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DENTAL MATERIALS

High Tech Advances


and New Materials
Stephen C. Bayne
Department of Operative Dentistry
School of Dentistry
University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450
http: // www.dent.unc.edu / portfolios / bayne / dental-materials /
A. Staying UP-TO-DATE
B. Dental Materials TECHNOLOGIES
> Advanced composites
> Dentin bonding systems
> Light-curing technologies
> Sonic and ultrasonic cleaning devices
> Lasers for cutting tooth structure
> Advanced CAD/CAM
> Procera crowns
> Air-abrasion equipment
> Amalgam / Hg recovery equipment
> Computerized color analysis
> Electronic caries detectors
C. Office TECHNOLOGIES
> Wearable computers
> Wireless office networds
OVERVIEW
http://www.net32.com/
Pat Cassidy, D.D.S.
Durham, NC
COMPOSITE REFINEMENTS
1950 1970 1960 2010 2000 1990 1980
Original
Development
SELF-CURED
UV-CURED
VLC-CURED
MACROFILL
Self-Cured
Composites
MIDIFILL
Composites
MICROFILL
Composites
MIDIFILL
Composites
Midi-HYBRID
Composites
Unbonded
Composites
Acid-Etching and
Enamel Bonding
Dentin-Bonded
Composites
3c, 2c, 1c
Dentin Bonding System
[QTH, PAC, Laser, LED]
Mini-HYBRID
Composites
FLOWABLES
PACKABLES
CONTROLLED
SHRINKAGE
NANO-
COMPOSITE
1990 2000 2010
The next
generation.
Dental amalgam
Dental composite



Glass Ionomer, A.R.T.
Bonding systems
Dental cements
Ceramic restorations
CAD/CAM technology
Esthetic procedures

Computers
- - - - - - -, (A.R.T.)
Mini- (Micro-) Hybrid, Nano
Flowable Hybrid,
Packable Hybrid,
CS Composites
- - - , RMGI Cements, A.R.T.
(Bonding systems)
RMGI, Composite cements
ALL-CERAMIC restorations
CAD/CAM technology
ESTHETIC Procedures

COMPUTERS
CURRENT COMPOSITES
HYBRIDS (or MIDI-HYBRIDS):
Filtek Z250 and Z100 (3M)
Prisma APH and TPH (Dentsply)
TPH Spectrum (Dentsply)
Herculite XRV and Prodigy (Kerr)
Ecusit Composite (DMG Hamburg)
Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar/Vivadent)
Renew (BISCO)
BisFil II and 2B (BISCO)
Synergy (Coltene-Whaledent)
Marathon (Denmat)
Clearfil AP-X (Morita)
MINI-HYBRIDS (MICRO-HYBRIDS):
Esthet-X (Dentsply)
Point 4 (Kerr)
Venus (Hereaus-Kulzer)
Vitalescence (Ultradent)
FLOWABLES: (later)

PACKABLES: (later)
MICROFILLS:
Superlux (DMG Hamburg)
Heliomolar (Ivoclar/Vivadent)
MicroNew (BISCO)
Perfection (Denmat)
Filtek A110 = Silux Plus (3M)
Amelogen (Ultradent)
Virtuoso Sculptable (Denmat)
NANO-HYBRIDS:
Supreme (3M-ESPE)
Simile (Pentron)
COMPOSITE WEAR
5 Wear Types:
CFA = food bolus wear
OCA = impact wear
FCA = sliding wear
PCA = sliding wear
TBA = abrasive wear
CFA Wear
OCA Wear
FCA Wear
PCA
Wear
TBA Wear
Wilder AD, May KN, Bayne SC, Taylor DF, Leinfelder KF.
17-year clinical evaluation of UV-cured composite resins
in posterior teeth. J Dent Res 1996; 75: 173, Abstr 2100.
100
200
300
1 2 5 10 20
TIME (years)
W
E
A
R

(
C
F
A
,

m
)

