Anda di halaman 1dari 36

1

Electrons are emitted from a metal surface when it is illuminated with suitable electromagnetic
radiation.

For
Examiners
Use

(a) Name the effect described above.


......................................................................................................................................[1]

ha

ky
a

(b) The variation with frequency f of the maximum kinetic energy Ek of the emitted electrons
is shown in Fig. 7.1.

an
dr

19

Ek / 10

aS

Ch

aj
it

db
yS

ar
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ng
e

12

16
20
14
f / 10 Hz

Fig. 7.1

the threshold frequency of the radiation,


threshold frequency = ........................................ Hz

da

nd

(i)

re

Use Fig. 7.1 to determine

a value for the Planck constant.

Co
m

pi
le

(ii)

Planck constant = ........................................ J s


[4]

9702/4 M/J/02

(c) On Fig. 7.1, draw a line to show the variation with frequency f of the maximum kinetic
energy Ek of the emitted electrons for a second metal which has a lower work function
than that in (b).
[2]

For
Examiners
Use

ky
a

(d) The kinetic energy of the electrons is described as the maximum. Suggest why emitted
electrons are likely to have a range of values of kinetic energy for any one frequency of
the electromagnetic radiation.
..........................................................................................................................................

ha

..........................................................................................................................................

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db
yS

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

aS

......................................................................................................................................[2]

9702/4 M/J/02

(a) State the de Broglie relation, explaining any symbols you use.

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

.................................................................................................................................... [2]

aS

h
.
2mE

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

ha

(b) An electron of mass m has kinetic energy E. Show that the de Broglie wavelength of
this electron is given by

[2]

potential difference = .................................... V [3]

Co
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(c) Calculate the potential difference through which an electron, initially at rest, must be
accelerated so that its de Broglie wavelength is equal to 0.40 nm (the diameter of an
atom).

UCLES 2004

9702/04/M/J/04

(a) (i)

Explain what is meant by a photon.

For
Examiners
Use

..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [1]
Show that the photon energy of light of wavelength 350 nm is 5.68 1019 J.

(iii)

State the value of the ratio

[1]

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

aS

ha

ky
a

(ii)

db
yS

energy of photon of light of wavelength 700 nm


.
energy of photon of light of wavelength 350 nm
ratio = .. [1]

ar
ra
ng
e

(b) Two beams of monochromatic light have similar intensities. The light in one beam has
wavelength 350 nm and the light in the other beam has wavelength 700 nm.
The two beams are incident separately on three different metal surfaces. The work
function of each of these surfaces is shown in Fig. 5.1.
work function / eV
4.49
3.68
2.26

tungsten
magnesium
potassium
Fig. 5.1

pi
le

da

nd

re

metal

Co
m

(i)

UCLES 2007

Explain what is meant by the work function of the surface.


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [2]

9702/04/M/J/07

(ii)

State which combination, if any, of monochromatic light and metal surface could
give rise to photo-electric emission. Give a quantitative explanation of your answer.

For
Examiners
Use

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..................................................................................................................................

ha

..................................................................................................................................

aS

..................................................................................................................................

Co
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pi
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da

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ar
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ng
e

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

............................................................................................................................. [3]

UCLES 2007

9702/04/M/J/07

(a) Explain why, for the photoelectric effect, the existence of a threshold frequency and a
very short emission time provide evidence for the particulate nature of electromagnetic
radiation, as opposed to a wave theory.

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ha

..........................................................................................................................................

aS

..........................................................................................................................................

an
dr

.................................................................................................................................... [4]

Ch

(b) State and explain two relations in which the Planck constant h is the constant of
proportionality.
1. .....................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..........................................................................................................................................

db
yS

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ar
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e

2. .....................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Co
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..........................................................................................................................................
[6]

UCLES 2009

9702/04/M/J/09

The photoelectric effect may be summarised in terms of the word equation

For
Examiners
Use

photon energy = work function energy + maximum kinetic energy of emitted electrons.
(a) Explain
what is meant by a photon,

ky
a

(i)

...................................................................................................................................

ha

...................................................................................................................................

why most electrons are emitted with kinetic energy less than the maximum.

an
dr

(ii)

aS

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

...................................................................................................................................

Ch

...................................................................................................................................

aj
it

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

db
yS

(b) Light of constant intensity is incident on a metal surface, causing electrons to be


emitted.
State and explain why the rate of emission of electrons changes as the frequency of the
incident light is increased.

ar
ra
ng
e

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
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da

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re

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

UCLES 2006

9702/04/O/N/06

(a) State three pieces of evidence provided by the photoelectric effect for a particulate
nature of electromagnetic radiation.

For
Examiners
Use

1. ......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

2. ......................................................................................................................................

ha

..........................................................................................................................................

aS

3. ......................................................................................................................................

(b) (i)

an
dr

..........................................................................................................................................
[3]
Briefly describe the concept of a photon.

Ch

..................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..................................................................................................................................

(ii)

db
yS

.............................................................................................................................. [2]
Explain how lines in the emission spectrum of gases at low pressure provide
evidence for discrete electron energy levels in atoms.

ar
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ng
e

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

Co
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da

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.............................................................................................................................. [2]

UCLES 2008

9702/04/O/N/08

(c) Three electron energy levels in atomic hydrogen are represented in Fig. 7.1.

aS

ha

ky
a

increasing
energy

For
Examiners
Use

an
dr

Fig. 7.1

Ch

The wavelengths of the spectral lines produced by electron transitions between these
three energy levels are 486 nm, 656 nm and 1880 nm.
On Fig. 7.1, draw arrows to show the electron transitions between the energy levels
that would give rise to these wavelengths.
Label each arrow with the wavelength of the emitted photon.
[3]

(ii)

Calculate the maximum change in energy of an electron when making transitions


between these levels.

energy = ............................................... J [3]

Co
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ar
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db
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aj
it

(i)

UCLES 2008

9702/04/O/N/08

10

(a) Explain how a line emission spectrum leads to an understanding of the existence of
discrete electron energy levels in atoms.

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................

ha

.................................................................................................................................... [3]

486

656

Ch

410 434

an
dr

aS

(b) Some of the lines of the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen are shown in Fig. 7.1.

db
yS

Fig. 7.1

aj
it

wavelength / nm

The photon energies associated with some of these lines are shown in Fig. 7.2.
wavelength / nm

ar
ra
ng
e

410

photon energy / 1019 J


4.85
4.58

486

656

3.03

Fig. 7.2

Complete Fig. 7.2 by calculating the photon energy for a wavelength of 486 nm.

Co
m

pi
le

da

(i)

nd

re

434

[2]

UCLES 2009

9702/42/O/N/09

11

(ii)

Energy levels of a single electron in a hydrogen atom are shown in Fig. 7.3.

For
Examiners
Use

0.60
0.87
1.36

ha

ky
a

2.42

aS

5.45

db
yS

21.80

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

energy / 1019 J

Fig. 7.3 (not to scale)

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

Use data from (i) to show, on Fig. 7.3, the transitions associated with each of the
four spectral lines shown in Fig. 7.1. Show each transition with an arrow.
[2]

UCLES 2009

9702/42/O/N/09

12

(a) State an effect, one in each case, that provides evidence for
(i)

For
Examiners
Use

the wave nature of a particle,


.............................................................................................................................. [1]
the particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation.

ky
a

(ii)

(b) Four electron energy levels in an atom are shown in Fig. 7.1.

an
dr

aS

0.87 1019 J

ha

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

1.36 1019 J
electron
energy

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

2.42 1019 J

5.44 1019 J

Fig. 7.1 (not to scale)

(i)

ar
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e

An emission spectrum is associated with the electron transitions between these energy
levels.
For this spectrum,
state the number of lines,

calculate the minimum wavelength.

