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Laporan Akhir Praktikum

Analisis Struktur Material










Nama : Kent Chester
NPM : 1306437252
Kelompok : II



Laboratorium Metalografi dan HST
Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia
2014
CHAPTER 1 SAMPLE PREPARATION
1.1 Cutting
This process was not done and we skipped into mounting directly.
1.2 Mounting
1.2.1 Purpose of mounting
Mounting is a method of placing a sample in a media in order to ease handling the
small size and irregular shape of the sample without damage it.
The small-sized specimen or specimen that does not have regularity form will be
hard to be handled, especially when they are on the stage of grinding and polishing.
This happens in specimen such as wire, thin metal sheet, thin cut etc. These
specimen must be placed in a media (mounting media) to ease the handling. In
general the requirements that mounting media must have are:
-It should be inert (unreactive to the material and the etching solution)
-It has low exothermic
-It has low viscosity
-It is adhesive
-It has the same strength with the sample
-It has good flowability, is able to get into the irregular pore, hole or cavity that
exist in the sample
-Especially to electroetching and SEM testing, the mounting media must be
condusive.
Mounting media is made of resin and hardener. The process was done by the lab
assistant. The resin in liquid form was added until it reaches less than half a cup for
hardening the resin hardener is added for about 15 drops. The mixture is then left
until it hardens. Time depends on the quality of the hardener used.

1.2.2 Tools and Materials
-Small cylindrical object for the base.
-resin
-hardener
-tape

1.2.3 Flowchart of the process



1.2.4 Analysis of individual sample mounting
The Results of mounting is good, we have been introduced how to mount the
specimen carefully with resin and hardener, but because of the time needed to wait
is too long, so we can just see the result. The results is a non bubbled Al-Si that have
a good makrostructure that can easy to do the Sample preparation.

1.2.5 Analysis of group sample mounting
The Sample mounting of the other specimen is good too, the parameter of how good
or not is based on how the specimen not being damaged or have any defects on it.

1.3 Grinding
1.3.1 Purpose of grinding
In view of the perfection required in an ideally prepared metallographic sample, it is
essential that each preparation stage be carefully performed. The specimen must:
Take small hollow
cylindrical object.
Pour resin until it is
1/3 full.
Add hardener and
the sample
Leave the mixture
until it hardens
DONE!!!
1. Be free from scratches, stains and others imperfections which tend to mark the
surface.
2. Retain non-metallic inclusions.
3. Reveal no evidence of chipping due to brittle intermetallic compounds and
phases.
4. Be free from all traces of disturbed metal.
The purpose of the coarse grinding stage is to generate the initial flat surface
necessary for the subsequent grinding and polishing steps. In the experiment we
used many abrasive papers with different units ranging from 80-1000. The 80 with
the highest abrasive power.

1.3.2 Tools and Materials
Abrasive paper
Sample
Water
Rotating grinding machine

1.3.3 Flow Chart

1.3.4 Analysis of individual sample grinding
Remove the cover of
grinding machine
and put abrasive
paper.
Close it back, start
the machine with
the desired speed
and place the object.
Add water
periodically to
remove friction.
Keep grinding until
the required surface
is achieved.
DONE!!!
By grinding the AlSi, we can know the differences of Abrasive paper and how it can
do or affect the specimen we want to grind. AlSi can be easily grinding, it just need
one or two minutes to finish the grinding.



1.3.5 Analysis of group sample grinding
The other materials, like Low Carbon Steel and CuZn is harder to grind for. It can be
grind, but need extra effort to make the specimen lost it straight parallel line on it.
1.4 Polishing
1.4.1 Purpose of polishing
Polishing is the most important step in preparing a specimen for microstructural
analysis. It is the step which is required to completely eliminate previous damage.
Ideally the amount of damage produced during cutting and grinding was minimized
through proper blade and abrasive grinding so that polishing can be minimized.To
remove deformation from fine grinding and obtain a surface that is highly reflective,
the specimens must be polished before they can be examined under the microscope.
Polishing is a complex activity in which factors such as quality and suitability for the
cloth, abrasive, polishing pressure, polishing speed and duration need to be taken
into account. The quality of the surface obtained after the final polishing depends on
all these factors and the finish of the surface on completion of each of the previous
stages.
1.4.2 Tools and Materials
Chemical (aluminum oxide)
Water
Rotating polish machine
1.4.3 Flowchart


