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Unit 19


Basic terms
under way - alongside - watch-keeping duties -
standing orders - lookout - steering - passage
plan - pilotage waters - drills - chart room -
relieve a watch - land-marks - observation - traffic
separation scheme - traffic report - weather &
visibility report - navigational aids report -
helmsman - making way

The vessel is said to be underway when she is
neither berthed alongside, at anchor nor aground.
Commonly, the term is used to express that the vessel
is actually moving through the water, i.e. making
way through the water and thus responding to her
The procedures when underway mostly involve
the watchkee!ing duties of the officers (OOW and
ratings ma!ing part of the watch. The "aster should
give clear instructions concerning#
a)calling the Master
b) reducing speed in the event of restricted
visibility, or other circumstances
c) posting lookout(s)
d) manning the wheel
e) the use of largest scale charts and navigational
aids, such as echo sounder, radar, etc.
f) an established drill for changing over from
automatic to manual steering and, if applicable,
change-over from hydraulic to electric steering
and vice-versa
g) the provision of additional watch-keeping
personnel in special circumstances, e.g. heavy
traffic or restricted visibility.
The "aster should ensure that a !assage !"an, for
the intended voyage, is prepared, before sailing. %t is
of particular importance that this procedure is
adopted for that part of the voyage in coastal waters.
%n pilotage waters, it may be appropriate to have
available a forecast of the times, of alteration of
course, speed and sets expected.
The "aster should also see that all sa#ety systems
(for example, life&saving appliances, fire&fighting
e'uipment are properly maintained and that officers
of the watch and other crew members are trained, as
appropriate, in the use of these systems. (egular
dri""s should be carried out, especially during early
stages of a voyage.
Duties $# the %##icer $# the Watch
The Officer of the Watch (OOW is the "aster*s
representative, and his primary responsibility at all
times is the safe navigation of the vessel. +e must at
all times comply with the 1,-$ %nternational
(egulations for .reventing Collisions at /ea.
The Officer of the Watch should !eep his watch
on the bridge which he should in no circumstances
leave until properly relieved. 0 prime responsibility
of the Officer of the Watch is to ensure the
effectiveness of the navigating watch. %t is of special
importance that at all times the Officer of the Watch
ensures that an efficient loo!out is maintained. %n a
vessel with a separate chart room, the Officer of the
Watch may visit this, when essential, for a short
period for the necessary performance of his
navigational duties.
The Officer of the Watch should not hesitate to
use the sound signalling apparatus at his disposal, in
accordance with the 1,-$ %nternational (egulations
for .reventing Collisions at /ea.
2uties of the OOW
&aintain a Sa#e Na'igati$na" Watch
a a thorough !nowledge of the principles of navigational watch!eeping at sea, including under pilotage,
and watch!eeping at anchor and in port3
b a thorough !nowledge of the content, application and intent of the %nternational (egulations for
.reventing Collisions at /ea3
c radar and 0(.0 & practical use of, modes of operation, limitations, sources of error, plotting and parallel
d understand the use of bridge e'uipment, including rate of turn indicators, course recorders, echo
sounders and 405T673
e !nowledge of steering control systems, including automatic pilot, operational procedures and change&
over from manual to automatic control and vice&versa & ad8ustment of controls for optimum performance3
f !nowledge and application of the %C/ 9ridge .rocedures :uide.
The general duties and responsibilities of the OO2 (4avy include the following#
1. (emains in charge and at his station until relieved. Obeys all orders and
regulations and re'uires the same of the persons under him. %nstructs the
watchstanders in the areas necessary for the proper performance of their duties
and ma!es sure the watchstanders are at their stations.
$. Conducts himself in an orderly fashion. %ssues orders authoritatively and in
familiar language. (e'uires that order repeated by subordinates are repeated word
for word.
). ;eeps persons on watch informed of matters necessary for the proper
performance of their duties.
1. (eports matters affecting the safety of the ship or personnel, including all land,
shoals, roc!s, lighthouses, daybeacons, buoys, discolored water, vessels, aircraft,
or wrec!s3 changes of course and speed, malfunctions of e'uipment, winding of
chronometers3 any occurrence worthy of notice3 to the Chief Officer.
<. "a!es sure that necessary log entries are made and re'uires reports concerning
anything that may affect the safety of the ship.
=. /tudies the pilotage and cruising waters of the ship*s sailing area. Continually
strives to perfect his navigating ability so that the ship can perform her duties
'uic!ly and safely. .articular attention is given to tides, currents, topography,
local maritime practices, and dangers to navigation in the area.
