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# HOMEWORK GUIDE

Summary

Reaction rate

## • Rate of reaction is a measure of how fast a chemical reaction takes place.

• In a fast reaction, the reactants change quickly into products. The rate of reaction is high.
Examples of fast reactions:
-- Explosions.
-- The reaction of potassium with water.
• In a slow reaction, the reactants take a long time to change into products. The rate of
reaction is low.
Examples of slow reactions:
-- Rusting.
-- The action of acid rain on limestone.

## 1. Measuring the time for a reaction to be completed.

-- Useful when comparing rates of two or more reactions. The reaction taking the longest
time is the slowest.
-- Example: To compare the reaction of magnesium ribbon in hydrochloric acid solutions
of differing concentration.

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2. Measuring changes that occur in a period of time during a reaction (e.g. every minute of
half-minute).
Example: The reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid.
The rate can be measured three ways:
(a) By measuring the volume of H2 produced at regular intervals

(b) By measuring the mass of the reaction flask and its contents. (The mass decreases as
the gas produced is given off.)

(c) My measuring the change in pressure of the gas. (The pressure increases as the
volume of gas increases.)

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The measurements are then plotted against time:
volume of mass of pressure
contents (g)

## Interpretation of reaction rate graphs

• The rate of the reaction at any time is shown by the gradient of the curve. The steeper the
• The rate is greatest at the start of a reaction and decreases over time.
• The curve becomes horizontal when the reaction is completed.
amount of
product
(c) (a) Initial gradient greatest; reaction is fastest.
(b) (b) The curve is less steep, indicating that the reaction is
slower.
(a)
time (c) The curve is horizontal, indicating that the reaction is
completed.

## Factors affecting rate of reaction

• A reaction occurs because reacting particles collide. But particles only react if they have
sufficient energy.
• The rate of a reaction is affected by:
(a) the surface area / particle size of a reactant.
(b) the concentration of the reactants (especially solutions).
(b) the temperature at which the reaction takes place.
(d) the presence of a catalyst.

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1. Surface area:
Small particles react faster than larger particles as they have a larger surface area for
reaction to take place.
Example: Reaction between calcium carbonate of different particle size and hydrochloric
acid.
Powdered
Calcium
Carbonate

• At time = 0, the gradient of graph A is steeper than that of graph B. Therefore, reaction
A (powdered calcium carbonate) is faster than Reaction B (marble chips).
Applications: 1. Cooking food that has been cut into small pieces.
2. Burning powdered coal in power stations.
2. Concentration:
For most (but not all) reactions, the higher the concentration, the faster the reaction.
Example: Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid of different
concentrations.
volume A (concentrated acid)
of CO2
B (dilute acid)

time
• At time = 0, the gradient of graph A is steeper than that of graph B. Therefore, reaction
A is faster than reaction B.
• The total volume of CO2 produced is the same for both reactions, but reaction B takes a
longer time to produce this volume.
Application: The reaction between acid rain (very dilute) and limestone objects is slow.

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3. Temperature:
All reactions are faster at higher temperatures. When the temperature of a reaction
increases by 10OC, the rate is approximately doubled.
Example: Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid at two different
temperatures.
volume A (higher temperature)
of CO2
B (lower temperature)

time
• At time = 0, the gradient of graph A is steeper than that of graph B. Therefore, reaction
A is faster than reaction B.
• Again, the total volume of CO2 produced is the same for both reactions, but reaction B
takes a longer time to produce this volume
Applications: 1. Cooking food in boiling water.
2. Many industrial reactions are carried out at high temperatures.
4. Catalyst:
A catalyst is a substance which increases the rate of a reaction but is not itself used up.
Example: The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with solid manganese(IV)
oxide (MnO2) acting as a catalyst.
MnO2
2H2O2(l) ---------> 2H2O(l) + O2(g)

## volume A (with a catalyst)

of O2
B (without a catalyst)

time
• Reaction A (with MnO2) is faster than Reaction B (with no MnO2).
• The volume of oxygen collected is the same for both reactions, showing that the
catalyst does not affect the amount of product formed.
Applications: Catalysts are used in many industrial reactions, e.g. manufacture of
sulphuric acid and plastics. .

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13.1 – 13.3

Multiple-choice questions

## 1. Which of the following reaction is a slow reaction?

A An explosion.
B The reaction of copper(II) sulphate solution with sodium hydroxide solution.
C The burning of paper.
D The rusting of iron. √

## 2. Which of the following metals reacts fastest with water?

A sodium √
B calcium
C magnesium
D copper

Questions 3 and 4 refer to the diagrams below in which two reactions are being compared.

## 3. What must be done to make the experiment fair?

(1) Keep just the length of the two metals strips the same.
(2) Keep the concentration of the two acids the same.
(3) Keep everything the same except the concentration of the two acids.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (3) only √
D (1) and (2) only

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4. A metal reacts with a dilute acid under different conditions. What method(s) can be used to
compare reaction rates without taking any measurements?
(1) Observe which reaction is finished first.
(2) Compare the rate at which bubbles of gas are produced.
(3) Observe the change in appearance of the metal
A (1) only
B (1) and (2) only √
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

5. Some magnesium is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid. Which of the following statements
A The reaction produces hydrogen gas.
B The reaction stops when all the magnesium is used up.
C As the reaction proceeds, the rate decreases.
D The reaction is slowest at the start. √

6. What changes can be measured to compare the rate of the reaction between (i) magnesium
and dilute hydrochloric acid and (ii) magnesium and concentrated hydrochloric acid?
(1) The pressure of gas in each reaction flask.
(2) The volume of hydrogen gas given off in each reaction.
(3) The loss in mass of each reaction flasks and its contents.
A (1) only
B (1) and (2) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3) √

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7. The apparatus shown below is used to investigate the rate of reaction of magnesium with
dilute hydrochloric acid.