Co
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pi
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da

nd

(ii)

re

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

UCLES 2010

wavelength = ........................................... m [2]

9702/41/O/N/10

13

(a) By reference to the photoelectric effect, state what is meant by the threshold frequency.
..........................................................................................................................................

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

aS

ha

(b) The surface of a zinc plate has a work function of 5.8 1019 J.
In a particular laboratory experiment, ultraviolet light of wavelength 120 nm is incident
on the zinc plate. A photoelectric current I is detected.
In order to view the apparatus more clearly, a second lamp emitting light of wavelength
450 nm is switched on. No change is made to the ultraviolet lamp.

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

Using appropriate calculations, state and explain the effect on the photoelectric current
of switching on this second lamp.

..........................................................................................................................................

Co
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da

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ar
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..................................................................................................................................... [4]

UCLES 2010

9702/43/O/N/10

14

(a) State what is meant by the de Broglie wavelength.


..........................................................................................................................................

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

.................................................................................................................................... [2]

Show that the final momentum of the electron is 1.6 1023 N s.

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of this electron.

wavelength = ........................................... m [2]

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
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ng
e

(ii)

[2]

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

aS

(i)

ha

(b) An electron is accelerated in a vacuum from rest through a potential difference of 850 V.

UCLES 2011

9702/42/M/J/11

15

(c) Describe an experiment to demonstrate the wave nature of electrons.


You may draw a diagram if you wish.

aS

ha

ky
a

For
Examiners
Use

an
dr

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Ch

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..........................................................................................................................................

Co
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da

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ar
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ng
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db
yS

.................................................................................................................................... [5]

UCLES 2011

9702/42/M/J/11

[Turn over

16

Experiments are conducted to investigate the photoelectric effect.


(a) It is found that, on exposure of a metal surface to light, either electrons are emitted
immediately or they are not emitted at all.

For
Examiners
Use

Suggest why this observation does not support a wave theory of light.

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................

ha

..........................................................................................................................................

aS

..........................................................................................................................................

an
dr

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

Ch

(b) Data for the wavelength of the radiation incident on the metal surface and the maximum
kinetic energy EK of the emitted electrons are shown in Fig. 7.1.

/ nm

aj
it

EK / 1019 J

4.44

db
yS

650
240

Fig. 7.1

Without any calculation, suggest why no value is given for EK for radiation of
wavelength 650 nm.

ar
ra
ng
e

(i)

..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

re

Use data from Fig. 7.1 to determine the work function energy of the surface.

Co
m

pi
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da

nd

(ii)

UCLES 2011

work function energy = ............................................. J [3]

9702/41/M/J/11

17

(c) Radiation of wavelength 240 nm gives rise to a maximum photoelectric current I.


The intensity of the incident radiation is maintained constant and the wavelength is now
reduced.

For
Examiners
Use

State and explain the effect of this change on


the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons,

ky
a

(i)

..................................................................................................................................

ha

..................................................................................................................................

the maximum photoelectric current I.

an
dr

(ii)

aS

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

..................................................................................................................................

Ch

..................................................................................................................................

Co
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da

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ar
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db
yS

aj
it

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

UCLES 2011

9702/41/M/J/11

[Turn over

18

An explanation of the photoelectric effect includes the terms photon energy and work function
energy.

For
Examiners
Use

(a) Explain what is meant by


(i)

a photon,

ky
a

..................................................................................................................................

ha

..................................................................................................................................