(ee!ing a )$$d L$$k$ut
The Officer of the Watch is responsible for the
maintenance of a continuous and alert loo!out. This
is the most important consideration in the avoidance
of casualties. The !eeping of an efficient loo!out
re'uires to be interpreted in its fullest sense which
includes the following#
a)an alert all-round visual and aural lookout to
ensure a full grasp of the current situation
including the presence of ships and land-marks in
the vicinity;
b)close observation of the movements and compass
bearing of approaching vessels;
c) identification of ship and shore lights;
d)the need to ensure that the course is steered
accurately and that the wheel orders are correctly
e) observation of the radar and echo sounder
f)observation of change in the weather, especially
the visibility.
rientation around the ship
/tbd 9eam
.ort 9eam

- /hip 0 is ahead of my ship.
9efore the beam
to stbd
On the stbd bow
On the port bow
9efore the port beam 0baft the beam to port
On the port 'uarter
On the stbd 'uarter
Dead astern
0baft the stbd beam
%n the !$rt *eam
%n the st*d *eam
Se+uence $# E'ents
The >City of /underland? had been in the .ort of Copenhagen discharging a part cargo of
motor vehicles. The ship departed from Copenhagen at @A1$ hours local time ( :"T B1 on
passage for +an!o, Cinland. The passage was to ta!e approximately 1 day A.< hours at 1<.@@
!nots. The "aster had visited the .ort of +an!o on several occasions in the past.
On the following day the Officer arrived on the bridge to commence his 1$@@ D 1-@@ hours
watch. The weather at this time was overcast with passing snow showers, the wind south
westerly force =, with a moderate sea and swell. The "aster was standing his watch @A@@ D
1$@@ hours. 0fter handing over the "aster departed and the OOW continued with his watch
without incident.
The normal procedure was to contact +an!o pilots ) hours prior to arrival. The OOW made
repeated attempts to ma!e contact by 5+C for approximately one hour, he was finally
successful at 1<1< hours. +e advised the .ilots the shipEs estimated time of arrival (6T0 at
the designated pilot boarding area south of +an!o 4o. = buoy to be 1-1< hours. The OOW
was advised of the current weather situation, wind direction 1=@ degrees 11 to 1- metres per
second ( $A to )) !nots with light icing in the harbour. The OOW was re'uested to rig the
pilot ladder on the starboard side.
The "aster arrived on the bridge at 1=@@ hours and the OOW appraised him of the situation
with regard to 6T0, weather and which side the pilot ladder was to be rigged. The weather
recorded in the dec! log boo! for 1=@@ hours was, overcast with fre'uent heavy snow
showers, moderate beam sea and swell, wind south south east force = to -. 0t 1=1A hours
notice was given to the duty engineer officer of )@ minutes to end of passage and the OOW
began the pre&arrival chec!list. Ten minutes later the OOW altered the shipEs course to @$1
degrees following the passage plan in order to ma!e good a course for the final alteration
position and approach to +an!o. The 9osun contacted the OOW to advise that the starboard
accommodation and pilot ladder combination could not be rigged due to the high winds on
the starboard beam. +e was advised to hold off until the next alteration of course which
would place the wind astern. "eanwhile at 1=)@ hours the anchors were cleared for arrival
and steering modes were tested.

0t 1=1< hours the "aster too! over the con of the ship advising the OOW. The ship was put
onto hand steering and the engine speed was reduced from full sea speed to full ahead on the
telegraph setting. 6nd of passage was recorded at 1=<1 hours as the ship altered course and
steadied onto a heading of )$- degrees, the approach course to the pilot boarding area south
of +an!o 4o.= buoy. 0t the same time the OOW advised the pilot station the ship was
passing +an!o 4o.1 beacon abeam. The .ilot advised the ship that due to the weather
conditions he would board the >City of /underland? to the north of :ustavsarn %sland where
the ship could provide the pilot launch with a good starboard lee. The .ilot advised the
"aster that the >/uperfast Cerry? was to sail from +an!o West +arbour at 1-)@ hours.
0t 1-@@ hours the Chief Officer relieved the OOW who advised him of the current situation
with regard to the pilot boarding, the "aster had the con, and the visibility was reduced to
less than a mile in the snow showers. The OOWEs last duty was to mar! the course recorder
for arrival at +an!o before leaving the bridge.
