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# A8

Harmonic Motion
of a Maxwell Model
Trigonometric Notation
Starting with a sinusoidal input of strain in a Maxwell element (see Chapter 3), we derive the resulting
sinusoidal stress. First we let the strain e be a function of a maximum or peak strain e
0
and time t with a
frequency u:
e Z3
0
sin ut A8:1
For the Maxwell element:
de
dt
Z
1
E
ds
dt
C
s
lE
A8:2
Differentiating Equation A8.1:
de
dt
Zu3
0
cos ut A8:3
Rearranging Equation A8.2:
ds
dt
C
s
l
Zue
0
E cos ut A8:4
This is a simple linear differential equation of the form
dy
dx
CPy ZQ
The general solution for such an equation, when P and Q are functions of x only, is
y expj Z

expjQdx CC; j Z

Pdx A8:5
For Equation A8.4, the analogy is
j Z
t
l
A8:6
A8-1
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
s exp
t
l

Zue
0
E

exp
t
l

cos ut dt CC A8:7
s exp
t
l

Z
ue
0
El
1 Cu
2
l
2
cos ut Cul sin utexp
t
l

CC A8:8
or
s Z
ul
1 Cu
2
l
2
e
0
Ecos ut Cul sin ut CC exp
Kt
l

A8:9
The second term on the right is a transient one which drops out in the desired steady-state solution
for t/lOO1.
Let us now dene an angel d by
tan d Z
1
ul
Z
sin d
cos d
and sin d Z
1
1 Cu
2
l
2

1=2
A8:10
Then, making use of trigonometric identities:
cos ut Cul sin ut Z
cos utsin d
sin d
C
sin utcos d
sin d
A8:11
Z
sinut Cd
sin d
A8:12
Z1 Cu
2
l
2

1=2
sinut Cd A8:13
Finally, combining Equation. A8.13 and Equation A8.9 with the transient term dropped, one arrives at
s Z
ul
1 Cu
2
l
2

1=2
e
0
E sinut Cd A8:14
Complex Notation
Starting with a complex strain, the real part of which is the actual strain:
e

Ze
0
expiut A8:15
The motion of the Maxwell element, in terms of a complex stress and strain, is
de

dt
Z
1
E
ds

dt
C
s

lE
A8:16
Differentiating Equation A8.15:
de

dt
Ziue
0
expiut A8:17
A8-2 Plastics Technology Handbook
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Rearranging Equation A8.16 and Equation A8.17:
ds

dt
C
s

l
ZE
de

dt
Ziue
0
E expiut ZQ A8:18
As in Equation A8.5, the general solution is
s

exp
t
l

Z

exp
t
l

Qdt CC A8:19

exp
t
l
Qdt Ziu3
0
E

expiut C
t
l
dt
Z
iu3
0
E expiut Ct=l
iuC1=l
A8:20
Substitution and rearrangement yields
s

Z
iu3
0
lE exp iut
iul C1
CC exp K
t
l

A8:21
Once again, the second term on the right-hand side is a transient term that drops out at t/lOO1.
Multiplying both numerator and denominator by 1Kiul and substituting e* for its equivalent, e
0
exp(iut) gives
s

Z
u
2
l
2
e

E Ciule

E
1 Cu
2
l
2
A3:22
Rearranging gives
s

Z
Eu
2
l
2
1 Cu
2
l
2
C
iEul
1 Cu
2
l
2
A3:23
The denition of complex E* is
E

ZE
0
CiE
00
Z
s

A3:24
Comparing Equation A8.23 and Equation A8.24 one concludes that
E
0
Z
Eu
2
l
2
1 Cu
2
l
2
and E
00
Eul
1 Cu
2
l
2
A3:25
The dynamic modulus E
0
, which is the real component of E*, is associated with energy storage and release
in the periodic deformation and is therefore called the storage modulus. The imaginary part of the
modulus, E
00
, is associated with viscous energy dissipation and is called the loss modulus (see Chapter 3
for more details).
Harmonic Motion of a Maxwell Model A8-3
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC