....................................................... 74
Cable Input Data.................................... 170
Cable Parameters Calculations............. 169
Cables in the Network ............................. 77
Cables Parameters Calculation............. 169
Center the view on an equipment.......... 191
Colors of the OLD.................................. 193
Computer System Requirements .............. 2
Connect a New Equipment to the Network
........................................................... 184
Copy an Equipment ............................... 187
Copy and Paste Part of the Network..... 188
Create a new Bus.................................. 183
Creating a network .................................. 13
Creating a new project............................. 11
Data entry and calculation of a 3 single-
conductor cables................................ 173
Data entry and calculation of a multi-wire
concentric neutral cable..................... 176
Data entry and calculation of a three-
conductor cable.................................. 171
Data entry and calculation of an unshielded
cable................................................... 175
Data Input in HLINPAR..................156, 161
Database Dialog Boxes........................... 65
Database Menu ....................................... 47
Delete an equipment ............................. 188
Delete part of the network ..................... 188
Disable/Enable an equipment ............... 189
Edit an Equipment in the Network ......... 186
Edit Menu................................................. 42
Editing the Network ............................... 181
Editing Toolbar ........................................ 59
Equipment Dialog Boxes ......................... 66
Example
Connecting a Generator.....................185
Example 1 - Data entry of a 3-phase 345 kV
line......................................................155
Example 2 - Generic data entry example of
a 3-phase 345 kV line ........................159
Export ASCII ............................................33
Export CYMFLOW DOS (NND)............31
Export one line diagram...........................32
Export PSS/E...........................................30
Export Study ............................................29
Export Wizard ..........................................28
File extensions.......................................181
File Menu .................................................19
Fixed-Tap Transformers in the Network116
Fuse / LVCB / Recloser / Relay /
Miscellaneous ....................................151
Generator, Induction (IG).........................82
Generator, Synchronous..........................79
Generators in the Network.......................80
Getting Started...........................................1
Grounding Transformer .........................131
Grounding Transformer in the Network .132
Help Menu................................................58
Hide parts of the One-line......................191
HLINPAR Input Data..............................155
HLINPAR results............................158, 163
How HVDC Lines operate in CYMFLOW86
How to calculate cable parameters .......170
HVDC Line...............................................85
HVDC Lines in the Network.....................86
Import ASCII ............................................27
Import CYME DOS and other formats.....24
Import existing network............................22
Import Wizard...........................................21
Import zip archive ....................................23
Induction Generator in network ...............84
Induction Motors in the Network ..............98
Input Data Report ..................................198
Inrush current data.................................118
Inrush current model ..............................117
Installing PSAF for Windows .....................2
Introduction ................................................1
LIN_3P, Untransposed N-phase distributed
...........................................................166
LIN_3PB, Transposed 3-phase distributed
...........................................................163

PSAF Basics & Editing Users Guide and Reference Manual
2 INDEX
LIN_3PCB, Transposed 3-phase distributed,
frequency dependent ......................... 164
Line.......................................................... 89
Line Parameters Calculation with HLINPAR
........................................................... 153
Line Parameters Calculations ............... 153
Lines in the Network................................ 92
Loads in the Network............................... 94
Loads, Non-rotating................................. 93
Locate (Find) an equipment in the One-line
........................................................... 189
MCC (Motor Control Center) ................. 139
MCC Naming Convention...................... 143
Menus and Toolbars................................ 19
Motor, Induction....................................... 96
Motor, Synchronous .............................. 101
Mouse Commands .................................... 7
Move a Bus............................................ 187
Move an Equipment from One Bus to
Another............................................... 186
Move Part of the Network...................... 187
Moving the Toolbars and Sidebars............ 7
Mutual Coupling..................................... 129
Network Equipment Data......................... 65
Network Menu ......................................... 44
Network Protector.................................. 103
Network Window........................................ 4
Normal Editing Mode............................. 141
O.L.D. Editing Toolbar ............................. 61
One-Line View Mode............................. 183
Opening a Study/Network...................... 182
Other Toolbars......................................... 63
Overview of creation and editing........... 182
Overview of Dialog Boxes ....................... 65
Phase Shifting Transformers in the Network
........................................................... 121
Preferences Settings ............................... 33
Print the One Line Diagram..................... 16
Protection Devices................................. 150
PSAF Files................................................. 3
PSAF GUI .................................................. 4
Reactive Power Regulating Transformers in
the Network........................................ 123
Reactor, Series...................................... 105
Report Menu............................................ 49
Representation of Transformers in Zero-
Sequence........................................... 201
Running PSAF for Windows ......................3
Series Compensation ..............................78
Series Reactors in the Network.............106
Sidebar
Detailed View .........................................5
Project View ...........................................4
Special Harmonic Line Models supported by
HLINPAR............................................163
Standard Toolbar .....................................58
Study Toolbar...........................................60
SVC (Static Var Compensator)..............107
SVCs in the Network.............................108
Switch ....................................................109
Switchable Shunt ...................................110
Synchronous Motors in the Network......102
Table View Mode...................................195
Three-Winding Auto Xmer .....................147
Three-Winding Auto Xmer in the network148
Three-Winding Transformers in the Network
...........................................................125
Title Block for the Network.....................195
Toolbars...................................................58
Tools Menu ..............................................53
Transformer, Fixed-tap ..........................111
Transformer, Phase-shifting ..................120
Transformer, Reactive power regulating122
Transformer, Three-winding ..................124
Transformer, Voltage-regulating (TCUL)126
Typical Tower Layouts Supported in
HLINPAR............................................167
Undelete an equipment..........................188
Using PSAF .............................................11
Using the Project view.............................11
Utility Connection...................................128
View Menu ...............................................45
Voltage Regulating Transformers in the
Network ..............................................127
WECS DFIG...........................................137
WECS DFIG in the Network ..................138
WECS HVDC.........................................135
WECS HVDC in the Network.................136
WECS-IG...............................................133
WECS-IG in the Network.......................134
Windows Menu ........................................57
Zig Zag Winding for Transformers.........115