The .ilot boarded the >City of /underland? at 1-)= hours shipEs time (:"T B1 and 1A)=
hours local time . 0fter the exchange of information between the "aster and .ilot, pilot card
and shipEs characteristics, the .ilot en'uired if the "aster had ordered a tug. The "aster
answered no, however, after a brief conversation the .ilot ordered a tug. +e advised the
"aster there would be a delay as the tug was assisting the >/uperfast Cerry? leaving +an!o
West. The "aster and .ilot too! this opportunity to discuss which berth was available for the
>City of /underland?. The .ilot advised there were two choices, it was agreed with the
"aster to berth port side to and stern onto the westerly (o&(o 9erth 4o.$.
"eanwhile, the >City of /underland? maintained position between :ustavsvarn %sland and
+an!o 4o.< buoy. The weather continued to deteriorate during this delay and the wind was
estimated to be between east and south east, )@ to 1@ !nots. The tug >08ax? arrived after the
>/uperfast CerryEs? departure and too! up station on the starboard side of the >City of
/underland?. On the approach to the narrows between the .ilot /tation at Tulliniemi and the
island of Tullisaari the "aster called the crew to standby, the Chief Officer left the bridge
and proceeded aft to his station, the 9osun and other crew went forward.
Situati$n Re!$rt issued , transmitted *y a c$asta"
!art ne ("raffic #eport)
There is a vessel being towed in position $=@ degrees
= miles from .ea! .oint on course 1)@F and speed 1)
!nots, which is not complying with the traffic
separation scheme.
!art "wo ($eather and %isibility #eport)
There are sharp s'ualls in the strait. 5isibility is
reduced by heavy rain and wind. 5isibility is
expected to increase within four hours.
!art "hree (&avigational 'ids #eport)
There is a wrec! buoy left unlit in position 1$AF1@* 4
)<F$@* 6.
The Ship Reporting System
The Standard Marine Alphabet must be used
when names or call signs are spelt.
In the IMO Ship Reporting System the letters of
the alphabet have been given standard
meanings. Coast Station may reuest a vessel
to give a Maritime Report and a !osition Report
"MAR#!$!OSR#!% prior to entering the port.
A MAR#!$!OSR#! will ma&e conversation
short and clear.
The first four letters "Alfa $ 'ravo $ Charlie $
(elta% are used for the !OSR#!. )Charlie)
indicates a longitude$latitude*position+
)(elta) indicates a position as a bearing and
distance from a fi,ed point. In -./*conversation
a (elta* position indication must always be
preceded by the word )bearing). 0i&e so1
"My position: bearing zero four rive degrees
from Falls Light, distance two decimal / five
2ote that numbers are always pronounced in
separate digits "345 6 7ero four five%. .owever8
in helm orders numbers are as written "95
degrees 6 fifteen degrees%.
/+%. (6.O(T%4: /G/T6"/# "0(6.D.O/(6.
The meaning of letters of the alphabet
- %essel(s name B )all *ign
- +ay of month B time
- !osition0 latitude 1 longitude
- !osition0 as a bearing and
distance from a fixed point
& "rue course
& *peed (in knots)
& .ast port of departure
& "ime and point of entry info the system
& +estination B 2"'
& +eep-sea or local pilot
on board
& "ime of exit from the system
& 3ntended track
& %45-channels guarded
& "ime of next report
- +raft
& )argo (type and 6uantity)
& 'ny deficiencies or limitations
& 'ny pollutants or dangerous goods o-b
& $eather conditions
& *hip(s representative or owner
& *i7e and type of vessel
& Medical personnel
& &umber of persons o-b
& 'ny other useful information
& #e6uest to relay rep ort to other system
& 2nd of report.
' container vessel underway
Listening ski""s# (ecording of a coastal radio station
(C2 (O", .lucins!a $@@1.
S.I! R#!ORTI2: S;ST#MS * #<AM!0#S
SI2:A!OR# STRAITR#! AR#A !ROC#(=R#S 339 95*39*33 SI2 9
Mandatory Ship Reporting System
in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore
Operational area of STRAITREP and
Geographical Position for Submitting Reports
The International Maritime Organisation "IMO% adopted the
MA2(ATOR; ship reporting system STRAITR#! in 9>>?.
This system applies to the STRAITS O/ MA0ACCA
and SI2:A!OR#
Ships of the following categories are reuired to participate
in the system1
9. vessels of @33 :T and above+
A. vessels of 53 metres or more in length+
@. vessels engaged in towing or pushing with a combined :T of @33 and
above8 or with a combined length of 53 metres or more+
4. vessels of any tonnage carrying ha7ardous cargo8 as defined in paragraph
9.4 of resolution MSC.4@"B4%+
5. all passenger vessels that are fitted with -./8 regardless of length or :T+
B. any category of vessels less than 53 metres in length or less than @33 :T
which are fitted with -./ and in an emergency uses the appropriate traffic
lane or separation 7one in order to avoid immediate danger.