1.4.3 Analysis of individual sample polishing
Eventhough AL Si is easily grinded, but it is harder to being polished. It takes time to
make all the straight line disappeared.
1.4.4 Analysis of group sample polishing
In the other hand, Low Carbon High Temperature Sttel, have a more chance to be a
full polished materials, it looks like a mirror.
1.5 Etching
1.5.1 Purpose of etching
Metallographic etching is the process of revealing microstructural details that would
otherwise not be evident on the as-polished sample. Etching is not always required
as some features are visible in the as-polished condition such as porosity, cracks and
inclusions. A properly prepared specimen will reveal properties such as grain size,
segregation, and the shape, size, and distribution of the phases and inclusions that
are present, while other aspects such as mechanical deformation and thermal
treatments may also be able to be determined.
1.5.2 Tools and Materials
Sample
Take sample after
grinding
Turn on the
polishing machine
Add chemical and
water periodically
Polish the sample
until the scratches
are gone
DONE!!!
Chemical used (Hydrofloric acid, picral, nital, Ferric Chloride)
Dryer
1.5.3 Flowchart

1.5.4 Analysis of individual sample etching
In Etching, the HF is added into the etching process, for 15 times etch, and alcohol
helps, it create a good etch for AL Si
1.5.5 Analysis of group sample etching
Not all of the etching is success, there are a overethcing and underetching, the
microstructure after the checking is differ too.







Take sample after
polishing
Clean the sample
with water
Prepare the
chemicals as required
by the sample
Dip the sample for
certain period of time
and then dry it
DONE!!!
Chapter II
Micro and Macrostructure Photos Observation and Analysis
II.1 Objective
a. Analyze the micro and Macrostructure and properties.
b. Recognize the phases in the microstructure.
c. Calculating the phase percentage and grain size using manual or Image Analyzer
software.
d. Knowing the process of capturing images of microstructures

II.2 Tools and Material
a. Preparation Sample after Etching (Specimen : AlSi, High Temperature Steel, Carbon
Steel, NiCu)
b. Microscope

II.3 Flowchart Process


II.4 Photo and Makrostructure Analysis
II.4.1 Photos of Makrostructure and Comparation with literature
Discussion of
photomicrograph
Prepare the
specimen
Use Olympus
Microscope on the
Specimen
Observe the
Specimen
Sketch the basic
microstructural
features
Identify the
features on
photomicrographs

Al-Si 200x

AlSi Literature

Cu 50x

Cu Literature
II.4.2 Photo Makrostructure Analysis Experiment Vs Literature
For Aluminum, The Colour is White and Blue, it is can be forged, tough, have a light
mass. In the Makrostructure, it seems like a ceramics, have a lot of grain and in the
experiment, the results is not too good, because it still left the parallel lines. Not like the
literature the microstructure is not with any parallel lines. (line defect)
For Copper, the material characteristic is not too far than the Alumunium. The
differences is just copper more heavy than Al.
In the otherhand, the Copper, in the literature, have lots of defect and Void in the
experiment photos, but it also happen in the literature eventhought the quantity is small.

II.5 Photo dan Analysis Sampel Mikrostruktur
II.5.1 Photo Analysis Structure

Low Carbon 500x

Low Carbon Literature

Martensite 500x

II.5.2 Analysis Photo Mikrostructure Experiment vs Literature
For the Low Carbon, the material is no more ductile if we compare it with the
martensite materials. In the low carbon one, the experiment show that it still have left the
line defect, also have lots of void across the center granular. It show how the low carbon
have a little ductile. It seems that in the literature, its more a ductility phases than the
experiment.
For the martensites, the material is in the martensite phases. So the material must
be so sharps like the literature. But, in the experiment, it cannot be seeing clearly because
of overetch and the line defect is too big.


CHAPTER 3: JOMINY AND HST TEST
3.1 JOMINY TEST
3.1.1 DATA AND GRAPHIC OF JOMINY TEST
a. Data
Distance From
Quenching Media
(mm)
Hardness
(HRB)
6 93
12 90.4
21 92.4
29 93.6
34 72.7
45 87.1
51 81.2
60 83.7
68 79.8
71 78.2
b. Graphic

c. Example of Calculation
BHN Formula:

BHN
2 P
( D) (D D
2
d
2
)

We didnt have any example calculation since the lab assistant did it for us.
3.1.2 DATA AND GRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF JOMINY TEST
The data shows the fact that the further the distance from the quenching media, the
smaller the hardness of a material will be (HRB). In this review paper we have studied the
importance of Jominy test in metallurgy and change in hardenability of different steels due
to change in alloying elements in steels using jominy test. We have noticed that their
variations are related to micro structural change. We have studied standard graphs of
Jominy test for various steels. The data from Jominy test can be used to determine whether
particular steel can be sufficiently hardened in different quenching media, for different
section diameters.
Heat treatment given to a type of material greatly influence the final mechanical
properties of the material. Therefore the heat treatment, sometimes with different
purposes, there is increasing violence, or some are even actually aimed at increasing
toughness with little expense violence. Therefore, to analyze the final properties of the
material should be considered heat treatment they experienced.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Hardness (HRB)
Combination of heating and cooling process that aims to change the microstructure
and mechanical properties of metals called heat treatment. Jominy testing has been
standardized by ASTM, SAE, and AISI. After the samples were heated up to 920
o
C, the
sample will be cooled in running water. Samples will respond to cooling required. The
bottom of the sample by flowing water will experience the most rapid cooling and the
bottom will be formed up which called martensite phase and the top is ferrite phase.
Martensite phase indicates that the sample has a hardness level of the loudest. Instead
ferrite phase showed the most lenient level of violence among other phase.
The faster the rate of cooling, the martensite is formed will be more and the nature
of violence will be higher. And the longer the cooling rate, the chances of the formation of
martensite would be even smaller. This is because in the sample had a slower cooling rate
of diffusion of carbon which lead to the formation of phase ferrite, pearlite, or bainite
where these phases have a lower hardness than martensite phase.
Variables that can affect this experiment include:
a. Austenisation temperature and time
If the temperature is reduced, then there is no hardness. And if the time
required becomes excessive, then the grain growth and the toughness to be poor
or fragile. If the austenite temperature is high, it will get a large austenite grains.
Meanwhile, when the austenite temperature is low, it will get small grains. The
effect of austenite temperature is not only for grain growth, but also for
hardness. The high temperature will result the higher hardness. This is due to
the high austenite temperatures which will assist carbon dissolved in austenite
and will transform to martensite because levels of carbon trapped in the crystal
structure is more. Whereas with lower temperatures, it will not produce
maximum hardness.
b. The speed of cooling
If the speed cooling is fast, then the hardness gained will be harder.
Conversely, if the cooling is done by a long, well-formed phase will not be too
hard.
Jominy experiment aims to determine how much material has martensite phase,
predict how the hardness is achieved, and compare the hardness of a material with its
standard. Jominy curve can be determined by the relationship between the speed of the
cooling phase is formed and get violent nature.

3.2 HST TEST
3.2.1 DATA RESULTS AND COMPARISON WITH OTHER GROUP
Media: Water


Group 1.
Hardness
(HRB)
86.4
86.2
88.6
Media: Air
Group 3.
Hardness
(HRB)
72.8
81.7
82.9
Media: Oil
Hardness
(HRB)
108.1
109.2
109.9
Calculations:
The Hardness test was using ASTM E18 Standard test method for Rockwell Hardness
Testing. ASTM E18 is a method of determining hardness by measuring how deep an
indenter pushes into a metal under a given load. We know that Rockwell Hardness
Testing did not use particular calculation, which means the machine did all the work.

3.2.2 TESTING ANALYSIS
We group two, we use water as the media for Heat & Surface Treatment. Group
one use air as the media and group three use oil as the media. Based on the result above,
we can conclude that water is the best media for heat and surface treatment test since
the average of hardness resulted is much greater than when using oil and air only.
In heat treatment, there are many ways of doing the experiment. Heat treatment
techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering
and quenching. In this test that is done by three groups, two techniques were used for
doing the test. The techniques are the annealing and quenching techniques.
Group one uses the annealing techniques which was the normalizing.
Normalizing is a technique used to provide uniformity in grain size and composition
throughout an alloy. The term is often used for ferrous alloys that have been
austenitized and then cooled in open air. Normalizing gives harder and stronger, even
though not more ductile steel. Group one uses this techniques and have the average
results of hardness which is 87.067.
Group three uses the quenching technique and using oil for cooling media or
quenchant. To harden by quenching, a metal must be heated above the upper critical
temperature and then quickly cooled. Depending on the alloy and other considerations
(such as concern for maximum hardness vs. cracking and distortion), cooling may be
done with forced air or other gases, (such as nitrogen). Liquids may be used, due to
their better thermal conductivity, such as oil, water, a polymer dissolved in water, or
a brine. Using the same technique as our group, but with different media, group three
have the hardness average result which is 79.13.
Our group have the average result of 109.067 HRB. With all this results, our
group have the largest average of hardness. From the analysis this group have made, we
reach the analysis that between these two techniques, none have advantages since the
data is very limited. But from the data we can gathered, since we have the largest results
of hardness, it means that using quenching with water is one of the better ways to
harden a metal.

Bab 4
Conclusion
III. Conclusion
III.1 Conclusion
The experiment of metallography is based on how we wanted to recreate the
material we wanted by checking its ductility and brittleness, we can find it by
conducting a sample preparation process and also Microsctructure observation process.
The other experiment like jominy experiment also conclude the same conclusion but
with different way and different purposes, that is to see the quenching of material
phase.
III.2 Critism
The experiment is already good, but still need lots of improvement like how to
take a photos in the microscope, how to mounting, how to heat treatment but each
process need to be observe if its important.

Reference

15483 ITSundregraduate.pdf
Mmodul.mesintalic