R
2
= 0.99
ENAMEL
MACRO
FILLER
MIDI
FILLER
MINI
FILLER
MICRO
FILLER
40 m 4 m 0.4 m 0.04 m
FOOD BOLUS
Abrasive
HYBRID
(MIDIFILL)
HYBRID
(MINIFILL)
Rough Finished Fine Finished
AFM OF SURFACES
FILLER PRODUCTION
BULK FILLER PRODUCTION:
Melting or vitrification.
Cooled to solid.
Ground and sifted.
Reground and sifted.
Key particle size is collected.
MACRO, MIDI, MINI
GAS PHASE PRECIPITATION:
Pyrolysis of reactants.
Gas phase formation.
Precipitation.
Cooling.
MICRO
SOL-GEL FORMATION:
Solution reaction.
Formation of tiny ceramic domains.
Domains may be single or clustered.
Gel dried and powdered.
MICRO, NEAR-NANO, NANO
DECEPTIVE NAMES
Nanocomposites = constituents mixed at a nano-length scale.
10
0
10
-1
10
-3
10
-4
10
-5
10
-6
10
-7
10
-8
10
-9
10
-10
10
-2
1 m 1 cm 1 m 1 mm 1 nm 1 dm
0.01 1 m 0.1 10 100 0.001
Mega-
Fill
Macro-
Fill
Midi-
Fill
Mini-
Fill
Micro-
Fill
Nano-
Fill
1
Atomic
Dimensions
Bacteria
METERS
Dentinal Tubule
Width
Nanocomposites?
Dental nanofillers?
HYBRID NANOMER NANOCLUSTER
NANOCOMPOSITES
3M ESPE Filtek Supreme, Technical Product Profile, October 2002
FILTEK SUPREME (3M-ESPE)
78.5 w/o filler loading
Nano-cluster size is 0.6-to-1.4 m
Called a micro- or nano-hybrid?
SIMILE (Pentron)
Relatively high filler loading
Silicate cage size is 5-20 nm
Called a micro- or nano-hybrid?
The WAR of the
POWERED TOOTHBRUSHES
Colgate
Actibrush
WaterPik
Sensonic
Cybersonic
Oral-B
3D Excel
Sonicare
Crest Spin Brush
for Kids
Oralgenie
PTBs are everywhere!
SEM surface of biopsied 10-year
old posterior composite.
BIOFILM EFFECTS
Dr. Bill Costerton, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman
BIOFILM EFFECTS
pH, pO
2