(ii)

aS

............................................................................................................................. [2]
work function energy.

an
dr

..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [1]

aj
it

Ch

(b) In an experiment to investigate the photoelectric effect, a student measures the


wavelength of the light incident on a metal surface and the maximum kinetic energy
1
Emax of the emitted electrons. The variation with Emax of is shown in Fig. 7.1.

db
yS

1 106 m1
/

ar
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ng
e

pi
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Co
m

da

nd

re

(i)

0
1

4
19

Emax / 10

Fig. 7.1
The work function energy of the metal surface is .
State an equation, in terms of , and Emax, to represent conservation of energy
for the photoelectric effect. Explain any other symbols you use.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................. [2]

UCLES 2011

9702/43/O/N/11

19

(ii)

Use your answer in (i) and Fig. 7.1 to determine


the work function energy of the metal surface,

aS

ha

ky
a

1.

For
Examiners
Use

a value for the Planck constant.

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

2.

an
dr

= ............................................. J [2]

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

Planck constant = ........................................... J s [3]

UCLES 2011

9702/43/O/N/11

[Turn over

20

(a) Explain what is meant by a photon.


..........................................................................................................................................

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]

aS

ha

(b) An emission spectrum is seen as a series of differently coloured lines on a black


background.

an
dr

Suggest how this observation provides evidence for discrete electron energy levels in
atoms.
..........................................................................................................................................

Ch

..........................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..........................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

db
yS

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

UCLES 2012

9702/41/M/J/12

21

The photoelectric effect may be represented by the equation

For
Examiners
Use

photon energy = work function energy + maximum kinetic energy of electron.


(a) State what is meant by work function energy.

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

aS

ha

(b) The variation with frequency f of the maximum kinetic energy EK of photoelectrons
emitted from the surface of sodium metal is shown in Fig. 7.1.

an
dr

0.8

Ch

0.6

aj
it

EK / eV

db
yS

0.4

0
4.5

5.0

ar
ra
ng
e

0.2

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5
8.0
14
f / 10 Hz

re

Fig. 7.1

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

Use the gradient of the graph of Fig. 7.1 to determine a value for the Planck constant h.
Show your working.

h = ............................................. J s [2]

UCLES 2012

9702/42/M/J/12

[Turn over

22

(c) The sodium metal in (b) has a work function energy of 2.4 eV. The sodium is replaced by
calcium which has a work function energy of 2.9 eV.

For
Examiners
Use

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

aS

ha

ky
a

On Fig. 7.1, draw a line to show the variation with frequency f of the maximum kinetic
[3]
energy EK of photoelectrons emitted from the surface of calcium.

UCLES 2012

9702/42/M/J/12

23

(a) Explain what is meant by a photon.


..........................................................................................................................................

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]

aS

ha

(b) An emission spectrum is seen as a series of differently coloured lines on a black


background.

an
dr

Suggest how this observation provides evidence for discrete electron energy levels in
atoms.
..........................................................................................................................................

Ch

..........................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..........................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

db
yS

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

UCLES 2012

9702/43/M/J/12

24

(a) Explain how the line spectrum of hydrogen provides evidence for the existence of
discrete electron energy levels in atoms.

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................

ha

..........................................................................................................................................

aS

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

an
dr

(b) Some electron energy levels in atomic hydrogen are illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

energy

db
yS

aj
it

1.50 eV

Ch

0.85 eV

ar
ra
ng
e

3.40 eV

Fig. 7.1

Two possible electron transitions A and B giving rise to an emission spectrum are
shown.
These electron transitions cause light of wavelengths 654 nm and 488 nm to be emitted.
On Fig. 7.1, draw an arrow to show a third possible transition.

(ii)

Calculate the wavelength of the emitted light for the transition in (i).

[1]

Co
m

pi
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da

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(i)

UCLES 2011

wavelength = ............................................ m [3]

9702/41/O/N/11

[Turn over

25

incident
light

emergent
light

aS

ha

cool hydrogen gas

an
dr

Fig. 7.2

Using the values of wavelength in (b), state and explain the appearance of the spectrum
of the emergent light.

