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Judul Asli: Pseudo Sonic Article

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Introduction

The role of the synthetic seismo-

gram(SS) as a supporting element of

prospect presentations involving seis-

mic data is well established, as a

bridge between the domains of time

and depth it's functionality is essential

for rigorous interpretation of a seismic

profile.

A SS for a well is computed from a

sonic log(DT) taken in the open bore-

hole, with the bulk density

log(RHOB) making a supplemental

contribution. Log curves, as discussed

here, are in the form of digital Log

Ascii Standard(LAS) files, a handy for-

mat for loading, viewing and aug-

menting well log data in a workstation

environment. More information and

useful software for manipulating LAS

files are available at the website of the

Canadian Well Logging Society

(www.cwls.org).

Sonic Log to Synthetic

Seismogram

The first step in computing a SS is to

integrate(sum the values) of the DT

curve in order to convert the log from

DT vs. depth to Interval Velocity(VI)

vs. time, the resulting velocity values

being equally spaced at discreet time

intervals, usually 1ms. This transform

establishes a time vs. depth relation-

ship over the logged segment of the

well, the result being only as accurate

as the DT curve. Since the DT curve

seldom starts at the surface, or datum

of the seismic, an estimate of the shal-

low velocity is applied to establish the

seismic time at the start of the DT log.

From the integrated log at discreet

time intervals, and an RHOB log if

available, reflection coefficients are

computed which, when convolved

with a suitable wavelet, will yield a SS

trace. This trace, plotted at the correct

display scales, should resemble the

seismic data at the well location. It is

not uncommon for stretching or

squeezing of the SS to be required to

achieve a properly tied result.

Reflection character matches between

the SS and the seismic data determine

where adjustments are needed. A

refined SS will provide an accurate

time/depth function at the well tie

point and positive identification of

geologic horizons in the seismic data.

It may also be used to model changes

in lithology and fluid content in for-

mations of interest.

Pseudo-Sonic Logs

It is often the case that wells near a

prospect had no sonic log run, have

large gaps in the log, or was not

released. Any of these situations cre-

ate a need for an effective and accessi-

ble method for computing an accurate

pseudo-sonic(DTP). DTP being the

name applied to an approximation of

a sonic log that is derived from a dif-

ferent log type. An accurate DTP will

make a useful SS in the absence of a

DT log. The DTP may also be used to

fill gaps in a DT or to replace poor

quality DT data zones.

References listed are a selection of

titles the reader may explore to appre-

ciate the history of this field of

research. DTP algorithms are general-

ly developed by the application of

non-linear numerical analysis tech-

niques to empirical data sets in the

form of log cross-plots and may evoke

a glassy-eyed response.

In the absence of a DT log, which

normally appears only on the detail

display of a sonic log, it is usually the

case that either an Induction log at

correlation scale(1"/100') or a

Density/Neutron porosity log will be

available. It is the purpose of this arti-

cle to explore options for using these

log types for DTP calculation.

(Continued)

by Joe H. Smith, #1179, Petrophysics, Inc. Plano, Texas

Pseudo- soni cs, Synt het i cs and t he Lay of t he Land Pseudo- soni cs, Synt het i cs and t he Lay of t he Land

Figure 1. Induction-Acoustic detail log over a sand interval in a Jim Hogg Co., TX well.

Curves of interest from left to right are SP, Rild, Rsfl and DT (dashed).

DTP From Resistivity Logs

A common method for DTP calcula-

tion is to use Faust's Equation to calcu-

late the pseudo-sonic from a resistivi-

ty log. This algorithm is typically

available in interpretation software

packages that have SS capability. The

algorithm is easy to use but often fails

to give accurate results since it is a

"one-size fits all" approach with limit-

ed user control. The best geologic set-

ting for using Faust's Equation are

those regions where velocity increases

uniformly with depth without abrupt

changes in formation age or lithology,

south Louisiana being an example.

Successful use of a resistivity log for

DTP calculation starts with the deci-

sion of which resistivity curve to

employ. With an induction log at

1"/100' correlation scale one may only

have shallow(SFL or SN) and deep

(ILD) curves to choose from. Consider

Figure 1 (shown on page 29), a detail

log interval of Induction/Acoustic

from Jim Wells Co., TX. The curves of

interest from left track are: SP(solid),

middle track, ILD(long dash) and

SFL(solid), and right track, DT(dash).

Note that the SFL follows the charac-

ter of the DT curve very closely across

the entire interval. The ILD, however,

diverges sharply at the sand begin-

ning around 5354' and continues to

read low values throughout the sand

interval. This phenomenon often

occurs when the well bore penetrates

high porosity wet sands in a clastic

setting, the Gulf Coast onshore being

typical. The deep induction log is "see-

ing" a large volume of salt water in the

porous sand and is recording the

resistivity of the formation fluid. The

SFL, contrastly, is measuring in a

much smaller volume, near the path

the sound wave from the sonic log

travels. Observation suggests that

using the ILD will create a much slow-

er DTP in sands, resulting in a slower

integrated DTP and a negative reflec-

tion at the top of the sand which

should be positive, leading to mis-cor-

relation of the SS to the seismic data.

This can be a source of significant DTP

error in wells where a high percentage

of thick, porous sands have been

logged, as in the Miocene of the Gulf

Coast onshore.

Cross-Plot Technique

Cross-plots between the resistivi-

ty(RS) and sonic(DT) logs in a pilot

well may be used to determine a scale

function, or mathematical relation-

ship, between the log types. The scale

function may be applied to wells with

the same type RS log which are in a

similar geologic setting to calculate a

DTP. Scale functions can be deter-

mined in a depth varying fashion

with consideration to formation age

and lithology changes. This method

allows more refined control of the

scale functions than does Faust's

Equation and often provides superior

results.

The cross-plot data points are the

average resistivity value associated

with each DT value that occurs in a

specified depth interval of the pilot

log. It is informative to differentiate

the values by referencing a lithology

log at each data point to determine if

it was recorded in shale or sand. This

allows scale function differences due

to lithology to be observed.

Figure 2 is a cross-plot between Rsfl

and DT in the Jim Wells Co. well in

Figure 1. The sand interval is included

in the 600' cross-plot zone as indicated

by the depth range. This plot reveals a

nearly smooth relationship between

the Rsfl and DT in sand or shale, giv-

ing confidence that a useable scale

function can be obtained by fitting the

distribution on the cross-plot with a

Least Mean Square(LMS) polynomial.

In this case a second order LMS func-

tion like DTP = 93. - (Rsfl) * 90. +

(Rsfl^2.) * 53 is a close fit. By repeat-

ing the cross-plot along the range of

logged data a depth varying function

can be determined which can be used

to create an accurate DTP for nearby

wells with a similar type RS curve. An

inventory of such functions for differ-

ent areas can be a valuable addition to

the interpreter's toolkit.

(Continued)

FEBRUARY 2011 _______________________________________________________________________________31

Technology Corner Continued

Figure 2. Cross-plot of DT vs. Rsfl over a log interval including Figure 1. Circles(o) represent

values taken in sand, plus (+) are values in shale based on the SP. This distribution can be

used to determine an accurate scale function.

32 ______________________________________________________________________________SIPES QUARTERLY

Figure 3 is a cross-plot between ILD

and DT over the same interval as that

in Figure 2. Note the separation

between the values recorded in sand

from those in shale. This plot confirms

statistically what was observed in

Figure 1 and suggests that a single

scale function cannot describe the ILD

to DT relationship in this zone.

It is frequently the case that the SFL,

in addition to being a more accurate

source curve for DTP calculation in

clastics, is better behaved in high resis-

tivity carbonates and delivers more

useful data due to it's superior resolu-

tion.

DTP from Density/

Neutron Logs

Algorithms for computing velocity

from RHOB logs are available.

Typically a form of Gardner's equation

will be used, i.e., V= (RHOB/C)^4.,

where RHOB is in g/cc, C=.23 and V is

ft/sec. This formula results in a faster

velocity with increased density, which

is counter to what is observed in a

clastic section like the Gulf Coast,

where lower density sands may be

faster than high density shales.

Figure 4 is a cross-plot between the

DT and RHOB curves over a 1000'

interval of the Jim Wells, Co. well. The

shape of this data distribution is

ambiguous, inferring that an accurate

DTP could not be derived from the

RHOB curve. The sensitivity of the

density log to borehole conditions is

one of several factors suggesting it

may not be suitable for DTP calcula-

tion. Other weaknesses of using

RHOB to calculate velocity are docu-

mented in the literature.

Figure 5 (shown on page 32) is a

cross-plot between DT and NPHI

curves over the same interval as

Figure 4 and reveals a nearly linear

relationship between these curves in

the subject well. This type of distribu-

tion can be approximated with a scale

function of the form DTP = A * NPHI

+ B, where A is the slope of the curve

and B is the DT axis intercept point. A

(Continued)

Technology Corner Continued

Figure 3. Cross-plot of DT vs. Rild over the same interval as Figure 2. The bifurcation of sand

values from shale values suggest that a single scale function cannot be derived from these

data points.

Figure 4. Cross-plot of DT vs. Rhob over a 1000 interval of the well in Figure 1. Note that

the DT values associated with a density of 2.35 g/cc range from 110 to less than 90us/f.

FEBRUARY 2011 _______________________________________________________________________________33

and B can be calculated by inspection

from the cross-plot. In the case above

values of A=1.65 and B=40. result in a

very close fit to the distribution. This

type of linear scale function between

the DT and NPHI has been observed

in several mature basins and is reliable

for DTP calculation. Small adjust-

ments in the slope and intercept are

needed in different areas but the lin-

earity is a consistent feature of this

relationship. Developing depth vari-

ant functions in a pilot well is possible

using spreadsheet type software and

the DT vs. NPHI relationship.

Caveats

The presence of hydrocarbons in the

formations logged will distort the

results of either of the methods for cal-

culating the DTP that have been

described. It is necessary to manually

edit those zones where gas effect is

present in the NPHI values or hydro-

carbon resistivity in the RS curves.

This is normally handled by referring

to a wet zone of comparable lithology

and adjusting the DTP values to

model the conditions present. Wyllie's

equations are useful for making these

modifications.

Modern full-array resistivity logs are

recorded using multiple transducers

of varying length and depth of inves-

tigation, the data are combined, or

mixed, in a fashion not known to the

customer, a result being that the qual-

ities of the short investigation tool that

are useful for DTP calculation in older

logs are diminished in newer ones.

Given a choice of using a contempo-

rary full array log or an eighties vin-

tage induction log to compute a DTP

the later is the better option.

Conclusions

Calculating an accurate DTP is not

always an easy task but can be accom-

plished with patience and attention to

the limitations of the log types avail-

able to use.

In the case of resistivity logs, a shal-

low investigation curve type is superi-

or to the deep for this purpose.

A custom designed, depth varying

scale function that considers forma-

tion age boundaries will yield more

accruate results than a general pur-

pose algorithm.

The neutron log is a superior option

to the bulk density log for calculating

a DTP when only a porosity log is

available.

References

Burch, D., March 2002, Sonic Logs

Need Troubleshooting: AAPG

Explorer/Geophysical Corner

Faust, L.Y., 1951, A Velocity Function

Including Lithogic Variation:

Geophysics, v. 18, No. 2, p. 271-288.

Rudman, A.J., et al, 1975,

Transformation of Resistivity Logs to

Pseudovelocity Logs: AAPG Bulletin,

v. 59, No. 7, p. 1151-1165.

Wyllie, M.R.J., et al, 1958, An

Experimental Investigation of Factors

Affecting Elastic Wave Velocities in

Porous Media: Geophysics, v. 23, p.

459-493.

Joe H. Smith is an

independent consult-

ing geophysicist and

can be reached at

j s m i t h @p e t r o -

physics.com

If you have a Technology Corner article

that you would like to submit for

publication in the SIPES Quarterly, please

email it to Dick Cleveland at dcleve-

land76@gmail.com.

Figure 5. Cross-plot of DT vs. Nphi over the same interval as Figure 3. In this case a near

linear distribution of points makes a simple and accurate scale function possible.

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