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Du. WEIL hne stated in his Introduotion to these
Legends, that he chiey extracted them from original
Arabie rooords, whieh are still l'eceived by Mohn.-
medans as the inspired biographies of the anoient
patriarohs and prophete.
It must still furt4er be added that the leading
i(leas of these Mohamedan legends, i. e. their pro-
minent bistorical narratives, and the dootrines and
precepts whieh they either state expressly, or imply,
are oontained in the Koran. In some instances it
gives thcir minutcstpartieulars. Indeed it would
Beem as if these legende formed part at least of
"hat tbe founder of the Mohamedan faith terms
"the mother of the book, " indicating that tbey
preceded bis Koran in order of time, and embodied
thc gorm of that faith whieh he subscquently
A 2
This idea is suggested by the ]earned Germm.
compiler, and is corroborated by tbe fact tbat tbe
legends were unknown to the Ambs before Mobamed
began to preacb, w bile in the Koran be refers to
them as already familiar to bis heil.rerB.
But 1>0 this aB it may, it is oortain that tbe
fact of tlleir leading idcas. being found in tbe
Koran, investe tbem with divine authority to the
faithful Moslem, for it is a primary artiele oe his
creed tbat every tbing cOntained in the Koran is oe
Allah. On first reading these legende it theref'ore
occurrcd to tllo writer that thcy migbt be a valuable
acquisition; as an epitome oe Mobamedan theology and
morals. And their peeuJiar eharacter, their constant
allusion to scriptural f'acts, with wbich most Bible
readerS strongly identiCy themselves, their novel and
gorgeoui and often sublime inventions, inve8ting tbem
at onoe with the fidelity 01 historica1 detail, and
the freshness and faseination of Oriental fietion, seem
to fit them espeeially for popular instruetion. If it
be asked wbat beneSt may be derived fron. promul-
gating tbe tenete of a confessedly erroneous system,
it is replied that a distinction ought to be observed
between tbe false systems tbat bave ceased to be
believed, and th086 which are still maintained. as
divine truths by any portion of mankind.
It may be questioned whether e former ougbt at
all. to be taugbt, although there are reuons wby even
tbe exploded mytbology of tbe ancientB should be
kllO\Vll; but respecting the BCcond claB8, to whicb the
religion of Mobamed belongs, there sbould be but
one opinion.
Our Redeemer has committed to OB in part tbe
propagation of bis holy faith, by wbich alone, he
declal'es tbat mankind sball attain to that holiness,
peace, and glory for wbicb they bave been created.
The exhibition, therefore, in tbe stewards of the
Gospel, of a false religion, in which, as in the Cl\8C
before US, one hundred and twenty millions of our
irumortal race are at this moment staking their ~
Cl\llllOt but Lc importallt, at onec to awakell within
us feelings of deep and active clmrity for these be-
nightcd multitudes,and to furuish uswiththe requisite
intelligence for effectually combating their grievous
errors with the weapons of truth. '
Should tbe public feel any interest in tbis work,
tbc trallslator l)W'poscs, in a future volume, .to discuss
the legendary principle at some length, and to show
,the aualogy of its practical working in tbe J ewish,
tbe Mohamedau, and Roman Catbolic systems of
... 3
MOlLUlED has been frequently reproached with
having altered and added most arbitmrily to the re-
ligious history oE thc J cws and Christians, - two im.
portant considcmtions not being horne in
mind. In the first place, itis probable, that
hamed learned only late in lire to write, or' even to
rcad, the Arabic, and he was unquestionably ignorant
of every other spoken or written language, as is
sufficlcntly apparent from historioal testimony: hence .
he was unable to draw from the Old and New Tes
taments for himself, and WIIB restricted to
oral instruction from J ews and Christians.
Secondly, Mohamed hilDSelf declared both the
01d and N ew Testament, AB posscsscd by thc J ewe
and Christio.ns his timc, to havo been fo.lsifie<l;
and, consequently, bis own divine mission could be
expectcd to agree with those writings only in part.
But the turning-point on whicb the greo.ter portion
of tlle Koran hinges, - the doctrine of thc unit!! of
God, a doctrinc which he embraccd with the utmost
consistency, o.nd o.rmed witb wllich he appeo.rcd RS a
prophet before the pagan Ambs, who were addicted
to tbe most diversified Po!ytheism-appeared to him
muoh obsourcd in thc Gospels, and he was tberefore
f"ree(l to protest against tbcir genuincness. .
But'with regard to the writings of the Jews of' the
Old Testament, wbich he bad received from the moutb
of bis J ewish contemporaries, he was induced to be-
lieve, 01', at loost, pretended to believe, that tbey too
had undergone many cho.nges, inasmueh as Ismaei,
from whom bc wns sprung, Wl\8 ovidontly trcatcu
therein as a stepchild, or as the son of a discarded
slave, whereas Abraham's paternailove and solicitude,
as weIl as the special favour of the Lord, were the
exclusive portion of ISBac and his descendants. The
predictions respecting the Messiah, too, as declared in
the writings of the Prophets, appeared to him incom';
patible with the faith in himself 'as the seal of the Pro-
phets. Moreover, Mohamed was probably indebted ~ r
his religious education to 0. man who, abandoning the
religion of Arabio., bis na.tive country, had sought
refuge first in Judaism, and then in Christianity,
though even in the latter he does not seem to
found perfeet satisfa.ction. This man, a cousin of his
\Vife Kadidja, urged forward by an irresistible desire
after the knowledge of trutb, but, as bis repeated
apostacies would serve to show, being of '11. soeptical
nature, may disoovered the errors that bad orept
into all tbe religious systems of his time; ud baving
extraoted from them that whioh was purely Divine,
and freed it from the inventions of men, may bave
propounded it to his w80iple, who, deeply afFeoted
by its repeated inouloo.tion, at length feIt within
himself a 'oall to beoome the restorer ofthe old and
pure' religion. A J uda.ism without the many ritual
and oeremoniallaws, whioh, acoording to Mohamed's
deolaration, even Christ bad been called to abolish,
or a Christianity witbout the Trinity, crucifixion,
and BBlvation connooted therewith, - tbis was the
Creed which, in the early period of his mission,
Mobamed with unfeigned enthusiasm.
It would 'be out of place here to exhibit in detail
the' rapidly changing character both of Mobamed and
his doctrincs ; but wha.t has been said appcared indis-
pensable 1>y way of introduotion to the legende in thia
work. With the exoeption of a few later additions,
these legends are derived from himself.
Thcir essential fea.tures are found even in tbe Koran,
a.nd what ie merely alluded to there is carried out and
completed by oral traditions. Hence these legends
occupy a twof'old place in Arabic literature. Tbc
whole cirele of' the traditioDB, fl'Qm d a ~ to Christ,
containing RI they do in the view of' MU88ulmana real
and undisputod matten of fact, which aro connected
with tho fn.te of all nations, forms .tbe foundation of
tbe univenal bistory of mankind i wbile, on tbe otber
hand, they are eapeciolly made use of as the biography
of' tho Prophets wbo lived before Mohamed. It is
therof'ore highly important to n.acertain tho ground
from whicb tho lOurce of' these legends has sprung,
Ind to show tho trnsforma.tion ~ h i c h thoy uDtlcr-
went in order to serve as the fulcrum for the propa-
gation of tbe faitb in Mobamed.. .
. ncspecting the origin of these legende, it will appear
from wht haa been, that, with tbe exception of
thlt of Cbrist, it is to be found in J ewish traditions,
whoro, aa will app0r by tbo numoroUB citations from
the Midraeh, they are yot to be seen. Many traditions
rOlpecting tho prophets of the Old Testament are found
in tho Talmud, which was tben already eloeed, 80 that
there can bo DO doubt tha.t Mohomcd board tbem from
J ows, to whom they were lmown, eit1ler by Scripture
or tradition. For tht these legende were the common
property both of'Jews an.d Ambs cannot be presumed,
inasmuch aB Mohamed communicated them to the
Arabs as something new, and specially revealed to
himself; and inasmuch as the latter actually accused
him of having received instruction foreigners.
Besides Warraka, who after Mohamed's
first appearance as 110 prophet, we know of two other
individuals, who were well versed in the J ewish
writinge, and with whom he lived on intimate terms;
viz. Abd .Allah Ibn Salam, a learned J ew, and Sal-
man the Persian, who had long lived among J ews and
Chrietiane, and who, before he became a MUBBulman,
was succeBBively 110 Magian, J ew, and Chrietian. The
monk Bahim too, whom however, a.ccording to Ambic
sourccs, ho only met once, on his joumey to Bozra,
was a baptized J ew. All these legende must have
made a deep impression on a religiolls. disposition
like that of Mohamed, and have roused within bim ihe
conviction .that at vanous times, when the depmvity
of ltJ:te human race required it, GOD selected some
pious individuals to restore them oncc more to the
path of truth and goodness. And thus it might come
to pass that, having no other object than to instruct
bis contemporaries in the nature of the Deity, and to
promote tl1eir moral and spiritual improvcmcnt, ho
Inight dcsire to c10sc thc line of tho Prophots with

But theee legenda the moreespeoiaJIr furthered bis
object, inaamuch 88 in all of them' tbe Prophets are
more or less misundentood and by tbe
mAdela; but, with the aid of God, are made to
triumph 'in the ond. Thoy ware thcrefore intended
by'hirn 10lene 88 0. warning 10 bis opponents, and
10 edify and comfort bis adherents. the legend
of Abrahaui he must have seized and appropriated
with pecu1iar avidity, on account ofits special use aso.
weapon both against Jews and Chi-istians, wbile at tbe
same'time it imparted I' cortain lustre 10 oll tbe nations
of Arabia descending through lsmael from Abraham.
It is difficult to find out with precision how much
of thi. 188t legend was known in Arabia before Mo-
bamed; but it is probable 800n as the' Arabs &cquamted witb tbe Scriptures and traditions
of tbe J ews, they employed tbem in traciog down to
Mohamed theorigin both ot'tbeir race and their'tem-
pIe. But that they pOBSessed no bistorical information
respecting it, will appear from the fact that, notwith-
standing tbeir geneuJogical skill, they confess them-
selves unable to trace Mohamed's aneestry beyond the
twentieth generation. It is, bowever, quite evidetit
not ooly that the legend. of Abraham aod lsmael,
whicb related much that was favourable to'the latter,
'COncerning which the Bible is silent, but that all the
others in like manner were more or lese changed and
8Dlplified by Mohamed, and ndapted to his own pur-
poses. We are, however, inclined to ascribe these
modifications to the men by whom he was surrounded,
rather thanto himself'; for we oonsider him, at least
during the first period of bis mission, as the mere tool
of certain Arabian reformers, mther than an indepen-
prophet, or at a11 e'fents more as G dupe than a
deceiver. Yet to him unquestionably belongs the
highly poetical which we find these legends,
and which was calculated to attract and captivate the
imaginative minds of the Ambs much more than the
dull Persian fables narmted by his opponents.
In the of Christ, it is not diffi.cult to discover
the news of a baptized Jew. He acknowledges in
Christ the living W ord, and t.he Spirit of GOD, in oon ..
. tradistinction to the dend letter and the empty
nial into which J udaism bad then fallen. In the mira-
colous birth of Chtlst there is nothing incredible to
him, for was not Adam, too, created by the word of tlie
Lord? He admits all the miracles of the Gospel, for
bad not the earlier prophets also worked miracles?
Even in tbo Ascension he finds nothing strange, for
Enoch and Elias were also translated to heaven. But
tbata we propbet ahould p1ace hiroaelf and bis motIler
on a'level with tbe Moat Higb God ia repugnant to hi.
viewe, andbe tberefore rejecta this doetrine as tbe bla&o
pbemoua invention of the pl1(l8le, JIe rcfU8C8 also, in
like manuer, to believe. the Cruclfixion, it
appoon to bim to rooct upon tho juatioo of GOD,
. aud tO conffict with the hiatory of propheta,
wbom He bad delivered out of every danger. uNo
man. ahall aufrer for the eine of bis neighbour," lILye
tbe Koran: hence, thougb Cbrist might have fol
lowed out his deaigna witbout tbe fear of death, it
aeemod to hirn impoBBiblc tbat the Lord ahould liavc
permitted Cbrist, the innocent, to die in so shameful
a mauner for the ains of otbet: men. But he
.. 8 a Saviour every prophet who by divine revela-
!iona, ud an exempla.ry and pioua lifo, restores. man
to tbe way of salvation whicb Adam bad abandoned at
hia fall; and auch a aavionr bo bolieved bimeclf. to 00.
Now, 'as tbe legend of Abraham was valuable tQ
Mobamed, on acconnt of the pure and simple IeBBOn
which it inculcated, as weil as for .. ita connection
with tbe 8Croo things of Mecca, so be vruucd the
. The reader is reminded oi what our 8&18 of
all the righteous blood Bhed upon the earth &om the blood
oi righteous Abel unto the blood oi Zachariu, the Bon 0; Bara.
chiaa, who periahed between temple ud the altar.- E. T.
legend of Christ eepecially for its promiee of the
Paraclete, wbioh. he believed or at least procJainied
himself to be, and to wbioh appellation tbc. meaning
ofl';s own nallle at lCl\8t furnished hirn with 0. better
claim than some othere who bad artogo.ted it to them-
selveebefore bim. Here again we peroeive that
Mohamed was probably misinformed both by J ews
and Chrietiane, -though perhaps from no sordid mo-
tives. Some one; for inetanoe, , l\8 Mo.ooavio. has
already obeerved, may have ,told bim that Christ bad
spoken of a peryclete, - 0. word wbioh. is, synonymous
with Ahmed (the muoh-praised one). At all events;
in all the legende _ of the Mussulmen, Mohamed is
doolnred even by the oldest prophets to be thegrcatest
of all that Were *<> come (although there' fewer
tro.oos of this found in tbe Koran); and wherever, in
the J ewish legends, Mosee, Israel, and -the Thora
prominently, brought forward, there the Mussu1mans
plaoe Mohamed, 'the Arab8, and the' KOranl " Tbe
name to wbioh they most frequently appeal as their
vouoher, ie Kaah Alahbar, 0. Jew, who'emb:raeed
Ialamislil duringthe oaliphate of Omar. Ag 'tranS-
lations of the Koran abound in the 1an-
it oonnot be diffioult fot thc reader to sop"'-
rate tbose portions of these ,legende compOsed by
Mohamed from thoae which were lterwards' intel'-!
IJOlated, but' whiehwei'e aaeribed' to him, and
8ee'nded to as aa.ered traditions.
Tbe .. o.ral traditions' J"eBpeeting the aneient
phets; which are put into Mohamed's mouth, , are 80
numcroUB, and 80me 01 them 80 eontradictory, that
no hiatorian or biographer has been able' to admit
them all It was therelore neceasa.ry to aeleet; and
in order to make them in 80me d6gree complete, wo
were obligcd to dmw from vlIoI'ious 8Ouroos, as it was
only in this way that the unity and roundneas eould
be obtained, in which thoy Il0l'0 hore prcsonted to tbo
Beaides the Koran and the eommeutaries upon it,
the following MSS. have been made use 01 tor thie
little work;-
1. Tbe book Chamis, by Husein Ibn Mohamed,
Ibn Ahasur Addillol'bckri (No. 279. oE the Ambian
MSS. in the library oE the Duke.oE Gotha), whieh,
88 the introduetion to the biography oE Mohamed,
eontaina many legende respecting the aneient pro-
phots, eapooially Adam, Abraham;. and Solomon.
2. The book' Daachimt Alulum wanatidjal Alfu-
h1,1JD. (storehouse oE wisdom and fruits oE knowledgeh
by Ahmed Ibn Zein' Alabidin Albekri (No. 285. of
the above-mentioned MSS.), in which also the an-
cient legende from Adam to Christ are prefixed to
the History of Islam, and more cspecially the lives
of Moses and Aaron minutely narrated.
3. A collection of legende by anonymous authors.
(No. 909. of the same collection.) I
4. The Legende of the Prophets (Kiseat Alan-
"bija), by Mul1&ll1med Ibn Ahmed Alkissai. (No.
764. of the Arabic MSS. of the Royal Library at
&c. &c.
TBE most authentie recorda of antiquity which have
come down to U8 state that Adam was created on
Friday'af'ternoon, o.t the hour of Aasr.-
Tho four DlOst cxaltcd IWgels, Go.briel, Michael,
Ismfil, and Israil, were commanded to bring from
'the four corners of t.he earth the dU8t out of
which.Allah formed the body of Adam, all &ave thc
head and heart. For these He employed ex-
. clusively the sacred earth of Mecca and Medina.
from the very spots on which in later times the
boly Kaaba and the sepulchre of, Mohamcd wcre
erectcd. t
The. hour or Assr is between noon and evening, and is Bct
apart by the MUBSulman ror the performance of bis third daily
t :Mohftmed, tho foundcr of Islam, WI\8 born in G7I A.D. at
Mccen, whcre the KMba, thcn on ancicnt temple, WOB held in
great vcncration. In 622 the idolaters of Mecca compelled
Even before it was nnirnnted, Adam's benutiful
form exeitecl the admiration of the nngels who were
passing by the 'gates of Paradise, where Allah bad
laid it down. But Iblis coveted man's noble
form, and the spiritual and lovely expression of his
countennncc, and snid, therefore, to his fellows, " How
can this hollow piece of ea1'th be weIl pleasing in
your sight? Nothing but weakness and frailty mny
be expeeted of this ereature." When o.ll the in-
, habitants of heaven, save Iblis, had gazed on Adam
in long and silent wonder, they burst out in praises
to Allah the Creator of the first man, who was so
tall that when be stood ereet upon the eartb bis bead
l'eaebed to tlle seventb heaven. '
Allah then direeted the nngels to bathe the Soul
of Adam, which be bad ereated 0. tbousand years before
bis body, in the sea of glory which proceedeth from
himself, and commanded her to animate bis yet life-
less form. The Soul besitated, for sbe was unwilling
to excbange the boundless heavens for this narrow
home; but Allah said, "Thou must animate Adam
even agamst thy will; and as the punishment of
thy disobediencc, thou shalt one day be separated
from hirn also against tby will." Allah then breathed
upon her with such violence thnt she rushed through
the nostrils of A!lam into his bend. On reaching bis
him to emigrate to Medina, where he died in June, 682. Vide
(hBtmnu WeiU. MoAamed der PropAet, ,ei LebeR urul ,eiRe
LeAre, tc. Stuttgart, 1843, 8vo.
eyes they were opened, and he saw the throne of
Allah with the inscription, "There is but one GOD,
and Mohamed is his Messenger." The Soul then
ponctratcll to his CarB, anll he henrd tbc nngcls pmising
Allah; thereupon bis own tongue was loosed, and he
cried, "Blessed be t.hou, my Creator, the only One
and Eternall" and Allah answered, "For this end
wast thou created: thou and tl1y clescendants shaU
worship me: so shall ye ever obtain grace and mercy;"
The Soul at last pcrvadcd all the limbs of Adnnl; nnd
whcn she lInd rcnchcd his fcct she gnve him the power
to rise. But on rising he was obliged to shut his
eyes, for a light shone on him from the throne of
the Lord which he was unable to endure, and pointing
with one hand townrds it whilst he shaded his eyes
with the other, he inquired, "0 Allah I what :fIames
arethose?"-"It is the light ofa prophet who shall
descend from thee and appear on earth in the latter
times. By my glory, only for his sake have I
created thee and tbe whole world. In beaven
his name is Ahmed t, but he sltall be called
on earth, and he sltall rcstorc mo.nkind from vicc nnd
falsebood to tbc patb of virtue and truth.
All created things were thcn aBscmbled beforc
Adam, and Allah taught him the no.mes of all beusts,
The Midraah Jalkut (Frankforton the 0.6469),81118 Rabbi
Juda, tcacbcs tImt tbc world WDB crcated on I\Ccount oe thc mel'its
oe Israel. R. II08ia (la1a it was ercatellon I\CCOUllt oe thc 'fhorA
(the LAW); ood R. Baro.cbia, Oll nccount of tbc merits oe )loses,
t The much-prrusoo One.
B 2
of birds, and of flsb, tbe manner in wbieh thoy Are
sustainccl amI prol)ngatec1, anel CX1)It\inclI tbeh Ileell-
liarities, ~ the ends of their. exietence. Finally, the
angels were convoked, and Allah commanded them
to bow down to Adam, as tbe most free anel perfeet
of His creatures, and as tbe onlyone tbat was animated
by His breath. Israfil wns thc first to obey, wbence
Allah eonfided to bim tbe book of fate. The other an-
gels followed bis example: Iblis alone was disobedient,
saying witll disdain, "Shall I, who am ereated of
fire, worship a being formed of the dust?" He was
therefore expelled from Heaven, tind tbe entranee
into Paradise was forbiaden him.
Adam breatbed more frecly aftcr tbe removal of
Iblis, and by command of Allah, be addressed' tbe
myriads of angels, wbo were standing around bim, ''in
pmise of Hia omnipotence and tbe wonders of His
uni verse : anel on tbis occnsion he manifcsted to tbe
angela that be far surpassed them in wisdom, and
more espeeially in tbe knowledge of languages, for be
knew tbe name of every created thing in seventy
different tongues.
Whcl\ thc Lord intended to create man, he consulted with
the angela, and anid to tl1em, U We will crcate man after our
Image." But t1&c1 rcplicd, U Wlmt I. man, that thou an
mlndful of him P What are his cxccllencies P " He laid, U His
wisdom exceeda your own." HI! then took ali kinds of wild
beasta anlt birlla, and when he asked the angela to give their
names, tbcY were not able to do 10. After the creation, he
brougltt these animala to Adam, "ho, OD being asked their
After thie disoourse, Allah presented him, ttm,ugh
Gabriel, with a buneh of grapes from Paradise;
and when he bad eaten them he . .fell into a deep
sIeei)' Tbc Lortl thon took n. rib from Adlun's
aide, and formcd tI. woman of it, whom he called
Hava [Eve], fot he eaid, I have taken her from
(hai) the living. She bore a perfect resembIimce to
Adam: but her features were more delicate than bis,
her eyes shone with 110 sweeter lustre, her hair wo.S
longer, and divided into seven hundred braids: her
form was lighter, and her voice more soft and pure.
While Allah was endowing Eve with every female
charm, Adam was dreaming of a second human being
resembling himself. N or was this strange, for bad he
not seen all the creatures which had been presented to
him in pairs? When therefore hc o.wokc, and found
Eve near him, he desired to embmce her; yet, aJ ..
though her love oxceeded his own, she forbade
him, and eaid, "Allah is my lord; it is only with his
permission timt I may be thine I Besides, ~ is not
meet that a ,voman should be wedded without a gift." Adam then prnyed the angel Ga-
briel to intcrecde for him with Allah, thllot he might
obtain Eve for his wife, and to inquire what marriage
gift would be demanded? Tbe angel soon returned,
and eaid, "Eve is thine, for Allah has created her
namcs, replied immediately, This ia an ox, this an asa, tbat a
lIone, a CIU1lel," &0. ( Geiger, Was hat Mohamed aua
dem Judenthum aufgenommen, p. 99, &0.)
D a
only for thee I Love her aB thyself, and treat her with
indulgence and kindnes8. Tbe marriagc gt which
he requires of thee is, that thou shouldst pray twenty
times for Mohamed, bis beloved, whose body shall
one day be formed out of thy flash and blood, but
Wh086 80ul 1mB dwelt in Allah's presepoo many
t40uslU1(1 YClll'S bcfol'C thc cl'cntion of thc worltl."
Ridwban, tho guardian of Eden, came lcruling
Meimun the winged horso, and a fleet she-cameL
one he presented to the other to Eve,
The angel Gabriel assisted them in mounting, anct
conducted thcm to Paradisc, whoro all tbo angels
nn<l animals prcsent salutcd thcm with thc words,
"Haill ye parcnts of Mohamed I "
. In the midst of there stoocl a green silken
tent, on golden pillars, and in 14e midst of
it there was a throne, on which Adam seated himself
with Eve, whereupon thc curtains of the tent closed
around them of their own accord.
When Adam and were afterwards walking
through' the garden, ('"Tft,briel and commande<l
The idea that many things exiated before the creation oC
the world ia purely Jewiah. The MUBBulmen adopted it. Some
oC tbem maintaincd that the Koran had existed before the world,
wbicb IUlBcrtion cxcited many bloocly contests among them. The
Midrl\8b J R1kut, p. 7" aRylit Suyen things WUI'U in Ilxlatonco berure
the creation of the world: tbc 'I'hora, Rupcntancc, l)aradiae,
Hell, the 'I'hrone of God, tbe name of tbc MeBBiab, and the
holy Temple. Some maintain that the throne and tbe Thora
really exiated, wbile the Lord only thought of the other five
before he created the world.
them in the name of Allah to go and bathe in one of
the four rivers of Paradisc. Allah himself then said
to thOIO, "I lmve appointod tbis ~ n for your
abode; it will sheIter you from cold Dmi hoot, from
hunger and tbirst. Take, o.t your diScl'Ction, of every
thing tImt it contains; only one of i,ts fruits shall bo
denied you. Beware that ye transgress not this one
command, and watch against the wily rancour of Iblis I
He is your enemy, because he wo.s overthrown on
your account; bis cunning is infinite, and he aims o.t
your destruction."
The newly-created pair attended to Allah's words,
and lived a long time, some say five hundred, in
ParadiSe without approaching the forbidden tree. But
Iblis also bad listened to Allah, and resolving to lead
Inan into sin, wandercd constantly in tho outskirts of
heaven, seeking to glide unobservedly into Para-
disc. But its gates were shut, and guardedby tho
angel Ridwhan. One day the peacock oome out of
the garden. He was then the :finest of the birds of
Paro.dise, for his plumoge shone like pco.rl and eme-
rald, o.nd his voice wo.s so melodious tho.t he wo.s ap-
pointcd to sing tho praises of Allah daily in the main
streets of heaven.
Iblis, on seeing him, to himself, " Doubtless this
beautiful bird is very vain: perhaps I may be ablo to
induce him by flattery to bring me sec1'etly into
tho gl\l'den."
When tbe pea.cock bOO gone so far from the gates
B 4.
that be could no longer be overbeard by Ridwhau,
Iblis snid to him,-
"Most wonderful and beautul bird I an thou 01
tbe birds of Paradise?"
"I am ; bot wbo art thou, wbo seemest trightened
as if BOme one did pursue tbee?"
"I am one of those cherubim who aro appointed
to sing without oeasing tbe praises of Allah, but
have glided .way for an instant to visit the Paradise
"hich he has prepared for the faithful. Wilt thou
conceal me under thy beautul wings?"
"Why should I do an act which must bring the
flisplcasure of Allah upon me?"
"Take roc with thoe, charming bird, and I will
teach thee three rnysterious words which shall preserve
tbee from sickness, age, and death."
"Must then the inhabitants of Paradise die?"
" All, without exception, wbo know not the three
words which I posseSB."
" Speakest thou the truth?"
"ny Allah the Almighty'l"
The peacook believed him, for he did not even
drearn that any creature would swear falsely by its
maker; yet, fearing lest Ridwhan rnight soarch him
too 0108011 on his return, he stoadily refusod to fnke
Iblis along with him, hut promisod to send out the
serpent, who might more easily discover the means of
introducing him unobservedly into the garden.
N ow the serpent was at first tbe queen of all beasta.
Her bead was like rubies, o.nd bel' eyes llke emerald.
Her skin sbone like 0. mirror of various bues. Her
hair was soft llke that of 0. noble virgin ; o.nd ber
fonu resembled the stately camel; ber breatb was
8WCCt like musk o.nd amber, o.nd 0.11 her words wcre
songs of praise. Sbe fed on saffron, and ber resting-
places were on tbe blooming borders of the beautiful
Cantharus. She was crea.ted 0. tbousand years before
Adam, o.nd destined to be tbe playmate of Eve.
"This fair and prudent being," Slloid tbe peacock to
himaelf, "must be even more desirous tho.n I to
remain in eternal youth and vigour, and will un-
doubtedly dare the displeasure of Ridwhan at the
price of the three invaluable words." He was right in
bisconjeeture, fornosooner bad he informed tbeserpent
of his adventure tho.n ehe exclaimed, "ean it be so P
slmll I bo visitcd by dco.tM sho.ll my oxpu'OP my
tongue be po.ra1ysed P and my limbs become im-
potent P shall my eyes and be closed in night P
and this noble form of mine, shall it perish in the
dust ?-never, neverl-even if Ridwhan's wrath
ehould light upon me, I will hasten to tbe cherub,
and will lead him into Po.radise, so he but teach me
the three mysterious words."