#ssential information report reuired from a participating ship1
IMO SRS items:
A0!.A8 C.AR0I#8 (#0TA8 #C.O8 /O<TROT8 !A!A8
C=#'#C8 ROM#O.
ote: A!! positions are referred to the "GS #$ datum%
9. The operational area of the STRAITR#! covers the Straits of Malacca and
Singapore between longitudes 933 @>D.> # and 934 AAD.> # as shown in SI2 A
and SI2 @.
The area is divided into nine sectors8 each has an assigned -./ channel as
shown below1
Sector 9 -./ Ch BB "Elang -TS%
Sector A -./ Ch ?? "Elang -TS%
Sector @ -./ Ch ?4 "Elang -TS%
A. Ships entering the operational area shall report when crossing the limits
mentioned in paragraph 9 or when crossing a line Foining Tg. !iai "39 95D.532
93@ @3D.B5#% and !ulau Earimun Eechil "39 3>D.A32 93@ A4D.A5#% or when
leaving port or anchorages in the area or before Foining the traffic lane of the
@. Ships entering the operational area shall report when approaching from the
South via Selat Riau8 abeam of Earang :alang 0t. "39 3>D.5?2 934 99D.@G#% or
via Selat (urian8 report when !ulau Hang&at 'eacon "33 5GD.?>2 93@ 4AD.BA#%
is abeam and when approaching from the #ast Hohor Strait8 abeam of #astern
'uoy "39 9GD.?G2 934 35D.?>#%.
4. A ship approaching from any direction other than those specified above shall
on reaching sector G8 sector ?8 or sector > as appropriate report by giving the
vesselDs position in terms of bearing and distance from one of the following
reference points1
"i% !ulau Iyu Eechil 0t. "39 99D.4?2 93@ A9D.9@#%
"ii% Sultan Shoal 0t. "39 94D.@?2 93@ @?D.??#%
"iii% Raffles 0t. "39 3>D.B32 93@ 44D.45#%
"iv% Sa&iFang 0t. 'n. "39 9@D.@32 93@ 59D.AG#%
"v% 'edo& 0t. "39 9?D.542 93@ 55D.>B#%
"vi% Tg. Stapa 0t. "39 A3D.5G2 934 3?D.94#%
"vii% .orsburgh 0t. "39 9>D.?92 934 A4D.@4#%
As an alternative8 the position can also be given in latitude and longitude.
#,ample A
MGN 128 (M+F) Navigation in the Dover Strait
1.) The Dover Strait and its approaches are among the busiest
shipping lanes in the world and pose serious problems for the safety of
navigation. The traffic separation scheme, its associated inshore traffic
zones, the Channel Navigation Information Service CNIS! and the
mandatory reporting system referred to as C"#D$%&'(! have been
designed to assist seafarers to navigate these waters in safety. There
is therefore a need for careful navigation in this area in accordance
with the International &egulations for (reventing Collisions at Sea
)*+, as amended! and for use to be made of the CNIS and the
C"#D$%&'( scheme. -.N ,/ contains guidance on the observance of
traffic separation schemes in general. Details of the C"#D$%&'(
scheme and CNIS are contained in the "dmiralty #ist of &adio Signals
%ol. 0 (art ) and the -ariner1s &outeing .uide for the 'nglish Channel
and Southern North Sea 2" Chart No.3344!.The International
&egulations for (reventing Collisions at Sea are to be found in
-erchant Shipping Notice No. -)05,6C$#&'. ).
2.) The number of collisions in the Dover Strait and its approaches has
declined since the introduction of the traffic separation scheme and its
mandatory application for all ships in )*++. Nevertheless the ris7 of
collision is ever present and heightened if vessels do not comply with
the re8uirements of the scheme, and &ule )4 in particular.
3.) -"ND"T$&9 &'($&TIN. S9ST'-
$n ) :uly )***, a mandatory reporting system C"#D$%&'( was
introduced, which replaced the e;isting system -"&'(6($S&'(.
"ll vessels over <44gt must report as follows=
i) N'>bound traffic to .ris Nez Traffic via %?@ Ch )< when
abeam the 2assurelle lightbuoy 34A<<1NB444A3/1'!.
ii) SC>bound traffic to Dover Coastguard via %?@ Ch )) not later
than crossing a line drawn from North @oreland #ight
3)A,<1NB44)A,+1'! to the 2elgian and @rench borders
iii) %essels which are not under command, anchored in the
traffic separation scheme, restricted in their ability to manoeuvre
or with defective navaids are also re8uired to report.