Ch

..........................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..........................................................................................................................................

db
yS

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
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da

nd

re

ar
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ng
e

...................................................................................................................................... [4]

UCLES 2011

9702/41/O/N/11

For
Examiners
Use

ky
a

(c) The light in a beam has a continuous spectrum of wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm.
The light is incident on some cool hydrogen gas, as illustrated in Fig. 7.2.

26

(a) Explain how the line spectrum of hydrogen provides evidence for the existence of
discrete electron energy levels in atoms.

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................

ha

..........................................................................................................................................

aS

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

an
dr

(b) Some electron energy levels in atomic hydrogen are illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

energy

db
yS

aj
it

1.50 eV

Ch

0.85 eV

ar
ra
ng
e

3.40 eV

Fig. 7.1

Two possible electron transitions A and B giving rise to an emission spectrum are
shown.
These electron transitions cause light of wavelengths 654 nm and 488 nm to be emitted.
On Fig. 7.1, draw an arrow to show a third possible transition.

(ii)

Calculate the wavelength of the emitted light for the transition in (i).

[1]

Co
m

pi
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da

nd

re

(i)

UCLES 2011

wavelength = ............................................ m [3]

9702/42/O/N/11

[Turn over

27

incident
light

emergent
light

aS

ha

cool hydrogen gas

an
dr

Fig. 7.2

Using the values of wavelength in (b), state and explain the appearance of the spectrum
of the emergent light.

Ch

..........................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..........................................................................................................................................

db
yS

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

...................................................................................................................................... [4]

UCLES 2011

9702/42/O/N/11

For
Examiners
Use

ky
a

(c) The light in a beam has a continuous spectrum of wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm.
The light is incident on some cool hydrogen gas, as illustrated in Fig. 7.2.

28

(a) State what is meant by a photon.


..........................................................................................................................................

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

ha

(b) It has been observed that, where photoelectric emission of electrons takes place, there
is negligible time delay between illumination of the surface and emission of an electron.

aS

State three other pieces of evidence provided by the photoelectric effect for the
particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation.

an
dr

1. ......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Ch

2. ......................................................................................................................................

aj
it

..........................................................................................................................................

db
yS

3. ......................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[3]

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

(c) The work function of a metal surface is 3.5 eV. Light of wavelength 450 nm is incident on
the surface.
Determine whether electrons will be emitted, by the photoelectric effect, from the
surface.

Co
m

pi
le

[3]

UCLES 2012

9702/42/O/N/12

29

(a) State what is meant by the de Broglie wavelength.


..........................................................................................................................................

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the accelerated electron.

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

aS

(i)

ha

(b) An electron is accelerated from rest in a vacuum through a potential difference of 4.7 kV.

wavelength = ............................................ m [5]

By reference to your answer in (i), suggest why such electrons may assist with an
understanding of crystal structure.

ar
ra
ng
e

(ii)

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

re

..................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

UCLES 2012

9702/43/O/N/12

30

(a) The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen consists of a number of discrete wavelengths.
Explain how this observation leads to an understanding that there are discrete electron
energy levels in atoms.

For
Examiners
Use

..........................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

Ch

0.85 eV

an
dr

0.54 eV

aS

(b) Some electron energy levels in atomic hydrogen are illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

Fig. 7.1

Co
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pi
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da

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ar
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ng
e

db
yS

aj
it

1.5 eV

3.4 eV

UCLES 2013

9702/42/M/J/13

ha

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

energy

31

The longest wavelength produced as a result of electron transitions between two of the
energy levels shown in Fig. 7.1 is 4.0 106 m.
(i)

For
Examiners
Use

On Fig. 7.1,

ky
a

1. draw, and mark with the letter L, the transition giving rise to the wavelength of
[1]
4.0 106 m,

Calculate the wavelength for the transition you have shown in (i) part 2.

aj
it

Ch

an
dr

aS

(ii)

ha

2. draw, and mark with the letter S, the transition giving rise to the shortest
wavelength.
[1]

db
yS

wavelength = ............................................. m [3]


(c) Photon energies in the visible spectrum vary between approximately 3.66 eV and
1.83 eV.

