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ANTENNA SYSTEMS

LAB

LAB REPORT 1

Submitted to:
Mr. Aneef Izhar ul Haq

Submitted by:
Furqan Tariq
2011-EE-160
Section C-2




















What is Antenna? :
An antenna is an electrical device to convert electrical energy into radio waves and vice versa.

A radio transmitter supplies an oscillating current of a certain frequency that is converted to
electromagnetic waves by the antenna. A receiving antenna catches these electromagnetic waves
and converts them into tiny voltages that are then amplified by a radio receiver.

An antenna is made of metallic conductors that are connected to receivers or transmitters. These
conductors are called elements.

There are, generally, two types of elements:
1) Feeding element
2) Radiating element

Feeding element:
It is the element (metallic conductor) which feeds the radio waves to the rest of the antenna
structure, or in receiving antennas collects the incoming radio waves, converts them into
electrical signals and transmits them to the receiver.

Radiating element:
It is the element (metallic conductor) which radiates the radio waves. It receives the current
signal and converts it into electromagnetic waves that are then radiated.
The radiating element further has two types:
a) Directors
b) Reflectors

Directors:
It directs the radiation in the chosen direction, and concentrates the radiation inside the main
lobe.

Reflectors:
Not all of the radiation occurs inside the main lobe, and some undesirable back/side lobes are
created i.e. radiation not in the direction desired. Reflectors reflect the radiation in these side
lobes towards main lobe, increasing the efficiency.











Classification of Antennas based on Balanis and Kraus:
1) Combined collinear array
a) Array Antenna (B)
b) Dipole Antenna (K)



A collinear (or co-linear) antenna array is an array of dipole antennas mounted in such a manner
that the corresponding elements of each antenna are parallel and collinear, that is they are located
along a common line or axis.
A collinear array is usually mounted vertically, in order to increase overall gain and directivity in
the horizontal direction.
Theoretically, stacking idea dipole antennas can double the gain.

2) Yagi-Uda 7 element:
a) Array Antenna (B)
b) End fire Antenna (K)




3) Yagi-Uda 5 element:
a) Array Antenna (B)
b) End fire Antenna (K)




A yagi-uda antenna as in both previous classifications, is a directional antenna. It consists of one
driven element, typically a dipole or a folded dipole.
On its left is one reflector to reflect radiations in side lobes to the main lobe. Its length is usually
greater than the driven element. Adding extra reflectors does not increase the efficiency of the
antenna hence only one reflector is used in the antenna.
The director elements are usually shorter and are on the right side of the dipole.

The yagi-uda antenna is very popular because of its relatively simple structure and substantial
advantages over a simple dipole.
It has greater directionality and gain than a dipole antenna.
The high gain of this antenna is however only realized with a narrow bandwidth and so is not
suitable for television broadcast.

The other elements apart from the driven element are called parasitic because they only reradiate
the power which they receive from driven element and there parasitic elements interact with
themselves.

By adjusting the distance between the adjacent directors it is possible to reduce the back lobe of
the radiation pattern

4) Folded dipole
a) Wire dipole (B)
b) Dipole Antenna (K)



A dipole antenna consists of two identical conductive elements such as metal wires or rods, which
are usually bilaterally symmetrical.

The driving current from the transmitter is applied, or for
receiving antennas the output signal to the receiver is taken, between the two halves of the
antenna. Each side of the feed line to the transmitter or receiver is connected to one of the
conductors.

Dipoles are resonant antennas, meaning that the elements serve as resonators, with standing
waves of radio current flowing back and forth between their ends. So the length of the dipole
elements is determined by the wavelength of the radio waves used. The most common form is the
half-wave dipole, in which each of the two rod elements is approximately 1/4 wavelength long, so
the whole antenna is a half-wavelength long.