Inshore Traic !ones
".) The @rench Inshore traffic zone e;tends from Cap .ris Nez in the
north to a line drawn due west near #e Tou8uet in the South. The
'nglish Inshore Traffic Done 'ITD! e;tends from a line drawn from the
western end of the scheme to include Shoreham to a line drawn due
South from South @oreland.
#.) " vessel of less than ,4 metres in length, a sailing vessel and
vessels engaged in fishing may, under all circumstances, use the
'nglish and the @rench inshore traffic zones. Cith respect to the
application of &ule )4d! to other vessels, it is the view of the -C"
that, where such a vessel commences its voyage from a location
beyond one limit of either zone and proceeds to a location beyond the
further limit of that zone, it should use the appropriate lane.
';ceptions to this are when a vessel is calling at a port, pilot station or
destination or sheltered waters within that zone. In all other cases,
vessels should use the appropriate lane of the traffic separation
scheme if it is safe to do so, unless some abnormal circumstances
e;ist in that lane. In this conte;t reduced visibility in this area is not
considered by the -C" as an abnormal circumstance warranting the
use of the zone.
.2RASES 9S&/. :;;1<
IV-A/1 Standard wheel orders
#+2# M2'&3&8
1. "idships (udder to be held in the fore
and aft position.
$. .ort five <F of port rudder to be held.
). .ort ten 1@F of port rudder to be held.
1. .ort fifteen 1<F of port rudder to be held.
<. .ort twenty $@F of port rudder to be held.
=. .ort twenty&five $<F of port rudder to be held.
-. +ard &a&port (udder to be held fully over to
A. /tarboard five <F of starboard rudder to be
* ,. /tarboard ten 1@F of starboard rudder to be
1@. /tarboard fifteen 1<F of starboard rudder to be
1 l. /tarboard twenty $@F of starboard rudder to be
1$. /tarboard twenty&five$<F of starboard rudHer to be
1). +ard&a& starboard (udder to be held fully over to
11. 6ase to five (educe amount of rudder to <F
and hold
1<. 6ase to ten (educe amount of rudder to
1@F and hold
1=. 6ase to fifteen (educe amount of rudder to
1<F and hold
1-. 6ase to twenty (educe amount of rudder to
$@F and hold
1A. /teady (educe swing as rapidly as
1,. /teady as she goes /teer a steady course on the
compass heading indicated at
the time of the order. The
helmsman is to repeat the order
and call out the compass
heading on receiving the order.
When the ship is steady on that
heading, the helmsman is to
call out# - *teady on ...
$@. ;eep buoyD mar!D
beaconD ... on port side
$1. ;eep buoyD mar!D
beaconD ... on starboard
$$. (eport if she does not
answer wheel
$). Cinished with wheel
0ll wheel orders given should be repeated by the
helmsman and the officer of the watch should ensure
that they are carried out correctly and immediately.
0ll wheel orders should be held until countermanded.
The helmsman should report immediately if the
vessel does not answer the wheel.
When there is concern that the helmsman is
inattentive he should be 'uestioned#
- hat is your course!
0nd sD he should respond#
- "y course ### degrees#
When the officer of the watch re'uires a c$urse t$ *e
steered by compass, the direction in which sheDhe
wants the wheel turned should be stated followed by
each numeral being said separately, including Iero,
for example#
O(26( COJ(/6 TO 96
!ort, steer one eight two 1A$F
*tarboard, steer 7ero eight
!ort, steer three 7ero five )@<F
On receipt of an order to steer, for example, 1A$F, the
helmsman should re!eat it and bring the vessel
round steadily to the course ordered. When the vessel
is steady on the course ordered, the helmsman is to
ca"" $ut 9re!$rt<-
Steady on one eight two
The person giving the order should ac!nowledge the
helmsman*s reply.
%f it is desired to steer on a selected mar! the
helmsman should be ordered to#
Steer on ### buoy/ ### mark/ ### beacon
The person giving the order should ac!nowledge the
helmsman*s reply.
%"O /T0420(2 "0(%46 CO""J4%C0T%O4
.+(0/6/ $@@1
%%%D=.$ & $%&AS'S ()& $&)VI*I+, V-S
=.$.1.1 & +avigational warnings
,nknown ob9ect(s) in position ... .
3ce-iceberg(s) in position ... -area around ... .
,nlit derelict vessel adrift in vicinity ... at ... (date
and time.
+angerous wreck-obstruction located in position ...
marked by ... (type buoy.
4a7ardous mine adrift in vicinity ... at ... (date and
,ncharted reef-rock-shoal reported in position ... .
!ipeline leaking gas-oil in position ... - wide berth
&o sufficient depth of water in position ... .
,.&. exclusion 7one extending ... kilometres-nautical
miles from ...- all vessels keep clear.
&avigation closed in area ... .
=.$.1.$ & +avigational information
il slick in position ... .
)urrent meters-hydrographic instruments moored in
position ... wide berth re6uested.
!latform ... (nameDnumber reported-established in
position ... wide berth re6uested.
... (charted name of lightDbuoy in position ...
5og signal... (charted name of lightDbuoy in
position ... inoperative.
=.$.1.) & -raffic information
8unnery-rocket firing-missile-torpedo-underwater
ordnance exercises in area bounded by ... (positions
and ... from ... (date and time to ... (date and time.
$ide berth re6uested.
)able-pipeline operations by ... (vessel in
vicinity ... -along line 9oining ...
(position from... (date and time to... (date and time.
$ide berth re6uested.
)ontact via %"* channel ... .
*alvage operations in position ... from ... (date and
time to ... (date and time.
$ide berth re6uested. )ontact via %"* channel ... .
*eismic-hydrographic operations by ... (vessel
...,from ... (date and time to ... in position... $ide
berth re6uested. )ontact via %45 channel ... .
il clearance operations near M" ... in position ... .
$ide berth re6uested.
"ranshipment of ... (!ind of cargo in position ...
$ide berth re6uested.
+ifficult tow from ... (part of departure to ...
(destination on ... (date.
$ide berth re6uested.
%essel not under command in position ... -area ... .
4ampered vessel in position ... area ... (course ...
degrees, speed ... !nots.
%essel in position ... on course ... and speed ... not
complying with traffic regulations.
%essel crossing ... traffic lane or course ... and
speed ... in position ... .
*mall, fishing boats in area around ... - navigate with
*ubmarines operating in sea area around ... . *urface
vessels in attendance.
=.$.1.1 & &outeing information
#oute ... -"raffic .ane ... suspended.
#oute ... -"raffic .ane ... discontinued.
#oute ... -"raffic .ane ... diverted.
6he Shi!=s 6e"egra!h
The telegraph consists of a dial which is mar!ed#
0/T6(4# 5ull, 4alf, *low and +ead *low, and
0+602# Cull, +alf, /low and 2ead /low.
There are also the words#
*tand :y, *top and 5inished with 2ngine(s).
A# .)"$&'%'+SI)+ & V).A/01A&2
A#1 State which term is described below3
1.KKKKKKKKKK# the vessel actually moving through
the water.
$.KKKKKKKKKK# a vessel not at anchor, or made fast to
the shore, or aground.
).KKKKKKKKKK# plan of the voyage or 8ourney of a
1.KKKKKKKKKK# water area where coastal navigation is
<.KKKKKKKKKK# set of orders given to the +elmsman
for steering the ship.
=.KKKKKKKKKK# buoy mar!ing the position of a
wrec!ed vessel.
-.KKKKKKKKKK# a method of separating the traffic
proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite direction.
A.KKKKKKKKKK# period of time, normally four hours,
into which a nautical day is divided.
,.KKKKKKKKKK# report in which details on the traffic
of ships, weather and navigational aids are given.
A#4 hat must the %elmsman do on receiving the
following helm or steering orders3
1. "idships# KKKKKKKKKK
$. /tarboard <# KKKKKKKKKK
). +ard&a&port# KKKKKKKKKK
1. +ard&a&starboard# KKKKKKKKKK
<. /teady# KKKKKKKKKK
=. /teady as she goes# KKKKKKKKKK
-. .ort 1<# KKKKKKKKKK
A#5 Supply the missing words3
- distress - strait - visibility - tow - towing line -
collision - assistance - wreck buoy - weather -
navigational - signal - channel - heading
Situati$n Re!$rt
The motor ship CL%..6(
Cishaven /trait %nformation /ervice (C./.%./.
Cishaven /trait %nformation /ervice (C./.%./., this is
Clipper. +ow do you read meM Over.
& Clipper, % read you with 1.KKKKKKKKKK strength
six. /witch to $.KKKKKKKKKK 1$. Over.
C./.%./., this is Clipper. What is the ).KKKKKKKKKK
situation in the straitM What is the state of the
Clipper# +ere is the /ituation (eport#
!art ne0 $hile a dry-dock was being towed a
;.<<<<<<<<<< parted = miles off 8reen !oint
buoy in9uring one man. ' tug boat is trying to
establish =.<<<<<<<<<<
!art "wo0 "here are sharp s6ualls in the 5ish
4aven >.<<<<<<<<<< .
?.<<<<<<<<<< is reduced by fog.
!art "hree0 "here is a vessel in @.<<<<<<<<<< in
position AAB degrees on course B?B.
$hile drifting without power she came into
contact with an unlit CB.<<<<<<<<<< . "here has
been a CC.<<<<<<<<<< between a .iberian
tanker and a Dapanese container vessel in
position AA;E six miles off 5ishaven !oint. *tand
by to render CA.<<<<<<<<<<.
What is your headingM Over.
C./.%./., % shall stand by to render assistance. "y
1).KKKKKKKKKK is @)@F. Over.
A#6 Supply the missing words3
- helm - order - steady - course - turning - ship -
steady as she goes - deflection - watch - steering
A"tering the c$urse
%f the ship is turning and the Officer of the
1.KKKKKKKKKK wants to change to a straight
$.KKKKKKKKKK , then he*ll say ).KKKKKKKKKK when
the ship is heading in the direction he wants to. /o
the 1.KKKKKKKKKK order N/teadyN is used when she is
turning. 9ut when the ship is more or less on a
straight course and the Captain 8ust wants to confirm
it, he says <.KKKKKKKKKK . The extreme
=.KKKKKKKKKK is N+ard&a&portN or N+ard&a&
starboardN. %t means putting the -.KKKKKKKKKK as fast
over as it will go so that the A.KKKKKKKKKK moves to
the angle of maximum ,.KKKKKKKKKK effect. There is
a rudder indicator that shows the rudder
A#7 Insert the missing parts of the V%(
.assing thr$ugh the )i*ra"tar Strait
This is an extract from real 5+C communications (names and fact have been
changed, howeverO. "a!e the necessary changes applying the %"O /"C.
pharses and %TJ (adio (egulations rules.
- 3talian vessel FMoon 5ishG
& Lloyd*s /ignal /tation at :ibraltar (L././.
.loyd *ignal *tation, this is the 3talian container vessel FMoon 5ishG,
))"H. ver.
& P"oon CishQ, 1 R 1, Over.
(oger, /ir, 1 & 1.
(............. after a while ............)
.loyd *ignal *tation, 1.KKKKKKKK the 3talian container vessel FMoon 5ishG.
& P"oon CishQ. :ood morning to you $.KKKKKKKK %talian flagM
#oger. 3talian flag.
- What is your last port of call, /ir, and what is ).KKKKKKKK M
My last port of call is *avannah, ,*. &ext port of call &apoli. $e sailed
from *avannah on AHth &ovember. ver.
& (oger, /ir. 0re you loaded or in ballastM Loaded or in ballast, /irM
Ies, *ir H. .<<<<<<<< . "he cargo is AA,H;= metric tons, and C,?HJ "2,Ks
on board, C,?HJ "2, containers. ver.
- (oger, /ir. 0nd your range and your bearingM (epeat <.KKKKKKKK
from 6uropa .oint light, please, /irM
:earing from our ship to 2uropa !oint light is BB? degrees, and distance
eight miles, eight miles. "he course is B>A, repeat B>A. ver.
- (oger, /ir. Than! you very much, indeed. Than! you for that
information, /ir. +ave a pleasant and a 'uiet voyage to 4aples, %taly.
/hould you =.KKKKKKKK any further information or assistance while in
the :ibraltar area, Lloyd*s /ignal /tation is listening on channel 1 & =.
.leasant voyage, /ir.
.L. "hank you very much, *ir. >.<<<<<<<< a good watch. ut.
A# 8 rite down the sentences showing where the
ships are in respect of your own ship# -wo
sentences have been done for you3
/tbd 9eam
.ort 9eam

- /hip 0 is ahead of my ship.
- /hip + is abaft the beam to port.
