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Structural Concrete Design

Pedestrian Bridge Crossing


University San Diego California






Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge




Brad Wilton & Pedro Mercado III
SE151A
Term Project
03/21/2014


Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

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Table of Contents
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Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

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Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

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Structural Concrete Design

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1. References
1.1 Background

This report looks at a design of a two span pedestrian bridge which is to be constructed in East
County San Diego. The geometry of the bridge calls for a span covering a 5 lane road way,
which runs along a valley. The concrete structure of the bridge shall be designed in accordance
to the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 1318), along with special design criteria proposed
by the owner. It is due to these constraints that the elevation view of the bridge, with proper
dimensions, will be as shown in Figure 1.


The design envelope consists of two 50 ft. spans supported at the abutments by neoprene
bearings, then two 2 ft. sections of overhang. The mid-span of the bridge is supported by a
bent-cap which is connected to a cast-in-steel column. This column is 22 ft. vertically and sits at
4 ft. off-center with a 6 ft. deep pile. The diameter of the circular column for this particular
design will be 4-6 across. The cross section of the bridge is a total of 16-8 wide, consisting of
long box girders across the entire span of the structure which can be seen with full dimensions
in Figure 2. The height of the box girder will be determined in the design.

The bridge will be designed to support the self-weight, the weight of the 4 in asphalt overlay
(101 pcf), handrails (68.5 lbs/ft), and a live load of 86 lbs/ft
2
. Live loads will be applied to
generate the worst case positive and negative forces. Due to the fact that this is a preliminary
design, torsional effects will not be considered in this report.

The materials for this project is normal weight concrete (150 pcf) with a specified compressive
strength of 5.0 ksi. ASCE A706 Grade 60 reinforcing steel will be used for all reinforcement in
this structure.

Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

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K

Figure 2: Girder Cross Section with Slab idealized as simply supported beam on center lines

The analysis of the bridge will be done using various combinations of multiple loading
conditions as follow: self-weight, asphalt weight, handrail weight, and multiple live loads at
multiple locations throughout the structure and applied using SAP2000.

**All dimensions in figures and tables are listed in inches unless otherwise stated.
2. Dimensions and Section Properties
2.1 Slab

As seen in Figure 2, the slab is idealized as a simply supported beam with supports lying on the
center lines of the girders.

ACI 1318 Table 9.5(a) lists minimum thickness is as follows:

Both ends continuous = L/28 Cantilevered = L/10

Section AB & CD are cantilevered and BC has both ends continuous

Using the dimensions from Figure 2 the thickness for each section is calculated.
!
#
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The minimum requirement for section BC is 8 in., therefore BC shall be 8 in. rather than 3.214
in. Additionally, AB & CD are tapered to 6 in., which is greater than the minimum calculated 5.5
in., so 6 in will be used.
Figure 3 Assumed Dimensions of Slab

For simplicity, and to be conservative, assume that the whole depth of the slab is 8 in. as seen
in Figure 3. The sectional properties of the slab are tabulated next.


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Structural Concrete Design

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2.2 Girder

ACI 1318 Table 9.5(a) lists minimum thickness for one ends continuous as L/28. Using this
calculation the height of the girder is calculated.


Figure 4 Sections of Girder For Centroid Calculations

Figure 5 Dimensions of Girder

Table 1 Centroid Calculations






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The moment of inertia is calculated by dividing the girder into cross sections that can be
seen in Figure 4. Using the parallel axis theorem and dimensions from Figure 5, each
section is calculated and then added up to find the total moment of inertia. The centroid is
calculated by dividing A*y by total area. All dimensions are referenced from the bottom of
the girder. All of these calculations can be seen below:






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2.3 Column
For the column supporting the bridge at the center, there were two options for the diameter of
the column. The diameters of 3-6 or 4-6 are available. For this bridge, we will be using 4-6
columns. The sectional properties of this column can be seen below:


3. Design Loads
3.1 Slab

Figure 6 Conservative Dimensions Used for Slab Design
3.1.1 Dead Load (concrete)

Figure 6 Idealized Slab for Dead Load Calculations
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To be conservative, assume that the slab does not taper to 6 in. at the ends, but rather is a
constant 8 in. across the entire span as seen in Figure 6. We also assume a 1 ft. cross-section
on all sections for the slab as seen in Figure 7.

Multiplying the depth and thickness of the slab by the density of concrete gives the distributed
load for the slab.



