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X-Ray Nature

X-Ray Generated
X-Ray Generated
Vacuum
Energy
levels
K
E
1
L
E
2
L
E
3
L
E
Nucleus
K
1
L
2
L
3
L
Characteristic x-rays
(Fluorescent X-rays)
(10
16
s later seems like scattering!)
Fluorescent X-rays
Knocked out electron
from inner shell
Target
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

Wavelength ()
Mo Target impacted by electrons accelerated by a 35 kV potential
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.4
White
radiation
Characteristic radiation
due to energy transitions
in the atom
K

K

Filtrado de Lneas de R-X
A beam of X-rays directed at a crystal interacts with the
electrons of the atoms in the crystal
The electrons oscillate under the influence of the incoming
X-Rays and become secondary sources of EM radiation
The secondary radiation is in all directions
The waves emitted by the electrons have the same frequency
as the incoming X-rays coherent
The emission will undergo constructive or destructive
interference with waves scattered from other atoms
Incoming X-rays
Secondary
emission
Interferencia Constructiva
Interferencia Destructiva
Structure Polymers
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
PBA/ PBS BLEND
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
Polymer 52 (2011) 3460-3468
Poly( p-benzamide) PBA
Orthorhombic
Tarea para entregar el da 31 mayo
Determinar la densidad de acuerdo a la tabla.
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
Composites: Part A 40 (2009) 423430
Poly(ethylene-2,6-naphthalate) PEN
PATTERN DIFFRACTION IN MATERIALS
Polymer Testing 27 (2008) 638 644
Nucleating agents (NAs) can
easily shorten the time of
inducing the crystal nucleus for
the crystallization process in a
PP matrix and enhance the
overall rate of transformation
from the molten state to the
crystalline solid state.
PP chains can organize into different spatial arrangements,
giving rise to three basic crystalline polymorphs: a-monoclinic,
b-trigonal, and g-triclinic phases.

Nucleating agents (NAs), E3B, WBG-II, and TMB-5, to induce b-
crystals in the CRPPs
dicumyl peroxide (DCP).

1. Cual es el rango de longitudes de onda para los rayos-X usados en difraccin?
2. Describe brevemente el origen y caractersticas del espectro continuo y del espectro
caracterstico.
3. Qu diferencia hay entre un material cristalino y un material amorfo? Define celda
unidad.
4. Responde a las siguientes cuestiones:
a) Enumera los sistemas cristalinos.
b) Cuntos parmetros son necesarios para describir la celda de un material que
cristaliza en el sistema cbico?
c) Qu es un grupo espacial? Cuntos son posibles?
5. En qu consiste el fenmeno de la difraccin. Enuncia la Ley de Bragg.
6. Qu diferencia hay entre un monocristal y un material policristalino?
7. Describe un tubo de rayos X.
8. Qu datos se obtienen a partir de un diagrama de difraccin de rayos-X ?
9. De qu dependen las direcciones en las que se produce la difraccin en un
experimento de difraccin de rayos-X (los valores de espaciado para los picos observados
en un difractograma?
10. Indica los factores que determinan la intensidad de los picos de difraccin.
11. Describe las aplicaciones ms importantes de la difraccin de rayos-X.
CUESTIONES. DIFRACCIN RAYOS X
PROBLEMA
Cul es la separacin entre planos del (321) en el hierro, (201)
Ni, (102)Al?