The serpent ro.n forthwith out of the gate, and
Thlis repeated to her wbat he bad Slloid to the peo.cock,
confirming bis words by an oath.
One of the rivers of Paradise.
B /;
"How can I bring thee into Paradise unobserved?"
inquired the serpent.
" I will contract tnyself into so smollo. hulk that
I shall find room in 110 cavity of thy teeth I"
"But how sholl I answer Ridwhan if he addresses
"Fear nothing; I will utter holy names that wU
render him speechlcBB."
The serpent then opened. her mouth-Iblis ew into
it, and bimself in the ho11ow part of her front
teeth, poisoned them to all eternity. When they
had passed Ridwhan, who was. not able to utter 0..
sound, the eerpent opened her mouth again, expecting
timt the cherub would resume bis natura1shape, but Iblis
pl'cfcfl'cd to whorc ho was, and to speo.k to
Adam from the serpent's mouth, and in her name.
After some resistanoo, she consented, from real: of
Ridwhan, o.nd from her anxiety to obtain thc
rious worde. Arrived at Eve's tent, Iblis heo.ved a
deep sigb :.-the first whioh cnvy had f:rom IIony
living brenst.
" Why art thou so O8t down to-day, my beloved
serpent?" inquircd Evo, who bad hoard the sigh.
" I iun anxious for the future destiny of tbee and
of thy replied Iblis, imitating the voiea of
tho sCl'pent.
" How? do wo not P088CSS in thcso gal'dens of
Eden 0.11 tImt we can desire ?"
" True: and yet the best of the fruits of this
garden, and tbe only one which can procure you
perfeet felicity, is denied y o u ~
" we not Fruits in abundance, of every
taste and colour; why should we regret this one ?" .
" H thou knewcst why this Fruit is denied you, alt
the reat would afford thee no pleasure."
" Knowest thou the reason?"
" I do; and it is precisely this knowledge which fills
my haart with care; for while all the fruite which
are given you bring with them weakness,discasc,
old age, and death, that is, the entire cessation of
life, this forbidden fmit alone bestows eternal youth
and vigour."
"Thou hast never spken of these things until
now, beloved serpent; whence derivest thou this
knowlcdgc ?"
"An angel informod mo of it wbollll mot under
tho forbidden troe."
Eve answcrcd, ce I will go and speak with him; "
and leaving her tent, she hurried towards the tree.
On the instant, Iblis, who knew Eve's euriosity,
sprang out of the serpent's mouth, and was stand-
ing under the forbidden tree, in tbe shape of an
ange1, but with a human face, before Eve had
reached it.
"Who art thou, singular being," she inquired,
" whose like I have never seen? "
" I WI\8 man, but bl\Ve become an angel."
" Dy what means? "
" By eating of tbis blessed fruit, wbich an enviou8
God bad forbidden me to taste on pain of death. I
long submitted to bis oommaud, untll I became old
and. frall; my eyes lost their lusu-e and grew dim,
my ears no longer heard, my teeth deoayOO, and ~
could neither eat without pain, nor speak with distinct-
nass. My hands trembled, my feet shook, my head
hung down upon my breast, my back was bent, and
my whole appearanee became at last so frightful 'that
all the inhabitants of Paradise 1100 from Me. I then
longed for death, and expecting to meetit byeating
of this fruit, I stretched out my bands and took of
it, but 10! it had sca.rcely touched my lips, when I strong and beautifill o.s at first; and thougb
mauy tbousand years bave sinee e1apsed, I 11m not
sensible of the slightest change either in my appeu-
anee or in my energies."
" Speakest thou the truth ? "
" By Allh, who created Me, I do I "
Eve trusted to bis oath, aud plucked an ear of the
N ow before Adam's sin, wheat grew upon the
finest tree of Paradise. Its trunk was of gold, ~ t
brauches were of silver, and its leaves of emerald.
From every brauch there sprung seven ears of ruby,
each ear oontained five grains, and every grain wo.s
wbite as snow, 8Wect o.s honey, fragrant as musk,
and as !arge as an ostrich's egg. Eve ate one of
theso grains, and finding it more pleasant than aU
ahe had bitherto tasted, she took a second one and
presented it to her husband.
Adam resisted long - our doctors _y, a wbole
hour of paradise, whioh means eigbty years of our
timo on oorth; but whcn ho obscrvcd tImt Evo rc-
mained fair and happy as before, be yielded to ber
importunity at last, and aat the second grain of
wheat whioh she had bad oonstantly with ber, and
presented to him three times every day.
Sco.rccly bad Adam rcecived thc fl'uit, when his
crown rosa towards hea.ven - bis l'ingS fell from his
fingers, and bis silken robe dropped from bim. Eve
100 s100d spoiled of her ornaments and naked before
hini, and they heard how all these things cried to
them with one voiee, "W oe unto you I your calamity
is great, and your mourning will be long - we were
created for the obedient only - farewell until the re-
surrcetion I " - The throne which bad been erected
for them in the tent thrust them away and eried,
" Rebels, depart I" The horse Meimun, upon whioh
Adam attempted to :8y, would not suft'er him to
mount, and said, "Hast thou thus kept tbe eovenant
of Allo.h?"
All the crea.turcs of Paradiso then turned from
them and besought Allah to removo tbo bunum pair
from tImt hallowed spot. Allah himself addressed
Adam in a voiee of thunder, andsaid, "Wast thou
not eommandcd to abstain from this froit, nnd fore-
warnod of tho cunning of Iblis, thy foe?" . Adam
14. TBB
to :flee hom these upbmidings; alid Eva
would have followed him, but he was held fast by
the branches of the tree Talh, Eve wns en-
tangled in her own dishevelled hair, while a voice
from the tree exclaimed, "From the wmth of Allah
there is no escape - submit to hisdivine decree!
Leave this pnmdisc," continucd Allah, in tones of
wrath, "both you Illld the crcnturcs which have
aeduced you to "transgress: by the sweat of your
brow alone shall you earn your bread - the earth
shall henceforth be your abode, and its possessions
shall fill your hearts with envy and malice! Eve
shall be visited with all kinds of sickness, and haar
children in pain. The peacock shnll be deprived of
bis voice, Illld the serpent of her feet. The darkest
eaverns of the earth shall be her dwelling-place, dust .
shall be her food, and to kill her bring sevenfold
reward. But Iblis shall depart into the etema.l pains
of hell."
Hereupon tbey werc hurled down f100m Paradise
with such precipitancy that Adam 1lll<1 Eve could
scarcelysno.tch aleaffromone ofthe trees wherewithto
cover themselves. Adam was flung out through the.
Gate of RepenWice, teacbing him tha.t he might
return through contrition; Eve through the Gate of
Mercy; the pencock Illld the serpent th100Ugh the
Gate of W roth, hut Iblis through tl1at of tbe Cursc.
Adam came down on the island Serendib, Eve on .
Djidda., the serpe.nt fell into the Sahara, the peacock;
into Persia, and Iblis dropped into the torrent
When Adam touehed the emh, the eagle said to
tho whale, with whom he bad bitherto lived on
friOllclly tOl'ms, 1\1111 had whilCll awny IDany an hour
in pleasan.t convcrse on the shores of the Indian
Ocean: "W e must now part for ever; ror the
lowest depths of the BOa and the loftiest mountain-
tops will henceforth soa.rcely preserve us from the
CUllDing and malice of men."
Adam's distrcss in his solitude was BO groat that
his beard began to grow, though bis face had
hitherto been smooth; and this new appearance in-
creased bis grief until he heard a voice wbieh said to
him: "The beard is the ornament of man upon
the en.rth, and distinguishes him from the weaker
Adom shed such an abundance of tcars that all
bcasts and birds satisfied their thirst tbcrewith; but
BOme of them sunk into the earth, and, as they still
contained BOme of the juices. of bis food in Paradise,
produccd the most frngrant trees and. spices.
Evo olso was desolate in Djidcln, for shc did not
BOO Adom, olthough he was so tall tbat bis head
touched thc lowest heavon, and thc BOngB of the
angele were distinct1y audible tohim. She wept
bitterly, and her tears which flowed into the ocean
were ehangcd into costly pClU'ls, whilo those which
fcll on thc enrth brought ferth aU beautiful flowers.
Adam and Eve Iamentcd so loudly that the aast
wind carried Eve's voice to Adam, while thc west
wind bore his tO' Eva. She wrung her hands over
her head, which wornen in despair are still in the habit
of doing; while Adam laid bis right hand on his
beard, which custom is still followed by men in
sorrow unto this day.
Tbe tears flowcd at last in such torrants from
Adam's eyes, that those of his right eye sta.rted the
Euphrates, while thosc of bis.left set the Tigris in
All nature wept with him, and the birds, and
beasts, and insects, which bad fled from Adam by
reason of his sin, were now touchcd by his lamenta-
tion&, and came back to manifest their sympathy.
First came the locusts, for they were formed out
of the earth which remained after Adam was created.
Of these there are seven thousand difFerent kinds
of every . colour and size, some even as large as
an eagle. Tbey are govemed by a. king, to whom
Allah reveals bis will whenever he intends to chnsten
a wicked people, such aB, fQr instance, the Egyptians
ware at the time of Pharaoh. . Tbc black letters on
the back of their wings are ancient Hebrew, and
sign'y, "There is but one only God. He over-
comes tho mighty, and tho locusts al'O llt\l't of His
armies, which he sends against sinners."
When at last the whole universe grew loud with
and all created beings, from the &mallest
dROY TO AD..ut. 1'1
inset up to the angela who hold whole worlds
in one band, were weeping with Adam, Alla.h sent
Gabriel to him with the words which were destined
to savo also tlle prophet J onah in the wllole's ha11y : -
CI There is no God besides thee. I have sinned;
forgive me through Mohamed, thy last and greatest
prophet, whose name is engraved upon thy holy
AB soon llB Adam bad pronounccd th08e words with
penitent hen.rl, the portols of heaven were opened to
him again, and Gabriel cricd, CI Allah 1ms a.ccepted
thy repentance. Pray to him, and he will grant oll
thy requests, and even restore thee to Paradise at the
appointed time. Adam prayed:
CI Defcnd me against the future artifices of Iblis
DlY foe I"
Alla.h replied : -
" &y continuolly there is no God but one, and
thou shalt wound him as with a poisoned arrow."
" Will not the meats and drinks of the earth, and
its dwellings ensnare me P"
. " Drink water, eat clean animals slain in the name
of A.lla.h, nnd build mosqu08 for thy abode, so shall
Iblis have no power over thee."
"Dut if he pU1'8ue me with evil thoughts and
dreams in the night P"
" Then rise from thy couch and pray."
" Oh, Allah, how sholl I always distinguish be-
t\Vccn good and evil?"
"I will grant thee my guidance - two ange18
sholl dweIl in thy hoart; 0110 to warn tbeo ngMnst
sin, the other to lead thee to the practioo of
" Lord, assure me of thy pardon also for my future
eins. "
" This thou ennet only gnin by works of rightcous-
ness t - I sholl punish sin but onoo, and reward
sevenfold the good which thou shalt do."
At the same time the angel Michael was sent to
Eve, announcing to her also the mercy of Allah.
" With what weapons," inquired she, "sholl I who
am wcak in heart and mind fight ngainst sin ?"
" Allnh hns onduetl tIleo with tho feeling of sbnmo,
and through its power thou shalt subdue thy pas-
sions, even as man conquers bis own by faith."
" Who shall protect me ngainst the power of man,
who is not only stronger in body and mind, but
whom also the law prefers as heir and witness?".
. "His love and compassion towards thec, whlch I
have put into his heart." .
"Will Allah graut me no other token of his
"Thou shalt' be rewarded for 811 the pains of
motherhood, and tlle death of a woman in childbed
slllill be a.ccounted ns martyrclom."
Iblis, emboldened by the pardon of .the human
pair, ventured also to pray for a mitigation of bis
sentenee, and obtained its deferment until the re--:
surrection, as well as an unlimited power over sinners
who do not accept the word of .A.llah.
ce Where shall I dwell in the mean time?" said he.
" In ruins, in tombs, and all other unc1ean places
shunncd by man I"
" What shall be my .food ?"
" All things slain in the name of idols."
" How shnJl I quench my thirst ?"
" With wine and intoxicating liquors I"
" Whn.t shall occupy my lcisurc hours ?"
" Music, song, lovc-poctry, and dancing."
"What is my watchword?"
"The curse of Allah until the day of judg-
ment. "
" But how shall I contend with man, to whom thon
hast granted two guardian angels, and who has rc-
ccivcd thy revelation ?"
" Thy progeny shall be more numerous than his
- for every man that is born, there shall come into
the world seven evil spirits - but they shall be
powerless against the faithful."
Allah then made a eovenant with the desccnd ..
ants of Adam. He touched Adam's back, and 10 I thc
whole human family which shall be born to the end of
time issued fonh from it, as small as ants, and ranged
themselves right and left.
At the head of the former stood Mohamed with
the pl'ollhets and thc rest of tho faithful, whose
radiant whitenC88 distinguished t h ~ from thc sin-
20 . 'THE COVENA.N'1'. -
nen who were sto.n.ding on Adatn's left, hended by
KabU [Cain], tbo murocrer of his brotbor.
Allah then acquainted the progenitor of Jt1aIl with
the names and destinies of individual; and
when it came to King David the prophet's turn,. to
whom was origina1ly B8signed a lifetime of only
thirty yenn, Adam inquired, "How many yet\1'8 ,",c
appointed to me?"
" One thousand," was the answer t
K I will renounce seventy if thou wUt &dd them
to the life of David t"
.Allah consented; but aware of Adam's forget-
fulness; directed this grant to be recoroed on a
parcbmcnt, which G-abricl anel Miclmcl signc<1 R8
witnesses. t
A1loh then med to the assembled humo.n. family,
that I am the only God, and that Mo-
Nine hundred and thirty yeara wal the liCetime of Adam
according to Gen. v. 3.
t Tho Lord ahowcd to Adam every future generation, with
their heads, sages, and Bcribea. He saw that David was deatlned
to live onl, three hours, and aaid, "Lord and Creator of the
worId, is thia unalterably fixed P" The Lord answered,-
" It was my original design!"
" How many years shall I live P"
.. One thouaand."
" Are grants known in IIeaven P "
" Certainly I" . ,
" I grant then aeventy years or my liCe t.O David I"
What did Adam therefore do P lIe gave a written grant, Bet
his seal to it, and the same was done by the Lord and MetaUon.
-M"ulraIA Ja1Jcvt, p. 12.
bamed is my messenger. " The h08ts to the right
mode their oonfession immediately; but those to thc
left hesitated, some but one half of Allah'.
"oli1s, amI others l'elllo.iniug cntirely And
Allah oontinued: _ce The disobedient and impenitent
shall suft'er thc pains or cternal fire, hut thc faithful
shaJI be blessed in Paradise I"
"So be it I" responded Adam; who shall call
every man by thc day of the rcsulTootiOn,
and pronounce bis scntenoo acoording 8 tbe balance
of justiee shnll deeide.
When the oovenant was ooneluded, Allah onoe
more touched Adam's back, and the whole human
mce returned to him.
And when Allah was now about to withdraw bis
pl'cscnce fol' tbc whole or this life from Adam, the
latter uttered so loud a ery, that the wbole earth
mook to its foundatioDB: the All-merciful thereupon
extended bis clemeney, and said-" Follow yonder
eloud, it shall lead thee to the place which lies di-
reetly opp08ite my heavenly tbrone; huild me a
temple thore, and when thou walkest nround it, I
sball hc as near to thee as to the angels which en-
COlllPass my throne I"
A(lam, who still rewned bis original stature, in a
few houre madc the journey from Indio. to Mecca,
wbere tbc elond whieb bad eonduetcd him stood still.
On Mount Al'afa ncar Meeca, be found to bis great
joy Eve his wife, whence also this mountain (from
Arafa, to know, to recognise,) <lerives its name. Tbey
immediate1y began to build atempie witb four gates,
and they caJled the first . gate, the gate of Adam;
the second, tlle gate of Abraham; the third, the gate
01 lamael; and tho fourth, tbe gaie of Mohame<l,
The plan of the building they 1100 received from the
angel Go.briel, who hOO at tbc same time brought
tbem a large diamond of exquisite brightness, which
was afterwards sullied by the sins of men, and at last
became entirely black.
This black stone, the most sacred treasure of the
blessed Kaaba, was origin,nlly the angel wbo guarded
the forbidden tree, and was eharged to warn Adam
if he should approach it, but having neglected l ~
trust, he was changed into a jewcl, and at the day of
judgment he shall resume bis pristine form and
return to the holy angele.
Gabriel then instructed Adam in all the ceremonies
of pilgrimage, precisely as they were instituted by
Mohamed o.t 1\ later period ; nor was he pcrmittcd
to hehold Eve bis wife until the evening of Thursday,
when the holy days were ended.
On the following morning Adam returned with
bis wife to Indio., and abode there during the re-
mainder of bis l i ~ But he went every yeal' on 1\ to Mecca, until he at last lost his original
size, retaining a height of only sixty yards. This
diminution of his stature, according to the tradition of
the learned,. was caused by the excessive terror and
grief which he experienced in consequence of the
murder of Abel
For Eve bad horn him two sons, whom he named
Kabil and Habil [Cnin and Abel], and several
daughtcrs, whom he gavc in maniage to their
brothers. The fo.ircst of them he intendcd for Abel,
but Cain was displcased, and desired to obtain her,
though he had a wife already. Adam referred the
dooision to Allab, and said to his sons, "Let each
of you oft'er a sacrifice, and he to whom Allah
vouchsafes a sign of acceptance shall marry her."
Abel oft'ered a fatted ram, and fire came down from
heaven and consumed it; but Cain brought some
fmim, which remained untouched upon the altare
He was thereupon filled with envy and hatred towards
Ws hl'otbel', but knew not how he might destl'oy bis
Ono day Iblis placcd lmsclf in Cain's ,way, o.s 1m
walked with Abcl in tho field, and seizing a atona
shattered therewith the head of an approaching
, wolf; Cain followed his example, and with a large
eain and Abel divided the world between tbem, tbe one
ta1rlng posae&sion of tbe movable, and the other of the im-
movable:t>roperty. Cain said to his brother, "Tbe emh on
whieh thou standest is mine, tben betake thyself to the Air ;" but
Abel replied, "Tbe garments ",hieb thou wearest Are ruine, tUe
them off I " Tbere arose a eonfiict between them, whieb ended
in Abel's death. R. Huna teacbes, They contended for a twin
.ister of Abel's : tbe latter claimed her beeause she WDS born with
him; but Cain pleaded bis right of primogeniture. - KulrtJlA.
stone struck his brother's forehead ti11 he fell lifcles!
to the ground. Iblis thcn Il.8sumcd tho shnpo of n.
raven, and having killed another raven, dug a hole
in the earth with h i ~ bill, and laying the dead one
into it, .oovered it with the en.rth which he had dug
up. Cain did the same with bis brother ., so that
Adam was long in ignomncc of the fate of bis son,
and shrunk together through care and sorrow. It
was not until he bad fully learned what had befallen
Abel, !hat he resigned himself to the will of Allah,
and was oomforted.
N ow tbc disccvery of Abel's oorpse took plo.ce in this
wise : - 8ince his expulsion from Eden, Adam had
lived on wild berbs, fruits, and meat, whon o.t .A110.h's
oommand the angel Gabriel brought him the re-
maining grains of wheat which Eve had plucked, a
yoke of oxen, the vanous implements of husbandry,
and instructed him in ploughing, sowing and renping.
. The log whicb bad watched Abers flocks, guarded also bis
C<!rpse, protooting it ogainst tbe beRSts and birds oC proy. Adam
and Eve aat beaide it, and wept, not knowing what to do.
:aut a raven, whose !Hend bad died, said, "I will go and teacb
Adam wbat be must do with his son." It dug a grave and
laid the dead raven in it. When Adam saw this be said to Eva,
" Let us do the same with our child." 'rhe Lortl rewarded the
raven, and no one is allowed thercforc to harm their YOllng; tbcy
bave Cood in abundance,. nnd their cry Cor rain is always
~ ~ R. Johanan teaches, eain was not aware oC tbe Lord's
knowlec1ge oC bidden tbings; he tbereCore buried Abel, and re-
plied to tbe Lord's inquiry, "Wbere is Abel, tby brot.ber P"
"Am I my brother's keeperP"-Midra&A, p.11.
While he was one day working in the field, bis
plough suddenly stopped, nor were all the exertions
oe bis cattle able to move it. Adam struck the oxen,
nnd tbc cldcst of thelD 8id to bim:
"Why dost thou atrike mc P did .Allah atrike thee
when thou WOBt dieobedient?"
Adam prayed. " 0 Allah I after thou hast (or-
given my ein; sOO11 every beast of the ficId be per-
mittcd to reprove Dle P "
Allah beard him,. and from thnt moment thc brute
cl'ention lost tbc power of speech. Mennwhilc, as the
plough still rcmained immovable, Adam opened tb.e
ground, n.nd found the still distinguisOOble remams of
his 80n Abe).
At tbc time of harveet, Gabriel come again and
instruetcd Evc in mnking brcn.d. Adam than built an
.oven, llnd Go.bricl bl'ougbt fire froD:l bell, but first
wOBhcd it scvcnty times in the sea, otberwise it WQuld
have consumed thc earth with all tbat it contained.
When the bread WOB baked, he said to Adam:
"This shall be thy and thy children's chief nou-
rishment. "
Altbough Adam Imd sbcd 80 many teare over
the labour of the plough, that thcy served instead of
rain to moisten. and to fructify the seed, yet were
bis d ~ d n t s doomed to. still greater toil by reason
.of their iniquities. Even in the days of (Enoch)
Idris, thc grain of wheat was no lnrger than a goose's
egg: in thosc of Elias it shrunk to the size of a
hen's egg: whcn tbe Jews n.ttemptcd to kill Christ,
it bccnmc liko 11. pigeon's cgg; Md, finnlly, undcr
U zier's (F..sdms's) role it took its present bulk.
''V"hen Adam Md Eve were fuUy instructed in
n.griculture ItIld cookery, the angel Gabriel Lrought
a lamb, and taught Adam to kill it in the name of
Alln.h, to shcnr its wool, to strip its hidc, nnd to
tan it. Eve spun and wove under the IUlgel's
direction, making a veil for herself, and a garment
for Adam, and hoth Adam and Eve imparted thein-
formation which they had received. from Gabriel to
their grandchildren and great-grandchildren, in
number forty, or aooording to others, seventy,
, After the death of Abel and eain, the latter of
whomwas slain by the blood-avenging angel, Eve
gave bilth to a third son, whom ehe called Sheth;
he became the father of many sons and daughters,
snd js the ancestor of 11.11 propbet&.
Tbe 930th year of Adam's life CI!le at last to its
close ; and tbe Angel !lf Deatb appeared" to him in the
shape of an unsightly he-goat, and demanded his soul:
'while tbe earth opened under bis feet, and demnnded
bis body. Adam trembled with fear, arid said to tbe
Angel of Deatb, "Allah bas promised me a lifetime
of a tbousand years: thou hast cOme too soon." ~ Hast
thou not granted seventy years of thy life to David ?"
replied tbe Angel. Adam denied it, for he bad indeed
forgotten tbe clrcumstance; but the Angel of Death
arew {orth {rom bis beard the parchment in which the
grant was written, and spread it out before Adam,
who, on seeing it, willingly gave up bis souL
His son Sbctb woshcd nnd buricd him, a.ftcr thnt
Gabriel, or, according to others, Allah himself, bad
pronounced a. blessing. Tbe same was done with
Eve, who died in tbe following yea.r..
In regard to the places of their burial, the lea.rned
dift'cr. Some have namcd Indin; other tmditiODS fix
on Mount Kubeis, nnd even on J erusalem. Allah
ruone is omnisclent. .
IDitIa, or Enooh, was the son of J arid, the son of
Mnhlalel, but was oalled Idris, frorn darasa (to stucly),
for he was oonstantly occupied with. the study of tbc
holy books, both those whieh Allab bad revenled
to Adam, and' those whieh Gabriel brought to
hirn froin beaven, He was so virtuOUB and pious,
that Allah anointed him to be bis prophet, and
sent bim as a prencher to the descendants of Cain,
who onl1 employed in dcccls of Bin thc gigantie
frames and surpassing strength with whieh Allah bad
endowed thern. Enoeh exhorted thern unceasingly
to purity of eonduet, and was often oompelled to
dmw his sword in defenee of bis life. He was the
first who fought for Allah, tho first who invcntcd
the balance to prevent d e p ~ o n in trame, and the
first also to sc\v gnrmcnts, and to writo with thc
Kalam. Idris longed ardently for paraWse, still
he was not desirous of deatb, for he WIlB anxious
to do good on the oo.rth; nnd but for bis llreaching
and bis sword, thc sons of Cain would have floode(1 .
tho carth with iniquity. Allah scnt him thc
Angel of Death in the form of a beautiful virgin, in
order to sce whether he would approve himself
See the E. Translator's Prerace.
wOl'thy of the peculiar favour which no man befre
him had ever r e e i v e d ~
"Come with me," said the disguised angel to
Idris; "and thou ahalt do lU1 acceptable work to
Allah. My younger sister ho.s been earl'ied off by
an ungodly descendant of Cain, who ho.s confincd
her in . the furthest regions of the West I Gin!
on thy sword and help me to deliver her."
Enoch girt on bis sword, and took up his bow and
tbc club, with which he hOO laid lowat a single stl'oke
whole ranks of the enemy, and followed the virgin
from mom till eve, through desolate and arid dcserts,
but he said not a word and looked not upon her. At
nightfall ahe erected 0; tent, but Idris laid himself
down, at its sleep .on the. stony gl'ound.
On her inviting him to share her tent with her, he
lUlBwered, "If thou any thing to eat, give it to .
me." Shc pointed to a sheep which wo.s. roving
through the descrt . without a keeper, but be said,
er I prefer hunger to theft; the sheep belongs to
N ext day thcy colitinucd their journey o.s beforc,
Idl'is . still following the virgin and uttel'ing no com-
plaint, though he was nearly overcome with hunger
and thirst. Towards evening they found n. bottle of
water on the ground. Tbe virgin took it up, and
opening it would have forced Enoch to drink, but
he rcfuscd, nnd said, " Some luckleBB tmvcllcr ho.s
lost it, and will rcturn to seck for it."
c 3
During the night
Idris having onee more bafBed
all the wilas of the virgin" who bad again endeavoured
to' dmw him into her tent, .Allh C&used aspring of
clear frash water to gush forth at bis feet, and a
datc troe to rise up laden with tha choioost Ruit.
Idris invited the virgin to eat and to drink, and con-
,cealed himself behind tlle trae, waiting her return
to the tent; but whoo after a long interval she came
not, he stepped t0 tbe door and sMd, "Who an t o u ~
singular ma.iden? These two days thou lu!.st been
without nourishment, and art even no'W unwilling to
break thr fast, though Allah bimselfhas miraculously
supplied us with meat and drink, and ret thou art
frash and blooming, liko tho dewr rose in spring, and
thr form is full ud rounded like tbe moon in ber
fifteenth night.'"
" I am the Angel of Death," ehe repIied, '" sent by
Allah to prove thee. Thou hast conquered; 8sk n o w ~
anti he will BSuredly fuII all tbr wiehes."
" If tbou an tbo Angel of Deatb, take my soul."
" Dootll is bitter: wberefore desirest thou to die?"
" I will pror to Allah to animate me onee more,
that after the teITors of the grave
I may serve him
with greater zcall "
" Wilt thou thoo die twice? thr time bas not ret
como - but prny thou to Allah, (lnd I shall executo
His will."
"Lord, permit the Angel of Dooth to let me
lIALIK. 31
taste death, but recall me soon to life I Art thou not
almighty and merciful?"
The Angel of Death was commanded to take
tlto soulof Idris, but at the same moment to rcstore
it to him. On bis return to lifo, Idl'is l'oquested tbe
angel to show him Hell, that he migbt be in a position
to describe it to Binners ,vith 0.11 its terrors. The
angellcd him to Mnlik, its keeper, wbo seized birn alld
was on the eve of flinging him into the abyss, when a
voice from heaven exelaimed,
er Malik, oowl\re 1 harrn not my prol)het Idris, but
show him the terrors of thy kingdom. "
He then placed him on. the wall which separates
heU from tbe place appointed as the abode of those
who have mcrited neither hell nor heaven. Thence
he saw cvery variety of scorpions and othr.r venom-
ous reptil es, and vast nmes of fire, monstl'QUS 001-
drells of boiling water, trecs with priek]yfl'uitS, rivcrs:
of blood and putrefa.ction, red-hot ehains, garmentsi
of l,iteh, and so many other objeets prepnred ror
tbe torture of sinners, that he besought Malik to
spare hirn their further inspeetion, amI to eonsign him
Ollee more to the Angel or Dcath.