3.1.2 Superimposed Dead Load (asphalt & handrails)

The asphalt is a constant 4 in. thick as seen in Figure 6. Multiplying the depth and thickness of
the asphalt by the density gives the distributed load for asphalt.



The distributed load for the asphalt spans the slab except the last 12 in. on either side.

There are two handrails across the span of the bridge that can be seen in Figure 7 that can be
treated as point loads. Once again, assume a 1 ft. cross-section.



3.1.3 Live Load

ACI 1318-11 lists the live load (LL) for pedestrian traffic as 86 lbs per square foot. Assume a
1ft cross-section and multiply the live load by the depth of the slab.







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All the following figures are for the load cases of the slab and are all listed in lbs or lbs/ft.



Figure 8 Concrete Self Weight



Figure 9 Slab Asphalt Self Weight



Figure 10 Handrail Weight



Figure 11 Live Load Applied Everywhere



Figure 12 Live Load Applied in Middle



Figure 13 Live Load Applied to Outer Sections



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3.2 Girder

In all cases for the girder assume 1 ft. cross sections as seen in Figure 14.


Figure 14 Girder Cross Section for Load Calculations

3.2.1 Dead Load (Concrete & Plug)

Dead Load (Concrete)

The area of the girder was previously calculated in Table 1. Multiplying the cross-sectional area
of the girder by the density of concrete gives the distributed load for the concrete.










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Dead Load (Plug/Bent Cap)

Calculating the volume of the plug, and multiplying by the density of the concrete, gives the
weight of the plug that is treated as a point load in the center of the bridge.



3.2.2 Superimposed Dead Load (Asphalt & Handrails)

Asphalt

The asphalt is a constant 4 in. thick across the entire span of the bridge as previously stated.
Figure 3 shows the asphalt dimensions on top of the girder. Using these distances, the
distributed load for asphalt is calculated below:




Handrails

There are two handrails across the entire span of the bridge. The load must be multiplied by
two and is show below:



3.2.3 Live Load

The live load can only occur inside the handrails. Figure 3 shows where on the slab this can
occur. The distributed load due to live load is calculated below:




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Structural Concrete Design

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All the following figures for the load cases of the slab are listed in lbs or lbs/ft.


Figure 15 Concrete Self Weight


Figure 16 Weight From Bent Cap


Figure 17 Asphalt Self Weight

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Figure 18 Handrail Self Weight


Figure 19 Live Load Everywhere


Figure 20 Live Load On Left Side & Alternative Span

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Figure 21 Live Load On Right Side & Alternative Span
4. Structural Analysis
4.1 Slab
4.1.1 Model

Figure 22 references the dimensions of how SAP2000 was modeled with the assumptions that
were used. The red dotted line represents the elements in SAP2000 and the blue dots indicate
a node that connects each element. The slab was treated as a simply supported beam across
the top of the girder.


Figure 22 Idealizing the Slab for SAP2000




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Structural Concrete Design

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4.1.2 Load Combinations

The following load combinations were used in SAP2000 to get the design envelope.
Combo1 = 1.4(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
)
Combo2= 1.2(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
) + 1.6(!
liveload whole span
)
Combo3= 1.2(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
) + 1.6(!
live load on left
)
Combo4 =1.2(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
) +1.6(!
live load on right
)
Envelope= (Combo1 + Combo2 + Combo3 + Combo4)

4.1.3 Bending Moment Diagrams and Load Combinations



Figure 23 Combo 1

Figure 24 Combo 2

Figure 25 Combo 3

Figure 26 Combo 4


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4.1.4. Shear Force Diagrams of Load Combinations


Figure 27 Combo 1

Figure 28 Combo 2

Figure 29 Combo 3

Figure 30 Combo 4
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4.1.5 Design Envelopes

Figure 31 Shear Envelope




Figure 32 Moment Envelope




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4.2 Girder
4.2.1 Model
Figure 33 references the dimensions of how SAP2000 was modeled with the assumptions that
were used. The red dotted line represents the elements in SAP2000 and the blue dots indicate
a node that connects each element. The bridge bearings were treated as rollers, and the base
of the column was fixed.

Figure 33 Idealizing the Bridge for SAP2000
4.2.2 Load Combinations

The following load combinations were used in SAP2000 to get the design envelope:

Combo1 = 1.4(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
)
Combo2= 1.2(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
) + 1.6(!
liveload whole span
)
Combo3= 1.2(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
) + 1.6(!
live load on left
)
Combo4 =1.2(!
self weight
+ !
asphalt
+ !
handrail
) +1.6(!
live load on right
)
Envelope= (Combo1 + Combo2 + Combo3 + Combo4)
4.2.3 Bending Moment Diagrams and Load Combinations

Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
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Figure 34 Combo 1

Figure 35 Combo 2

Figure 36 Combo 3

Figure 37 Combo 4


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Structural Concrete Design

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4.2.4 Shear Force Diagrams of Load Combinations


Figure 38 Combo 1


Figure 39 Combo 2

Figure 40 Combo 3
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Figure41 Combo 4

4.2.5 Design Envelopes

Figure 42 Shear Envelope


Figure 43 Moment Envelope
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5. Slab Design
5.1 Flexure Design of Critical Sections
5.1.1 Negative Moment

The bending moment can be observed from the design envelope. The maximum moment is
approximately 2900 lb-ft for negative bending.

A MATLAB function was written for fiber discretization and was run to determine the design
moment envelope for the slab with differing bar numbers and spacing. A copy of this function
can be seen in the appendix. This code also checks to make sure that each design passes
1.2*M
cr
. A summary of some of these outputs is shown below in table 2.

Table 2

The most economical design that passes these internal checks was selected for the design. It
was determined that #4 bars should be used every 8 in. center-center with the design capacity
listed below:


Another design check is to make sure the design capacity is greater than 1.2 times the cracking
moment. For this project, 5000 psi concrete will be used. The elastic section modulus was
previous calculated. Below is the equation for cracking moment:
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Structural Concrete Design

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Because the capacity is greater than both 1.2 times the cracking moment (M
cr
), and the
maximum moment (M
u
), this design will be sufficient.

We can check the design capacity by hand to verify the MATLAB function works as seen below:



We can see that the capacity is very close to the beam discretization and passes all design
checks. #4 bars every 8 in. center to center is sufficient for this design.



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5.1.2 Positive Moment

The maximum positive bending very small, only 254 lb-ft. We will mirror the longitudinal
reinforcement for negative bending on either side of the slab to be conservative in the design,
as well as make construction simpler.

5.2 Design for Shear

From the design envelope, the maximum shear on the slab at the face of the web is 944 lbs.

Since ultimate shear along the slab is less than the one half the shear capacity of the concrete,
no shear reinforcement is needed in the slab.
6. Girder Design
6.1 Flexure Design of Critical Sections
6.1.1 Negative Moment

The maximum negative bending moment can be observed from the design envelope. The
maximum negative moment is 1667 kip-ft at the face of the bent cap.
6.1.1.1 Effective Width Negative Bending
The effective width is 100 in. The total length of the top flange is 200 in. No portion needs to
be ignored for the fiber discretization.





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A MATLAB function was written for fiber discretization and was run to determine the design
moment envelope for the slab with differing bar numbers and spacing. A copy of this function
can be seen in the appendix. This code also checks to make sure that each design passes
1.2*M
cr
. A summary of some of these outputs is shown below in table 3.

Table 3

The most economical design that passes these internal checks was selected for the design. It
was determined that 14 #9 bars should be used with 10 of those bars in the top layer and 4
bars below the others. This will make it easier later to try and remove some of the bars. The
design capacity for this case is listed below:

The output from the MATLAB beam discretization algorithm can be checked by the following
equation which is a rough estimate for the total capacity:

This approximation is a conservative estimate for the capacity. As you can see the capacity is
slightly lower than the beam discretization value, but is close enough to show the discretization
program is accurate.

Another design check is to make sure the design capacity is greater than 1.2 times the cracking
moment.
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Because the capacity is greater than both 1.2 times the cracking moment (Mcr), and the
maximum moment (Mu), this design will be sufficient.
6.1.2 Positive Moment

The maximum positive bending moment can be observed from the design moment envelope at
1280 kip-ft in the middle of the span on the right.

6.1.2.1 Effective Width Positive Bending
The effective width is 50 in. The total length of the bottom flange is 104 in., so 4 in. can be
ignored for the fiber discretization.

A MATLAB function was written for fiber discretization and was run to determine the design
moment envelope for the slab with differing bar numbers and spacing. A copy of this function
can be seen in the appendix. This code also checks to make sure that each design passes
1.2*M
cr
. A summary of some of these outputs is shown below in table 4.

Table 4

The most economical design that passes these internal checks was selected for the design. It
was determined that 10 #9 bars should be used with 6 of those bars in the bottom most layer,
and 4 bars above the others. This will help later to give the option of removing some of the
reinforcement. The design capacity for this case is listed below:
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The output from the MATLAB beam discretization algorithm can be checked by the following
equation which is a rough estimate for the total capacity.

Another design check is to make sure the design capacity is greater than 1.2 times the cracking
moment.

Because the capacity is greater than both 1.2 times the cracking moment (Mcr), and the
maximum moment (Mu), this design will be sufficient.

6.2 Design for Shear

From the shear design envelope the maximum shear value along the slab is 182 kips at the
bent cap.

From the above relationships for shear, we can see that we have shear in all three zones. To
be conservative, and for ease of construction, we will design for Type 3 across the entire length
of the bridge.
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Bar spacing for type 3 is as follows:

We need to round down, for simplicity lets use 10 inches for the stirrup spacing.

For type 3 shear, the calculation for required area of stirrups is used below:

We see that we require 0.556 square inches. We will use 4 #4 bars for our stirrups.

Now we need to check the design strength for 4 #4 bars 8" center to center.

The shear capacity is more than adequate for this section. The design capacity is about 215
kips while the maximimum shear felt on the girder is only 182 kips.
7. Development of Longitudinal Reinforcement and Miscellaneous
Requirements
7.1 Slab Reinforcement
7.1.1 Longitudinal Bar Development

For negative bending, all distances are from the right or left of web of the box girder. Because
there is negative moment over nearly every section of the slab, there will be reinforcement
along the top of the entire slab. These calculations are assuming we are looking at left side of
the idealized slab in Figure 21. The clear span distance to the left is 48 inches and 76 inches to
the right.
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Longitudinal bar cut-off can theoretically happen in the center of the span 34.2 inches from the
center of the left web, and 20.1 inches from the center of the right web. The cut-off distance
calculations can be seen below:


We will ignore cutoff length because the distance from the face of the webs to the center of the
span is only 38 inches. Following the development lengths, left and right of the web would
connect them in the center of the span anyway.


The bar development length is also a problem because it is 17 inches long. There is moment
near the end of the flanges of the slab due to the loading conditions. For this reason, we will
detail the bar development length for a hook as follows:
The bar development length for hooks will be 10 inches for ease of construction.
Bar development length for the positive bending is the same for negative because it is the same
exact design. Since the positive moment ends at the same locations as the theoretical cutoff
distances for negative bending, there is more than enough distance to develop the bars for
positive bending. For ease of construction, we will extend positive longitudinal reinforcement to
the ends of the slab.
Theoretical cut-off distance to the right of the web
Theoretical cut-off distance to the right of the web
Bar development length to right of the web
Bar development length to right of the web
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7.1.2 Shrinkage and Temperature
For temperature and shrinkage, we will use #4 bars. The equation below is used to determine
the spacing:

We will round the spacing down and use spacing of 12 inches center to center.

7.2 Girder Reinforcement
7.2.1 Longitudinal Bar Development
7.2.1.1 Negative Bending
For negative bending bar development length, all distances are from the right or left of the bent
cap at mid-span of the bridge as seen in Figure 33. The clear spans from the left and right are
equal from the column face.
We will try to remove approximately 1/3 of the total bars for negative reinforcement. We will
go from 14 #9 bars to only having the top 10 #9 bars. The remaining 10 bars will be referred
to as "A" bars. The output from the MATLAB beam discretization can be seen below for the "A"
bars:

We notice immediately by removing the 1/3 of the bars and only having these A bars the
capacity is now less than 1.2 times the cracking moment. Because of this, we will not reduce
any number of bars throughout the negative reinforcement.



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Structural Concrete Design

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To be conservative, assume the larger value of 206.5 in. from either side of the bent cap is
where we can end our negative bending reinforcement. For constructability, round bar cutoff
lengths to 208 in. from either face of the column.
7.2.1.2 Positive Bending
Next we will try to remove approximately 1/3 of the total bars for positive reinforcement. We
will go from 10#9 bars to only having the top 6 #9 bars. The remaining 6 bars will be referred
to as "A" bars. The output from the MATLAB beam discretization can be seen below for the "A"
bars:

We notice immediately that by removing the 1/3 of the bars and only having these A bars, the
capacity is now less than 1.2 times the cracking moment. Because of this we will not remove
any bars throughout the negative reinforcement.