FLOWABLE COMPOSITES
Definition: lower viscosity dental composite, generally
with lowered filler content.
First Generation Flowable:
AeliteFlo (BISCO) High 43% by volume
Crystalessence (Confi-Dental) Low 41% by volume
FloRestore (Den-Mat) Medium 48% by volume
Flow-It (Jeneric/Pentron) Low 53% by volume
Revolution (Kerr) Medium 41% by volume
Star Flow (Danville Eng.) Low 41% by volume
True Look (Denpac / 5 Star) Medium 53% by volume
Ultraseal XT+ (Ultradent) Very Low 37% by volume
Versaflo (Centrix) High 43% by volume
Second Generation Flowables:
Filtek Flow (3M)
Wave (SDI)
Tetric Flow (Ivoclar/Vivadent)
Heliomolar Flow (Ivoclar/Vivadent)
Point-4 Flowable (Kerr)
AeliteFlo LV (BISCO)
Esthet-X Flo (Dentsply)
Luxa-Flow (DMG)
PermaFlo (Ultradent)
Meta-Flo (Sun Medical)
Aria (Danville Engineering)
Star Flow (Danville Engineering)
Flow-It-ALC (Pentron)
Revolution Formula 2 (Kerr)
Virtuoso Flow (Denmat)
UltraSeal XT+ (Ultradent)
UniFil Flow (GC America)
Bayne SC, Thompson J Y, Swift EJ J r, Stamatiades P, Wilderson M. A characterization of
first-generation flowable composites. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129:567-577.
FLOW BUTTONS
(area calculated in mm
2
)
Enamel
Dentin
Flowable
Composite
Composite
Second Generation Flowables
Flowable
(Company)
Flow
(mm
2
)
,
PBNT
,
OSP
,
PLP
,
Glass
,
Mylar
StarFlow (Danville) 208 16 a 31 5 22 3 40 7 44 3 55 5
Wave (SDI) 206 20 ac 22 4 17 6 31 3 37 1 31 3
FlowLine (Kulzer) 197 31 ac 24 2 19 1 39 4 43 3 48 4
Heliomolar Flow (Ivoclar) 191 13 ac 26 2 19 1 44 1 45 4 46 2
UniFil Flow (GC) 173 21 ac 24 1 15 2 33 3 47 4 47 3
Revolution F2 (Kerr) 159 17 ac 23 1 34 3 61 5 66 7 62 8
LuxaFlow (DMG) 156 6 ac 39 4 37 5 55 3 52 2 62 4
Tetric Flow (Ivoclar) 156 13 ac 38 1 23 4 45 3 56 3 62 3
Flow-It ALC (Pentron) 152 10 bc 38 1 35 5 52 4 50 4 60 4
MetaFil Flo (Sun Dental) 148 27 b 41 5 47 7 72 4 63 4 62 8
Filtek Flow (3M-ESPE) 144 10 b 54 3 53 10 73 3 83 5 85 5
Point 4 Flowable (Kerr) 140 2 b 51 2 35 3 58 4 53 0 67 4
FLOW versus WETTING
= 25
= 45
PACKABLE RESTORATIVES
available in November 2002
SOLITAIRE and SOLITAIRE 2 (Hereaus-Kulzer)
A.L.E.R.T. CONDENSABLE (J eneric-Pentron)
SUREFIL (LD Caulk)
GLACIER (Southern Dental Industries)
PYRAMID (BISCO)
PRODIGY CONDENSABLE (Kerr)
FILTEK P60 (3M)
SYNERGY COMPACT (Coltene / Whaledent)
HELIOMOLAR HB (Ivoclar-Vivadent)
HI-DENSE CONDENSABLE GI (Shofu)
FUJI IX PACKABLE (GC-America)
L.D. CAULK SUREFIL
PACKABLE COMPOSITE
SureFil Clinical Wear (Leinfelder Indirect) = 18 32 m at 2 yrs
Clinical Performance Categories (% alfa): BL 6m 1y 2y
Color stability = 100 98 96 87
Resistance to marginal discoloration = 100 100 95 100
Resistance to secondary caries = 100 100 98 100
Resistance to occlusal wear = 100 100 98 94
Marginal adaptation = 100 97 95 96
Surface texture = 100 100 98 94
Maintenance of proximal contact = 97 97 96 98
Functional occlusion = 93 98 95 100
Axial contour = 100 100 100 100
Resistance to postoperative sensitivity = 100 98 100 100
Restoration retention = 100 100 100 100
Resistance to restoration fracture = 100 98 93 96
TOTAL FAILURES (%) = 0% 3% 3% 4%
Wear (ADA Proposed Type B Unrestricted) 50 m at 18 months
0 25 50 75 100
0
2
3
4
5
CONVERSION (%)
S
H
R
I
N
K
A
G
E

(
%
)

1
65%
Conversion
15-25% =
Gellation
50% Filler
25% Bis-GMA
25% TEGDMA
POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE
Flow
Bond Stretching
(External Contraction)
Porosity Formation
(Internal Contraction)
NEW COMPOSITE GENERATION
= Low-Shrinkage or Controlled-Shrinkage Composites
C
C
O
Oxiranes
C
C C
O
Oxetanes
SHRINKING Monomers:
EXPANDING Monomers:
CH
2
CHCH
2
O
C=C
H
H
CH
3
COO
OCH
2
CHCH
2
C
CH
3
CH
3
OOC
C=C
H
H
H
3
C
OH OH
BIS-GMA
Spiro-ortho-carbonates
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
DOXADENT
Condensable Direct Ceramic
http:// www.doxa.se/ eng/
Carved
Finished
DOXADENT
Mechanical Properties
0
100
200
300
400
500
Doxa Z250 Tytin
C
O
M
P
R
E
S
S
I
V
E

S
T
R
E
N
G
T
H

(
M
P
a
)
1h
24h
1w
4w
Composite
Amalgam
Experimental
BONDED COMPOSITE
Challenges
50
1000
4000
3000
2000
B
O
N
D
E
D

C
O
M
P
O
S
I
T
E

(
1
m
m

=

1
0
0
0

m
)

[DENTIN]
1
Bacteria
[Bonding System]
[COMPOSITE]
[COMPOSITE]
Re-Designing Bonding Systems
ETCHANT
PRIMER
BONDING AGENT
US Companies
1 =
2 =
Japanese Companies
= 1
= 2
???
E + nP + B or nEP + B E + nPB EPB
Self-Etching Primer
Self-Etching Adh
NEWER BONDING AGENTS
1-COMPONENT SYSTEMS (EPB)
AQBond (Sun Medical)
or Touch-and-Bond (Parkell)
Adper Prompt or LP3 (3M-ESPE)
Solist (One-bottle-bond) (DMG Hamburg)
iBond (Hereaus-Kulzer)
Xeno III (Dentsply)