Idris now pmyed the latter to show him Pnradise
also. Tbe Angel conducte<t him to tbe gate before
which Ridhwan kept bis watch. But thc guardian
would not suffer bim to enter: then Allah com-
'lllll.llclocl tho troo Tuba, which is plmltecl in the miclst
of the garden, alld. is known to be, after Sil'dl'l1t
Almuotalm, tbo most booutiful Rnd ta11est trco of
Pamdi80, to hend its branches over tho woll. . Idl-iS
80ized hold oe them and was drawn in unobserved
by Ridhwan. 'The Angel of Death attempted to
provcnt it, but Al1a.h said, " Wilt thou &lI.y hirn
twice?" Thus it oame to pass that Idris was taken
olive in10 Pamdi80, nnd was pcnnitted by the most
gracious One 10 remain there in spite of the Angel
of Death and of Ridhwail. .
In the Bible it is 8IIid the Lord took Enoch; but the.
llidrash odds, nine human beings entem Paradise alive:.
Enoch, MessiRh, Elias, Eliezer the servant of Abrohrun, tho
servant ofthe King ofKush,ChirAm the King of'l'yre,Jaabez.
the son of the Frince and Rabbi JUll., Serach the daughter oJ;'.
Alher. and Bit jA tho daughter of PhnrlUlh.
. ,;
AFTER the translation of Idris, the depravity of men
waxed so Dghtily, th9.t Allah determined to dcstroy
them by ~ flood. But the prophet N oah, who had
in vain attcmpted to restore his followers to tho path
of virtue, was saved: for Allah commanded him to
build an ark for himself and family, and to enter it
as soon as bis wife should see the scalding waters
streaming from the oven. - This was the beginning
of tbe :ood; for it was followed by n ~ t rains from
heaven (as from well-filled leathern bottles ioto w hieb a.
shll.rp instrument has bccn plungcd), wruch mingling
with the subterraneous waters that issued forthfromall
tbe vcms of the eartb, produced an inundation wruch
none save the giant Audj tbe son of Anale survived. t
. l'he ark :oated during forty dnys from one end of
the earth to tbe other, pa8sing over the highest
mountnins; but when it came to Mount Abu Ku-
The generation of the flood was chastised with scalding
wl\ter.-Midraah, p.14.
t eside N oab, Og the Iting of Boshim was saved, ror he
seized hold on one of the beams of tbe Ark, and swore to N oab
thl\t he and bis p08terity would se"e him os bondmen. N oah
rundo 1\1\ opcning througb tho wall of the Ark, nnd ga"O Og
BODlO food daily, for it ia written, "Ol1ly Og the King of osban
lu"ived of allthe giants." - Midra,lt, p. 14.
c 5
beis, on whose I>ook Allall had conccalcd tbc block
diamond of the Kaaba, timt it might servo in thc
second building of this blessed temple, it rode seven
times round the sacred spot. At the lapse of six
months the ark rested on Mount Djudi in Mesopo-
tamia, and N oall loft it as lloon. 8S the dove whicll
he bad sent to examino tbe smte of tho ool,th re-
tumed with an olivo leaf in its mouth. N oah
blessed the dove, and Allah gave her a neeklaco oi
green feathers; but the raven whieh Noah bad sent
out before the dove, he eursed, because, instead of
retuming to him" it staycd to icast on l\ carcass
whiclt it found on the carth, wbcrciore tllo mvon is
no longer ahlo to walk like otbor birds.
But spite of the calamities of the flood, whieb
Allah intended to serve f ~ ever as a waming
against sin, Iblis soon succeeded in banishing
"Virtue and goodness frorn the human family as 00-
fore. Even Noah's sons, Cham and Japhet, fOl'got
t110 roveren.ce that was due to their father, an<1 left
him uncoveroo wllen one day they found hirn nsleep.
Cham even derided" him, and became on this l\CCOunt
the father of all the bIack races oE ma.tiJdnd. J aphet's
descendants remained white, indeed, but it was writ-
ten that none of them should attain to the dignity
. h ~ Midl'88b,. p. 16., relates the same, and draw8 trom it
tbe conclUBion that De olle Bhould 8eek to accomplisb his ends
b1 (unclean) unlawful meaD8; the raven being UDclcan (un-
".lul), hut tbe dove being clean.
of a prophet. Sham (Shem) is the sole ancestor. of
t11e prophets, among "hom Hud and Salih, who
livcd immediately after the oOO, nttained to high dis-
t i n c ~ i o n - Hud WI\8 sont to the nation of gil\llts
wMch dwelt in Edom, 1\ provincc of tllo Southern
Al'abia, then governed by King Shaddad, the lIOn
of Aad. When t11e ploophet exhorted this king to
the faith and fear of Allah, he inquired, "What shall be
the reward of my obedience?" " My Lord," replied
t.ho prophet, "will give thee in the Ufe to com,e
gardens oe eternal verdure, and palllces of gold and
jewels." But the king answered, ." I stand not in
need of thy promises, for I oon even in thls world
bulld me gardens and pleasure-houses of gold and
costly pearls and jewels." He then bullt Il'em, and
callcd it thc City of Columns, for each of its palaces
l'Cstcd on a thousan,d eolumns of rubies and.ememlds,
nnd each column was a hundrcd cubits high. He
next constructed canals, and planted gardens teeming
witlt the finest fruit trees and the fairest owers.
'Vhen all was completed with prodigal magni-
ficencc, Shaddad said, "I am now in actnal poeseesion
of nU that llud Iw pl'oll1iscd me for thc life to coll1e."
Dut wbcn he \Vould hl\ve mnde Ms cntnmce into tJlC
city, AllI\h concclllcd it flOOlU him !\Dd his follo\Vers,
I1ud ilI pl'Obably the Eber of the Scriptu1"es, wbom the
Uabbia cstecm 08 n Prollbct, nlll! thc foum]cr of 1\ cc)cbralcIl
acLool of divillity.
c 6
nor haa it, since been seen by man, save once in the
reign of Macoo.via.
The king and bis people then wandere<! through
the wildemess in l"llin and tempest, and o.t last
sougbt shelter in caves. But Allah causcd them to
in, and only Hud escaped.
The 'destruction of this tribe indllced their kins-
men, the Thamudites, who numbered soventy thou-
sand wamors, to ehoo88 the regions between 8yria
and Hedjaz 'as their abode, for they' also feared to
be destroyed, and hoped to seeure themselves against
the wrath of Allah, by building their houses in the
rocks. Djundu Eben Omer, the king of the Tha-
mudites, buHt him a palaoo there, whose splendour
bad never been equalled on the earth, and the high-
priest' Kanueh erected a similar one for himself. But
their most costly and most perfect building was the
temple. 'In it there stood an idol of thc finest gold,
and adorned with precious stones: it bad a human
face, a lion's figure, a bull's neck, and a horsc's feet.
One day, when Knnuch aftcr bis prayers bad fl\lIen
,in the temple, he heard 0. voice which said,
Trilth sbo.1l appear, and delusion sha11 vanish." He
sprang to his feet in terror, and rushed 'towards the
idol, but 10 I it was lying on tbc ground, and beside it
h\1 thc Cl"Own wliich had fallen from its boo<1. Kunllch
eried for- help; the king and his viziers hastened to
ilhe spot, 'restored the idol to iti p1nce, and repla.ced
the crown on its hend. But' thc oecurrence made a
TUE nIGn PRlEST8. . 37
deep impression on the high-priest's mind. His faith
in the idol falled, and his zeal to serve it 000100.
Tbe king soon discovered the change that bad passed
within bim, and ono day sent botb bis viziers to
nppl'ehend and to examine hn. But seal'ccly bad bis
messengers loft the royoJ. palnce, wbcn they were
struck blind, and were unable to find Kanuch'a..
dwelling. Mcanwhile, Allab sent two angels who
cnrried the high-priest to a .distant volley unknown
to bis tribe, where a shady grotto, supplied with
every convenience of le, was prepared for him.
Here be lived peaceably in the service of the one
God, and seoure against the persecutions of Djundu,
wbo in vain sent out messengers in every direetion
to discover him. The' king gave up, at length, oll
hOllo oE bis capturc, and nppointed his' own cousin,
Davud, as high-priest in Kanuch's stend. But on
the third day after bis inauguration, Dnvud came to
the king in baste, and reported tho.t tbe idol bad
again fullen from its place. Tbe king once mOl"C
restored it, and Iblis cried from the idol, "Be stead-
fRSt in my worship, and resist oll the temptations
into which some innovators would lead you." On
the following feast-day, when Davud was about to
otrer two fat bulls to the idol, they said to hhn, with
buman voioe, "'Vhy will you ofFer us, whom Allah
has endued with life, RS a sacrifice to a dead lDD.88
of gold which your' own bands bave dug from the
cnrtb, though Allah has ereated it? Destroy, 0
Allah, so sinful a people I" At theso words thc
bulls flcd, nor ware tho swiftest riders of thc king
able to overtake them. Yet it pleased Allah, in bis
wiedom and long-suffering, to spare the Thamudites
still longer, and to send to' them a prophet who
should labour by many wonders to convinee them of
tho'"irutb. ,
Ragwba, tbc wife of Kanucb, bad' not censed
to mourn, sinee the flight of her husband; yet
in tbe third year, Allah sent to her a bird from
Paradise, to eonduct her to his grotto. This
bird was a raven, but its bead was as white ns
snow, its back was of emerald, its feet wcre of crimson,
its bcak was like tbo clenrost sunbonm,. nnd its
shone like diamonds, only its breast was blnck, for
the curse :of Nooh, whichmade aU ravens entirely
blnck, bad'not fallen on this bird. It was tho
hour of nlidnight when it steppcd into Rngwha's dark
chamber, wbere ahe lo.y wecping on " carpot, but tho
glance,of its cyes lit up tbe' cbamber 'as if tbc sun
bad suddenly risen therein.' Sbc rose from ber couch
Rnd gazed with wonder on the beRutiful bird, which
opened its mouth and said, "Bise and follow me, for
Allah has pitied thy tcars, and ,vill unite thoo to thy
husband." She rose and fo11owed the raven,whieh
flew before ber, cbanging tbe night into day by tlle
light of its eyes, and the' morning star hadnot yet
risen when she arrived at thc grotto. Tbe mven
now oricd, "Kn.nucb, arise,' anll allmit thy ",ife,"
nnel then vanished.
Within a year after their reunion, ehe. gave
birth to a son who was the very image oE Seth,
and the light of prophecy shone on his brow. His
fat11er called him &lih (tbe pious), for 11e trusted
to bl'ing hhn up in the faith of tbe one only God, and
in piety of life; hut soon after Salih's birth Kanuch
died, and tbe raven from Paradise came ngain to the
grotto to take back Ragwha and her son to the
city of Djundu, where Salih grew rapidly in mind
and body, to the admimtion of his mother, and
of all who came to visit them; and o.t the ngc of
eighteen he was the most powerful and handsomc
as weIl as tbe. most gifted youth of his time.
It then came to pass that _ tbe descendants
of Harn undertook. an expedition against tbe
Thrulluditcs, and were to all appearnnce on thc
point ofdestroying them. Their best warriors
11nd already fallen,' and the rest were preparing
for f l j g ~ when Salib suddenly appenred on the
battle-field, at the hend of 11 few of bis friends, and by
his personal valour and excellent manrouvres wrested
tbe victory from the enerny, and routed tbem . com-
pletely. Tbie o.chievement lIOOured to him thc love
and gratitude of the mOle virtuous part of bis tribe,
hut thc king envied him from tbis day, and sooght
after his' life. Yet as often as tbe l\88888ins came' to
&lih's dwelling to slay hirn by the king's command,
t.heir bands were pamlysoo, Ilnd were only reetorcd by
Snlih's interccssion with Allab. In tbis wisc, thc
hclievel's in 8.'\lih I\mI his invisible Gorl gmduoUy in-
40 TUE SLEE!'.
crensed, SO that there wns soon fonne(!. a community
of fort;- men who built a mosque, in which tlley wor-.
shipped in common.
One day the king surrounded the mosque with his
floldiers, IUJ.d threatened Salih and bis adherents with
death unleBB A1la.h should save them by a. special
mimCle. Salih prayed, and the leaves ,of the date,
treo that grcw bofore tIlO mosquo wore, instantly
chnged to 'I!corpions and addcrs, whicb, fell upon
the king and his men, while two doves wbich dwelt
on the roof of tbe mosque, exclaimed, "Believe in
&lih, for he is the prophet and messenger of Allab."
To this twofold wonder a second and third one wcrc
addcd, for at Salib's pmycr tllo tree resumcd its
former shape, , and some of the Thamudites who
bad been'killed by the serpents returned to Ufe again.
But the king continued in unbelief, for Iblis spoke
from the mouth of tbe idol, calling Salih a magician
and ademon.
Thc tribe wns then visitcd by famine, but tbis also
failed to convert thcm. When Salih behc1d the
stubbornness of the Thamudites hc prayed to Allah
to destroy so sinful a. people. '
But he too, like his father, was carried by an
angel to a subtermnoous cave in sleep, and slepttl161'C
twenty , years. On wnking lle, was about to go
into the mosque to perform ltis morning devotions,
for he imagined that be 1uI.d sleptonly one night; but tbe
m08que lay in ruins; he' tben went to see his friends
and followers, but BOme of them were dead;
others,in the idea' that he had abandoned them
or been Becretly sWn, bad gone to other countrics, or
returned to idolatl.,.. Snlih knew not ,vhat to do.
Thon appcared 10 him tbe angel Gabl"iel, and said,
"Decause thou bast hastily oondemned thy pcople,
Allah has taken r o ~ thee twenty yem of thy life;
nd thon hast passed them sleeping in the cave. - But
l"iso 'and ngnin. Allah sends thee bore Adam'll
shirt, Abel's sandals, tbe tunic of Sheth, tho seal of
Jdrls, the sword of N oah, and the staft' of Rud, with
all of which thon sb81t pcrform many wonders 'to
confirm tby words." On tbe following day the king
Md prieste and heads of the peoplc, attended by many
citizens, went in procession to a neighbonring chapel,
in which an idol, similar to' tbnt of the temple, was
worshipped. Salih stepped between the king and
the door of the chapei ; and whon tbe king asked him
- Tbe idea 01 a prophet's intercession with God is ot
Scriptural origin. Abraham and Moses interceded with God,
tbe one for Sodom, tbe other for his people; and according to
tbe Ilebrew legend, the Jew&, on hearillg Isninh denounoing tbe
judgmcnta ofGod, threntencd to l,ut him to dcath, bceause he had
not 80ugbt to turn Rway His wrnth, RB Moscs hnd done under
similu oircumstanoes. Our Snviour's parable of the gardener,
wbo bcggcd another yeu's respite for the unfruitful trec, is on
the same principle. So is also Christ's reproof to his diaoiplea.
wben they would bave called down fire from IIeaven.' Tbe
punisbmcnt oC Snlih, thcreCore, bowever prettily introduccd,
nlust, like evcry other truth oC tbe Koran, be reCcrred to the
knowledge whieh the Moslem bad oCtbe Scripture8.-E. T.
who 110 was, for Salih's appearance had so changed
during the twenty yeim! which ho hnd spent in tbc
cavern !hat the king did not recogniae hirn, he an-
8wered, "I am Salih, the messenger of the one only
God, who, twenty yelLl'S ago, prenched to thee, and
showed thee many clear proofs oE the truth of my
mission. But sinco tbou, as I still persiatest
in idolatry, I onee',more appear hefore thee iri tbe name
of the Lord, and by bis perrnission oWer to perrorm
hefore thine eyes any miracle thou mayest desire in
testimony of my prophetie ealling."
The king took counsel with Sbihab his brot her;
and Davud bis high-priest, who stoOO near him.
Thon said the latter, he be tbc messcngcr of
Al1all, let a camel come forth from thisroeky moun-
tain, one hundrcd eubits high, with all imaginable
coloUl'B uni ted on its back, with eyes aming like
lightniIig, with a voiee like thunder, aild with feet
swifter tha.n thc wind." Wben Salih deeIared bis
readiness to produee sueb a camel, Davild addcd,
"Its fore-Iegs must be of gold, and its hind-Iegs of
silver, its head of emerald and its ears of rubies, and
its, back must bcar a silken tent, supported on four
diamond pilllLl'S inlaid with gold." Salih was not
deterred by all thesc additional requirements: and thc
king addod, "lIear, 0 Sa1iltl if thou bc the prophet of
Allah, let thia mountain be eIert open, and a camcl
step forth with skin, hair, esh, blood, bones, museies,
and veins, like other camels, only much largc.>r, nnd
let it immediate!y give birth to a young camel, which
shall follow it every where as a child follows its
mother, and when scarcely produced, 'There is
but one Alluh, and &lih is bis messenger and pro-
" And will you tum to Allah if I pmy to him, and
if he perform such a mirac1e before yow' eyes P" ,
" Assuredly I" replied Davud. "Y et must this
camel yield its milk spontaneously, and the milk must
be cold in summer, and wann in winter."
" Are these all your conditions P" asked Salih.
"Still further," continued Shihab; "the milk
must hea1. all diseases, and enrich aU the poor; and
the camel must go alone to every house, calling the
inmates by name, and filling all their empty vessels
with its milk."
"Tby will be done I" replied Salih. "Y et I
must also stipulate that no one shall harm the camel,
or drive it from its pasture, or ride on it, or use it
for any labour."
On their swearing to him to trant the camel RB a
holy thing, Salih pmyed: "0 I God, who hast cr4
atcd Adom out of the earth, and formed Eve from a
rib, and to whom the hardest things are easy, let
these rooks bring forth a camel, such as their king
bas describcd, for the conversion of the Tbomudites."
Sca.rcely bad Salih concluded his prayer, when
tbo CArth oponod at his feet, and thel'o gusllcd forth
l\ fountain of fresh 'Vater fragmnt with musk: tho
tont which bad oroctcd for <llun in !)l\l'lIo<1iSO
elcaccndcd from hoa.von, anel theroupon t110 l'OCky
wall which supported the eaetem side of the
temple groaned like a woman -in travail; a ight of
birde descended, and filling their beaks with tho
water of tbe fountain, sprinkled it over the rock, and
10 I there was seen tbe head of the camel, - whieh
was gra.dually followed by the reat of ite body; when
it swod upon the earth, it was as it had been
deecribed by the king, anel it cried out immediately:
" There ie no God but Allall, Salih is his mcssenger
and prophet." The angel Gabriel then Cme down
and touched tho camel with bis aming sword, and it
gnvo birth to 110- young crunol which r08emblccl it
entirely, and repeated theconfession that had
been required. The camel then went to the dweil ..
inga of the people, calling them by name,- and filling
overy empty vessel with milk. On ite way all
animals bowed beforo it, and oll. the troes bent t11eir
brauches to it in reverenco.
The king could no longer shut his heart to such
proofs of God's almigbtineBB and Salih's mission: he
fell on the -propbet's neck, kissed him ud enid, _ " I
confess there is but one God, and that thou art bis
messenger I"
- Dut tbe brotller of tho king, as well as Davucl and a11
tlle priesthood, cal1ed it only BOrcery and delusion, and
invented all kinds of calumnies andfaJeehoode, toretnin
the peoplein unbelief and idolatry. Mennwhile, since
the eaine], by constantly yielding its milk and praising
oAIL'\h 8 orten as it went downto the water, made
dai]y new converts, the chiefs of the infidels resolved
tokillit. Dut whcn mnnydnys bo.(l passcd bcforo they
venturcd to nppronch it, SIhab issucd a procJa:mation,
tImt who80ever should kill tbe mountain cnmel, should
Imve his daughter Rajan to wife. Kadbar, a young
man wbo badlong lovoo tlsma.iden, distinguished as
sbe woB for gracc and beauty, but witbout daring
to woo ber, being onIy a man of the wed
bimself with 0. huge sword, and attcnded by Davud
Rnd some other fell upon the camel hom
obehind ",hile it was descending to tbe waters, and
wounded it in its boof.
At thnt moment all nature uttered a frightful
shl'iok of woc. Thc littlo camcll'n moalling to thc
highcst pinnncle of tbe mountnin nnd cried, "May
thc cursc of light upon thoo, tbou sinful pcople I"
Salih and the king, who bad not qltted him since
bis convcrsion, went into the city, demnnding the
punishment of Kadbar and his accompliccs. But
Shihab, who bad in the meantime usurped the throne,
threo.tenoo tItern with instant death. Salih, flying,
bad only time to say that Allah would wait their
repentance only three days longer, and on the expir-
o.tion of tbe third day would o.nnihilate them like
their brethren tbe Aaadites. His threat was fulfilled,
for they were irrcelaimo.ble. Alrcady on the nut
clay the people grew 8 yellow ns tbe.oseared leaves of
autumn; and wherever the wounded eamel trocl there
i88Ued fountains' of blood from the earth. On the
second day their faces became red. as blood; but on
the third, they turned as ooal, and on the
same day, towards nightfall, they saw the' eamel
liovering in the air on cnmson wings, whereupon
some oE the angels hurled down' wholo mountainB oE
fire, while others opened the BubiermneouB vaults of
fire whieh are eonnected with hell, so that the earth
vomited forth firebrands in the Bhape of' camels. . At
sunset, all the ThamUditeB were a heap of ashes.
Only SaJih and king Djundu eseaped, and wandered.
in company to Palestine, where. they ended their
daYB as hermits. .

SOON af\er the death of Salm, the prophet Abraham,
was born at Susa, or, according to others, at Bo.bylon.
He was 110 contemporarY of thc mighty king, Nimrod,
and bis birth falls into thc ycnr 1081 after the 11000,
w}ch bn.ppened in 2242 from' the Fnll. He was
welcomed at his bll-th by the angel Gabriel, who imme-
diately wrapped him in a white robe. Nimrod on.thc
night in whichAbraham was born -it was between
tbe night of ThurSday and Friday morning --.:. heard
1\ voico in his dl'Cl\m wbich cried aloud, "W 00 to thom
tImt sball not confe88 the God of Abrallam-the truth
has come to light, delumon vanishes I" He also dreamt
tImt the idol which he' worshipped bad fallen down;
and convened, therefore,' on the following moming a11
his prieste and BOrearers, commimicating to them
his dream. Yet no one knew how to interpret it, or
to givo any account of Abralmm. Nimrod had nlready
onea in a dream seen a star which eclipsed the light of
sun and moon, and had, been warncd by his
soreerers of a boy who threatened to deprive liim of
bis throne, and to annihilate tc people's faith in him,
- for Nimrod CIloused himself to be worshippcd as
God. Yet, seeing tImt sinea that dream he bad eom-
manded every new-bom male 19 be slain atite birth, be
did not think there was nny nced for furtber apprehen .
sion. .Abraham &lone wns saved of the ehildren who
were born at that time by a miraele of heaven, for
bis mother bad remained so slender during her whole
pregnaney that no one had thought of it, and when her
hour camo she flecl to n. beyond tbQ city, wherc,
aided by the angel Gabriel, she was seeretly delivered.
In this .Abraham remained ooneealed, during
fifteen monthe, and his mother visited him sometimes
tonurse him. But he had no need oi her food, for
.Allah commanded water to ow from one of .Abra-
ham's :6ngere, milk from another, honey fromthe
third, the juice of dates from the fourtb, and butter
from the :6fth. On stepping, for the :6rst time,
beyond the cave, and seeing a beautiful star, .Abraham
said, "Tbis is my God, whieh hns given me meat
and drink in the eave." Y et anon the moon arose in
full splendour, exeeeding tlie light of the star, nnd
he said, "This ie not God; I will worship the moon."
Dut when, towards morning, t ~ moon wnxcd more
and more pale, and the sun rOBe, he aeknowledged
tbe latter aB a. divinity, until he also dieappeared from
the horizOn. He then asked his mother, "W110 is
my God?" and ahe replied,
"It is I." .... ,
tc'.A.Dd \vho is thy God?" he inquired further.
" Thy' father."
" nd' who is my father'e God P"
Nimrod !".:....- '
J' And Nimrod's 'God ?"
,She then: struck' him on the face, and saicl, ce Be
silent I" He waS silcnt, but thought within bim-
self, ,,! no other God than Him who hns
created heaven and earth,' imd all that is in
When he was a little older, bis father, ser, who WalS
a maker of idols, sent bim out to sell them; but Ab1'&!>
ham cried" "Who buy 'wbat' co.n only do bim bann;
and bring no good?" so that no one bought of billl.
Oneday, when all bis tOWnsmen had gone on a' pil-
grimage to 'some idol, he feigned sickness, and
Mone at home, destroyed two-and-seventy idols,
which were set' in the temple. ' Ii was then -that
he obtained the-'h6riourable surname of, Chalil-Alliili
. . ,'. " : . : , ,', . . .
(tbc Irlend 01 Gd). - Dut on the return of, the p.;
grims he was o.rrested, and breught befoJ:e Nimrod;
for suspicion soon upon him, both on aooountof
his stay and the oontcmptuous reflections on
the worsbip oE idols, in which he was know.n to in..:
dulge. Nimrod oondemned bim to be burnt alive 'as
a blasphemer. Tbc people of DabeI then oollected
, .
The Jewish '.legend respecting Abraham's contempt of
idolatry and his sentence to be burllt alive is as follows:-
" Terah was an idolater, and, RB he went one day on a journey,
he appointed Abraham to aell his idols in his etead. Ae often
aB 'purchuer came, Abraham inquired his age, and wben he
replied, , I am fift.y or eixty yeare oId,' be 8id, 'W oe to tbe
man oe aixt,y wbo would worehip tbe "'ork of A day" -10
t.hat the purohaeere went aWAY aahamed.
. THE PILE. '.
wood for a pile during a whole month, or aOOorwng
to BOme of the lea.rned, during forty days, and at that
time lOiew' of no more God-pleasing work than thia :
BO that 'if any one was siek, or desired to obtain Bny
favour from bis gods, he vowed to oarry. a certain
quantity 01 wood upon bis recovery; or on tbe fuHU-
ment of bis wish. The women were especially active;
thejr washed, or did otber manual. work, for hire,
.md.bought wood with their.earnings. When at lasi
. ,
" One da)' a woman oame with a bowl of ne flour ud aaid,
, Set it before them I but he took a ataft' ud broke all the
i d ~ l a in piecea, ud p1aced the .taft' in the hand! of the largeat
of them. When bis fat.hei roturned he inquired, 'Who haa
done thi. P' Abraham i d 'Why ahould I deny It P there WBl
woman here with a bowl of fine flour, and ahe directed me to
88t lt before them. Whan I did ao, every one of them woUld
have eaten fint; then aroae the taUest, ud demollahed them
wlth the ataff.' Terah aaid, "WUt fable art thou telHng me P
h a ~ they!'Dy undentandingP'
" Abraham replied, 'Do not thy ean haar what thy Hpa uttar P'
"Whereupon Terah took hiID ud deUvered him to Nimrod,
who !lld to Abraham, 'Let UI wonhip the fire I'
. " , Rather the watar that quenebea the ftre.'
" 'Wen, the watar.'
" , Ratherthe cloud whieb carriea. the watar.' .
" 'Wen, the cloud.'
. " , Rather the wmd that acattera the cloud.'
" , Wen, the wind.'
" , Rather man, for he endurea the wind.'
" 'Thon an a babbler,' replied the king. ' I wonhip the fire,
ud. will oaat thee mto it. May the God whom thou adoreat
deliver thee thence I' .
. .. Abraham WBl thrown into heated furnace, but W88 BAvoo."
- Vide Gftrr', i. p. 124.
the pile had attained a height 01 'thirty cubite. and
a breadthof twenty, Nimrod commailded it to be set
on fire.' Then there mounted on high such a mighty
flome, that, many biMs in the air were,' coDBumed
by it; the smoke which aroee darkened the who}"
city, and the crackling of the wood was heard at the
distance of a day's joumey. Then Nimrod summoned
Abraham, and asked him agam, "Who is tby God P"
" He' that has power 10 kill and 10 make alive
agam," Abraham replied. He thereupon conjured
up a man from the gmve who bad died many
&gO, and commanded him 10 bring a white cock, a
black raven, a green, pigeon, and a speckled peacock.
When he bad brought these birds, Abrahao:1 cut
them. into a thousand pieces, and, flung
tour difFerent directions, remining only the four head8
in hands.' Over these he said a prayer, then
called each bird by nome, and behold the little pieoes
came flybig 10wards him, and, combining as they bad
been, united themselves 10 their heads. The' birds
lived as before, but 'he who bad been raieed from
the dead, at Abraham's command, dcscended again
into. the grave.