Bar development length for positive bending:

Theoretical cut-off distance to the right of the column
Theoretical cut-off distance to the right of the column
Bar development length to right of the column
Bar development length to right of the column
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Structural Concrete Design

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An additional requirement is having a minimum bearing clearance from the center of the
bearing to the hook for positive bending. The equation is listed below:

The actual bearing clearance is 21.5 in., which is greater than the minimum bearing clearance,
as well as the development length for the hook
Since we are not reducing any bars in the positive reinforcement, we will continue the
reinforcement along the entire bottom section of the girder.

7.2.2 Shrinkage and Temperature
For temperature and shrinkage bars, we will use #4 bars. The equation below is used to
determine the spacing:

We will round the spacing down and use spacing of 12 inches center to center.







8 Column Design
8.1 Interaction Diagrams
A MATLAB code was used to discretize a column. For this design we chose a 4-6 column. A
driver function ran the discretization for the column code for multiple p
l
ratios which are the
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Structural Concrete Design

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area of the steel divided by the gross area of the column. This code assumed 8 bars were used
for reinforcement to run. The interaction diagram can be seen below:



Figure 44






8.2 P
u
,M
u
Combinations
The table below lists all the P
u
and M
u
combinations that are taken from the four different load
combinations. For each value of P
u
,

there is a moment at the top and bottom of the columns.
The absolute values are taken for all of the M
u
values and these values are plotted onto the
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Structural Concrete Design

AN # $ % & '

interaction diagrams generated in MATLAB. These values are annotated with black xs and can
be seen in Figure 45.

Table 5



Figure 45 P
u
M
u
Pairs Plotted on Interaction Diagram



From this Interaction Diagram it is obvious that all P
u
,

M
u
pairs lie within the 0.01 range. Below
we tabulate the required area and bars needed for the column:

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Structural Concrete Design

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We will try #11 bars.

Round up to even number of bars
.
We will use 16 #11 bars in the column design.
8.3 Shear Design

Now we need to check the design strength for #4 bars with an unknown spacing. First, we will
find the shear strength provided by the concrete.

Next, we need to determine the shear strength provided by the reinforcement. There are two
regions along the column: the critical and non-critical regions. The critical region is defined as
l
o
, which is the distance from the bottom and the top of the column and is calculated as follows:

There is a spacing for the critical section, S
cr_min
, and a different spacing for the non-critical
section, S
min.
Both of them are defined below:
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Structural Concrete Design

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To be conservative, we will use the S
cr_min
value which is smaller than the S
min
distance. Shear
spacing for the entire column will be 4 center to center.

8.4 Longitudinal Bar Development
The bar development for longitudinal bars in compression is calculated below from ACI 12.3.2:

Therefore, a 22 in. minimum development length is needed from the column into the bottom of
the bent cap and into the top of the pile.

Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

AC # $ % & '

9 Drawings
9.1 Slab

%&'()* +, 9=%> 6':%7= %: P%-' 2* U'>
9.2 Girder


%&'()* +- B+2.. 9'-:72, 2* ?7+4'+ Z7:G )'7,*2+-'8',:
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Structural Concrete Design

/I # $ % & '


%&'()* +. ?7+4'+ B+2.. 9'-:72, 6':%7= 2* )'7,*2+-'8',:

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Structural Concrete Design

/" # $ % & '

9.3 Full Span

%&'()* +/ ?7+4'+ P3== 9;%, Z7:G )'7,*2+-'8',:



%&'()* 01 6':%7= 2* 0'%+7,& B='%+%,-' 67.:%,-'
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Structural Concrete Design

/5 # $ % & '


%&'()* 02 6':%7= *2+ T'&%:7J' )'7,*2+-'8',: B3:2**
9.4 Column

%&'()* 03 B2=38, )'7,*2+-'8',: D%M23:
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Structural Concrete Design

/A # $ % & '


%&'()* 04 B+2.. 9'-:72, 2* B2=38,

%&'()* 0+ B2=38, 6':%7=
Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

// # $ % & '

Appendix
A.1 Time Sheet

A.2 MATLAB Functions
A.2.1 Discretize Girder Function
function[n,phi_M_N] = fiber_discretize_girder_negative(bar_number,N1,N2)
f_c=5; %ksi
h=33; %inches
f_y = 60; %ksi
d_b = bar_number/8; %inches
A_s1 = N1*(pi*d_b^2)/4;
A_s2 = N2*(pi*d_b^2)/4;
for n = 2:100
Beta = 0.85 - (f_c-4)/20;
a=n*h/100;
y_c=linspace(h/200,h-h/100,100);
Area(1:24)=200*h/100; %inches^2 %Effective flange width is only 50" not 52" per the code
Area(25:82)=2*14*h/100;
Area(83:101)=104*h/100;
y=(0:h/100:h);
a = n*h/100; %depth of compression center
c = a/Beta;
si = .003/c;
for i=1:101
strain_steel(i) = si*(h - c - y(i));
end
location_bar_bottom = ceil((1.5+0.5+d_b/2)/(h/100)); %Include an extra 1/2 inch for the shear stirrups
location_bar_top = floor((8-1.5-d_b/2)/(h/100));
if ((location_bar_top - location_bar_bottom)*.33 < d_b) && ((location_bar_top - location_bar_bottom)*.33 < 1)
fprintf('***********************************not enough bar spacing ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough bar spacing ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough bar spacing ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough bar spacing ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
'top layer cannot be in the bottom must go in the web'
location_bar_top = ceil(((1.5+0.5+d_b+max(1,d_b)+d_b/2)/(h/100))) %Reassigns top layer if it can't fit in the bottom
flange
end
strain_steel(1:location_bar_bottom-1)=0; strain_steel(location_bar_bottom+1:location_bar_top-1)=0;
strain_steel(location_bar_top+1:101)=0;
E_steel = 29000; %ksi
for i =1:101
f_steel(i)= sign(strain_steel(i))*min(abs(strain_steel(i))*E_steel,f_y); %stress of the steel
end
A_s(1:101)=0;
A_s(location_bar_bottom)=A_s1; A_s(location_bar_top)=A_s2;
for i=1:101
F_steel(i)=A_s(i)*f_steel(i); %forces of steel
end
F_concrete(1:101)=0;
for i=101:-1:103-n
F_concrete(i)=-.85*f_c*Area(i); %forces in concrete
end
Compression_concrete = sum(F_concrete);
Compression_steel = F_steel*(F_steel(:)<0); %sums only the negative values of steel forces
Compression = Compression_concrete + Compression_steel; %Total compressive forces
Tension = F_steel*( F_steel(:)>0); %sums all the positive forces in the steel
Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

/< # $ % & '

Error(n) = Tension + Compression;
M_n(n) = -(F_concrete(2:101)*y_c' + F_steel(2:101)*y_c')/12; %Moment in kip-ft
M_N = (((M_n(n-1) - M_n(n))*(0 - Error(n)))/(Error(n-1) - Error(n)) + M_n(n)); %Interpolation for zero error
d_t = h - 3;
phi_calc = 0.65 + 0.25*(1/(c/d_t) - 5/3);
if phi_calc > 0.65 && phi_calc < 0.9
phi=phi_calc;
end
if phi_calc < .65 %these statements say that 0.65 < phi < 0.9
phi=.65;
end
if phi_calc > 0.9
phi= .9;
end
if Error(n)*Error(n-1) < 0 %if there is a sign change in error leave the loop
break
end
end
phi_M_N= phi*M_N;
if n > 99
fprintf('***********************************not enough reinforcement ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough reinforcement ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough reinforcement ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough reinforcement ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough reinforcement ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
fprintf('***********************************not enough reinforcement ==>> go to
jail*************************************\n');
phi_M_N=0;
end
if phi_M_N < 1.2*1149 %M_cr in Kip-ft
fprintf('***********************************does not pass M_cr check ==>> go to jail
*************************************\n');
end
end


A.2.2 Discretize Column Function
function[phi_M_N,phi_P_n] = fiber_discretize_column(A_s,n)
N=8; %# of bars
f_c=5; %ksi
f_y = 60; %ksi
layers=N/2 +1;
A_s1=A_s/8;
d_b = sqrt(4*A_s1/pi); %inches
d= 54; %diameter of colun in inches
r=d/2; %radius of column in inches
y_c=linspace(d/200,d-d/200,100);
yy=linspace(r-r/100,r/100,50); %finds the first 51 centroid points of y
for i = 1:50
x(i)=(r^2-yy(i)^2)^(1/2);
end
x_c(1:50)=x;
x_c(51:100)=fliplr(x);
for i = 1:100
Area(i)=x_c(i)*2*d/100;
end
Beta = 0.85 - (f_c-4)/20;
y=(0:d/100:d);
a = n*d/100; %depth of compression center
c = a/Beta;
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Structural Concrete Design