2-COMPONENT SYSTEMS (EP + B)
Clearfil SE Bond & LinerBond 2v (Kuraray)
Tyrian SPE (Bisco)
Optibond Solo SE Plus (Kerr)
Fluoro Bond (Shofu)
UniFil Bond (GC)
Mac Bond II (Tokuyama)
NanoBond (Pentron)

2-COMPONENT SYSTEMS (E + PB)
Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply)
Single-Bond (3M)
Optibond Solo and Solo Plus (Kerr)
One-Step (BISCO)
Excite (Ivoclar/Vivadent)
OSB Bonding System (ESPE)
Syntac Single Component (Ivoclar)
Ecusit Primer/Mono (DMG Hamburg)
One Coat Bond (Coltene / Whaledent)
Bond-1 (Jeneric / Pentron)
Tenure Quik with Fluoride (Denmat)
Solid Bond (Hereaus-Kulzer)
Imperva Bond (Shofu)
EG Bond (Sun Chemical)
PQ1 (Ultradent)
Easy Bond (Parkell)
Paama 2 and Stae (SDI)

3-COMPONENT SYSTEMS (E + P + B)
Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (3M)
Permaquick (Ultradent)
Bond-It (Jeneric / Pentron)
All-Bond 2 (BISCO)
Tenure A/B/S (Denmat)
ProBond (Dentsply)
HOW
MUCH
SOLVENT?
Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus
3M Dental Products Division
(Ethanol and water solvent system)
3-STEP
Prime&Bond
Dentsply International
(Acetone solvent system)
2-STEP
Single Bond
3M Dental Products Division
(Ethanol and water solvent system)
2-STEP
1-STEP
Prompt L-Pop
3M ESPE Dental Products
(Ethanol and water solvent system)
Etching
3-Component Systems (E+P+B)
Priming Agent
Bonding Agent
HYBRID LAYER
Etching
Priming Agent
Bonding Agent
2-Component Systems (E+PB)
HYBRID LAYER
2-Component Systems (EP+B)
Self-Etching Primer
Infiltrated Smear Layer =
Special Hybrid Layer
Infiltrated Dentin =
Normal HYBRID LAYER
Bonding System
HYBRID LAYER
1-Component Systems (EPB)
Self-Etching Adhesive
Infiltrated Smear Layer =
Special Hybrid Layer
Infiltrated Dentin =
Normal HYBRID LAYER
Bonding System
HYBRID LAYER
CURING LIGHT TYPES
Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) Lights
> Continuous output -- normal intensity
> Continuous output -- high intensity
> Staged output (stepped, ramped, )

Plasma Arc Curing (PAC) Lights

Argon-Laser Curing (Laser) Lights

Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Lights
QTH PAC Laser LED
Curing Equipment
Factors
Procedural
Factors
Restoration
Factors
FACTORS AFFECTING CURE
Bulb frosting or degradation
Light reflector degradation
Optical filter degradation
Fiber-optic bundle breakage
Light-guide fracture
Tip contamination by resin buildup
Line voltage inconsistencies
Sterilization problems
Infection control barriers
Light tip direction
Access to restoration
DISTANCE from surface
Size of tip
Tip movement
TIME of exposure
Restoration thickness
Cavity design
Filler - amount and size
Restoration shade
Monomer ratios
WAVELENGTH (nm)
UV Visible IR
CQ
I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

UV
band-pass
filter
IR
band-pass
filter
INTRAPULPAL HEAT,
GINGIVAL IRRITATION
180-800
mW/cm2
WAVELENGTH (nm)
Visible
CQ
I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

LED LIGHTS
Light Emitting Diodes
Advantages:
Matched to CQ peak.
Reduced I needed.
Easy to clean.
Totally quiet; No fan.
Small; Handy.
No wires.
Elipar FREELIGHT 1
Batteries
LEDs
LED LIGHTS in the WORLD
LED CURING LIGHTS
VLC LED Name: Company: Price: LEDs:
Elipar FreeLight 3M ESPE $ 999 19
NRG Dentsply/Caulk $ 949 7
Ultra Lume LED 1 Ultradent $ 899 ($699)
Ultra Lume LED 2 Ultradent $1299 ($999)
CoolBlue Dental Systems $1195
Nova Curing Techologies $1495 7
GC e-Light GC America $1495