Nimrod then caused two malef&Ctors 10 be brought
from prison, and commanded one of them 10 be
executed, but pardoncd the other, saying, "I also
am God, for I too have the disposal of life and
However childish this remark was, for he only
bad power of the sentence of a living
D 11
not of restorlng the' dcad to life, Abl'liliam
not QbjeQtl. but, in order to silenc9. him .at onoo, said,
(( Allah ca.1iBea thesun to rise in the Eaat;' if thou be
.AJ]a.h, let it for onoo rise in the West. . But, instead
Qfreplying, .Nimrod commanded his servantB to ing
4\bl'llhlllll into tbe fire, by ineans of an engine which
&t,tan himaelf bad aUggcSted to him.
. .At the same instant the beaven with all itB angele,.
and with all ita creatures, cried with one
yoice, . (f God of AbrahamJ thy mend, who' alone
WQrahips thee on eri, is being tlu:own into the fire ;
permit us to reacue him." Tbe angel that
over the reservoirs was about to extinguish the ILIDCS
by deluge from on high, and he that keepeth tbe winds
to l!lca.tter them by atempest to all pIIrls of the world:
but blessed be His name I said, ffI permit every
e;,;Qe'.of you to whomAbraham shall, cry for Pl'().o
tection to llSSist bim; yet if he turn only to me, then
I.ct me by my own immediate aid rescue him from
death. Tben cried Abraham. from tbe midst 'of the
pile,. ff There is no God besides thee; thou art.
Supreme, and unto thee alone belong praise' '&nd
glory I" Tbe flame bad already consumed his rohe,
when angel Gabiielsteppedbefore him and asked,
,. Hast thouneed of me?"
... .
. Tbe Midrasb, p, 20., .. ;-a, " Wben tbe wiebd Nimrod cut
Abraham into the furnace, Gabrie1 aaid, Lord of the world,
auft'er me to .. ve this mint fTom the fire I' but the Lord
, I tbe only one aupreme il\ 'my world, and be is aupreme in
bis f it il meet; therefore, that the lupreme ahould .va
But he replied," The help of Allah alone is what
I needr" .
, rc Pmy then to Him that he may save ihee I" re-
joined Gilbriel. ,"
" He knows my condition," answered Abraham".
Allthe 'creattires of the earth nowattempted to
quench the fire, the lizard Mone bleW' upon it; anel,
as a punishmeni, became dumb from that hour.
, At Allah's command, Gabriel now cried to the fire,
U eOOme cool, and do Abraham no ha.rm I" 10 these
last ,vOM Abraham WOoB indcbted for bis eseape, for at
the sounel of Gabriel's voice it grew B chilI arounel
him, that he was weIl nigh freezing; and the ~ l
bad therefore to be dimj'nished again. The fire then
remained as 'it 'was,' burning on as before; hut it bad
miraculously lost aJ1 its wa.rmth; and this :WOoB not
only BO with Abraham's pile, hut witIi aJl firesllghted
on that day throughout the whole world.
Allah then caused a fountain of fresh watet to
spring up in the midst of the fire, and roseS and
other owers to riee out of the earth at the spot
where Abraham was lying. He likewise 'sent him
a silken robe fl'Om, anel an angel in 'human
8hape, who kept rum company during seven days;
for so long he remained in the fire. These seven
days Abraham in later times frequently calleel' the
Most preeious of bis life. .
. His miraculous prcservation in the pile became
the co.use of bis marriage with Radha; the daughtcr
D 8
of .Nimrod. For on the. seventh day alter :Abra ..
ham was cast into the fire, ehe prayed her' father
forpermiBBion to see him .. Nimrocl to
dissuade her from it, and said, "Whatcanst thou see
of him P He has long ere now been changed into
asheB. " Yet ehe ceased not to enti-eat bim, until he
suft'ered her to go near the pile... Tbere ehe beheld
Abraham, through the fire, sitting quite oomfortable in
the midst of a blooming garden. Amazed, she called
.out;." Oh, Abraham, does not the consume thee P"
He replied, "Whoever keeps Allah in bis heart, and
the words, In the name of Allah the All-merciful,'
on his tongue, over him has fire no power."
Whereupon ehe begged his permiBBion to approach
bim, but he said, "Confess that there is but one only
God, who has chosen me to be bis messenger I" . AB
!3OOn as ehe. bad made this conteBBion of herfaith, the
flames parted before her, so that ehe was able to
reac4 Abraham . But when ehe retumed
,to her father, and told him in what condition ehe
bad found the prophet, and sought to convert bim
.to hie faith, he tormented and tortured her so cruelly,
that Allah commanded an angel to deliver her from
bis hands,and conduct her to Abraham, who bad
meanwhile loft the city of Babel. .
" Still Nimrod was far from being recla.imed; he even
resolved to 'buUd a lofty tower, wherewith, possible,
to scale tbe heavens, and to searcb therein for the God
of Abraham. Tbe rosa toaheigbt
cuhits; hut as hea.ven was still far off, and the work-
men were unahle to proceed furthel' with the building,
Nimrod ca.ught twoeagles and kept them upon the
tower, feeding them coustantly with flcsh. ,He then
left them to fast for several days, and when they were
ravenous with hunger, he fastened to their feet 110 light
closed palankin, with one window above and another
helow, and seated' himself in it with one of bis
huntsmen. The la.tter took a long spear, to whieb
110 hit of flesh was attached, and thrust it through
the upper window, so that the famishing eagles
flew instantly upwards, hearing the palankin aloft.
When they bad own towards heaven during a whole
day, Nimrod heard a voiC; whieb cried to him, "God-
Iese man, whither goest thou P ',Nimrod seized the
bow of bis huntsman, and discha.rged an IIolTOW, whieb
forthwith fell back through the window stained with
blood. and this IIoband(med man believed that he bad
wounded the God of Abraham.
. But as he was now 80 far from the ea.rth, that it
appeared to him no larger than an egg, he ordered
the spear to he held downwards, and the eagles
and the poJankin descended.
Respecting the blood whieb was seen on Nimrod's
arrow, the lea.rned are not agreed as to whence it came:
many contend it was the blood of a flah whom the
clouds bad CIIolTied with them from the sea, and adduce
this circumstance as the reason why flsh need not be
D "
siaughtered. Othen slippOee that Ni:u.odts a.lTOwhad
struek a: bird whieh wNi ying still higher thau thc
eagles. : When Nimrod. in the swe1l of iriumph. once
iDore reached the :pinnacle of his tower ..Allah caused
it'.t<daIl iri with such frightful nolSe, tbat aIl people
w'ere . besid . themselves' froDi terror. 'ud every one
spoke in a .difFerent Since that period
lamguages or' mon . vary and. on Ii.ooount of tIla
arlsing from this circ1lIl18t8.noo. the' capital
I.Nimrod was called Babe1 (the confusion). .
.. As . soon. however. a$ Nimrod bad recovered hini-
salf . ho pursued' Abraham with anarmy whicb
oovered the spa.ce of twelV& square miles. Allah
then sent Gabricl unto Abraham .. to ask him by
what creature he shouId send. him : deliverance?
Abraham chose the Hy; and Allah said. "v erilY. if
he bad not chosen the fly. iui insect 'would have
oome to his aid. seventy of which are lighter thlUi
the wing of a Hy." .
The eXalted Allah thensummoned thc king of flies.
and oommanded him to march with his host agamst
Nimrod. . He thon oollected all :the flies and gnats
of the whole carth. and with them att8.cked NimrOd's
men with such violence, that they were 800n obliged
The laws of tho Mahomeio.ns, IUld of the Jen eapecially;
regulate IIOJ'Upulouely the mode in whieh clean animals are to
be sl&in; what part is to niceive the mortal wound; how it i.
to be infl.icted; the knire to be used ; IUld the rormula or prayer
to be uttered. But no such laws.exist in regard to fish.- E. T.
57 '
to take to flight, for they consumed their skin and
bones and flesh, and picked the eyes out of ~ i r
heo.ds. Nimrod himself Bed, and locked himself up
in ,110 tbickly-wnllcd tower; but one of thc flics rUBbed
in witb him, and flew round biB face during Beven
days, without biB being able to catch it, the fly return-
ing and to bis lip, and sucking it so long
until it began to swell. It then Bew up into bis
nose, and tbe more he endeavoured to get it out, tbe
more deeply it preseed into it, until it came to the
brain, wbich it began to devour. Then there re-
mained no other meane of relief to him than to run
bis head againet the wall, or to have some one strike
bis forehead with a hammer. But the fly grew con-
tinually larger until the fortieth day, when bis head
buret open, and the insect, wbich bad grown to the eize
of a pigeon, ew out, and eaid to tbe dying Nimrod,
who even now would not come to repentance, "Thus
does Allah, whenever he pleases, permit the feebiest
of bis creatures to' destroy the man who will not be-
lieve in Him and in His meseenger." The tower, in
which Nimrod WIlo8, thcn tumbled in upon hirn, and
he must roll about under ite .ruine until the day of
the resurrection. /'
After Nimrod's death, many persone whom the
Iea.r of the king bad prevented, turncd to the '<>nly
God, and to Abrabam his mesaonger. Tbo firet
bis nephew Lot, the son of Haran, and Lot's Bister
Sarah, whom Abraham Iterwarde ma.rricd. She
D 5
bore a. perFect 'resemblance to her moiher Eve, tri
",horn Allah. had given two thirds ofall beauty,
while the whole human racehave to be satisfied with
the rema.ining third, and even of 'this quota. J oseph
alone obtined one tbird, . .
Samh 'was sO beautiful that' Ablaham, who, in
order to the true faith, was obliged 'to make
many journeys' to Palestine, Syria., Egypt, and
Arabia, found it' to carry her With him
a. ehest. One day he was 'arrested on the banks
of the Jordan by a. publican, to whom he was obliged
to give tithe of all that he carried with him. Abra-
ham opened all bis eheste, but the one in whieh Sarab
was oonfined; and when the publioan proceeded to
search it too, Abrahain said, " Suppoee it to be Slled
With silke, and letme pay the tithe acoordingly." But
tbe' officer oommanded' him io open it. Abralulm
begged him again to pass it unopened, and oft'ered 'to
give tithe 88 if it "Were filled with goid and jewels.
StUl the other insisted on his seeing the oontente of
the ehest; and, when he beheld Bamb, he was so daz-
zledby her beauty, that he ran forthwith to the king,
reporting what bad
The king immediately Bummoned Abrahaui, and
inquired of him, "Who is the maiden whom thou oor-
riest with thee ? " Abl"aham, from rear of being put
to death if' he avowed the truth, replied, ce She is my
Bister r " At the same time he told no ralsehood J tor
. '.
The learned reader muat be .truck with the .trong like-
HAGAB AND' IBllAlilL. 69
in Jilij. he meant, " She is' my in the faith."
When the king heard this, he took her with him' to
bis palace. Abraham stood full of despair before it,
not knowing what to do, when Allah caused' the
walls .of the palace to become transparent as,
and Abraham saw how the king, as 800n as he bad
seated hiniself' with Sarah on a divan, desired to
embrace her. But at that instant his hand withered,
the pa1ace began to and threatened to falL
Tbe king fell on the ground from dread and fright,
and Sarah said to hirn, rr Let me go, for I am the
of Abraham."
Pharaoh thereupon summoned Abraham, and
proacJi.ed him _ fr bis untruth. . The then
prayed forhim; and Allah -healed the" king,; who'
now gave Abraliam" inamy rieb prosonts, among
others,' IinEgyptian slave by the name of Hagar.
She bore him a son, whom he ca11ed Ismo.el. But as
Sarah waS barren, and the more jealOU8 since the
light of Mohamed already Mone on Ismael's fore-
neu exiating hetween the moral of the Moslems and thoae
of the Sanchez, the Escobars, the Tambourina, and the Molinas.
The Bibie aays, indeed, "Abraham Baid to Pharaoh, She ia my
aister ;'" but it doea not juatify him by adding that he told no
falaehood.-E. T.
Tbe Midraab, foI. 21., aaya that Hagar was given as a alave
t.o Abraham by her father, Pharaob, who aaid, "My daughter
had hetter be a slave in the bouse of Abraham than mistress in
any other." Elilnelech, in like manner, and for the sle
rpaaon, . gave his daughtcr aa a bondmaid to Abraham, after be,
had IIOOD tbe wondere which were donG for Sarh
D 6
. .' . EAR RINGS.'
head, she.demanded;of Abraham to' put away Hilgal"
and her sOn. He, was :undecided, until commandcd
by Allah to ober, Sarah in all things. Yet he
entreated her &gain not to cast off her, bondmaid
and her son. ,But this so exasperated. her, that
ahe declared ehe wonld not reat ,until her bands
had been embrucd, in's blood.' Thon Abra-
ham pierced Hagar's ear quickly, and drew a ring
through it, so that Sarah waS able io dip her band
in : the blood of Hagar without bringing the iatter
intO danger. '
From that time it becamo a custom among wOJDen
to wear ear-rings.
81lrah now sufFored to remain yot 0. few yoo1'8
longer ,with her;. but when she bad borne Is8ac, and
observed that Abrahani loved him leBS than IsmaeI,
her ,jealousy awoke afresh, and she now insisted' on
lIagar's removal. Abraham then went with her and
Ismael on his way, and, the angel Gabriel guided
thern into the Ambian desert, to theplaoo where
o.f'terwards the holy temple of Mecca was built. This
place ~ d been dedicated to the worship of Allah
even before Adam's birth. For when Allah made
known to the angels bis re801ve of creating man, and
The aanctity which the M081em attachea to p1ac" ia
akin to the feeling. in the church of the Phariaeea before
Christ, and of Rome at preaent. But the Saviour reprovea
it by thOl8 worda, ", W'1aerll11er two or tbree are gathered
together in my name, there am I in the midat of them."
Mall. xviii. 20.-E. T. .
they" said, "Wilt thou fill the earth witb &inful crea-
tures?" Allah was 80 wroth at their dissuasion,
that the angels, to reconcile Bim, wolkcd, einging
pmiscs, seven timcs round His tInone. Allah par-
doned them, but said, "Build me forthwith, in
a direct line downward to the earth, atempie,
which the siimers may one day encompass, that they
also iJ;J.ay obtain mercy, even as ye h,ave now
my throne, and been forgiven." AIlah afterwards
gave to a diamond of Paradisc, which is now
called the black stone; for it afterwards grew black
by the unc1ean touch of the heathen, but will one
day rise with eyes and a tongue, to bear testimony to
those who have to.pchcd it in their pilgrimage. This
jewe1 was originanr" im. to watch
ovar Adam, that he might not eat of the forbidden
trce; but, on account of his neglect,
into a stone. At the time of the ood AIlah lifted up
this temple into heaven; yet the winds blew Noah'.
ark seven times round the spot where it had stood.
" After having Hagar" and
Mecca, Abraham returned again to Sarah, tu: Syrla,
leaving the fOl'Dler, at Gabrie1's comniand, to them-
ee1ves, provided with a few dates and a bottle of water.
But these provisions were soon exhaustcd, and the
whole region was waste, arid, and uninhabited. When
The black atone of the Kaaba ia to t,bis day an object of
great veneration witb tbe Muasulmen. and every pilgrim visit-
ing the temple wes itrepeatedly.-E. T.
Hagar. and IsmaeI hunger and
thint" the former timee fi:om Mount Susa to
calling upon, Allah for relief: thengel
briei thenappearedtoher"andstamped upQn theearth
his.foot, and behold thera up a fountain,
which is known aa the fountain of Semsem. t But
that time its waten ware IUI sweet ll8 honey and IUI
milk; so that Hagar WIUI unwilling again
. to leave these regions:. ,': " . . .
some time tbere came two Amalekites to
her,. wbo were seeking a Crune1 which had' strayed
there, . and,. finding good water, tbey informed their
tri1?e, thereof, whioh had enoomped a few houre west-
waid. .. They Bettled with her, and lsmo.el grew up
ihem; but'Abraham yisited him every month,
Barak his iniraculous hone, which carried
himin half a day.from Syria to Mecca.
. lairui.eI hadattained the age of tbkteen
YM, heard a voice in bis. dream, whioh
cried, " Sacrifice lamael thy son. tJ .
. ,The J ews, and even many MU8BUlmans do, indeed,
rDaiDtak, tbat it WIUI his son Isaac whom Abraham
;. but the troe believers reject this opinion,
inasmuch IUI Mohamed called himself the son of two
men ,who had been set apart IUI sacri.6ces, meaning
, :The pilgrims to Mecca still run .aeven timea from Mount
Suaa to Marwa, trequently looking round and 8tooping down, to
imitate Hag!U' when aeeking for water.-E. T .
, t Thla fountain ia within the Kaaba: ita water ia brackiah,
thoughaomewhat leaa 10 than the other water oe Mecca.-E.T.
thereby IsmaeI and hiS own father; : AM ' Allah,
whom hiS grandfather, Abdul Mattalib, intended io
offcr in fuUilmont of a vow, but, by the decision 01 a
priestess, ,redeeined witb a hunched camels:
When Abraham awoke, he was in doubt whether
he should regard bis dream. as a Divine oommand,or
as the instigation of Satan. But, when the siune
dream was yet twice repeated, he' dared not to hesi-
tate any longer, and therefore took' a knife and a
rope, d sold to Ismael, "Follow me I" , "
, Whan Iblis saw this, be thought within' bimself;
" An &Ct 80 well pleasing to Allah' I must seek to
prevent," 'and, he assumedthe form of aman; and,
going' to eaidto her" " Knowest thou
Abraham has gone with thy son? ",Hagar answered,
er He has gone into' the forest to out wood." ,':"
" It is false/' replied Iblis; "he intends to sJaughter
thy son." , '
, "How is 'this possible?'" rejoined Hagar;, " does
he not love him as much Q,8 I?"
" Y ea," oontinued. Iblis, " he believes that
Allah has oommanded it."
, "Ir it be so," rejoined HBaaar, "let him do what
he believes pleasing to AUah." ,
When Iblis oould effect nothing with Hagar, he
betook bimself io Ismaei, and said, "Knowest' thou
ror what end this wood whicb thou hast gatbered is
to serie?"
Iemael replied, "lt is for our use at home."
" No I" rejoined Iblis; ce thy rther designs to off er
thee AB a sacriflce, beco.use be tbo.t Allah hafl
commanded him."
" WeIl," . replied IsmaeI, "if it be so, let him
fulfll on me the wU1 of Allah."
!bUs then tumed to Abraham himself, and said,
" whither goest thou P" .
Cf ,To cut wood." .
cc.For.what purposeP"
. Abraham tu silent ; hut Iblis 'ce I know
thou designest to' oft'er up thy son, because Iblis hAB
suggested it to thee in 0. dream:" hut o.t these worc:ls
Abraham recognised Iblis, and flinging At himseven
pebbles, 0. ceremony since observed by eveiy pilgrim,
he said, "Get thee gone, enemy of Allah;' I will act
according' to tbe will of my Lord." Satan went ",way
enrged; but stepped yet twice more in a. different
fonn into Abraham's way, seeking to stagger his
resOlve,' Abraham discovcred him each time, anel
each time ung at him seven pebbles.
The Midraah, p. 28., Bays, "Abraham. teil; Sarah early in
tbe" moming," while ahe alept i but Satan placed himself in his
way 118 an aged man, and aaid, 'Whitber goest thou P
" 'I desire to pray.'
" l,Qut to what purpOl8 are wood and knlfu P
11 I I may remain abaent aome daya, and muat needa prepare
my food.'
" 'Should a man like thee alay bis BOn who waa given him in
oId age P how wilt thou answer for it in the day of judgment P'
" I God haa commanded me.' .
. TBE 8A.ORIFIOE Ol!' 18UA.:Ilit..: 6lJ
When tItey came to Minli, UpOD the spOt where
was" to be oft'eted; the latter saidto Ahm ..
hani, '.'Father, bind inetightly, tbat I md.y'nbt re.l
eiet, and thrust back tby robe, tbo.t it may not be
sprinkled with my blood, lest my mother mourn at
the sight of it. Sharpen thy knife well, that it' ma1
kill me quickly and easily, for, after all, death is hald.
WheIi thou teachest home again, mother,
and take this robe 10 her as a memento." , .'
Abraham obe1OO weepmgly the wiU of bis son; and
was just on the poin,t of .slo.ying bim, when the
portals of heaven were openOO, andthe angels looked
on, and cried, "Well does this to be
callOO the friend oE Allah I
At this momentthe Lord placOO an invisible ooIlar
of oopper 'round Ismo.ol's so tbat
spite of his utmost exertions, was unable to: wound
.. He then presented hbnself to Iaaac in tbe formot a youth,
and said; 'Whither goest tbou P . . :'
" 'To be inBtructed by my father 1n virtue and knowledge.' :
. I" Duriug thy lifetime or after death P for he verilydesigus
to' alay thee.'
" , It matterll not, I Bhall follow him.'
" He went to Barab, aud osked her. 'Where ia thy husbabdP'
" , He hall gone to his buain81181
"'And thy BOnP'
" , He is with him I
" , Didst thou not 1'8IIOlve that he shouId not go beyond thy
door alone P ,
" , He mUlt pray with his tather.'
" 'Thou ahalt not see hirn again I'
b 'The Lord do unto my BOn according to His will I ' ..
him. ' But when he put hss knife to Isinael'i neck
a thin]:, time, he' hearda votoe, whioh cried, Cf Thou
haat,fulfilled the oonmiaricl"whioh was imparted to thee
in thy dreaml": .:, , .',': ;', :'
, ,: At' this ca11 he raised biS eyea, 'ana GabrielatOOd be-
fore him with a fine horned ram, and laid,. u SIaughter
tbis ram 8.a thc r&n80m of thy 8On." .
" Thia ram was the same which Abel oft'ered, and
which in themean time bad paatured in
>Tbe saCrifice :over, Abraham returned to Syria,
but Ismael remained with his mother mnong the
Amalkites, of whom he took a we.
( ; One day Abraham deaired to visit him; but Ismael
was engaged in tbe chase, and bis we was alone at
home. . Abrahaoi greeted her, hut ahe did not return
bis salutation. He prayed her to. admit him for the
night, but she refused bis pmyer; he then demanded
80metbing to eat and to drink, and ahe answered, "I
have notbing but aome impure water." Then Ab1'6-
ham lett her, and Baid, Cf Wbenthy husbnd returnS
greet him, and say, he must change the pillars of bis
house. Wben Jsmael came home to inquire whether
any olle beeil with her' during bis absence, ahe
, , '
Rabbi Elleeer teaohea: tho ram oame floom tl\o mountaill.
Rabbi Jllhoahua: an angel brought I, floom Paradiao, where it
Putured uDder the tree or eternal lire, and dranlt trom the
brook which owa beneath it. The ram dift'uaed iia periume
the whole world. It wai brought iBto Paradise OD
the eveniDg oi the aixth da)' oi the creation. - MidrtuA, p. 28.
described Abraham, and told what he bad erijoined.
upon her. By her description Ismael' recognised .. bis
father, and bis words he interpreted; t.hat he ehould
separate himse1f from bis we, which he 800n <lid. .
Not long alter thie, the Djorhamidee wandered from
Southem Arabia to the regions of Mecca,and drove
out the Amalekitee, who by their vicious C011l'8e8 had
called down' on themeelvee the puniehment of AlIah.
Ismael married the daughter of their king, and learned
of them the Arabio tongue. Thie woman, too, Abra-
ham once found alone, and, on bis greeting her, ehe
returned bis salutation kindly, ~ up before' h i m ~
and bade him welcome. On bis inquiring how .. it
fared. with her, she replied, " Wen, .my lord. We
have much milk, good meat, and freeh water."
ce Have you any oom?" inquired Abraham.
ce We shall obtain' that too, by Allah's will. But
we do .not mies it. . Only alight, and come in I "
" Allah biese you I" eaid Abraham, ce but I oannot
tarry;" far he bad given a promiee to Sarah not to
. enter house.
" Suft'er me at least to waeh thy feet," eaid the
we of Ismaelj ce for thou art indeed covered .. with
Abraham then placed first bis right foot and then
Thia legend, which has ref'erence to lamae), and which it
might bo auppoaod WDI of Ambic origin, and invcntcd to account
for tbe IDnctity of the IeCOnd curioUi atone of the Kaaba, ia
found in ~ Midraah, p. 27. :-
bis leftupon Q, s'tono .wruch lay Wore lsinnc1's house;
imd Buft'ered hiinaolf to be . wa.shed. . This stone wns
a!terWards. employed in the temple, ud the prints of
Abtaham's feet are visibleupon it to this day.
; ... After ehe bad washed him, A.braham, ir When
.Ismel . retU1'l)8, ,tell him. to strengthen the pillara
bf his house I"
" Ai soon a.s Ilimael came home, his wife related to
,. married 'a wU'e 'of the daughters of Moab. and her
name was Aaia. . After three years Abraham went to visit biS
1IOn, having aworn previously to Sarah not to alight fioom hia
camel. He came towards noon to Iamael's dwelling, in ",hieh
hls'wife was alone.. .
.... 'Where ia Iamael P
: ,., He ia gone into the.desert With hia mother to gather dates
and some other fruits.'
" , Give me a little bread and water, tor I m' fatigued ",ith
travelling through the wildernesa.' .
.. " 'I liave neither bread nor water.' .. '
" 'When Ismael .returns home teil him that he thc
door-poats of his houso, for they are not worthy of bhn.' .
"Aa 800n as Iamael came, and she reported al1 that had hap-
pened, he underatood what Abraham had and sont her
away. .' .
. "Hagar then brought him a wife from father's house:
her name was Fatima. .
"After three yem Abraham visited hii' son again, after having
again 8worn to Sarah that he would not alight at his house.
. "He arrived this thne too at Iamael's dwelling towarda noon,
and foutad Fathna quite alone. But she brought him immedi-
ately all.that he desired. Then prayed for Iamael to
the Lord, and hia house was filled with gold and goods.
. "When Iamael returned, and learned from Fatima what bad
happened, he rejoiced greatly, and knew that.Abraham'. parental
love for him Wal not yet extincL" - MidrtuA, p. 28.
',.HE' IUA.BA,.
b)l wbat bad happened to her with a stranger, ,aIiel
what message he bad left. ',-!' ,,\
, Ismaelinquired of his appeara.nce; and'when; from
'her answers, he rccogniscd who it was, he rejoice<l
greatly, and said, "It was my father Abraham, the '
friend of Allah, who was doubtless weIl satisfietl with
thy reception, for bis words signify nothing 'e]se 'than
that I should bind thee more o1086]y .to me. ,
When Abraham was a hundred and ten years, old,
,Allah commanded. him in a dream to fbllow afterthe
Sakinah; that is, a zephyr with two heads and two

Abraham obeyed, ,and journeyed. after the wind,
which was cbanged. into a o1oud, at Mecca, on thc
spot where the, temple, still stands; A' voice then.
(lIilled. to bim," Build, mc a temple on the 'spot where
the o1oud is resting. ,
. Abraham began to dig up the earth, and discovered
the foundation:-etone which Adam had ]aid. He then
coIDIDanded Jsmael t.o bring the other stones required
for the building. But the black stone, which since
the' fiood bad been conccaled in heaven, or, according
tu the opinion of some of tbc leamed, on Mount Abu
Kubeis,' the angel Gabriel brougbt himself. This
stone was even at that time so white and brillianti
that it illuminated during the night the whole sa.cred.
region to Mecca.
,One do.y, ,vhile Abmho.m was engo.gcd with
IsmaeI in tbe building of the temple, there came to
him Alexander the Great, a.nd asked w ~ t he was
buUding, and when Abraham told him it was a
temple' to . the one only GOD, in whom he believed,
Alexander aeknowledged him as the messenger of
Allah, aild' encompassed the temple seven times on
foot. ..
With regard to this Alexander, the opinions of
the leariied yary., Some beHeve bim to have been
a Greek, and maintain .that he. governed the whole
world j first, like Nimrod betore.liima as an unbeHever,
and then like Solomon f t e ~ him, as a believer. .
Alexander was the lord of light and darkness:
when he went out with bis army the light was before
him, and behind him W88 the darkness, 80 that he W88
soonre agaiJist all ambuscades, and by moons of a mi-
"raculous wbite andblaekstandard,:.he bad also the
power to transform the clearest day into midnightdark-
ness, or blaCk night intci noon.:aay, just as he unfurled
the one or the other. Thus he W88 unconquerable,
since he rendered bis troops .invisible at bis pleasure,
and' came down suddenly upon bis foes. He jOUrneyed
through the whole world in quest.of the fountain of
eternal Me,. of wbich, as his sacred book taught
him, a descendant of Sam (Shem) was to drink, and
become immortal. But bis vizier, Al;'kidhr, anti-
cipated him, and drank of a fountain in the furthest
west, thus obtaining eternal youth j and when Alex-
a.iider eame it wasalready dried up, for, according to
the Divine deoree, it had been created for one man
only. 'His 8Urname, the Two-cornered, he
COrding to some, because he had wandered through the
whole eartb unto her two corners in the east arid west j
but according to othen, because he wore two loCb of
hair wbich resembled horns; and, according to a third
opinion, bis crown. bad two golden horns, to designate
his dominion over the:empires of the Greeks' imd
Persians. But lastly, it is maintained by many, that
one day, in a dream, he found himself' 80 close to the
SUD that he was able to Beize him at bis two ende" in
the eaat and west, and WIlB therefore taUDtingly caIlecl
the Two-cornered. .
Tbe learned are similarly divided respecting the
time in wbich. he lived, bis birthplace,' parentage;
and residence. M08tof them; however, believe tbat
there were two sovereigns of this . name among tha
kinge of antiquity; the eIder of these, who is spoken
of in the Koran, was a descendant of Ham, and con-
temporary of Abraham, and journeyed with Al-kidhr
through . the earth in search of the fOUDtain of
eternallife, and WIlB commiseioned by Allah to shut
up behind an indestructible wall the wild nations of .
JaJu'g and Majug, lest they sbould have
all the other inhabitants of the world. Tbe younger
Alexa.nder was the son of Philip the Greek, one of
the deecendants of J aphet, and a dieciple of the
Aristotle at Athen&. .
Dut lot us return to Abraham, who, nfter bis inter-
view witb Alexander and Al-kidhr, continued the
J>ILGBIH.A.GE. ."', ,; !.
bu.ilding of the' temple until ii bad attainedti.'height
QI Po breadth 01 'tlllrty, ud Po depth 01 twenty-
two . cbits., He' then ascended the Mount Abu
and cried" "Ob, ye inhabitants 01 'the earthj
Allah :commands you to make a pilgrimage to this
holy teJ;liple. , Let bis ciommandment be obeyed I " '
;'.,Allah' caused Abmham's voie to beheard by aU
men ,b.oth .liying :and 'uncreated,; ari4 all, even tbe
,childrenstill in their 'niothers' womb, , cried with one
voice, ' ," W e . . thr ,oommandment" 0 Allah I "
.Abraham, together withthe pilgrims, theil performed
those ceremonies which are yet observed to tbis day,
appointed Ismaei' as the lord 01 the Kaaba,' and
,retumed to bis son Isa.a.c' in .Palestine.
: ;,.When the latter attained tbe age of manhood,
Abraham's beard became grey, wbich astonished
him little, since no inan' before him had ever .
turiled' grey.-. ,But Allah had performed this won-
der' that migbt, be ,distmguished from
IsaaQ. " For as he was a hundred years old when'
Sarah, bore Isa.a.c, the' peopleof PaIestine ,derided
: .. . t ... I I
. .' Whan Sarah wealied her Bon, Abraham made a feast. Tben
iald the heathan, "Behold ihia aged couple, who han taken up
a child ftoom the itreeta. pretending it was their OWD, and to
obtain . credit more eaaily, have givan a feut in ita honour."
Dut the Lorq '.Dade Isa&C 80 strikingly to &c. Alao.
in p. 15., among the wonden which ware done in horiour of
Abraham, . ja enumerated hia turning !raY" And again,
p.30., "Before Abraham there wu no special mark of old age, ..
&c.-Midrtull, pp. 27. 15. 30.
him, -and doubted of Sarah's innOOOl\ce: but Allah,
gave to Isaac such a perf'ect resemblance f' hili
father" that eTery one who saw him was convinced
of Samh's conjugal fidelity. But, to prevcnt their
being mistaken for other, Allah caused grey ,
hairs to grow on Abraham as 80 mark of distinction ;
and it is oo1y since that time that the hair loses
its dark colour in old age. When Abraham bad
attained to the age 'of two hundred, or, 80S some mam-
tain, oE 80 hundred and five-and-seventy, Allah
sent to him the Angel of Death in the form of an age<l
man. Abraham invited him to 80 meal; but the Angel
of Death trembled so much, that before he could put
a morse1 into bis mouth he therewith 'bis
fQrehead, eyes, and nose. Abraham then inquired,
"Why tremblest thou thus? "
" From age," replied the Angel of Death.
"How old art thou? "
ce One year older than thyself I "
Abraham lifted up bis eyes to heaven, and ex-
claimed, "0 Allah I take my soul to thee before I
fall into such a smte I"
ce In what manner wouldest thou like to die, friend
of Allah?" inquired the Angel of Dcath. -
ce I should like to breatbe out my life at tbe mo-
ment when I fall down before Allah in prayer."
The angel remained with Abraham untU he fell
t10\Vu iu pmyer, and then put an end to his lifo.
Abmham was buried by bis Bon Isaac, neaf Snrab,
'14 THE 01' OBALIL.
in the cave of lIebxoJl..: .. FoJ:mIUlY ages. the Jew8
viaited thia cave,. in. whiQb a.ud Jacob ware
afterwarda b'Qf.iect 'ne ChrietiaDs aubaequently built
a ehurch over it,. whieh was e1umged into a mosque
when .Alla.h gave unto the Mussulmen.
But HebroD was called Abraham (the city
'oE Abr&bam), or simply Chalil (Friend), and ia
known by' that name unto day.
J 08EPH, the BOn of J acob, the BOn of Isaac, the BOn
of Abraham, was from bis ehildhood the darling of
bis fatber; and as be lived with an aunt at a distance
rtom bis home, J acob'e conetant 'longing for him
added much to the fervour of bis parental love.
When he was only six yeare of age, bis aunt' be-
came 80 mueh attached to him, tbat, in order to
p r v n ~ her ever being obliged to part with him, ahe
invented the following expedient.' She took tbe
, family girdle whieh ehe, being the firet-born, bad
inherited from Abraham through Isaac (it was the
same whieh Abraham wore on hie loine when thrown
into the pile),-girded Joseph with it, and accused
him of theft, so that, according to tbe laws of
those days, be became her slave for Me. It WQ.8 not
until after her death tbat he returned again to
the house of his father, and was naturally treated
by him with greater care and tenderness tliim his
eIder brothers. Moreover, he was his eldest BOn by
Racba.el, tbe only one of bis wives whom be bad truly
76 DBE.,uf8.
One morning J oseph told bis futiler thnt he bad seen
in a drenm ho,,' ho nd bis brotbors had ench sot t"ig
in the earth, and how those of bis brothers withered,
while his began to bloom, and shaded thein with its
follage and blossoms. J acob was so absorbed with the
meaning of thls dl'eam,. that he '1eft a poor man who
stood before bim holding out his hand for alms unob-
served,' and allowed hlm to depart without a gift. . H,
was. this tmnsgression thnt brought on him all those.
suft'erlngs by whieh he "as sOOn to be visited. On the.
following moming J oseph again related to his father: .
" I, have dreamt that the sun, moon, and the eleven
stars, bowed down to me," J acob could now no longer
remain in doubt as to the meaning of these dreams; he
perceived in them J oseph's future greatness, but re-
commended him not to speak of them to his brothers,
who' bad long since envied him for .the greater tender-
ness of bis father. But although J acob kne" the senti-
ments of bis sons towards J ollCph, yet was he one day
persu,aded by them to him withthem to the pas-
ture. they alone in the open neid,
"hen they beat and to mock hirn. He
would have "\lDder theil' ill treatment, ir.Allah
had not fi.lled the heartpf his with
compas8ion towards him . Judah said, " Do. not kill
yqur brother ; if we bt regaip the undivided love of .
our father, we have. attained .object. Let U8 there-
fore cast him jnto a pit, till a caravan palIBeB, and .
seIl him as a adviQe.WM taken, and
. J 08eph,' stripped of bis garments, was Cast into n
. pit, where he must have been drowned, bad not .Alla.h
, caused the angel Gabriel to place a large'stone under'
his feet. Gabriel o.t the same time was instructed to
illumine the pit by 0. jewel, and to cry, rc J oseph, thc
time will come when thou shalt call thy brothe1'8 ,to
account, without their suspecting it." The brothers
tben left the pit, but before returning home they
slo.ughtered 0. lamb, and J oseph's upper
garmentwith its blood, whieh cannot be distmguished
from that of man. They thon to their father,
" While we were engoged in our occupaiions, there
came a wolf and tOre J <iseph, who bad remained with
the stores; and, on seeking him alterwards, we found
tbis u ~ r garment, which we reoognised Ba his.","
.CI How, " said J acob, rc sball I believe that a wolf has
devoured my SOli, while there is not a single rent in
,this garment?" (for the brothers bad forgotten likewiae
to damage the garment.) rc Besides," he added, "there
has no wolfbeen seen in these regions for manyyears. "
"We imagined, indeed, that thou wouldst not givc
eredence to our wOMs," said one of bis sons; "but let
U8 soaroh for tho wolf," ho continued, turning to his
brothers, "in order to convince our father of the
,troth of our statement."
They thenprovided themselves with ,all kinds of
implemente of tho chase, and BCOured the whole
l'eglon round about, until t.hey o.t last found a!arge
a 3
'18 TUE .WOLl!'.
wolf, 'whieb they caught alive, aild accused it' before
J a.cob 88 J oseph'e murderer; but Allah opened the
mouth of. the wolf, and he said,-
" Believe not, 0 son of Ieaa.o I the aoousation of
tby envioUB sons. lama wolf from a foreign ooun-
try, and have long been wandering about to seek my
young one, wMoh one morning I missed on wwug.
How should I, who am mourning the loss of' a wild
be88t, bereave the prophet of Allah of bis son?"
Jacob then delivered the wolf from the hands
of bis BODB, aud seut them away again, so 88 not
to have their faces before bis eyes; oo1y Benjamin,
bis youngest son, he kept witb him. The ten
brotbers thereupon returned to the pit in whieh
they had left J oseph, and arrived at the very moment
.when be W88 freed by some Bedouina, who on their
-march from Madjan to Egypt bad sought to draw
water from this'pit, but bad brought up J osepb instead,
wbo clung to thoir bucket. ce Thia youth," BAid J udab
to the leader of the caravan, ere J osepb oould utter a
word, "is our slave, wbom we have oonfined in this
pit on acoount of his disobedience. Ir you will take
him with you to Egypt, and sell him there, you may
buy him from us at 8 moderate rate." Tbe leader
of the caravan W88 gre8tly rejoiced 8t tbis oft'er; for
he knew woll that BO bcautiful 8 youth would bring
hlin much gain. He bought him therefore for a few
drachms; and Joseph did not break sileuce, forhe
fearedthat his brothera might put him to death he
'contradicted thern. Trusting in .Allah, he joumeyed
quietly with the Bedouins until he W88 PASSing the
grave of his mother. There bis grief overpoweied
hilD, and, CIlSting himself on the ground, he wept and
prayed. The leader of the caravan struck him,. imd
would have dragged him away by.force, when sud-
denly a black cloud overspread the sky, so that. he
started back aftiighted, anct prayed J oseph so long to
forgive him, till the darknese again disappoared. .
The suh was declining when the caravan entered tbe
capital of Egypt, which was then govemed by Rajje,
a deticendant of the Amalekites. But J oseph's face
mone brighter than the noonday sun; and the
singular light which it di:fFused attra.cted all the
maidens and matrone to t b e ~ windows and terra.cee.
On the following day he was expoeed forsale before
the royal palace. Tbe . richest women of the city
sent their husbailds and guardia.ils to buy him;
but they were outbidden by Potiphar, the t r e e ~ r
of the king, who was childlese, and designed to
&dopt J oseph as his son. Zuleicha., the wife of Po-
tiplmr, receivcd Joseph kindly, and gave him new
rohes ; ehe likewise appointed him aseparate summer-
house for bis abode, because be refused to eat witb
the Egyptians, preferring to live on herbe and fruits.
Joeeph lived six as Potiplmr's gardener, and,
although Zuleicha loved him paseionately eince his first
entrance into her house, she oonquered her feelings,
and was satis6cd to regard hirn from her kiosk as hc
:8 4
performed ,his' l.boura in, the garden. But inthe
aeventh year Zuleieha beeame love-siek-her ebeekB
grew pale, 'her gaze was leles" her form was bent,
and, whole, body CODBUlDed' away. 'When no
physieian wo.B able to healher, hernurse said one
day, "Zuleieha, comess that it is not thy OOdy but
thr. BOul whioh suWara in sooret; BOrrow is preying
onthy heo.lth. "Conflde in thy nurse, who hu fed
thee with, her own subsiance, and fostered thee since
thy infaney like a mother. ,My advice may, per-
.uPS, 'be uaefuL ", ' ' . ,
, ZuleiCha ,then threw herself into the arms of her
aged friend, and avowed her love to J osepb, and hel"
fruitless endeavours during s years to conquer it. ,
" Be of good cheer," said the matron to Zuleieha,
"thou hast more tlum, others of thy sex, and art
. excusable. _ Be thyaelf again; eat, drink"
dre88 tO advantage, take thy bath, that thy former
,beauty'return; then aballJoaeph'slove surely exceed
thy OWD. Besides, is he not thy slave? and from mere
habit of obedienee' he will gratify all thy wishes.'" ;
Zuleicu followed her advice. In a abort timeshe
'\YaIJ as blooming and healthful asbefore; for she
thought that only a. favoul'ILble opportunity was
ne.eded to crown her wiehes with suooess. ' , ;
But Joaephresisted all her aUurements, and
",hen ahe at length found that all her eft'orts to lead
bim astray were in vain:, she accuaed him before
ber husband Potiphar, who threw him into prillOD,;
TnE PlU80N. ' ,,', 81
but .A.llah, who knew his innoeenee, changed the dark
in which he was confined to a bright and cheer ....
tw abode. He also commanded a fountain to spring
up in the midst thereQf, and a tree rosa at his door
wbich gave llim shade and pleasant fruit.
, J oseph, who was 800n universally known and feared
for bis wisdom and the skill which he pOBBeBBed. to in-
terpret dreams, bad not been long in prison when the
,follc;>wing circumstanee occurred : - The king ,of
the Greeks, who was then at \var with Egypt, sent
an ambassador to Rajjan, ostensibly with the design
of negotiating for peace, but in reality oo1y to seek
the means of slaying tbis heroic 'king.Tbe am-
bassador addressed himself to a Grecian matron who
bad for many years lived in Egypt, and asked her
advice. "I know of no better means,;' said the
Grecian to her countryman, "than to bribe either the
king's chief cook or bis butler to poi80n him." The
ambaBBador made the acquaintanee of thein botb, but,
6nding the chief cookthe most tractable, he culti-
vated a closer intimacy with him, until he suceeeded
at last, by menns of a fcw talents of gold, in dcteI'-
mining bim to poison thc king.
AB 800n as he supposed tbat bc bad secured the ob-
ject of bis mi8Bion, bc prepared for bis depru.iure, but
previously visited bis countrywoman, with tbe inten-
tion of communicating to ber the chief cook's promise.
But as sbc was not alone, be could mcrcly say, that 11c
bad every renson to be gmtified with bis sucrA!8S.
JI li
These wrds or the ambassador son' reaehed ihe
king's; and as they eould not be referred to
hisostensible mission, since the negotiations for pe8.oo,
on account of which he aUeged that he bad eome, were .
entire1y broken off, and the war had already recOm";
menced, some seeret or other was suspected. The
Greeian Wt\8 led before the king, Md tortured, imtil
ehe eonfessed all tha.t ehe knew, and t\8 Raijan did not
know which of them was guilty, he eommanded timt
both the ehiefeook and butlershould meanwhile be put
ioto the same prison ",here J oseph was languishing.
One morning they came to hirn, and, "Wehave
heo.rdof thy skUl in the interpretation of dreams; teU
us, we pray tbce, what we may expeot from our dreams
of last night." The butler then related that he bad
pressed out grapes, and presented the wine to the
king. But the chief eook said that he bad carried
meats in a basket .in bis- band, when the birds eame
and devoured the best of them. J oseph exhorted them
first of aU to faith in one God; and then foretold the'
butlers restomtion to bis former offiCe, but to tbe
chiefeook he predieted the gallows. AB sOOnas he
finished . his speech both.of them u r s ~ u t in laugh-
ter, arid derided hirn, for they bad not dreamt at
nU, and merely mennt to put bis skill to the test. But
J oseph to thern, "Whether your dreams have bean
real or invented, I 'Cannot say; but what I have pro-
phesied is the judgment of Allah, wbieh cannot be
turned aside." He was not mistaken. The spies of the
king 800n found out that tbo Greek ambt\88Qdor had
BELlllASE OF;J'08EPH. 83 .
'bad frequent interviews with the Chief cOok; while he
bad seen the butler but once; the former was therefore
condemned to death, but the la.tter reinstated : in ; bis
,: ;;":'
o ce. . " .....
On leaving the prison, J oseph entreated: the
butler to remember him, and io obtai his free-
dom from the king. The butler did not reJnem-
ber him; but the tree Wore bis' door withered,
and bis fountain WOB dried up, because, instead
of trusting in Allah, he bad relied upon' tbe
help of a, feeble man. He was Beven yeare' in
prison, when one morning he saw the butler agam.
, He came to lead. him Wore the king, who had. had a
dream whieh ne> oite WOB a.ble to interpret. . But
J oeeph tefueed to appear, linlei!8 he' had first con-
vinood the king of bis innooence. Be then r ~ t e d
the cause of bis impriBonment to the butter, who
brought bis anBwer to the king, and the latter imme-
diately BurilmoDecl Zuleieha and her friende. They
confeseed that they had faleely aooueed J osepb. ~
jan then sent a writing, whieh not only reetored' him
to liberty, but even declared the imprieonment which
he bad oDllured to have been unjuBt, !lnd tbe reBult of
, a calumniouB charge. t
The Midraah 8ay&, "Joseph remained ,et two yeare . rn
priBon, becaUBe he had aeked the chief butler to remem.ber
. t" Potipbar'a wife looked 10 ill, that her frienda inquired wha,t
aha oomplaincd. of. Sbe related her' adventure with Joaepii,
B 6
Joseph then put on the which Rajjan had
sent him,. and was conducted to the royal pa1n.ce,
where: the king had assembled about. him all the
nobles, the the astrologers, and soothsayeu
of Egypt..:, .' .'. ..' ;,. '.' .
"I my dream," said the king, as soon'aI
Joseph was near him,'''soven lean kine, which d-
voured !leven fat Ones; imd seven blasted ears, which
'consutned seven:rank and full ones. . Canst thou teil
me .this dream signifies ? ". .
. J replied; f' .Allah will graut to thy kingdom
seven . plentiful years, wbich shall be suooeeded by
seven 'yearsQf famine.. Be tberefore provident, and .
during the first seven years let as much be col-
lected and' stored up aB shall be required for the
maintenance.of thy subjects during .tbe seven
that sha1l .fQllow." . . :
, This interpretation pleased the 80 well, tlmt
he 'J oseph the high steward of his dominions iil,
Potip)wo's stead. ",. . .
, lIe nw tmvelled tJU.ough the country. buying the
gmJJ,\oWhich, on accountof thegreat abundance;was
mOst ,moderate terms, .and bui1t storehouse8
but especially in. capital .. One
. ., .
they sald,.' AooulO hlm .botoro th1 huabaQd, that he moy
bo r.rllOn.' . She antreated Mandl, to aooulO hiUl
IIkewlll8'to thelr hUlbanda. They dld 10 I and th8ll' huabande
cune. to :rotiphar compWnillg of Joaeph'l AudacioUI demeanour
toww,a &c. ;.... lrIidrula, p. 4iJ.
day, wbUe ridirig out to inspecta gra.nary beyond
. the city, he observed a beggar in the street, whose
whole appearanoo, though most distressing, hore the
distinct tmces of former grea.tness. J oseph . ap-
proaehed her compa.ssionately, Bnd held out to her
, a bandful of gold. But she refused, and said, sob-
bing aloud, "Great prophet of Allah, I am unwortby
or thy gift, although my transgreBBion has been the
tO thy present fortune." .
. At these worda, J oseph regarded her more closely,
and' behold it was Zuleicha, the wife of bis lord.
He inquired after her husband, and was told that he
had died of sorrow and poverty 800u after bis depo-.
On hearing this, J oseph 100 Zuleicha to a relative
pr the king, whoro ehe was treatcd liko B sister, and
I!)le 800n appeared to him as blooming and jouthful
as at the time of bis entranoo ioto her house. He
asked her band from the king, and married her
with bis permission, and she bore him two sons
before the frightful years of famine, during "bieb
the Egyptians "ere obliged to seIl to, first
their gold, their jewellery, and other costly things,
for com; then their estates and slaves, and at last
their own persons, their wives and cbUdren.
: Yet not only in Egypt, but even in the adjaeent
countries, a great famine prevailed. .
In tho lnnd of CanOOD, too, thOl'O WAS no more corn
.. " TUE SPIE&.' ',"
to be Cound, ud Jacob . was Corced. tO send all Ws
BOns ,1IA've Benjamin to 'buf provisions in Egypt.
He recommended them to enter the capital by the ten
gates, so B8 not to attmet the evil, eye by
the beauty oC their appearanej and to' avoid, public
.' J oseph reOOgnised bis brothers, and called them
spiee" because they had come to him seplltrately,
though, according to their own oomession, they were
brothers. But when, to exculpate themselves, they
explained. to rum the peculiar circumstancell of their
family, . and, 10 justify their father's carefulness,
they spoke of a lost brother, Joseph grew 80 &ngry,
that he refused them the desired provisions, and da-
manded of them to bring down their brother Ben-
jamin: with them, ud to be' certain of, their retum,
he detained one of them B8 a hoat&ge.
A few weeb af'ter' they with Ben-
Jacob Uid to his BOns, "Do not enter by one gate, becauae
otthe evll 8ye." Joseph expected. his brothera, and therefore
commanded the' keepera of the gates to report every day the
namea of arriving strangen. One day We first keeper bro'ilght
him the name of Reuben i the 8800nd the name of Simeon i and
BO on, until he had reoeived the name of Aaher, Jaeob's tcuth
BOn. He then commanded an the storehouaea but one to be
clOled, and Id to the keeper of that, "Ir such and such lllcn
come, lilt them be and brought Wore me."
.. You are spies," aaid he to bis brothen they stood be-
fore 'him,' "otherwiae you would have entered the' city by the
lame gate."-MidrtuA, pp. 46, 47.
DENJAlUN.- 8'1
Jacob was indeed unwilling to let bis yourigest
son depart, for he feared lest amisfortune similat to
that of J oaeph's would befall hiin: yet, to' escape
from famine, bo was obliged to yield at last.
: J oseph now direeted that the com wbich they bad
desired should be measured to them, but gave orders
to his stewa.rd. to conceal a silver cup in Benjamin's
sack, to seize them as thieves at the gate of the city,
ud to Jead thcm, back to bis paJace.
"What puniahment," demanded Joaeph ofthe
brethren, "ia due' to' bim that has stolen my cup?"
. "Let bim be thY slave," replied thc sons of Jacob,
certain that none' of them was capable of committing
so disgi-aceful an act. But when their sacks were'
opened, arid the cup was found in Benjamin's" they
criod to him, "Woe to thee I what hast thou done ?'
Why hast thou followed the _pie of thy lost
brother, wL.o stole the idol of Laban bis grandfather,
and the girdle of bis aunt?" ,
Still, as they had swom to their father not, to step
before bis face without Benjamin, they pmyed J oaeph
to keep one of their nomber as bis slave in e n j ~ s
stead. But Joscph inaistcd. on retaining Benjamin, and
Rauben said therefore to bis brothers, "J oumey to
our father and tell him all that has befallen U8 ; but I,
who am the eldest of you, and have vowed unte> him
to aacrifice my life rather than to retum witbout Benja-
nUn, will remain here untU he himself shall reoall mo.
Ho will probably ackllowledge that such an aecident
88 JACOB I.08Esms SIGUT.
could not have been foreseen, and that if our brother
had. been known to us as a thief, we should not
have pledged ourselves for him." .' .
But J acob wotifd credit the story of bis return-
ing sons, and feared that they bad now acted towaros
Benjamin as tbey bad formerly done towards J oaepb.
He burst into tears, and wept till the light of ws
eyes was extinguished: his griet' for J oseph also
revived af'resh, though }le bad naver ceased to trust
to. the f'ulfilment of bis
. But now the brothers retunied the third time into
Egypt, determined to free Benjamin by force, for
tbey were 80 powerful, that they could engage single-
Iumdedwith wbole bosts warriors. Juwili espe-.
cially, wben excited to wrath, would roar like a !iOD,
and kill the strongest men with bis voice; nor
could be 00. paeified until one of bis mamen touehoo
the 'prickly buncb of hair 'wbich, on BUcb occasions;
protruded from bis neck.
.. "Whim Joseph would bave ahut up Simeon, hill brothers
oft'ered him their 888istance, but he decliDed it. Joseph com-
mapdec\ seventy valiant mell to put him in cbains; but when'
ther. approached him,Simeon roared 80 Ioud that the seventy fell
down at his feet and broke theiJ' teeth. . J oseph said to his IOn
Manasseb, . who . W88 standing at his aide, 'Chain thou him.'
Manasieh IItruck him single' blow, and bound him instantly;
80 that Simeon exc1aimed, 'CertainIy this W88 tllO blow of a
Again, when Joseph sent Benjamin to prison, Judah
cried 80 loud, that Chuahl.m, ihe IOn of Dan, heard him in
Canaail, and iespondecL Joaeph feared for bis lite, for Judah
W88 1Oenraged, that he wept blood, Some aay Judah wore
However, they onee more endea.voured by entreaty
to move Joseph to set; but when they
spoke oE their father's love tor him lie inquired,
U What, then, hM become oE J oscph ?"
They said, "A wolf has devoured him.'" '1
But J oseph took his cup into his hand, and feign-
ing to prophesy out of it, cried, "It is false; you
have sold him." '
When they denied this charge, J oseph told Zuleicha
t.o give him the pa.rcbment which J udah bad with
bis own hand given to thc Bedouin when they
him; and he showed it to them.
"We bad a slave whose name was Joseph," said
J udab; and he. grew so enraged that he was on tlie
point of roaring alond: but bis voiee falled him, for
Joscph had. bcckoncd to his son Epbraim to touch his
bnnch of hair, which was so long that it nearly trailed
on the ground. When his brothers saw' thiEi,there
.remained no to them of their standing before
J oseph, for they could have no other kinsman in
Egypt. They fell before him. and
cricd, "Thou art our brotber J oseph; forgive u81"
uYou have notbing to {ear from mc, "replied J oseph,
"and 'Allah,the mercifnl, will also be gracious.and
pardon you. But rise, and go up .quickly to our
Dve garments, one over the other; but wben be was angry bis
heart 8weUed 10 mucb that bis Dve garments burst open. Joseph
also cried 10 terribly, that one of the pillars of bis bouse feU in,
ud was cbanged into sand. Then Judab said, De ia valiant,
like one orus.' .. -MidrtuA, pp. 46, 47.
father, and bring him hither. Take my gament
with you; cast it over his fa.oe, and bis blindness will
.pass away."
Scarcely had they .left the oapital of Egypt,
when the wind oarried the fragrance of J oseph's
garment to their father, and when Judah, who was
hastening in advance of bis brothers, gave it 10 hirn,
his eyes were opencd again. They now departed
together for Egypt. J osepb came out to meet them,
and,. having embraced' bis father, exclaimed, "Lord,
.thou. lmst now flllfilied my dreams, and given me
great power! Creator of heaven and earth, be thou
my Support in this world and the future! Let me
die tbe death of a Moslem, and be gathered to the
rest of the pious !" .
. ' .Neither Jacob nor Joseph left Egypt flny more;
. nd both ordained in their testaments, that they
should be buried in Canaan by the aide of Abraham,
which was also done. Mny the peace of Allah be
with them!
Tbe Jewish legend re1ates, that when the brothers learned
Joaeph's safety, they ware unwillingto communicate it to tbeir
father, fearlng the violent efFects of sudden joy.
But the daughter of Alher, J acob's grondchild, took her harp
and sung to him th. story of Joseph'slife and greatness; and
har boautiful mUlio oAlmod his spirit. .Taoob blll8llod bor, and
ahe WDI takon into Paradise without baving taatod death.-E. T.