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si = .003/c;
R=r-1.5-.5;
vert_dist1 = r-(r-1.5-0.5-d_b/2)*sind(45);%vert_space = (d-2*1.5-2*.5-2*d_b);
vert_dist2 = r;
vert_dist3 = r+(r-1.5-0.5-d_b/2)*sind(45);
for i=1:100
strain_steel(i) = si*(d - c - y_c(i));
end
location_bar_bottom = ceil((1.5+0.5+d_b/2)/(d/100));
location_bar_middle1 = ceil((vert_dist1)/(d/100));
location_bar_middle2 = ceil((vert_dist2)/(d/100));
location_bar_middle3 = ceil((vert_dist3)/(d/100));
location_bar_top = floor((d - 1.5 - 0.5 - d_b/2)/(d/100));
strain_steel(1:location_bar_bottom-1)=0;
strain_steel(location_bar_bottom+1:location_bar_middle1-1)=0;
strain_steel(location_bar_middle1+1:location_bar_middle2-1)=0;
strain_steel(location_bar_middle2+1:location_bar_middle3-1)=0;
strain_steel(location_bar_middle3+1:location_bar_top-1)=0;
strain_steel(location_bar_top+1:100)=0;
E_steel = 29000; %ksi
for i =1:100
f_steel(i)= sign(strain_steel(i))*min(abs(strain_steel(i))*E_steel,f_y); %stress of the steel
end
A_s(1:100)=0;
A_s(location_bar_bottom)=A_s1; A_s(location_bar_top)=A_s1;
A_s(location_bar_middle1)=2*A_s1; A_s(location_bar_middle2)=2*A_s1;
A_s(location_bar_middle3)=2*A_s1;
for i=1:100
F_steel(i)=A_s(i)*f_steel(i); %forces of steel
end
F_concrete(1:100)=0;
for i=100:-1:101-n
F_concrete(i)=-.85*f_c*Area(i); %forces in concrete
end
Compression_concrete = sum(F_concrete);

Compression_steel = F_steel*(F_steel(:)<0); %sums only the negative values of steel forces
Compression = Compression_concrete + Compression_steel; %Total compressive forces
Tension = F_steel*(F_steel(:)>0); %sums all the positive forces in the steel
P_n = Tension + Compression;
M_n = -(F_concrete*y_c' + F_steel*y_c' + -P_n*d/2)/12; %Moment in kip-ft
d_t = d - 3;
phi_calc = 0.65 + 0.25*(1/(c/d_t) - 5/3);
if phi_calc > 0.65 && phi_calc < 0.9
phi=phi_calc;
end
if phi_calc < .65 %these statements say that 0.65 < phi < 0.9
phi=.65;
end
if phi_calc > 0.9
phi= .9;
end
phi_M_N= phi*M_n;
phi_P_n= phi*P_n;
end

A.2.3 Generate Interaction Plot Function
function[phi_M_N,phi_P_n] = interaction_plots()
close all
f_c=5; f_y=60; %ksi
d=54; %diameter in inches
Ag= pi*d^2/4; %Gross Area in inches
for i = 1:6
Pn_max = -0.8*0.65*(.85*f_c*(Ag-Ag*i/100) + Ag*(i/100)*f_y); %max value for compression
for n = 1:100
Sycamore Canyon Pedestrian Bridge
Structural Concrete Design

/@ # $ % & '

[phi_M_N(n,i),phi_P_n(n,i)] = fiber_discretize_column(Ag*i/100,n)
end
end
hold all
plot(phi_M_N(:,1),phi_P_n(:,1))
plot(phi_M_N(:,2),phi_P_n(:,2))
plot(phi_M_N(:,3),phi_P_n(:,3))
plot(phi_M_N(:,4),phi_P_n(:,4))
plot(phi_M_N(:,5),phi_P_n(:,5))
plot(phi_M_N(:,6),phi_P_n(:,6))
xlabel('phi*M_n'),ylabel('phi*P_n'),title('Interaction Diagram Column Diameter 54"')
hleg1 = legend('0.01','0.02','0.03','0.04','0.05','0.06');
Pu=-[302;302;388;388;323;323;323;323];
set(gca,'YDir','reverse');
Mu=[801;423;1028;550;687;683;1027;287];
plot(Mu,Pu,'x')
end