Allegro Denmat - - - - - 1
Elipar FreeLight 2 3M ESPE $1495 1
LEDemetron Kerr - - - - - 1
Ultra-Lume LED 5 Ultradent - - - - - 5
OUTPUT LED power,
LED #,
Light Collection,
Focusing
GIC
COMPOSITE
RM-GIC
GIC and
VLC Hydrophilic
monomer and polymer
CEMENTS
MM-GIC
GIC and
Metallic fillers
Cermet fillers
CORES
COMPOMER
VLC Composite and
F source
FILLING MATERIALS
RR-GIC
GIC and
Resin-Fillers
A.R.T. and
TEMPORARIES
GIOMER
VLC Composite and
Pre-reacted GIC powder
FILLING MATERIALS
HYDROGEL
Hydrophobic POLYMER
A.R.T. TECHNIQUE
(Atraumatic Restorative Technique)
Fuji IX
Now being used as permanent restoration in pedodontics.
Developed as temporary restorations for 3rd world countries.
First tested in African countries.
Now used widely in Asian countries.
Current technique = P/L or precapsulated mixture.
Original technique = scoop, finger mix, finger insertion.
OVERVIEW
AMALGAM
DIS-USE
Hg
CONTROVERSY
IN-OFFICE
ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES
F, Sealants, High-Cu Amalgam, Composites, Replacement Criteria
n=150 per100 patients
In United States
n= 95 n=55
Hal
Huggins
60 Minutes
Program
Stone
Phillips
Anti-
Amalgamists
1980 2010 2000 1990
?
Precapsulated Dental Amalgams
ADA Hg Hygiene
Statement
Chairside
Filters Separators
Air, Water, Land, Food
US-EPA OSHA FDA NAS
1. Dental Amalgam
(a) Spent Amalgam Capsules
(b) Non-Contact Amalgam (left-over from mixing procedures)
(c) Chair-side Traps (contact-amalgam trapped by coarse filter)
(d) Vacuum Pump Filter (contact-amalgam trapped by medium filter)
(e) Separator or Recapture Device (added before vacuum with fine filter)
(f) Plumbing and Sink Traps
(g) Hg Spill Kits

2. X-ray Wastes
(a) Fixer (Ag recovery or recycling processes)
(b) Developer (controlled discharge into sanitary sewer)
(c) Cleaners (Cr-containing cleaners must be recycled)
(d) Lead foil (must be recycled)
(e) Lead Shields (e.g., aprons) (must be recycled)

3. Chemical Sterilant Wastes
(a) Chemiclave/Chemical-Sterilant (dilute 4:1 with water before draining)

4. Waste Waters

5. Fluorescent Lamps and Batteries (recycle only)
Best Management Practices
[ Use alternatives / Keep products separate / Recycle everything ]
Hg-Spill
Amalgam
Storage
HG HYGIENE PLUMBING
Amalgam
Mixing
Sink Traps
and Plumbing
Suction Mini-Trap
Chairside Filter
Separator
Vacuum Pump
Filter or Trap
Vacuum Pump
THANK YOU
Lansing Evans, project manager for
Nomad, Microvision's first commercial
retinal scanning display product, models
a prototype. The laser device projects
information onto the retina.
http:// www.vrealities.com/ poma.html
Pen-enabled wearable computers.
(Ring-enabled; Eye-enabled)
Wearable Computers
FUTURE NETWORKING
Dental Office
Reception
Waiting Room
Office
Lab and
Work Room
Operatory 1 Operatory 2 Operatory 3
INTERNET
Dental
Office
Computers
FUTURE NETWORKING
Dental Office
Reception
Waiting Room
Office
Lab and
Work Room
Operatory 1 Operatory 2 Operatory 3
INTERNET
Database
Networked
Dental
Databases
THANK YOU
New Goals for
VISIBLE LIGHT-CURING
Fast
Stress-free
Consistency
= f { [CQ], I LIGHT, }
= f { slowed reaction rate }
= f { curing domains, depth }
Restorative Dental Practice:

Procedures/Day x = 5
Curing Cycles / Angle x = 2
Angles Per Procedure x = 3
VLC Seconds / Cycle x = 20 sec
Days / Year x = 250 days

TIME / Year = 150,000 sec
= 42 hrs / year
1 2
C=C
H
CH
3
H COO-CH
2
-
CH-CH
2
-O-
CH
3
C
CH
3
C=C
H
H
3
C
H -O-CH
2
-CH-CH
2
-OOC
OH OH
PBIS-GMA
Di-Glycidyl methacrylate adduct of bisphenol-A = BIS-GMA
1st end of BIS-GMA = 100%
2nd end of BIS-GMA = 30%
Degree of Conversion = 65%
Curing Light
2. SHAPE-
OF-CURE
0 mm
1
2
3
4
3. DEPTH-OF-CURE
Z100
1. DEGREE-OF-
CONVERSION
65%
25%
45%
VLC CURING ANIMATION
t1 t10 t20

65% 65% 65%




20% 35% 45%




3% 20% 25%


Degree of Conversion
100%
65%
COMPOSITE
VLC SOURCE
Curing Equipment
Factors
Procedural
Factors
Restoration
Factors
FACTORS AFFECTING CURE
Bulb frosting or degradation
Light reflector degradation
Optical filter degradation
Fiber-optic bundle breakage
Light-guide fracture
Tip contamination by resin buildup
Line voltage inconsistences
Sterilization problems
Infection control barriers
Light tip direction
Access to restoration
DISTANCE from surface
Size of tip
Tip movement
TIME of exposure
Restoration thickness
Cavity design
Filler - amount and size
Restoration shade
Monomer ratios
I = usable VISIBLE LIGHT

= f (curing equipment factors),
= f (technique factors), and
= f (restoration factors).
Polymerization Reaction = f (I
1/2
)
CURING LIGHT TYPES
Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) Lights
> Continuous output -- normal intensity
> Continuous output -- high intensity
> Staged output (stepped, ramped, )

Plasma Arc Curing (PAC) Lights

Argon-Laser Curing (Laser) Lights

Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Lights
QTH PAC Laser LED
CURING LIGHT OPERATION
Power Supply
Cycle Time (Circuit Board)
Bulb / Reflector
Filter
Fan
Fiber-Optic Train
WAVELENGTH (nm)
UV Visible IR
CQ
I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

UV
band-pass
filter
IR
band-pass
filter
INTRAPULPAL HEAT,
GINGIVAL IRRITATION
DEMETRON CURING LIGHT TIPS
Proximal
Box Access
Standard
Tips
INTENSITY =
Output / Area (mW / cm
2
)
8X increase from 11 mm to the 4 mm tip
WAVELENGTH (nm)
Visible
CQ
I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

PAC LIGHTS
? ?
WAVELENGTH (nm)
Visible
CQ
I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

LASER LIGHTS
LASER
180-350
mW/cm2
WAVELENGTH (nm)
Visible
CQ
I
N
T
E
N
S
I
T
Y

LED LIGHTS
Light Emitting Diodes
DMD Systems
APOLLO e.light
Advantages:
Matched to CQ peak.
Reduced I needed.
Easy to clean.
Totally quiet; No fan.
Small; Handy.
No wires.
Elipar FREELIGHT
Batteries
LEDs
LED LIGHTS in the WORLD
LED CURING LIGHTS
VLC LED Name: Company: Price: LEDs:
Elipar Freelight 3M ESPE $ 999 19
NRG Dentsply/Caulk $ 949 7
Ultra Lume 1 LED Ultradent $ 899 ($699)
Ultra Lume 2 LED Ultradent $1299 ($999)
CoolBlue Dental Systems $1195
Nova Curing Techologies $1495 7
GC e-Light GC America $1495
OUTPUT LED power,
LED #,
Light Collection,
Focusing
Pilo R, Oelgiesser D, Cardash HS.
A survey of output intensity and potential for depth of cure among
light-curing units in clinical use. J Dent 1999;27:235-241.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