A> A
A#8 (our sententces in the te9t below consist of
:umbled words or parts# &ewrite these sentences by
putting the words or parts separated by the slash ;/<
in the right order3
0t 1=1< hours the "aster too! over the con of the ship advising the OOW. put steering
ship was on -he hand# 0t the same time the engine speed was reduced from full sea
speed to full ahead on the telegraph setting. 6nd of passage was recorded at 1=<1 hours as
the ship altered course and steadied onto a heading of )$- degrees, the approach course to
the pilot boarding area south of +an!o 4o.= buoy. that the ship / %anko +o#1 beacon
abeam / was passing / the )) / At the same time / advised the pilot station > The .ilot
advised the ship that due to the weather conditions he would board the >City of
/underland? to the north of :ustavsarn %sland where the ship could provide the pilot
launch with a good starboard lee. at 1=5> hours D that the ?Superfast (erry@ / -he $ilot
advised the "aster / was to sail from %anko est %arbour#
0t 1-@@ hours the Chief Officer relieved the OOW who advised him of the current
situation with regard to the pilot boarding. con had the master the# The visibility was
reduced to less than a mile in the snow showers. The OOWEs last duty was to mar! the
course recorder for arrival at +an!o before leaving the bridge.
=#A .ompare the similarities and differences
between the duties of an )) and an ))* shown
above and discuss them in pairs.
/# ,&A""A&
/#1 &e-write all the sentences where the au9iliary
verb S%)01* appears
The "aster sh$u"d give clear instructions.
-henA study the meaning of this verb in each
sentences and try to rephrase itA retaining the
The "aster is t$ give clear instructions.
*iscuss the the slight differences in meaning with
your group#
/#4 &e-arrange the sentences in the passage on
B(ee!ing a )$$d L$$k$ut?A in the reading te9t
and transform the nouns3
- maintenance - avoidance
- observation - identification
into -ing form verbs# "ake the necessary changes
or additions#
(a The Officer of the Watch is responsible for the
maintenance of a continuous and alert loo!out.
(b The Officer of the Watch is responsible for
maintaining a continuous and alert loo!out.
/#5 5ind the words ending in -ing functioning as
Watch&kee!ing duties.

*# &I-I+, SCI11S
*#1 SummariDe the reading te9t using the Euestions
l . When is a vessel underway M
$. What are the two meanings of the term underwayM
). Which instructions are given by the "aster to the
Officer of the WatchM
1. What is the primary duty of the "asterM
<. What are the duties of the dec! watch&!eeping
=. What does !eeping a good loo!out includeM
E> S$'ACI+, SCI11S
1. (ead the text blow the picture and ma!e your
outline by ta!ing the notes of the se'uence of events
in the text. Then using your notes (not the textO tell
the story to your pair&mate or group.

:> R$"e ."ays- &ARE.,.%SRE.
(ole 0# (%S6;0 (02%O
(ole 9# /OL%T0(G /60:JL, 49=(
n 'ugust = - #i9eka #adio re6uests a M'#2!-!*#2!
from a &orwegian tanker *olitary *eagull M 49=( - owned
by &orth *ea il and represented by Dadroagent #i9eka,
underway from her last port of call (+ubai) to - miNal9 il
"erminal with C??,JBB tons of crude oil. 4er ...'. is AJ;
metres, her beam is A@ metres.
*he carries C.;; ton of dangerous substance of 3M-class J.
$eather is good, with north easterly winds of ; :eaufort.
"here are AC crewmembers and a sea pilot on board. 4er
draft fore is C@.J metres; drat aft is AC.@ metres.
"he radio operator of the *olitary *eagull transmits a
M'#2!-!*#2! to - #i9eka #adio on %45 at CA.JB ,") in
position C;; degrees J.; miles from the 8aliola 3sle. 4er
course is A?J degrees true at a speed of @ knots.
*he expects to reach miNal9 !ort on March >th at C=.JB hrs.
local time.
+eficiencies0 !ort pilot hoist not operational. "he '#!'
#adar needs servicing. *he re6uires repairs of her shaft
generator. "he working %45 channels guarded are AB and
.lay the conversation with your pair&mate and record it.
0fter you have made your "0(6.D.O/(6. report read it slowly
and aloud and record it.
"aritime 6nglish Test R /hip +andling T 4avigation
1. Write down the names of the four main parts of the ship
$. Which side of the ship is shown by the following arrowsM
). .ositions around the ship. Write down the sentences showing where the
ships are in respect of your own ship. Two sentences have been done for
/tbd 9eam
.ort 9eam

- /hip 0 is ahead of my ship.
- /hip + is abaft the beam to port.
1. Write down the opposite line handling terms#
SLA/( AWAY @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
<. Translate the following line handling terms into your own language#
=. C0/T OCC T+6 L%46 is the same as KKKKKKKKKK T+6 L%46.
This is the pilot boat% "e thought this little boat led our ship out of the harbor3 but they
actually bring a man aboard the MS Rotterdam from this pilot boat and he ta4es o5er the
helm of the big ship% In this 6ay3 each country protects their o6n harbor3 4no6ing the ins
and outs of the 6ater%