A folded dipole is a half-wavelength dipole. Its far-field emission pattern is nearly identical to the
one for the single-wire dipole however, at resonance its input impedance is four times the
radiation resistance of a single-wire dipole. This is because for a fixed amount of power, the total
radiating current is equal to twice the current in each wire and thus equal to twice the current at
the feed point. This arrangement has a greater bandwidth than a standard half-wave dipole

5) Simple Monopole
a) Wire (B)
b) Dipole (K)



It is a straight rod-shaped conductor, often mounted perpendicularly over some type of
conductive surface, called a ground plane. The driving signal from the transmitter is applied, or
for receiving antennas the output signal to the receiver is taken, between the lower end of the
monopole and the ground plane. One side of the antenna feed line is attached to the lower end of
the monopole, and the other side is attached to the ground plane, which is often the Earth. This
contrasts with a dipole antenna which consists of two identical rod conductors, with the signal
from the transmitter applied between the two halves of the antenna

The monopole is a resonant antenna; the rod functions as a resonator for radio waves, with
oscillating standing waves of voltage and current along its length. Therefore the length of the
antenna is determined by the wavelength of the radio waves it is used with. The most common
form is the quarter-wave monopole, in which the antenna is approximately 1/4 of a wavelength of
the radio waves




6) Square loop
a) Wire antenna (B)
b) Loop antenna (K)



7) Rhombic loop
a) Wire antenna (B)
b) Loop antenna (K)






Both the square loop and rhombic loop antennas fall under the general classification of loop
antennas. Loop antennas consist of wire, tubing, or other electrical conductors with its ends
connected to a balanced transmission line.

They are easy to build. They have similar characteristics to folded dipole or self resonant loops.
They have poor efficiencies and are mainly used as receiving antennas at low frequencies.

There radiation pattern is a doughnut pattern.









8) Dipole Fed Parabolic Dish
a) Reflector antenna (B)
b) Aperture antenna (K)




9) Simple dipole with Cut-Paraboloid
a) Reflector antenna (B)
b) Aperture antenna (K)




In both parabolic antennas, the antenna uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with
the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves. The most common form
is shaped like a dish and is popularly called a dish antenna or parabolic dish. The main
advantage of a parabolic antenna is that it has high directivity. It direct the radio waves in
a narrow beam, or receive radio waves from one particular direction only. Parabolic
antennas have some of the highest gains, that is, they can produce the narrowest beam
widths, of any antenna type. Parabolic antennas are used as high-gain antennas for point-
to-point communications, in applications such as microwave relay links that carry
telephone and television signals between nearby cities, wireless WAN/LAN links for data
communications, satellite communications and spacecraft communication antennas. They
are also used in radio telescopes.



10) Pyramidal hornfed parabolic dish
a) Reflector antenna (B)
b) Aperture antenna (K)



It is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio
waves in a beam. Horns are widely used as antennas at UHF and microwave frequencies, above
300 MHz.

They are used as feeders (called feed horns) for larger antenna structures such as parabolic
antennas, as standard calibration antennas to measure the gain of other antennas, and as
directive antennas for such devices as radar guns, automatic door openers, and microwave
radiometers.

Their advantages are moderate directivity (gain), low standing wave ratio (SWR), broad
bandwidth, and simple construction and adjustment.

11) Double ridged waveguide horn


Similar characteristics as Pyramidal hornfed parabolic dish.









12) Log Periodic
a) Array (B)
b) End fire (K)



This is a broadband, multi-element, directional, narrow-beam antenna that has impedance and
radiation characteristics that are regularly repetitive as a logarithmic function of the excitation
frequency. The individual components are often dipoles.

The lengths and spacing of the elements of a log-periodic antenna increase logarithmically from
one end to the other. A plot of the input impedance as a function of logarithm of the excitation
frequency shows a periodic variation.

This antenna design is used where a wide range of frequencies is needed while still having
moderate gain and directionality. It is sometimes used for a (VHF/UHF) television antenna.

13) Circular loop
a) Wire (B)
b) Loop (K)



The small loop antenna is a closed loop. These antennas have low radiation resistance and high
reactance, so that their impedance is difficult to match to a transmitter. As a result, these antennas
are most often used as receive antennas, where impedance mismatch loss can be tolerated.

the radiation pattern of a small loop antenna has the same power pattern as that of a short dipole.
The small loop is often referred to as the dual of the dipole antenna, because if a small dipole had
magnetic current flowing (as opposed to electric current as in a regular dipole), the fields would
resemble that of a small loop.

As loop antennas get larger, they become better antennas.