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

Determine the energies, in eV, of photons in the visible spectrum that are produced by
transitions between the energy levels shown in Fig. 7.1.

Co
m

pi
le

photon energies .................................................................................... eV [2]

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32

Some data for the work function energy and the threshold frequency f0 of some metal
surfaces are given in Fig. 7.1.
metal
sodium
zinc
platinum

/ 1019 J

f0 / 1014 Hz

3.8
5.8
9.0

5.8
8.8

ha

Fig. 7.1
State what is meant by the threshold frequency.

aS

(a) (i)

For
Examiners
Use

ky
a

an
dr

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

Calculate the threshold frequency for platinum.

ar
ra
ng
e

db
yS

aj
it

(ii)

Ch

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

threshold frequency = ............................................ Hz [2]

re

(b) Electromagnetic radiation having a continuous spectrum of wavelengths between


300 nm and 600 nm is incident, in turn, on each of the metals listed in Fig. 7.1.
Determine which metals, if any, will give rise to the emission of electrons.

nd

..........................................................................................................................................

da

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

pi
le

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

Co
m

(c) When light of a particular intensity and frequency is incident on a metal surface,
electrons are emitted.
State and explain the effect, if any, on the rate of emission of electrons from this surface
for light of the same intensity and higher frequency.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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33

14
7

Electrons, travelling at speed v in a vacuum, are incident on a very thin carbon film, as
illustrated in Fig. 7.1.
fluorescent
screen

ky
a

thin carbon
film

Fig. 7.1

Ch

The emergent electrons are incident on a fluorescent screen.


A series of concentric rings is observed on the screen.

an
dr

aS

ha

electron,
speed v

aj
it

(a) Suggest why the observed rings provide evidence for the wave nature of particles.

db
yS

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

ar
ra
ng
e

...................................................................................................................................... [2]
(b) The initial speed of the electrons is increased. State and explain the effect, if any, on the
radii of the rings observed on the screen.

re

..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

nd

..........................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
le

da

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

UCLES 2013

For
Examiners
Use

9702/42/O/N/13

34

15

(c) A proton and an electron are each accelerated from rest through the same potential
difference.
Determine the ratio

For
Examiners
Use

an
dr

aS

ha

ky
a

de Broglie wavelength of the proton


.
de Broglie wavelength of the electron

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

db
yS

aj
it

Ch

ratio = .................................................. [4]

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35

16
7

(a) By reference to the photoelectric effect, explain


(i)

For
Examiners
Use

what is meant by work function energy,


..................................................................................................................................

ky
a

..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

ha

why, even when the incident light is monochromatic, the emitted electrons have a
range of kinetic energy up to a maximum value.

aS

(ii)

an
dr

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

Ch

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

aj
it

(b) Electromagnetic radiation of frequency f is incident on a metal surface. The variation


with frequency f of the maximum kinetic energy EMAX of electrons emitted from the
surface is shown in Fig. 7.1.

EMAX

db
yS

4
/ 10 18 J

re

ar
ra
ng
e

da

nd

UCLES 2013

5
f / 1015 Hz

Fig. 7.1

Co
m

pi
le

9702/43/O/N/13

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17
Use Fig. 7.1 to determine the work function energy of the metal surface.

For
Examiners
Use

ha

ky
a

(i)

[2]

Explain why the graphs in (i) and (ii) do not depend on the intensity of the incident
radiation.

Ch

(iii)

A second metal has a greater work function energy than that in (i).
On Fig. 7.1, draw a line to show the variation with f of EMAX for this metal.

an
dr

(ii)

aS

work function energy = ............................................. J [3]

aj
it

..................................................................................................................................

db
yS

..................................................................................................................................

Co
m

pi
le

da

nd

re

ar
ra
ng
e

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

UCLES 2013

9702/43/O/N/13

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