.. '
WHEN the time bad. come in which Allah again
designed to send a prophet on the earth, Pharaoh, the
king o{ Egypt, bad three dreams in one night. In his
first he heard a voice which ca1led, " Pharaoh,
repent I The end of thy dominion is at haud, for a
.youth of a' foreign tribe shall humble thee and thy
people before the whole world." The king awoke,
disturbed by his drea.m, but a.fter a abort time he f'e1l
asleep again, and there appeared to him a lion,
threatened to tea.r a man in pieces. Tbe man was only
armed with a rod, but stood still calmly until the
lion ruabed on him, when he struck it a single blow
with bis rod, and ung it dea.d into the .Nile. The
king awoke, more disturbed than before, and was only
ahle to sloop agam towards morning: but scarcely
bad he closed his eyes, when he saw Asia, his virtu-
oua wife, riding through the air on a winged horse.
Tbe horse ew towards hea.ven; hut she cried to him
a. last farewell, whereupon the earth split open under
his reet, and swnllowed him up. Phamoh sprung up
from his couch ll8 soon R8 he awokc, and sWllmoncd
Hmnan, his vizier, him to ca1l together

_.. ,I' J:.
l ..
. f. i, urin tl IU j lfrt!!f trt
plan which will frustrate the fulfilment of thy Visione.;
As yet the power is in thy ha.i:td, and, if thou wilt but
use it unsparingly, 80 ahalt thou put to ahame all the
intcrprct;crs of thy dream. Let all tbe children that
are bom this year, and all women tbo.t are witb child,
be immediately put to death, nd thou mayest defy the
apprehended peril." Pharaoh followed this cruel
counseL Seven thousand children of one 1ear
under were strangled forthwith, and o.s many women
with child thrown into the Nile. t
One night, when Amram, o.n Israelite, who wo.s ono
of Pharaoh's viziers, wo.s o.s usual in attendance on the
king, the angel Gabriel appeared tO him bearing On
"Here tbe Mussulman legend difl'ers from the Tal-
mud, according to which Blleam gave this counsel . Job was
and Jethro, the ]dug's third counselIor, endeavoured tO
di88unde the' king from violenoe. Dileam. was therefore de ..
Btroyed by tbe Israelites. Job was led into temptation,
su1Fered groatly forbis sllenoe; but Jethro, who, on account of
bis elemency, was foroed to tlee iuto Midian, was rewarded by
beooming the father-in-Iaw of Moaes." - M"ulraaA,' p. 62.
t "In tbe year 130, after tbe settlement of tbe Israelites in
Egypt, Pharaoh dreamt of an aged man who was holding a
balance in bis right band. In one or ita seales be plaoed all tbe
sagos and nobles or Egypt, and a'littlo lamb in tho otber; and i'
outweighed them all.
'," Pbaraob was amazed at tbe weigbt of tbe lamb, and told bis
dream on the foUowing morning to bis attendanta. Tbey were
terrified; and one or tbem aaid, "This dream rorbodea a great
aftliction wbich one or tbe ehildren of Ierael will bring upon
Egypt. Ir it pleaso the king, let U8 iBBue a royal edict, com-
manding every male chlld or Hebrew pllrenta to be lllain at ita
b!rth. Tbe king did as be was advised. "-Midra./a, p.61. '
one of bis wings J ohabed, Amram's "ire, the daugh ..
terof Jaaer. He laid her down neal Pharaoh, who
was sunk in a deep sloop, and anored like a slaughtered
bull;. and Gabriel aaid to Amram, IC Tbe hour is come
when the meaaenger, of Allah shall appear I " He
vaniahed after having spoken these worda, and left
J ohabed with Amram until the riaing of the moming
star. .: Then he carried her bock on bis winga to her
dwelling .before Pharaoh awoke.
That night the king bad the same dreama again
wbich had 80 much disturbed bim before.
AB 800n aa he awoke he summoned Amram, and
again commanded bim to eonvene the interpreters of
dreama. But he. had acarcely uttered the word,
when the chief of the astrologers begged for admit ..
tance. Pharaoh welcomed him, and inquired what
bad led him so early to the palace ?
R ~ for thy throne and for thy lile," an-
8wered the. aatrologer. "I read last night in the
stars that the Iod who sball o ~ e day deprive thee of
life and empire haa been conceived. I could there-
fore:.acaroelyawait the morning star to inform thee
of . thls . aad occurrence. Poaaibly thou mayest sue-
ceed in diacovering the man who; notwithatanding thy
prohibition and thy sage precautiona, haa found
meana of fruatmting thy design."
! Pharaoh was the mther diapoaed to credit the aB-
ti-ologer, &ipee the repetition of bis dream indicated,
the same. He therefore reproached Amram for not
having adopted better measures, which might Mve
rendered impossible the transgression ofbis com-
nut Amram snid, "Pardon thy servant he ven ...
ture to doubt the infallibility of this master's inter-
pretation, but the measures which I have adopted,
and executed under my own inspection, are. of that
sort, that on tbis occasion it is quite incomprehensible
to me. Yesterday, as soon as I had lell theroyal
palace, I betook myself to the other side of the river,
and, summoning all the men of Israel, threatened"
with death him who should under any pretext what-
ever remain behind. N evertheless, to make sure
if any one had remainedconcealed in" hisdwell,:,
ing, he should still be separated from bis we, I com-
manded oll women to be shut up in another qua.rter
of the city, which, like the Camp of. the men,. I sur-
rounded with troops, so that no one was able 10 go
in or out. Meanwhile, I will so act as if I ware
persuaded of this astroJoger's statement. Ir thou
desire it, I shall strangle the womeo, or subject them
to severer regulations; we shall discover the guilty
one, and destroy her." nut Allah infused compassion
towards the women of Israel into Pharaoh's hea.rt,
and he contented himself with having them more
rigidly guarded. nut these measures, according to
the decision of Allah, proved abortive; for,.as Amram
was not permitted to move out o( the royal pa1aoe,
Raman did not in the least BUSpect J ohabed, and
96' . . TUE BIBTH OJ!'. HOSE&.
made her im exeeption from the common rule, IUI ehe
was the viziors wife. . Within t\ from
that time. Johabed gave birth to a man ehild, whom
ehe called Musa (Moses). Slie waS delivered without
apahi.- .... '
" But the 8OrfoW of her heart was the greater when
ehe cast. her eyes on tbe nttlo child, Wh080 facc
beamed :llke the moon in her. splendour,and thought
of his death, which was drawing nigh. Yet Moses
rose, and liaid,:" Fea.r nothing, my mother; the God
Qf Abraham is with ua."
In. the night when Moses was born the idols in a1l
the temples of Egypt were dashed down. Pharaoh
a voice in dream., which called to hiIri,
" Turn to the only God, the. Creator of heaven and
earth, or thy destruction is inevitable." In the
morning the astrologer appeared again, and announced
to Pharaoh the birth of the lad wbo would one day
On theH words, "And ahe Baw the child was fair,"
the llidraah offen the following reeetion: - "The leamed
maintain that at the birth .of Moaea there appeared a light whieh
.hone over the whole world, for. in the aceount of the creation
WEI have the same phrase: 'The Lord BaW the light that it was
sood ..
It ia aomewbat diffieult to apprebend tbe preeise point of
the Rabbi.. At the ereation of tbe light it la aRid GOD BaW the
light th.t It was good. The lubject of whieh it was predieated
that Wal good, then shone' over thft whole worId. Hence it
argued, that, ia the same predicate ia applied to Moaea' f&Ce,
it muat follow that it shone with aimilar brightoeB8. Thia ie no
bad ipecimen ofRabbinica1logie.-B. T.
00 bis destruotion. Haman now eoIrimanded all ,
tbe dwellings of tbe Israe1itish women tobe searehed
afresh, and made no exeeption even with J ohabed's,
foo.ring lost some other woman might have concooled
her ohild therein.' J ohabed bad gone out when H ..
man entered her house,' but bad previously hid
her' ohild in' the oven, and laid muoh wood 00-
fore it. Finding nothing in the whole house,
Haman oommanded' the wood in the oven to 1>e
lighted, aIid went away, eaying, "If there he a
ohUd concea.led there, it will 'be consumed. Whcn
J ohahed retumed, and eaw the blazing fire, sbe
uttered a frightful ery oE woe; hut Moses called
to her, ' "Be calm, my motber; Allah has given the
fire no power over me. But as tbc vizier Erequently
ropea.ted his visits, and J ohabed Eeared lest he niight
one day have the wood removed, instead oE lighting
the oven, ehe resolved to entrust her ohild to the
NUe ratber than to 'expose it to the danger of
being discovered by Haman. She obtained, there-
fore, a little ark from.A.mram, laid Moses in it, and
carried it to' tlleriver o.t midnight; but' passing u.
sentineI; ehe WDS stopped, and asked what tbe ark
contained whioh she oarried under her arm. 'At
that instant 'tbe earth opened under the sentinel's
feet, and engulphed him up to his neok; and therc
came a v o ~ out oE the earth, w hieh said, "Let this
woumn depal't ullhnrmed; nor let tllY tongue betmy
wlmt thy eyes hnve seen, or thou' art a ohUd of
death. " Thc soldier shut bis eyes in token of obe-
dience, for his neck WOB 'already so compressed that
he could not speak, arid as soon as J ohabed bad
passed ,on, the earth vomited him forth again.
When slie arrived at the place on the shore where
she designed to' conceal the ark among the rushes,
she behcld a huge blnck scrpcnt- it was Iblis, who
placed himself in her way in this form, with the in-
tention of. st&ggering her resolve. Affrighted, ahe
started back from the vile reptile; but MoseS called
to her from the ark, U Be without fear, my mother;
pass on: my presence shall chase away this serpent."
At these words Iblis vamshed . J ohabed, then opening
the ark once more, pressed M08es to her haart, CI08ed
it, and laid it weeping and sobbing among' the
reeds, in hopes that some compassionate Egyptian
woman would come and take it up.' But as 'she depart-
ed, slie heard a voice from heaven, "Be not
cast down, oh we of Amram I we will bring back thy
son to thee; he is the elected messenger of Allah."
To manifest the weakness of' human machina-
tions against that which the Kalani, luuI written on
the heavenly tablets of fate, Allah bad ordained
that the child now at the mercj of the oods
ahould be Bal'ed by Pha1'll0h's own family. He com-
'manded, thercfore, OB soon aB J Qhabed had left
the Nile; that. the angel who was set over the
waten should :oat the ark in which MOBes lay,
into the' canal which united Pharaoh's' palace
with the river. For, on account of his leproua
daughters, to whom his physicians had prescribed
bathing in the Nile, he bad constructed a ca.naJ., by
which thc wator of that river was guided into a largo
basin in the midst of the paJace gardens. The eldcst
of the seven princesses first discovered the little ark,
and carried it to the bank to open it. On her re-
moving the lid, there beamed a light upon her which
her eyes were not able to endure. She cast a veil
.over Moses, hut at that instant her own face, which
hitherto had been covered with scars and sores of a11
the most hideous colours imaginable, shone like the
moon in its brightness and purity, and her sistera
exclaim.ei in amazement, Cf By what means hast thou
been so suddenly freedfrom leprosy?"
ce By the mimculous power of tbis child," replied
the eldest. ce The glance which beamed upon me
when I beheld it unveiled has chased away the im-
purity of my body, as the rising sun scatters the
gloom of night. "
The six Bisters, one alter the other, now lifted the
yen from Moses' face, and they too hecmne fair as if
they bad been formed of the finest silver. The eldest
The daughter oC Pharaoh went to the river, Cor ahe WBI a
leper, and not permitted to uae warm baths; but ahe WBI healed
BI 800D BI ahe &tretched out her hand to the crying infant, Wh088
We ahe preserved. She aaid within herself, CI He will live to be a
man; and whoever prcservea a liCo ia like tho aaviour of a world."
For thiI cause al80 ahe obtained the blesainga of the We to
come. -1Il'adrcu1l, p.51.
then took the ark on her head, and carried it to her
mother Asia, rela.ting to her in how mira.culous a.
manner both ehe and her' sisters bad been hea1ed.
.Asia took from the ark, and brought bim to
Pharaoh; followed by the seven princesses. ,Pharaoh
started,involuntarily when ABia entered his chamber,
and his heart was filled with dark prcscntiments; -
hesides, it was noi, custOmary for bis women to come
to him uninvited. But bis face 'regained its cheerful-
n'eaB when he. beheId the. seven prineesses, wh08e
beauty now surpassed a1l tlieir contemporariea.
" Who are theBe maidens? he inquired of Asm.
"Are they alaves whom some tributary prince has
sent to nie?
H They are thy daughters, and here upon my arm
ia the phyaician who has them of their leprosy.
She then narra:ted tO the king how the princeaaea
bad found Moses, and how they bad recovered from
their distemper on beholding him..
Pharaoh was transported with joy, and for the first
time in bis life embraced bis beloved daughters. But
alter a' little while his feaiures were overcast again,
and he aaid to Asm, "Thia child must not live: who
knows whether his mother be not an Iaraelite, and
he the ehild of whom both my dreama, as well as my
aitrologera, have foreboded me 80 much evil ?
" DoSt thou still believe in idle dremns, the mere
whispera of Sa1;an, and' still more idle inter-
pretations given by men who boast of reading the
future. in the stars? Hast thou not sIain the young
mothera ofIsrael and their children, and even searched
their houses?Besides, will it not always be in thy
poworto destroy this fragile boing? Moanwhilo, tako
it to thy palace, in gratitude for the miraculous oure
of thy daughters."
The seven princesses seconded the prayers of ABis,
until Pharaoh relented, permitting the child to be
brought up in the royal palace. Scarcely bad he
pronounced the worde of grace, when Asia. bastened
back to her apartments with the child, and sent for
an Egyptian nurse; but Moses thrust her away, tor
it was not the will of the Highesi that he should
receive nourishment from a worshipper of idols.
Asia commanded another nurse to be brought; but
o.lso, NI woll NI t\ third one, M0808 would em-
brace. On following morning the queen made
knpwIi that any woman, who would engago to
nurse a strange child for a handsome remuneration,
should repair to the royal paJace. After this the
enme court of the castle was :6lled with women and
mldens, many of whom bad come from curiosity only"
Among the' latter WNl Kolthum (Miriam), the Bister
From tbese words, his BiBter aaid to tbe of
Pharob, "Sball I call a Hebrew Durse P .. We may coDclude,
that tbey bad takeD him' (Moses) to aIl the Egyptiau women,
but that ho rofuacd to recch'e food 1fom them, for he tbought,
"Shall tho Ups which IU'O destined to Bpeak with tbe Shekinah
&auch that which ia 'uDc1ean P" - M"adnuA, p. 51.
I' 8
oE Moses. When she bea.rd that tbe child bad heen
found in an IIol'k floating on the water, and that it still
refused to take nourishment; ehe ran quickly, and
told ber mother. J obabed . hastened to the,
and was announced to Asia as a nurse, for tbe
severe regulations against the Israelitieh women were
now removed. Moscs soorccly bohc1d his mothcr,
when he stretched out bis IIol'DlS towo.rds hOf, and
as be embmoed her immedmtely, she was engaged as
a nurse for the spooe oE two After tbe ex-
piration of that time, Asia sent her away with
many rieh presents, but kept Moses with her,
intending to adopt him as her son, &inee she had
no male desoenwmts. Phllol'aoh himself daily
more atta.ched to the child, and often spent whole
hours togetber in playing with him. One day,
- MOB was then in bis fourth yea.r, - while
Pharaoh was playing with him; he took the
crown from the king's" heo.d, and throwing it on "
tbe ground, thrust it away with bis foot. The king's
suspicion wa.s roused afreeh: enmged he ran to Asia,
reproaching her for having -persuaded him to let
Moses live, and manifested onee more adesire to put
him to dcath-; but Asm laugbed at him for per-
In the third yoar after the birth of M08e8, Pharaoh was
slttlng on hi. throne; the queen was at his right hand, bis
daughter, holding MOfII!8t at his let\; and the princea of Egypt
ware seated round a table before him. MOBeI stretched out bis
hand, took the king's crown, and placed it on bis own head.
TnE TRIAL. 103
mitting the naugbtiness of a child to excite in
him such gloomy tbougbts.
" WeIl then," said Pbaraob, "let us see wbether
tho child has acted thoughtlessly or witb re1leetion l'
Let a bowl with burning coals, and one witb coin
be brought. Ir he seize the former, be sha11 live;
but be stretch out bis band to tbe !atter, be has
betrayed himself."
Asia was foroed to obey, and ber eyes hung in
painful 8uspense on Moses' band, as her own life
bad been at stake. Endowed witb manly und erstand-
ing, Moses was on the point oftaking a bandful of the
sbining coin, wben .Allah, watching over bis life, sent
an angel, wbo, agamst the child's will, directed bis
hand into tbe burning 00&18, and even put one to bis
mouth. Phamoh was again re-assured, aod entreated
ABia for forgiveness; but Moses had burned bis
tongue, and was a stammerer from that day.-
The courtiers were terrifi.ed; and Bileam the magician aaid,
" Remember, oh king I thy dreama, and their interpretationa :
thia child is doubtleaa of the Hebrewa who worship GOD in their'
hearta; and he haa, by a moveanent of his preeoeioua wisdom,
laid hold on the government of Egypt. (Here follow examplea
fiom Abraham to Joseph, showing the ambition ofthe Hebrewa
to UlUrp the Egyptian throne.) Ir it pleaae the king, let us
shed this child's blood before he be strong enough to deatroy
thy kingdom." But the LOrd sent an angel in the form or an
Egyptian prince, who aaid, "Ir it please the king, let two bowla;
the ORO fillod with Shoham atonos, tho other witb burning
coala, bo presonted to tho ehild," &c. - Midralh, p. 62.
'The J ewish legend aceounta {rom this oceurrence ror the
.. "
. When Moses :was sbt years old, Pho.raoh one
do.y teo.sed him so much, tho.t in bis o.nger he
pushed ,with his foot ,so violently, againlJlt the throne
on.which Pharaoh sat, that it was overthrown; Pb&-
raoh fell on the earth, and bled profusely
mouth and nose. He sprung to his feet, and drew bis
sword against to thrust him through-
.A.eio. and the seven prinOOBBes were present, yet all
their 1lndeavoure tQ ca1m him were in vain. Then
there flew " white cook towards the o.nd cried,
" Pha.rq.oh, if thou spill the blood of this child, thy
do.ughtel'l$ shall be more leprous than before." Pha-
raoh a glanoo on the prinoosBe& j and as from
11road and fright thair faces waro nlrcndy sufl'usoo
with a ghast;ly yellow, he desisted again from
bloody design. .
Thus' Moses grew up in Pharaoh's house, amidst
every variety of danger, which' GOD, however,
warded oft' in a mira.culous manner. One morning
-he was then already in bis eighteenth yeo.r-he was
performing bis o.blutions in the Nile, and prayed' to
Allah. .An Egyptian priest saw him, and observed
t.hat he prayed unlike the other Egyptians, who
always turn their faces towards Pho.raoh's palace,
while the eyes of Moses were direoted on high.
words of M0Be8 in Exodwt, chap. iv. ver. 10.: "Oh I my Lord,
I am not eloquent, neither herctofore, nor IIince thou hut spoken
to thy servant i but I am alow of speech, and of a "ow tongue." -
" Whom worshippest thou P" inquired the 'priest,
in great astonishment.' , "
'Moses, having finished bis prayer, replieCl, ce My
LordI" ,
ce Thy father Pharaoh P "
ce May Allah curse thee, and all those who worship
the king as God !" , "
" Thou shalt atone with thy life for tbis impi'e- '
cation. 1 will forthwith go tO thy father; and accuse
thee before him." '
, Then Moses prayed, "Lord of tbe waters 1 who
hast destroyed by the floods the whole human race,
save N oah 'and Audj, let them even now 'overflow
their banb, to engulf thia blasphemoUB priest."
He "had scaroely pronoUDced these words,"when
there arose euch waves in the Nile as only the ,fiercest
tempest excites in the mighty ocean. . Olle' of them
rolled over the shore,' and swept a.way the priest into
the stream.
When hesaw bis life in danger, he cried out.
" Mercy I oh Moses, have 'mercy 11 swear that 1
will'conceaI'wbat 1 have heard from the&:"
" But if thou break tIDe 'oath P "
" Let my tongue be cut out of my mouth. '"
Moses saved the priest, and went bis way; but
when he came to the royal palace he was sUDlDloned
before Pharaoh, beside whom sat the priest, who bad
cvidcntly bctraycd hirn.
" Whom worshippest thou P" inquired Pharaoh.
"My Lord," replied MOles, "who gives me meat
and drink, who clothes me, and supplies all my
want&. ". Moaes thereby intended the only God, the
Creator and Preserver of the world, unto whom we
Are indebted lor all things.
,But Pharaoh, aooording to the will 01 Allah, re-
ferred this reply to himself, and commauded that the
priest, as a ca1umniator, should have bis tongue cut
out, and be hailged before the paJace.
RaTing attained the age. 01 manhood, Moses
frequently conversed with the, Israelites during bis
excursions, and listened eagerly to their aooounts
of Abraham, Isaac, and J aoob, but especially of
J oseph, for his mother had long ere this revealed to
him the secret of his birth. One day he behe1d how a
Kopt was most, emelly treating an Ismelite, by name
Samiri. The latter implored his protection, and Moses
struck the Egyptian a blow which stretohed him life-
leu on the earth. On the following morning Samiri
was again striving with an'Egyptian, and prayed MOBes
again to he1p bim; but the latter reproached him for
his quarrelsome disposition" and msed his band
tbreateningly aginst him.' When Samiri saw this,
be said, "Wilt thou.; kill me. as thou didst, the
Kopt yesterday?" The Egyptian who was pre-
aent hoard it, and acCused Moses 01 murder bcfore
PbaraOb. Tbe king directed that he should be de-
livered to the relations of the slain; but one of the
royal household, a friend oe MOBeB, wonned him
immediately of Pha.ra.oh's sentence, and he succeeded
in making bis escape in time.
MOBCB wandered many OOys through the wildcrneBB,
until .Allah sent him an angel in the form of a
who guidedhim into Midian, where the
faithful priest Shuib (Jethro) dwelt, in the midst of'8. The sun was declining when he amved
before a well at the outskirts of the little town, and
there stood Lija and Safurja, tlle two OOughters. of
Shuib, with their Hacks.
AccordiDg to the Jewish legend, there intervened many
years between the 1light of Mosea from Egypt and bis arrival
in Midian: these yeara, they say. he spent in Ethiopia, where
Bllaam bad gone Wore him; and while the of that
country made war against Syria and other nations, hc (Bilaam)
treacheroualy IOlzed on the capitnl, fort1fying it with ditchcs
and waUa on three aidea, and guarding the lourth by venomoUl
aerpents. Tbc king returned, and bad laid liege to thill city
during nine years without IlUcceeding in capturing it, when
MOIIeII arrived in hill camp. He adviseO him to take all the
atorb' egga lrom the neighbouring 10rellts, to rear ihe young.
and having withheld their lood from them lor some daya, to
send them agaiuat the serpents. Tbe king did so, the storke
deatroyed the serpents, and the city waa taken; but Bilaam
C8CAl'ed through an oppoaite gate. ond again umtcd Phnraoh
againat the people 01 Iarael. Tbe Ethiopiana made Moaea their
fint vizier. and atlerwarda their king. giving to him the deceaaed
lting'lI widow in marriage. But aa ahe waa an. idolater, he
refuaed to treat her aa hill wife, nor did he participate in the
religioua obaervaneea of the people: the queen therefore &c-
clllClll him publicly. end propoacd her own BOn to rclgn in hili
BLend; M08C8 ed to Midil\D; end Jethro. learing the
Ethiopians, imprilloned him during tcn yenra giving
I' G
108 CBlVALRY .
CI. Why . do . you . not. water your eattle ?" inquired
Moses, n ainee the night.will BOOn overtake you."
" We do not venture to do so," replied Lija, "until
the otber sbepherds, who bate U8 and our fatber, bave
first .watered theirs. "
Then MOles himBelf ledtheir. cattle to .the. well,
and said, "If any of the shepherds haB aught agamst
you, Imyself will see to the matter." The maidens
yielded, nor did any of' the shepherds, .. who aB-
sembled around,. dare to oppose Moses, for bis holy
appearance filled them with awe.
When Shuib, aBtonished at tbe unusually ea.rly
return of his daughters, hea.rd f'rom them that a
stranger had watered their cattle, he Baut Safutja to
the well to invita bim to his house. But Moses, al-
though sufFering with hunger, did not touch the re-
freshments tbat were set before him; and when
Shuib inquired why he rejected his hospitality, he
replied, " I Dm not of those who o.ccept a rewo.rd f'or
any good deed that they bave done."
"In like manner, I," replied Shuib, "am not of
those who sltow h08pitality onlyto their benefactors.
My house is open to every strimger; and aB such, not
aB the protector of my daughters, thou mayest accept
my invitation."
. MOBe8 thon ate till h ~ was aatisfiod, and rclatc.l
during his repast what had befallen him in Egypt.
"AI thou mayest not return to tby h o m e , ~ said
him any food i but Zipora aeoretly aupplied him with bread
and water, &0.
Shuib, when he bad come to' the conc1usion of. his
narrative, "remain with me as my shepherd, and,
after semng me eight or ten years faithfully, rwill
give thee my daughter Safurja to wife." .
Moses aceepted this oft'er, and pledged himself to
eight years' serviee, but added that he should eheerfully two years longer, .if he bad. nothing to com-
plain .of; and he abode tenyears . On
thc morning following bis arrivRl, . he
the daughters of Shuib to the. pastUre; but as he bad
fted from Egypt without a stafF, . Safurja to
him the miraeulous rod of her father, which bad.
served for the support and defenee oE the prophete
before him. Adam bad. it with him from
Paradise: after bis. death it passed into .the hands of
Shcth; after that it went :to Idris, then. to N oah;
Salih, and Abraham.. Moses .was .thirty years. old
The rod of Moaes W88 created on the aixth day, and given
to Adam whUe yet in Paradise: he 16ft it to Enoch, and he
gave it to Shem: from him it desoended to Isaac and J acob.
The latter took it with him into Egypt, and belore bis death
presented it to Joseph. When he died it W88 tali:en, wlth the
reat of bis goods, to Pharaoh'. 'house, where Jethro, being one
of the king's magiciana, aaw h; ud. taking it. with him to
Midian, he planted it in bis garden, where no one W88 able to
approach it until the arrival of Mosea. He read the mysterioUl
worda written upon the stafF, and took it without diJlioulty
from the ground. Jethro, who BaW thia, exclaimed, "Thia ia
the man who sliall deliVeF IsraelI" and gave him bis daughter
Zipom. With thia ataif Moaes kept Jethro'. flock during fony
Ycar&, without being attaokcd by wild beute, aw1 withou'
IUling any om bis fold." - M'adrcllA, p. 68.
110 TUE lII88ION.
when he entered the se"ice . of Shuib, and thirty-
eight on his mo.rringe with Safurja. In bis forticth
year he determined. to return to Egypt, in order to.
inquire after his relations and brethren in the faith.
It was a cold and stormy day when he drew
Mount Thur, on which a bright fire was blazing; and
he said to bis wife, "Rest here in the valley; I will
see what this flame signifies, and bring t h ~ 0. few
brands on my return." But when Moses near the
fire, he hea.rd a voice out of the midst of the burning
and yet unconsum:ed bush exclaim, "Take off thy
shoes, for thou a.rt in the presenoo of thy Lord, who
manifests himself to thee as The Light, to sanctify
thee as his prophet, and to send thee to Pho.raoh,
whose unbelief and cruelty so great, that long ere
this the mountains would have crushed him, the Sea.B
have swa.llowed him up, or the llames of hea.ven con-
sumed bis soul, if I bad not determined to give in his
person a proof' of my omnipotenoo unto the whole
:Moses fell down and said: "Lord, I slnin
an. Egyptian, and Pho.ra.oh will put me to if I
appear before him; besides, my tongue has been para-
lysed smce my infancy, 80 tliat I am not able to
speak before kings."
"Fea.r not, son of .Ammm I" rcplicd tbe voicc
froin the me. "Ir thy Lord bad not wo.tched over
thee, thou wouldst. have been changed into dust
even before thy birth; but as rega.rds thy imperfect
speech, it sha1l not prevent the exeroise of thy calling,
for I give to thee thy brother Aaron as vizier, who
shall communioate my will to Pharaoh.
"Go fearlC881y to Pharaoh; the staft' wbich is in thy
band sha1l protect thee from violenoo. Thou oanat
perauade thyaelf of it if thou wilt but lay it down
on the earth."