C
u
r
i
n
g

U
n
i
t
s
LIGHT INTENSITY (mW/cm2)
<100
100-200
200-300
300-400
400-500
>500
SURVEY OF VLC UNIT OUTPUTS
Check Fiber Optic Tips
Check Bulb
and Reflector
Clean Reflector
LATEST GENERATION OF QTH LIGHTS
Quantitative and automatic radiometers.
Better filters and narrow range filtering.
Output sampling and control.
Selective programming of output.
Bulb life monitoring and checking.
Curing Factors = Equipment + Manipulation + Material
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
%

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
Z100 XRV Pt-4 EsthX fE sE fD sD
MATERIALS
VL Transmission in E and D
PACKABLE COMPOSITE
Mechanical Properties
Ruddell DE, Thompson JY, Stamatiades PJ, Ward JC, Bayne SC, Shellard ER. Mechanical properties and wear
behavior of condensable composites. J Dent Res 1999; 78 (Spec Issue):156, Abstr 407.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
S
T
R
E
N
G
T
H

(
M
P
a
)
CS DTS FS DPH
MECHANICAL PROPERTY
Solitaire
ALERT
SureFil
Prodigy C
Herculite
WEAR RESISTANCE
for Packable Composites
0
5
10
15
20
M
I
C
R
O
N
S

/

Y
R
Leinfelder Wear Machine
Solitaire
ALERT
SureFil
Prodigy C
Herculite
GOOD
BAD
WEAR LEVELS for New Materials
100
200
300
1 2 3 5 10
TIME (years)
W
E
A
R

(
C
F
A
,

m
)

UV-Cured
Composites
VLC-Cured
Composites
50 m / 18 Months
ADA Type B = Unrestricted Use
75 m / Simulator
ADA Type A = Restricted Use
1 2
C=C
H
CH
3
H COO-CH
2
-
CH-CH
2
-O-
CH
3
C
CH
3
C=C
H
H
3
C
H -O-CH
2
-CH-CH
2
-OOC
OH OH
PBIS-GMA
Di-Glycidyl methacrylate adduct of bisphenol-A = BIS-GMA
1st end of BIS-GMA = 100%
2nd end of BIS-GMA = 30%
Degree of Conversion = 65%
Curing Light
2. SHAPE-
OF-CURE
0 mm
1
2
3
4
3. DEPTH-OF-CURE
Z100
1. DEGREE-OF-
CONVERSION
65%
25%
45%
GIC

CERMETS
(Metal-
Modified)
RMGI
(RM-GIC)
COMPOMERS
GIOMERS
COMPOSITE
Original
Development
MACROFILL
Self-Cured
Composites
MIDIFILL
Composites
MICROFILL
Composites
MIDIFILL
Composites
Midi-HYBRID
Composites
Mini-HYBRID
Composites
FLOWABLES
PACKABLES
CONTROLLED
SHRINKAGE
1950 1970 1960 2010 2000 1990 1980
SELF-CURED
VLC-CURED
SELF-CURED
UV-CURED
VLC-CURED
GLASS IONOMERS
COMPOSITES
DENTAL AMALGAM
Environmental Issues
3M-ESPE Freelight LED Curing Unit
BASE UNIT:
> Recharging Cradle
> Pen-shaped portable unit
CURING OPERATION:
> 40,30,20,10s curing cycle options
> Exponentially increasing or
standard duty cycle options.
On/Off
40-30-20-10s
Exp / Std
HELD IN A PEN GRASP
FOR USE.
Two ringed
arrays of
8 LEDs.
Two batteries.
GLASS IONOMERS
in Restorative Dentistry
The many faces of glass ionomers
MANUFACTURERS WEBSITES
BISCO http://www.bisco.com/
Caulk http://www.caulk.com/
Denmat http://www.dentalmaterial.com/
Dentsply http://www.dentsply.com/
DMG Hamburg http://www.dentalmaterial.com/
3M http://products.3m.com/...
ESPE http://www.espe.de/english/
GC-America http://www.gcamerica.com/
Ivoclar http://www.ivoclar.com/
Jeneric-Pentron http://www.jeneric.com/
Kuraray http://www.kuraray.co.jp/dental/
Kerr Dental http://www.kerrdental.com/
Kulzer http://www.kulzer.com/
Morita http://www.jmorita.com/
SDI http://www.sdi.com.au/
Shofu http://www.shofu.com/
Sun Medical http://www.sunmedical.co.jp/
Ultradent http://www.ultradent.com/
http:// www.iadr.com/ dmg/