## What is being measured in this reaction?

A The time for the reaction to be completed.
B The volume of gas produced. √
C The pressure of the gas in the reaction flask.
D The change in the size of the magnesium ribbon.

8. The graph below shows the volume of gas collected against time as some magnesium
reacts with acid.
volume of C D
H2 (cm3)
B
A
time
At which point on the graph is the reaction fastest? A

9. The reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid is carried out as shown in
the diagram. The mass of the flask and its contents is being measured.

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Which of the following correctly shows the graph of mass against time?

A B C D√

## 10. A chemical reaction will only occur if

A reacting particles collide.
B reacting particles collide with sufficient energy. √
C many particles collide.
D reacting particles move.
Structured questions

1. List (a) some fast reactions, and (b) some slow reactions.
Fast reactions: _E.g. The reaction of potassium with water, the burning of a gas, a
precipitation reaction, an explosion.____________________________________
Slow reactions: __E.g. The rusting of iron, the decay of food, the reaction of acid rain on
limestone rock, the ripening of fruit.________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

2. You are to investigate the reaction between zinc and dilute sulphuric acid.
(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction?
___Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq) ----> ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)______________________________
(b) (i) What gas is produced? __Hydrogen gas.___________________________________
(ii) Draw a diagram of apparatus to collect and measure the volume of the gas produced.

Zinc ribbon

## (iii) Sketch a graph of the volume of gas produced against time.

volume
of H2

time

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(c) (i) As the reaction proceeds, what happens to the mass of the reactants in the reaction
__The mass decreases as the hydrogen gas escapes from the flask.______________
_______________________________________________________________________
(ii) Draw a diagram of apparatus showing how to measure the change in mass as the
reaction proceeds.

Zinc ribbon

## (iii) Sketch a graph of the mass against time.

mass

time

3. Copy ONE of the graphs you drew in Question 2. On this graph, mark the following:
(a) Where the rate of the reaction is greatest.
(b) Where the rate of the reaction is slow but not complete.
(c) Where the rate of the reaction is zero.
E.g. mass
(a) rate is greatest

## (b) rate is slow but not complete

(c) rate is zero
time

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13.4 – 13.8

Multiple-choice questions

## 1. What factors can increase the rate of a reaction?

(1) An increase in the surface area of the reactants.
(2) An increase in the temperature of a reaction.
(3) An increase in the volume of a reacting solution.
A (1) and (2) only √
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Questions 2 and 3 refer to the reaction of calcium carbonate with dilute acid.

## A Lumps of solid, dilute acid acid, low temperature.

B Lumps of solid, concentrated acid, low temperature.
C Powdered solid, dilute acid, high temperature.
D Powdered solid, concentrated acid, high temperature.

## 3. Under which set of conditions will the reaction be slowest? A

4. Powdered coal and not large pieces of coal are burnt in coal-burning power stations. What
is the reason for this?
A It is easier to handle powdered coal.
B Powdered coal burns faster. √
C Powdered coal gives out more heat.
D Powdered coal is less likely to explode.

5. Which of the following examples is an application of the effect of particle size on reaction
rate?
A Fine flour in flour mills can explode. √
B Calcium carbonate reacts rapidly with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
C The increase in the amount of combustible gases in mines can lead to an explosion.
D Powdered manganese(IV) oxide increases the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

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6. The following apparatus was set up.

30℃

## In which of the following diagrams would the reaction be faster?

20℃

30℃
Concentrated acid

20℃

30℃

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7. The temperature of a reaction is increased from 25OC to 35OC. About how many times
could the speed of the reaction be increased?
A 1
B 2
C 10 √
D 1000

8. Some students investigated how quickly indigestion tablets dissolved in water at different
temperatures. They obtained the following experiments:
Experiment Tablet Temperature
of water/ OC
1 whole 25
2 crushed 40
3 whole 25
4 crushed 25
Which TWO experiments should be compared to show the effect of temperature on
dissolving time?
A Experiments 1 and 2
B Experiments 1 and 4
C Experiments 2 and 3
D Experiments 2 and 4 √

## 9. Which of the following statements about a catalyst is NOT correct?

A It changes the rate of a reaction.
B It remains chemically unchanged at the end of a reaction.
C It changes the amount of product formed. √
D Only a small amount is needed to affect the rate of reaction.

Structured questions

1. State the FOUR factors that can affect the rate of a reaction?
__1. The surface area / particle size of a reactant.____________________________
__2. The concentration of a solution.______________________________________
__3. The temperature at which the reaction takes place._______________________
__4. The presence of a catalyst.__________________________________________

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2. Two pieces of magnesium were added to acids as follows:
A One 3-cm strip of magnesium + 100 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid
B One 3-cm strip of magnesium + 100 cm3 of 2 M hydrochloric acid
(a) Which reaction will be faster? Explain.
_Reaction B as the acid has a higher temperature (and the other factors are the
same)._________________________________________________________
(b) Suggest ONE way to increase the speed of this reaction even further?
__Increase the temperature of Reaction B.___________________________

3. State ONE application in daily life related to each of the following effects on the rate of
reaction.
(a) Surface area.
__E.g. As coal dust in mines has a large surface area and can easily explode, water is
sprayed into the air as the coal is being extracted to prevent an explosion.__________
(b) Concentration of a solution.
_E.g. The action of acid rain on limestone buildings/objects is slow as the acid has a very
low concentration.______________________________________________________
(c) Temperature.
_In the manufacture of sulphuric acid, the main reaction is at a high temperature to obtain
the product as quickly as possible. __________________________________________
(d) Catalyst.
_Catalysts are used in the manufacture of plastics. _______________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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