M08ea threw away bis staff, and, behold I ,it was
changed into a large living serpent. He would ove
fled from it, but the ange1 Gabriel held him back, and
aaid, "Lay hold of it; it oan do thee no ha.rm." Moaes
stretched out bis band towarda it, and it onoo more was
changed into a stafF. Strengthened by this miracle,
he was about to return to Safurja to punue With
her his way to Egypt; but the ange1 Gabriel aaid
to bim, CI Thou hast now bigher dutiea than thoee
of a husband. By" command of .Allah, love already
taken back thy we to her father, but thou shalt
fulfil thy miaaion &lone."
On the night that Moaea was treading Egyptian
groulld, thore appcmred unto Aa.ron, who bad suoooeded
his fatlter Ammm aa viziel' to Phal'aob, an angel. with
a cryatal cup filled with the rareat old wine; and aaid,
as he handed him the cup, "Drink, Aaron, oE the
wine wbich the Lord has aent thee in token ofglad
tidinga. Thy brother Mosea haa retumed to Egypt;
God ohosen him to 00 bis prophet, nnd thee to be
bis vizicr. Arise, and go to mcet him."
112 A.A.RON. '
.Aa.ron instantly left Pharaoh'.sclllmibei', in wbich
he, as orice bis father beforo bim, W1UI obliged 10
watM, and went beyond the city towards the Nila.
But ",hen he reached the bank 'of the stream, there
Wall nota single boat &.t to rerry him Sud':'
denly he beheld alight at a distanee; and on its neuer
approach he discovercd 0. h01'8eman, who,ew towards
him with the speed of the wind. It was Gabriel
mounted on the steed Hizain; which mone like the
purest diiunond, and whose neighings were celestial
8ODgs' of praise. . Aaron'sfirst, thought wasthat he
was pursued by one of Pharaoh's men, and he W1UI on
the brink of casting himselfinto the Nile, but'Gabriel
Diide bimsolf known in time to prevent bim, IUld
lifted him on his winged hol'86, ,which' carriedthem
both to the opposite bank of the Nile. M0888
was sta.nding; and as 800n as bis brother,
he Oried 8l0ud, "Tmth hs come, and 'falsehood has
ed I " Gabriel then placed M0868 also beside him,
and set him down before the house of his mother.
But. Aaron he carried back into the royal palace, lUl<l
when Pharaoh awoke, his vizier was again at bis post.
M08e8 spent. the remainder of that night and the
whole of the nen day with bis' mother, to whom he
was obliged to relo.te all that had befallen him in 0.
foreign land sinee the day of bis Hight from Egypt.
Tbe second night he spent with .Aa.ron in Pharaoh's
cham:ber. All the doo1'8 of ihe palace, however fast
they were closed, opened of their own accord aB 800n
88 he touched them with bis rod, andthe guards
standing before them became 88 if petrified. But
when they reported in the moring what they had
seen, and the porter who came in with bis keys
to open the doors of the palace,' found them wide
open, while neither door nor lock exhibited any mark
01 violenoo, and nothing of the ooetly things scattered
through the vanous saloonS, were miSsing, Haman
said to Pharaoh, "Aaron; who has watched by thee
must explain this matter; tor 88 thy. chamber h88
likewise beenopened, tbe intruder can have had no
other objeet than to converse with him."
Pharaoh immediate1y summoned Aaron before
Rabbi, Meier laya, PharaOh'B palace bad 400 gaa; 100
on each aide; and betore each gate stood 60,000 tried warno1'8. "
n wu tl.erefore n ~ that Gabriel introduced Mose. and
Aaron by another way. On aeeing them, Pharaoh Baid, Wbo
hDl admitted them'" He BUmmoned the guards,' and com-
manded some of them to be beaten, and othera to be slain. But
u M0Be8 and Aaron returned ~ next day agam, the guardB,
when called in, aaid, These men are sorceren, for they cer-
tainly have not come in througb the gateB. " On the lI&II1e page
it iB aaid, Before the garo of the royal palace ware two lion-
eBBeB, which clid not BUfl'or any one to pD88 throughwithout the
OXpre88 oommand of Pharaoh, and they would have ruahed upon
KOBel; but he railed bis atafI; their chaina fell oft; and they
followed him joyfully into the pa1ace, u a dog follow8 bis maater
at\er a long separation," &c. And again, Tbe 400 gatee of
the palace ware guarded by bean, lions, and other ferocio118
heut&, who BUft'ered no one to pD88 unleaa they fed them with
8Ih. Dut wbon Moaca and Aaron camc, they gathered .wout
them, and licked the feet of tho prophet&, accompanying them
to Pharaoh." -M'adrtuA, pp. 44, 44.
him, and threatening him with the rack, demanded
who bis nightly visiter bad been. Aaron, in the
eonviction that Allah would not leave his prophet in
the power of an iirlidel king, avowed that it was bis
brother Moses who bad been with bim. Pharaoh
immediately sentHaman with a detachmeilt of the
royal body-guard into Moscs' dwelling, in order to
bring him to judgment in the presence of all viziers
and high officers of state, who ware forthwith ordered
10 assemble in the grand hall. He himself presided
on bis throne, which was entirely of gold, and adomed
with the most costly paarls and diamonds. When
Moses stept m10 the judgment-hall, Pharaoh swooned
away, for he reeognised in bim the child tho.t bad
been saved by bis do.ughters, and now feared him the
more, inasmuch as he knew that he was Aaron's
brother, and eonsequently an Israelite. But he s ~ o
reeovered, on their sprinkling bim with rose-water.
and with his eonsciousness also returned bis former
stubbome8s of haart. Pretending never to have seen
him before, he inquired. "Who n.rt thou?"
. "I am the servant of .Anah. and his messenger. "
" Art thou not Pharaoh's slave?"
ce I acknowleclge no other lord than the only
tr To whom art thou sont?"
"To thee, in order 10 admonish thee 10 faith in
Allah. and in me bis messenger. and to lead forth the
Israelites out of thy eountry."
"Who is the Allah in wh08e namethou speakeet
to me?"
" Tbe only One, the Invisible, wllo bath created
hcn.vcn nnd eartb, and all tImt in thcm is."
Pharaoh then turned to Ao.ron, and inquired of
him, "What thinkeet thou of the words of this fool-
hardy man ?"
"I believe in the only God, whom he proclaiDlB,
and in him IIB bis meBBenger."
On hearing this, Pharaoh said to Haman, "Tbis
man hIlB ceBBed to be my vizier: take oft' forth'With
bis robe of honour I "
Haman then took bis purple robe from him, and
he stood IIBhamed, for the upper part of bis body WIIB
uncovered. MOBeB CllBt over him hie woollen . gar:.
ment; but, IIB he WIIB not accUBtomed to such eoane
raiment, he trembled in an his limba.: At that mo-
ment the ceiling oi the ball WIIB opened, alid Gabriel
ong a rohe round Ao.ron glittering with so many dia-
monds that all who were present were dazzled, lIBil
the lightning bad 1lashed through the darkest n i h ~
Pharaoh admired this robe, ",hich bad not a single
soom, and inquired of his treaBurer what might he
ita value.
"Such a garment," replied the troubled treasurer,
" is priceleBB, for the meanest 01 the jewels is worth
ten whole years' revenue of Egypt. Such diamonds
I bt\ve llevcr bchcld in any bBZar, nor Are ibe like
to be found among all the treaBures tbat have been
amaased in this palace from the earliest times. None
hut sorcerers can obtain possession oE such jcwels hy
Satanic arte."
"Ye are then sorcei'ers I" said Pharaoh to MOBe8
an<l Aaron. "Be it.,o. I esteem sorcerers highly, .
ud will . make you ,the heads of tbis fraternitY,
if ye will swear not to UBC your a.rt to my pro-
"The Lord oE the distant cast and west," rejoined
MoeeB, "has sent me as a prophet uiltothee, in order
to'oonvert thee.' We are no soreerere."
er And wherewithal wilt thou prove thy mi!8ion ? "
MOBe8 ilung his staft' on the ground, and instantly it
was c1umged into 0. serpent as huge as the Iargest camel.
lleglanced at Pharaoh with fire-darting eyes, and
i-a.ised Pharaoh's throne &loft to the ceiling, and open-
ing bis jaws, cried, "Ir it pleased Allah, I oould not
oo1y swallow up thy throne, with thee and all that
are here present, but even thy pala.ce and all that it
oontains, ,without. any one perceiving the slightest
change in me."
Pharaoh leapt from bis throne, ud adjured Moses,
by Asia his wife, to whom he was indebted for life
ud educa.tion, to protect him ago.inst this monster.
At the mention of Asia's name, MOSOB felt compo.ssion
towarda, and callcd tho sOrpent to him. Tho
serpent plaCed the throne in its proper position, and
stepped like a tender lamb befoi'e Moees. He put
bis band into bis jaws, and seized him by his tongue,
wbereupon be onee more became 110 sta1F. But sca.roely
was this peril warded oft' from Pharaoh, wben bis
haart again opened to the wbispers of Satan, ud
~ t e d of lending bis ear to Moses, bo demanded 01
tbe viziers to counsel him what he should do.
ce Let the hends of these two rebels be o ~ t off,"
said Raman, ce ud fear nothing from them; for all
tbat tbey represent as divine wondels is nothing but
idle delusion."
ce Do not follow this counsel, mighty king I" cried
Hiskil, the treaeurer: ce think of the contemporaries
0' Noah, ud the nations of .Aa.d ud Thamud.
They also believed N oab, . Rud, ud Salih, the pro-
phets whom Allah bad sent, to be demoDs and de-
ceivers, until the wrath of Allah fell on them, destroy-
ing thom ud their possessions by fire and water. ".. .
But now uprose Raman's predeceBBOr, 110 hoary man
of 110 hundred-and-twenty. of oge, and said,
ce Permit me also, 0 king of kings I before I descend
to the grave, to impart to thee my opinion. What
king oan boaet of having so muy magicians in bis
kingdom aB thou? I therefore hold it to be the wisest
plan that thou fix on 110 day in whicb thcy oll may
88Bemble together, and have 110 meeting with MOBeB
ud Aaron. If these are nothing but sorcerers, the
Egyptian masters of this art will not be 110 whit in-
ferior to them; and then thou an still at liberty to
do with them o.ocording to tby high will. But il
thoy put thy sorcerers to shame, thon are they indeed
the servante of a mightier God, to whom we aball be
forced to aubmit."
Pha.raoh approved of the counsel of bis aged
and commanded all the sorcerera of seV6nty
thousand in to repair to the capital at the
expiration 01 110 month.
When they wcre the king comma.nded
them to. choose seventy chiefs from their body: and
these seventy were a.gain to be represented by the two
most renowned among in . order to contend in
magio a.rts with Moses and Aaron in the laoe of the
:whoIe people. Phn.moh's command was punctnally
obeyed, and the choioe of the magioians fell on
Bismn and two mcn of U ppor Egypt, who
no less esteemed and feared throughout the
whole country than Pharaoh himself: '
On an appo\ted day, for whom ala.rge
lilken tent, embroidered with pearls and aupported
on sUver, had been erected, proceeded to a
large plain beyond the city,a.cCompanied by his
vizien and the nobles of bis kingdom : Bisam and
Rijam on the one aide of the tent, and Moses and
Aaren on the other, awaited bis commands: and the
whole population of Egypt WII.8 on the fieId of contest
from earIy dawn, anxious to seo which party would
obtain the victory. Pharaoh demanded of the two
Egyptians to change their rode into serpente: tbis
was done, and Haman to Pharaoh, "Did . not I
tell thee that M08es and Aaron were no more than
other sorcerers, who deaerve ohastisement for baving
abuaed their art?"
ce Thou tut too hRBty in tby judgment,"
Hiskil. ce Let us see first whether M08es will not
be able to do still greo.ter things than these."
At a sign from the king, Moses stepped forward
and pmyed to Allah, tbat he would glorify bis name in
the fo.oe of all Egypt. Allah then brought to nought
the oharm of the Egyptians, whieb was mere illusion,
and it WRB unto all preaent, as if a dark veil was
removed from their eyes; and they recOgniaed again
as staft's wbat bad appeared before as serpents.
MoeeB threw bis staft' upon the earth, and it beoame
a ~ r p n t with Beven heads, whieb did not remain
motionless liko thoae of. the magiclans, hut pursued
the two BOroerers with open jaw&. They w them-
aelves to the eo.rth, arid exclaimed, ce We believe in
the Lord of the W orld, the God of Moees and Aaron."
Phamoh oried to them, wrathfully, ce How dare
you oonfeBB youraeives to another faith Jrithout my
permiBBion, aimply beoausa theae BOrcerers. are more
doxtcrous th.m you? U nless you reca11 your words,
I ahall causa your hands and feet to be out off, and
aha1l hang you on the gallows."
ce Wilt thou puniah us," replied the BOroerer&,
ce beoause we oannot deny the signa of Allah? Behold
wo ln'O l)roplU'Cd to yiold up our liVOB in support of
our faith."
Pharaob, in order to set 80" terrible example, C8.used
t ~ tbreo.tened punishment" to be executed on them,
and tbey died tbe first martyrs to the faitb of Moaes.
Tbe. king now waxed da.ily more crual; every
beJiever was put to witb the moat excrucia.ting
torturea. He did not even apare bis own daugbter,
Maabeta., the wife of Hiakll, on lea.rning tbat ahe no
longer bonoured bim as God.' Sbe endured witb
admirable Cortitude tbe by ure, after seeing a.ll
ber children ala.ugbtered before ber eyes at Pbaraob'a
Asia beraelf was now accused before birn of o.poa-
taay, and even abe was condemned to deatb, but tbc
angel Gabrial comforted ber witb tbe annuncio.tion
that abe abould herea.fter be united witb Mohamed
in Pa.ra.diae, and gave her 80 potion by which ahe died
without pain.
Pharaoh now conceived, like Nimrod before bim,
the iniquitoua deaign to war agamat the God of M08e8;
he tberefore C8.11sed 80 tower to" be built, at whicb ufty
tbouaa.nd .!\len, moatly Iaraelites, were compelled to
labour day and night, be bimself riding up and down
among tbem to urge on theindolent. But Moaesprayed
to Allah, and the tower fell in, cruabing under ita ruina
8011 those Egyptiana wbo bad committed violence
againat tho Iamolitoa. Dut evon tbia juclgmont mado
only a. paaaing impression on the baart of Pharaoh, for
Allah desired to perform atill grea.ter wondera before
be condemned tbe soul of the king to etemal belL
First He visited him with a.' ood. Tbe Nile over-
:owed its ba.nks, a.nd tbe waters rose 80 high' that
they rea.ched to tbe neck of the tallest ma.n. After
-that, a' l108t of locusts mvndod tbc land, wblch not
only oonsumed oll but even oopper and
iroD. Then foUowed oll kinds of disgusting vermin,
whioh defiled oll mea.ts and drinks, a.nd filled oll
'garments a.nd beds, 80 that Pharaob, however often
he migbt oha.nge bis raiment, bad a. moment's
rast. When this plague disappeared, and Pharaob
. still resisted the wishes ot Moses, oll the watel'8
were cbanged to blood as soon as an Egyptia.n took
them in bis band, but remained unoha.nged for the
Finally, many of tbe Egyptia.ns, especially the more
eminent, who bad strengthened Pharaoh in bis un-
belief, were tumoo into stone, together 'with oll
their goods. Here, one might see a. petrified man,
sitting in tbe bazaar, with a bala.nce in bis ha.ndJ there,
'another, marking witb the Kalam, or oount-
iD.g gold, a.nd even, the gate-keeper ot the pa1ace atD9d
. ,
"All the water kept in Teuel8 W88 cbanged into blood,
even the spittle in the mouth or the Egyptian8; ror it is written,
there W88 blood througbout. the land of Egypt,'" Rabbi
. Levi informs 118 tbat thi8 plague enricbed the J eW!I; Cor U' a Jew
and an Egyptian lived together in the same house, and the Egyp-
tian went to draw water, it W88 cbanged into blood; but iC the
Jow woot, it rClnl\inod pure. Drinkillg out of tbe samo veBBel,
the Jew obtained water, and the other blood; but iC the latter
bough' i' of iTe", it remained pure." - M;drYllla, p.46.

there tumed' tb stone, holding a sword in bis light
haild. Omar Ibn Abd Alnsis had in bis posso88ion ,all
kinds of petrified fruite of those times, imd frequeptly
showed them to bis gueste as 'a warning :against un-
belief. At Moses' pi'ayer, Allah revivedthe petri-
fled men; but when ,Pharaoh refused:afresh to.
permit the Israelltes to depart, there burst out Upon
the land 80 thick a darkness, tha.t whoever happened
to be standing. could not eit down, and whoever hap-
penedto be eitting had, no power 'to rise.Thereupon
the Nile was dried up, so that man and beast died of
thirst. On this occasion, Pharaoh himself ran to
Moses and d j ~ r e d him to pray for himonee more,
that the water might ftow back into the Nilc. For tho
last time, Moses prnyed for'him, and the Nile was not
only ::fi.lled to itsbanks, butthere !also streamed from
'it allttle b'rook, which followed Phil.raoh whither-
80ever he went, 80 tha.t . at any moment. 'he was ;able
to aupply with 'water ,both :man and beast. But
instelMl of turning, to Allab,the king made use of this
special favour 'also ~ a meil.nsof inducing the people
to reverence him still as God.
. The 10ng-suiFeringot theLord-was now exha.usted,
and the king was himself topronouncehis sentenee,
aild to ohoose the mimner of death which his wieked-
.'ne88 had deserved. , Gabriel assumed the appea.rance
of a :noble Egyptian, 'and a.ceused before Pharaoh one
Thi. Omar W88 the eighth'caliph o( the houae oe Om&ridea.
, He' aacended the throne in the 99th 'year o( the Hegira, and
\\'88 previouy govemor o( Egypt.
cf bis slaves who, in bis absence, bad proeIa.imed
se1f the lord of the and constrained tbe othe,r
.cJomestics . to serve him. " Tbis impostor, said
raoh, "deserves to die."
. "How shall I put him to death?"
. "Let him be into the water.
" Give me a written warrant."
Pharaoh COlDDianded &I1 instrument to be drawn
up, aecording to which any .slave who usurped the
'honours of bis masWr, wasto be drowned.
Gabrielleft Pharaoh, and gave Moses the command
to quit Egypt with hispeople. Pharaoh pursued
them with.bis hOBt, and enel9sed them on all eides,
:so that there remained no other way of escape to
Israel tha.n. towards ,theRed ,Sea. in
between the. Egyptians and :tbe sea, they fell with
reproaches upon Moses, who bad broQght them into
this dangerous position; but he raised bis staft' towards
the waters., and instantly there.were twelve paths
opened through the sea, tor the twelve tribes :0'
Israel; each ofwhioh was separated from the rest by
a lofty, yet quite .transparent wall
Whcm Phamoh :r-.ohed the aea-ehore, and beheld
the dry pathsin the mielst of tbe sea, he . said to
Harnan, "Now is Israel lost to us, for even tb.e
watera &eeQl to favour their ight. "
But Hamm replied "Are not those paths opened
llkowise for U8 ? We aha1l soonovertako thom witb
. our horse."
G !a
took tho path 'in wbih Moaea
',"th the tribe of Levi; but bis eteed grew restive,
'Uld- wia Unwilliug to go" .forward. Then mounted
Gabriel, in liuman form, on" the horse Rainka, aud
rode in before Phalaoh. Thi hone was 80 beautiful,
that 88 800n as the king's stOOd saw hiui, he plunged in
bebind. ' '
. " wben Pharaoh and bis wbole bost were in the
'sea, ibe angel Gabriel turnecl to 'the king, and showed
bim the wammt ofthe previous day, bealing the royal
:seal, and said-" Frail mortal; wbo 'didst desire to be
'wonbippea as God I behold,' thou' hast condcmnecl
,tbY8elf to die by water." At these words, the twelve
walls tumbIed,in, tbe floods bunit forth, and Pbamob
".nd 0.11 followed bim perisbed in the waten. But
in order to convince' both tbe 'Egyptians wbo- bad
renwned behind, 88 weIl aB theIsraelites,of Pha.riI.oh's
'coinnianded the waves to cast hiS body
flrst on tbe western ud then 'on the eaatern sbore
of tbe Red Sea..
. ' But now Moses bad no lese to contend against t11e
Isra.elites, than formerly against Pb&raoh;: for they
.med unable to tear themselves from th6 serVice of
idobs, notwithstandhlg all 'tbe wonders of the only
. Lord, which he bad performed. .'
Yet RB long a.s he' tarrid with them they presumed
'-,iot to demand an idol; but ",lien Allah called him to
,itimself ')n Mount Sinai, they thPeaten6d Aaron,
whom he had left behind 88 his representative; with
death, if ho would not give them an idoL
. THE GOLDP OALlI'.:' 126
&miri Jiow admonisbed' them to bring iIll.' their
gold, including even the omame.nts of their women"
and Cast it into a copper caldron, under whieh.. 11
etrong firo, was lighted. JJ 800n ae the gold. w...,'
melted, he ftung into it a handful of. sand; which he,
bad taken up from undel' the hoof of Gabriel'e horee,
anei, 10 I there was formed out of it, a ca.1f, which raR
up and down like a one. .
"Here ie yourLord, o.nd ,the L9rdof MQeeeJ"
then Oried Samiri j "thie God we will worehip J " tI
'. Whilet the Israelitee, notwithstanding the admo-
nition of bad abandoned Allah, theangel
Gabriel uplifted Moeee 80 high into the ,heavens,
that he heard the of the,
bad ,juet 'received the' command to the
I?OOQlogue for him and for ,bis on the
tablete of fate. ,
. But the higher Moses 'roee, the etronger grew, hie
deeire to behold Allah himself in bis glory.
, Thel,l commanded Allah al1 the angele to eUl'1'6un(l
Moees, . Jmd .to . a song of pmiee: Moeee
ewoonod away, for he was wanting in strength :OOth to
, .. Aecording to the RabbiDical legends. simaeI (Satan)
l'UIhed ioto the calf, ud groaned 80 loudlYt that the Iaraelitel
believed it Uviog. The Rabbis al80 maiDtaiood that it wu not
Aaron, but 80ma other pcl'8On (80ma 1&1 Micah) who made the
caIr. - Vide Seigtr, p.167.
Q a
12'6" TlIE 'CUOSEN PEOP:L1!:.
behld' these nOsts' of shlniDg forms s weIl Bi io hear
their thrilling voices. '
:, But ",hen he Clame t himlIelf he conf'essed that '
be bad' asked a sinfulthing, and repented. He then
pryed to'AIlah that he would make bis peOple the Most
uoellent of the e&rth.' " But Allah replied, tc The'
KaIam'hns Olready'ma.rkeddown as suob the
of Mohamed, because' they shall, fight for the tr\le'
faith until it Cover the whole earth;" ,
Ce continued M0se8, "rewaro. 'tenfold, the
good deeds of my people, and visit sin but onoe; let
alBQ . eacli ,good intention, though not Carrled into
eiFect, obtain a recompense, butpaBB by eaeh evil
thought unpunished."
" These are privileges," replied Allah, " accorded to
those 'only who believe in Moh&rnoo" 'in whose name
even' :Adam praYed tQ me. , AdmoniSh, therefore, thy
people to faith in him, ror he sball rise first on the day
ofthe resurrection from bis grave, and enter into
Paradise at the bead of all the prophet&. He 8lso
shall obtain the grace of revealing to bis people tbe
oommandment of tbe five daily prayers arid the fast
of Ramadhan. "
... , It is woll known that the MUI8ulmans keep :rearly fast
which laste trom BUnriae to Bunaet a whole month; ud they
evan exceed the JewB in, for they not only take nei-
ther , Bor drink, but a1eo abetain irom Bmoking during the
fast. AB their year is IUDIU!, the m!>Dth of falla at
every aeason of the :year. '
: ' . Wheri Moses returned again to bis own'
imd found them worshipping the galden .ca.l4
he fel1 upon Aaron, caught him by thebeard,. and
was on the point of strangling him, when
sworc tho.t ho was innocent, and pointed out
as the prime mover of this idolatry.
Moees then summoned Samiri, and would have
put him to death inSta.n.tly, but Allah directed thathe
should be soot into banishment.
, . Ever smce that time he roams like a wild beast
throughout the world; every one shUDS him, and
purifies the ground on which bis feet have stood, and
himself', whooever ho approaches men, exclaims,
ce Touch me not I" .
Moees expelled him from. the camp oI
tho Israelites, at Alla.h's command,' hecaused the
calf' to be broken inpieces, and having ground it to
dUst, forced Sainiri to defile it. It was then put.
into water, and given the Israe1ites to drink.
. . After Samiri's removal, Moses prayed Allah to
have mercy on bis people; but Allah repIied, (' I
ca.nnot pardon them, for sin yet dwells in theirinward
parts, ahd will only be washed awar by the pou:on
which thou hast given them.
. On returning to the camp, Moses heard woeful
shriokings. Many of the Ianuilltes, with ghaatly
faces and with bodies frightfully swollen, cast them-
aolves down beroro him, and cried, ce Moses, help U8 r
G 4
~ h e , golden calf is tearingoUr vitals; wewill repent,
and die cheerfully, if Allah will hut pardon out sin."
Man,. repented really 'of their sillfl; but lrom otheri
only pain and ,tbc fear of, death bad extorted these
expreuions of i'epentance. ' .
MoseB eommanded them, ,therefore, in the name of
Allah, to slay eooh 'other. .
, ,Then there rose a dllol'kneBB, like unto tha.t which
Allah bad Baut upon Pha.ra.oh. The innoeent and re'"
elainied hewed with the sword to the right 'and to the
left, so that many alew their. nearest kinsmen; but
Allah gave their swords pOwer' ovar the guilty only.
Seventy thousand worshippers of. idols. bad aJready.
fallen, w hen MoseB, moved by the eries of women
and children, implored God onee more for merey.
, Instantly the hea.vens grew elear, the sword rested,
and all the remaining siek ware ,healed. . .'
. On the lollowing day Mose$ read unto them the
Law, ud admonished them to obey serupuloualy
itS ilteseriptions. But many of the people 8X.-
elaimed, "Weshall not submit to such a ~ e . The
Iaws eapeeially obnoxious to them were those 'whieh
regulated the revenge of blood, and punished the
pettiest thelt wit:h the IOBB of the band. At that
instant, Mount Sinai beeame vaulted over their
hcads, exeluding thc vcry light ol hea.ven from them,
and there ericd a voiee from the rocks, "Sou of
I8rael, Allah has redeemed you from Egypt merely to
be the bearers of hi8 lawa.: if you refuse this burden,
we 8ha1l fall in upoIi you, and thus you shaIl be com ..
pelled to sUPP9rt a weightier mass until the day of
the resurrection.
With one voice tbey tben exclaimed, "We
roody to Bubmit to tbo law; and to ooccpt it as tbe
rule oi .our lif'e.
.. When Moses bad instl'Uoted them fully in the law,
and. expounded wba.t was pure and impure, what
lawful and what unlawf'ul, he gave the signal. to
'march for the conqu6st. of the promised. land of
But notwithstanding all the wonders of ..Allah,
who fed them with Dl&IlIl8o and qua.ils in the wilder-
ness, and caused twelve fresh fountains to' spring out
of the' rooky ground wherever they -encamped, tIley
were still faint-hearted, and would not depart until
they bad obtained better information rspecting . the
country and its inhabitants through s p ~
Moses was obliged to yield, and sent a man out oe
every tribe into Paleetine.
The spiee on their return related: "W e have seen
the land whieh we are to Bubdue by the sword j it is
good and fruitf'ul.
"The strongest oamel is scaroely ahle to carryone
single bunch oi grapesi a single ear yields suflicient
com to satisfy a whole family I and the shell 01 a
pomegranate can easily contain five armed man. 9
"But the inhabitants of that country and their
citiea are of a size proportionate to the proclucts of
'ISO . 1108_ .um JOSHUA.
their BiI. We have seen men the smallest oE "hom
Wal! aix huildred. oubite high., They stared at our
dwariish appearance, and dcrided. UB. Thcir housea
, naturally 'crreapond with theii: &ze" and the walls
'which liurr9und their eitles so high that
is soarcely able to soa.r to the sllmmit thereof."
'When the spies luUl finiahed thcir report, they
dropped down dead; only two of thcm, J oshua, the
,son of Nun, andCaleb, 'who bad kept silence,re-
mained. aIive. murmured aga.inst
Moses, and said, We shall never fight againSt such
a people. If' thou' hast a mind to : do so,
march &lone with thyGod aga.inst them." .
. ThereuPon Moses announced to them, in the name
01 AlIah, that by reason of 'their distrust in thehelp
'01 Him who had divided the sea for thcir safety, they
ware, dooll\ed. to Wander torty'through the :wiI-
derness. He then took leave 01 them, and
prellching the true faith 'through the whole 'emh,
trom east to west and trom north to south. '
When Moses was, one day., boasting of his wiSdoin
to his servant Joshua, who a.ccompaniedhiIn, Alla.h
said :," Go to the Persia.n GuIt, where the seas of the
Greeks amd tho Persians oommingle, and thou Bhalt
thoro ibid one 01 my, piOUB serVante who surpasses
. d" '
t co. In W18 om. ' . '
, sluill I recognise this,we inan P"
r. "Take with thee nah in: a:basket; i*will"ahow
thee where my servant lives.
" MosetJ now departed with J towardS
dOuntry ",hieb Allah had,pointed out, and
him a nsh 'in a "ba8ket." On OCQaSion
he laid himself down, exhausted, on
shore, und tell asleep. It was late when he awoke,
and he hurried on to reach the desired inn; hut Jo.-
ahua bad, in bis haste, neglected, to" U!ke :&shwith
him, torgot .to. l:ain! 9f . It was
not until the next morning that they miesed their
Sah, andwere on the .point otreturning th,e .spot
where they bad .rested on the preceding day , hut on
i'eaching the sea-ehore they heheld a :&sb gliding quite
on :the surface of
therein, as Sah are wont to do: they soonrecognised
it aa .. theirs, . and, therefore, after italong the
shore. After having, tor a few followed their
guide, it !iludderi1y di:ved below: they stood still, and
thought: "Herethe god-fearing man whom wa are
must dwell;" and S09n they descried a cave,
ovel' whose entrance was written, "In the name of
Allah, the All-merciful and All-gracious. 'p. On step-
ping in, they tound a man, who appearedin all the
hloom and vigour of a youth of .seventeen, hut with
a mowwhite heard, owing even to bis feet. It was
the prophet .Chidr, who, though gifted with eternal
YOlith, was witlml ondowed "with the Sncst ornament
of hoary nge,
" Aftermutual salutation, 'Moees aaid: 4cAooept me
llB thy disciple, and pennit mo toaoo<>mpany thee in
thy wanderings through the world, that I may ad-
mire the wisdom whicb...Ana.h has bestowed on thee."
"Thou canst not comprehend it, and wilt there-
fore not- remain long with me."
"It Allahpleases, thou ehalt find me both obedient
and patient. Rejeot me not I" .
" Thou mayst follow me, yet mUt thou ask roe no
question ~ t l I shall, of my own accord, explain my
aetions. " .
. . When Moses bad . submitted to this condition,
Al Chidhr took him to the shore of the sea, where a
veBBeI . WIlB lying at ancbor. He took an axe and
struck' out two planke of the vessel, 80 that it Bank
immediately. . .
. .4, What dOst thou?" oried Moles: "the men that
are in' itwill now perish."
"Did I not say," replied Al Chidr, "thou wilt
not long continue patiently with me? "
"Pardon me," said Moses, "I bad forgotten my
l'romise;" .
Al Chidr then jQurneyed funher with him, wtll
they met a. bea.utiful hoy, who was playingwith shelIs
on the sea-shore. Al Chidr drew bis be, and cot
tho throat of tbo oMId.
Mosea oried, "Why murderest thou an innocent
abild, who can in no wiae havodeserved death? thou
hllBt committed a great orlme 1 "
"Did I not tell thee," replied Al Chidhr, .. thou
canst not Iong in my eompany?"
. "Pardon me yet this once," replied Moses, . ci and
if I inquire again, then mayest thou rejeet me I" .
. Thoy now tmvollcd long to and fro, until. they
arrived weary and hungry in.a large city. Yet
no one would Iodge them, nor give them mea.t or
drink without money. SuddenIy, Al Chidhr beheld
how. the walls of 0. bea.utiful: inn, out of whieh they ,
bad just been driven,threa.tened to fall in; he then
stepped before them, and supported them until they
etood upright; and when he bad strengthened
them, hewent bis way.
Then said Moses .to . him, "Thou hast now per-
form.ed a work whieh would have occupied many
masoDS during several why hast. thou . not at
least demanded areward that we might have boughi
some provisions?" .
" Now we must separate," said. Al Chidhr; "yet
ere we part, I will exp1ain tothee the motives of my
conduct. Tbe vessel whieh I have damaged, but. whieh
may be easily repred, bel.onged to poor men,' and
formed their only 80urce of maintenanee. . At the time
I struck it, many ships of a certain tyrant were
ing in those seas, capturing every servieea.ble craft.
. ,
By me, therefore, these poor sailors have saved theU'
>nIy property.
"Tbe child whom I have ja the son of pioUl
parents; but he himsel! (1 perooived it in bis face)
134 ,"l'D.OVIDBNOB.
waS of a dElpmved natUre, arid would, in thi end,hnve
100 bis parent8. into evil "I have tberefore preferred
to slay him: Allah will. give them. pious ohildren in
bis atead. ,
"'. ".As tor the wall of which I have r8.ised
up .imd it' belongs .to two orphans whose
father wa8 a piou8 man. Beneath the wau there i8
a treasure hid, which the present owner would have
it bad faUon: I have therefore repaired it,
tha't the treasure may be left 8eQUle untilthe cbUdren
shall grownup.. i. " .
. rf Th9u seest "continued Al Chiclhr, "that
in au this I have not pa88iou, but have
acted: acoording to the will of my lord."
M08es pmyed Al Chidhr onoe more to pardon him,
but did l!o8k.permission to remain with
bim. . ... '
This evlciently 01 J ewiah origin. It ia related
1'e8pI!Ctmg w1)Ue OQ :Mount Slnai, tbe Lord in.,
IItructed him in the mysteries of Js providence. . Moaes
c<imp1ined of theimpunity of vice and itl '811ccess iil thii
world, and the frequent suft"eringa of the innocent, the Lord .
took. hiDl to.a rock .whicb projected hom the mountain, and
J"bere he could overlook the vaat plainof the desert stretching
at'liis feet. ' . . '. .
. On ODe of its 'oaaeshe beheld ayoungArab as1eep. He
awoke, and, leaviDg behind hiDl bag of poarla, he 8pl'UJIg into
his aaddlo, and rapidly disappoared from tllO horizon. Anotbcr
Arab Q(I.IIle to t.he oaais: he discovered the cook them;
and Vanished in the' opposit-e direction.
N ow. an aged' wanderer, on bis .beJit pis weary
THE NOBTH. 135 .
During the "last' thirty . M0se8 bad passed
through the 8Outhern, eastern, and western .pam 01
the earth; and there ware yet left to him ten years
for wandering in the north, which,
the ferocity 01 the nations of that region, and the rigi-
dity of its .climate, he visited in every direction until'
he came to the great iron wall which Alexander bad
erected to protect the inhabitants against the prooatory
inoursions of the nations of J adjudj and
he hadadmired wall, which is cast in one
piece, he' praised the 'omnipotenoe of Allah, and
retraQed bis steps towards the Arabian desert
.. Nine-and-tbirty years bad already elapsed
he .bad eeparated from bis. brethreJl. Most of. the
. stepi towards the ahady spot': .he laid himself down, .d. feil
1I8l0ep. nut scarcely had he olo8edhia eyes, when hewu
l"UdeIyi-ouaed from slumber:; the young Arab bad retumed;
alid -demaI1ded bis. pearls. The boary man replied, he bad DOt
taken .them. The other. grew enraged, and accuaed him of
theft. . He 8'Wore that he had not seen bis treasure; but the
ot.ber Beizedhim; a acule enaued; tbe young Arab drew his
. 8'Word, and plung.,d it into the breaat of the aged man, who feIl
lelesa on the cuth .
"0 Lord, this justice P" ,,*cia.imed Moses terror.
Il Be eilont I Bohold Ui man, whose blood i. now mlngliDg
lI'.itlt tho waterl of deaert, Das many years ogo secretly, on
tho same spot, murdered the father of the youth has DOW
sIain him. His cnme .concealed trom men, 'hut ven;,
geance ia mine-I wrn.repay I "
The reader mUlt be struck with the similarity oe these
fiCtiODB and the beautiful poem on the same subject by farnelI,
who, unacquainted with the Arabio legend, may have I'eIId
the ODO we have related iD Schiller's 1& Sendung Moses." - B. T.
138 .' XOBlL .:
Israelites whom Le, .left". in their. prime bad
meanwhile died, and another generation bad risen in
their stead
. AmODg the lew aged, menwho yet remained was
bis kinaman Karun (Korah), Ibn. J acbar, Ibn Fa-
He bad learned fromMOBeIt' sister,
(Miriam), who was bis wife, the acieDce of alchemy,
80 that ho was able to convert the meanest metal into
gold. He was so rieh tbat he built 10fty walls of gold
round his gardens; and reqUired f'orty niwes to carry
the. keys of bis treasuries when he travelled.. By
means of bis 'wealth he bad succeeded in acquqmg 0.
truly regal infl,uence during M9ses' absence. But
at Moses' return, bis importance diminished, he
resolved on bis destruction. He therefore visited a
m8.idenwhom Moses from the camp on .
account of her abandoned and promised to
marry her if she would declare before elders oE the
congregation' that .Moses bad only because
she bad refused to listen to his propOsals. She pro-
mised' Korah to act entirely alter bis will. But when
ehe arrived betore the eIden, with the intention. oE
Moses, was not able to preter
her. charge. Allah. put different words into her
she acknowledged her . guUt, and confessed
tht Korah bad induced her, by innumerable pro-
The Midraah' 8&ya: "Korah bad 800 white mules, wbicb
carried the keys Irbis treaauriea. .His wealth was bis ruiD I".
nUses, to' brlng " faJee accusation agaiIiet' Moeea.
Moses prayed to Allah for protection .. against the
malignity of bis kinsman; and 10 I the earth opened
under the feet of Korah, and devoured him, with all
bis assoeia.tes and goods.
AB the fortieth yea.r was hastening to its close,
Moses marched with the Israelites towards the fron-
tier of Palestine.
But when Jalub Ibn Safum, the king of Balka, te-
ceived intelligence of the approach of the
who bad already in their ma.rch conquered many eities,'
called to him Beliam the sorCerer, the son of Baur,
in hopeB to be enabled, by his council and aid, to,
withstand the Israelites. But an angel appeared to
Beliam in the night, and forbade him to accept the'
invitation of J Mub. When, thcrefore, the messcngars
of the king rcturned to Balka \vithout Belia.m, J ....
lub purchased the most cost1y jewels, and sant them
secretlyby other messengers to Beliam's we, to
whom the sorcerer was so much attached as to be
qUite under her controL Beliam's wife accepted.the-
presents, II.Ild. persuaded her husband to undertake
tho journey. Tbe king, a.ecompanied by his viziars,
1'O!le out some distanee to meet him, and appointed
one oE the most beautiful houses oE the city for his
a.bode. According to the custom of the country, the
guest was provided three days from the royal tables;
and tbe viziors visitcd him from time to tilDe, without
speaking, however, of the object for which he bad
been called 'to BalJia. It was not lUltil \he: fourth
day that he was sumJDoned to the king, and entrea.ted
to eurse the people 'of IsraeL But Allah paralysed. the
(Ongoe of Beliam, so tUt, notwitbStanding bis hatred
towards the people, he was not able to utter a word
of impreeation.
, When tbe king saw this, he prayed him at least to
assist with his eQunsel agamst the invading nation.
, "The best means againat the Isra.e1ites," said Be-
'liam, "who are so terrible only through the as8istance
of Allah, is to 1e8.d them into ein. Their GOD then
forsakes them, and they are unable to resist any
foe. Send therefore the most beautiful women and
maidens of the capital to meet them with proviSions,
thil.t they may yield to sin, and then thou shalt easily
overcome them."
' .. The .. king adopted thia counsel j but M08es was
apprised thereof by tbe angel Gabriel, and caused the
ftrst Israelite wbo WOB led into sin to be put to death,
and as a warning commanded his bea.d to be carried
on a spear, throughout the camp. He then instantly
led'on the attaek: Balka was taken, and the king, with
. lleliam aild ;ts were the first to perish .in the
fight. Soon.after the conquest of Balka, Gabricl ap-
peared, arid eommanded Moses, .togetber with Aa.ron
and bis sons, to follow bim to & lofty mountnin whieh
l&y neai the city. On 'reaching the pinnacle of the
mountain they bebeld & finely-wrought cava, in the
midst 'of .wbich there,stood &CQftin,with.
1'ilE DBA.TB bi" 139'
u t am. desiined for bim whom I fit. " Mosea
desired to lay himselt' first into it, but his feet' pro- .
truded; then Aaron placed himsclf in it, and, 'be-
hold it fittcd hirn, IUI if his moosure had
Gabriel then led Moses and Aaron's sons beyond
the cave; but he himself returned to wash and to
bless Aaron, whose soul ha.d been taken
by the Angel of Death.: When M08es tb
the camp without Aaron, and announced his death to
the lsraelites who . inquii-ed' for his brother, he was
suspected f having murdered him; many even were
not af'raid to proclaim their suspicions in publie..
MOses prayed to Allah to manifest his innocence:' in
the presence of all the people, and behold four angels
brought Aaron's coflin from tbe cave, and raised it
above tbe camp of tbe Isiaelites, BO that every one
could see him, and one of the angels exclaimed,
u Allah hlUl taken Aaron's soUl to himself." Moses,
who now anticipated his approachlng end, pronounOOd
a Jong discourse before the Israelites, in which he
enfoiced on thcm the most important At the
close he warned them against falsifying the law,
which had 'been revealed to them, and in which the
tutul'e appeo.rance of Mohamed, in whom they were
all to believe, was quite clearly announced. A few
days after, while he was reading in the law, the
Angel of Death visited him. Moses u lf' thou
In perfect accordance with the Midrash, p. 266.
140 'l'Q DBATB .OP1I0aE80.
be eomDlanded to recetve tD.1 soul, take it trom roy
mouth. tor it waa cnatantly oooupiod'with tho word
of Allah, and. haa not been touched by any unclean.
thing." He then put on bis most beautiful rohes,:
appoi.nted Joahua bis.auccessor, and died at an age of
one hundred and twent.y, or, aa isOme of th learned
maintain, of one hundredand eighty YearB - the
meroy of Allah be with him I .
. '
. ,
Othen relate the particulars of. Moaea' death as
follows 1-When Gabriel announced to. him bis ap-
proaohing dissolution, he ran hurriedly to h,is dwelling,.
and knocke<l hutily at the door. His wife Safurija
o ~ n e it, !Ul,l beholding him quite pale, and with
ruftled oountenanoe, inquired, "Who puraueth thee,
that thou runnest hither in terror and lookest dia--
mayed? who is it that p\\r8ueth thee for debt? ..
, Then Mosea answered, ce Ja there a mightier cre-
dltor thl\n the Lord of heaven and earth, or a more
dangerous punuer than the Angel of Death? "
" Shall then a man who haa spoken with Allah
die?" ,
" AlSuredly. even the angel Gabriel ahall be da-
livered to death, and Michael imd Iarafil, with all
other angela. Allah alone ia eternal, and never dies."
&furija wept until ahe awooned awil.y; but when
ahe eame to heraelf, Moses inquired, "Where are
my ohildren ? "
" They are uleep."
,,- ce Awaketbem, tliat I may bid them . 'last "fare-
"ell." . . :
Safurija went before tbe couch of tbe
and cried, '-' Bise, yo poor orphans; riso, and take
leave of your father, for tbis day is bis last in' thii
world and bis :first in tbe next." ,
, The ehildren started -from their sleep in aft'right,
and cried, "W oe unto usl wbo will have compassion
upon os wben we shall be fatherless? wbo will with
solicituile and o.ifeotion step over our tbreahold?" '
Moses was so moved, that be wept bitterly. - " ')
Then aaid Allah to bim, "Moses, what signify
tbese tears? Art thou afraid 01 death, or departe8$
thou relucumtly from this world?" '
fC I faar not deatli, and leave this' world witb glad ...
nees; but I havo compnssion on theSo' children trom
wbom tbeir fo.ther is about to be tm."
cc In wholD trusted thy inother when sbe confided
tby life to the waters ?" ,
"In Tbee, 0 Lord." '
,i Wlu:i protected tbee -agaiost Pharaoh, and gave
thee a'stnfr with wbicb thou dividedst tbe aeo.? ",
" Thou, 0 Lord."
. , "Go, -tben, onee more to tbe 8ea"'8bore, lift up
-thy staif over tbe waters, and thou shiUt see another
sign of iny omnipotenee." -
- Moses followed_ this command, and instantly tbe
sca ,,11.8 dividcd, and be bcheld in the midst thcreof
buge black rock,' Wben be eame near it, Allo.b
cried to hirn, ce Smite with thy staif." He smote
it; the rock was eiert in twain, and ho 1Il\W bencmtJ.
it in &!IOrt 01 & cave, & worm with & green leat in
its . mouth, which cried three. times, " Praised
be . Allah, wbo doth not forget me in my solitude.l
Praised who hath nourished and raise!l
me p J"- The worm was silont; and Allah said to
Mose-s, "Thou seest that I do not the worm
underthe hidden rook in the sea: and how should J thy children, who do even now confess :that
God is One, and that Moses is his prophet?
. M08CS thon retumed to bis housc, com ..
,'orted his wife ud ohildren, and went &lone 10 the
mountain. Thoro ho f'ound four mon, wore dig-
ging a grave, ud he inquired 01 them, "For whom
is this grave?" They replied, "For & man whom
Allah desires to have with him in heaven.".
begged permission to assist &t the grave of so pious a
man. When tbe work was done he inquired, "H&ve
you taken tbe measure of the dead?" "No," they
said, "we have forgotten it," "but he was
of thy form and stature: lay thyself in it, that
may see whether it will :6t thee 4lJah will reward
thy kindn088." But when Moses bad laid himself
down within it, the Angel of Death stepped bef'ore
him, "nd, "Poa.ce be upon thee, Moses I "
. Cf Allah bloss tbee, and pity upon thee I Who
. Art thou ? "
u I am the Angel of Death I Prophet of Allah,
and oorne to receive thy soul."
ce How wilt thou take it 1"
ce Out of thy mouth."
ce Thou canst not, for my mouth has spoken with
ce I will draw it out of thine eyes."
". Thou mayst not do so, for they have. seen the
light of the Lord."
. " WeIl then, I will it out of e ears." .
ce This. also thou mayst not do; for they
heard the word of Allah."
ce I will take it from thy bands."
CI How darest thou 1 Have they not borne the dia-.
mond tablets on whioh the law was engraved 1" .
Allah then oomma.ilded the Angel of Death to.ask
oE Ridhwan, the guardian ofParadise, an apple. Qf
Eden, Md to prcsent it to Moses.
Moses took the app]e from the hand of the n ~ l
.of Death to inhale its fragrance, and at. that instant
bis noble soul rose through his nostrils to heaven. But
bis body remained in this grave, which no one knew
save Gabriel, Miohael, Israfil, and Azrail, who had
dug it, a n ~ whom Moses bad taken for men."
TUE Israelites lived under J08hua, (who wu, how-
ever, "not a prophet, butinerely a virtuous prince and
valialit chief) conforinably to the iaW8 reveaJ.ed by
Moses; the Lord therefore enabled them to expel
the giants from the land of C8.I1a&n, and o.t their cry,
"Altab is great," the loftiest walls of fortified eities
fell in.
" But after J c>sbua's death they relapsed into all
" thoSe iniquities on aeeount ofwhich theEgyptians bad
been 80 severely punisbed; wherefore, .Allah, in order
to ebastise and to reclaim his p o p l ~ "sent the giant,
Djalut (Goliah) against them, wh defeaied them in
"numerous engagements, and eveti took from them the
Tabut (the sacred ark of the Covenant), 80 that the
proteetion of Allah entirely departcd from them. "
One day, when tbe heads of the people were assern-
bled to eonsult in what mann er the mighty Goliath
nrlght be resisted, there came a man to tbem of the
family of Aaron - his name WIl8" Isbmawil Ibn Bol
(Samue}), and snid, "The God of your fatllers sent
me to you to proclaim speedy help, if you will turn
to him, but utter destruetion if you continue in your
wieked courses." "
8A.HUEL. 146
"What shall we do," inquired one of the elder8'
" to obtain the favour of Allah?"
Samuel replied: "You shall worship Alla.h alone,
ILnd oft'cr no BlLCrifioos unto idole; nor eilt thlLt wbich
ha.e died of iteelf, nor flesh, nor blood, nor
any tImt hIlB not been slo.ughtered in the name
of Alla.h. Assist other in doing good, honour
your parenta, trea.t your wives with kindness, sup-
port the widow, theorpho.n, and the poor. Believe
in the prophets that have gone before me,
in Abraham, for whom Alla.h tumed the buming pile
into a garden of delight; in Isma.eJ, who8e. neck
he rendered invulnerable, and for whom he Caused a
fountain to spring up in the stony desert; and in
Moses,who opened with bis rod twelve dry' paths
tbrough the sea..
" Believe, in like mann er, in the prophetsthat shall
come after me; above all, in Isa Ibn Mariam, the
spirit of Allah (Christ), and in Mohamed Ibn Abd
"Who is Isa?" inquired one oE the heads oE
er 110 is tho prophot, " roplicd Samuel, "whom the
Scriptures point out as the W ord oE Al1a.h. Bis
mother shall conceive him as a virgin by the will of
the Lord and the of the angel GabrieL Even
in the womb he shall praise the omnipotenoo of Allah,
and testify to the purity oE bis mother : but at 11.
later period he shall heal the siek and leprous, ra.iee
the dead, and create living birds out of cIay. His
godless oontcmpomries will Aftlict and attcmpt to
crucif'y him; but Allah sball blind them, so that
another shall be crucmed in bis stead; while he, like
tbe prophet Enoch, is taken up into heaven without
tasting death."
"And Mohamoo, who is he?" oontinued tho
same Ismelite; "bis nmue sounds so stmngely timt
I do not remember ever having heard it in Israel "
"Mohamed," Samuel replied, "does not belong
to our people, but is a descendant of Ismaei, and the
last and greatest prophet, to whom cven Moses and
Christ sha1l bow down in the day oC the resur-
ce His name, which signifies the 'Much-pmised-One,'
indicates of itself the many excenencies for which he
is blessed by all creatures both in heaven and on
" nut the wonders which he shall perform are so
numerous, that a whole human le would not suffi.ce
to narmte them. I sball content myself, thereCore,
with communicating to YOll but a part of what he
shall see in one single night.-
Th& following narrative, wbich Samue1 is malle to uttcr,
dOlCl'ibes the Night-Joumey 01 Mobamed. He revea1ed it
his tollowera in the 12th. year ot Lis mission; and though
bis Arabs ware given to the marvellous, yet this 8taggered
even their credulity, and would have proved bis utter ruin but
ror the resolute interpo8ition 01 Abu Beb. -B. T.
"In a frightfully tempestuous night, whon the
cock refrains from crowing, and the hound from bay-
ing, he shall be rolised. from his sleep by Gabrie1,
who frequently appcars to him in human form; but
who on this occasion comes os Allah crcatcd him,
with his Beven hundred radiant wings, bctween each
of which is a space which the fleetest steed can
scarcely traverse in five hundred years.
"He shalllead him forth to a spot Borak, the
mimculous horse, the same which Abraham used to
mount on bis pilgrimages from Syria to Mocca, stands
ready to receive him.
" This horse also has two wings like an eagle, feet
like a dromedary; a body of diamonds, which shines
like the sun, and a head like the most beautiful
"On this miraculous steed, onwhose forohead
is engraved I Thore is no Lord but Allah, and
Mohamed is bis messenger,' he is carried first to
Medina, then to Sinai, to Bethlehem, and to Jeru:-
. salem, that he may pray on holy ground.
thcnco ho oscends bya golden ladder, whose steps
of ruby, 01 cmcrald, and byacinth, into tho Bevcnth
heaven, where he ia initiated in all the mysteries
of creation, and the governinent of tbe uni verse.
. " He beholds the pious amidst a11 their felicities in
Paradise, and sinners in their vaned agonies in hell.
Many of them Are rooming there like ravenOU8 beasts
through barren ficldB; tbey are those who in this life
B 2
. enjoyecl the bounties of Allah, and gave nothing
thereof to the poor.
. "Others rOn to and fro, carrying freSh meat in one
hand, and corroded flesh in the other; but 88 orten
. u they would put the former into their mouths, their
bands are struck with fiery rods until they, partake
oE tlie putrificd morsol.; This is tbo :punisllmcnt 'ef
thOse who broke their marriage vow, and fouud plca-
sure in guilty Indulgence. . . . ,.
. ." The bodiesof others are terribly swollen, aud Iire
still inereasing in bulk; they are such aB have grown
rieh by usury, and whose avarice was insatiable.
"The tongues and lips . of .others are seized and
pinched with iron pincers, Re the. punisbment of their
calumnious and rebellious speeches, by which they
caused so mueh evil in the earth. .
, "Midway betweeu Pa.radise and hell is seated
. Adam, the father of the human race, who smiles with
joy aB often aB the gates of Paradise are thrown open,
and the triumphant eries of the blessed are bome forth;
but weeps when: the gates of beU are unelosed, and the
sighs of the damned penetrate to his ear.
" In that night Mohamed beholds, besides Gabriel,
other angels, many of whom have seventy thousand
heOOs, eaoh head with seventy thousand faces, each
face with BOventy thousan(1 moutlls, and ench mOllth
with seventy tbollsand tongues, ench ofwhich praises
Allah in seventy thousand languages. He sees,. too,
the Angel of.Reconelliation, who is half half
ice: . the angel who watches with BCOWling visage'
and :flaming eyes the treasul'ies . of fire: the Angel of .
holding in hishn.nd a huge tablet
inscribcd with
numcs; of wbich 11e ofFnces hUJ1dl'cds cvery instant: .
the Angel who . keeps thc oods
and meo.sures O\lt .
with an immense balanee the waters o.ppointed unto i
every river and' every fountain; and him, :fhially,.
who supports the throne of Allah on his should11l .
and is'holding'a trumpetin his mouth, whoseblast
shall one the sleepers hom the grave.
" He is at last conducted through many oceans of
light, into the vicinity of the holy throne itselt, whieb
is so vost, that the rest of the universe appears by its
. iJide like ~ e scales of a. coat of armour in the bound-
less desert. . . .
rc That which &holl he reveoJed to him there," con-
tinued Samuel
"is os yet conceoJed from me; but
thi8 I know: He shoJl gaze on the glory of Allah at
the distance of a bow-shot; 8hoJi then descend to:
enrth by the ladder, n ~ return' on Borak to Meeca.
S mpidly as he came.
" To acComplish thi8 vost journey, including hi8
stay in Medino., ethlehem, Jerusalem, and in
heavon, he requires 80 little time, that a water-vase,
w hieb he overtums in rising from his couch, will not
have emptied its contents at bis return."
Tbe 088embled Isro.elites listened attentively to
Samue}, nnd wIten be had finisbed, they exclaimed
w i ~ one voice, "W e believe in Allah
and in ,bis
B 3
160 SAUL.
prophets which were and are to come; only 'pray
thnt He mny delivcr us from tho tymnny of Goliath.
: Samuel prayed, and fasted till at length Allah eent
an 'angel, wbo commanded him to go out of the
city, and to proclaim the :6rst man who mouId' meet
him king over Israel, sinoe in his reign the Israelites
should rogain their independonco from foreign bond-
" Samuel did as he was commanded, arid, met
Talut [Saul], the son of Bishr, the son of Ahnun,
'the son of Benjnmin, who was a husba.ndman of lofty
stature, but not otherwise remarkable, though Alla.h
bad put much wisdom into his heart.
, He was wandering about in search" of a' heiter
which bad broken away from her plough and run at
large. Samuel assisted him in her recovery, and then
took Saul home with him, anointed him with oil,
and presented him to the heads of Israel as their
king and divinely commissioned deliverer.
But they refused to accept as their king 80 common
peasant, who hitherto bad not distinguished him-
Belf in auy wiso; and they demanded 80 mirac1e.
, ":Allah," replied Samuel, "will, in token of bis
mtitying this kingly eleotion, rastore to you the ark
of tho covenant."
From that day the Philistin8s were visited with tho
most painful and disguBting leprosy, wh08e origin no
physioian could disoover, and which no physician
c o ~ d eure. But as the plague fell most heavily
on that city where the ark of the covenant, which bad
been carried in triumph from one place to another,
happened to be, no one would retain it any longer,
and it was at last lcft standing in a waggon in the
open field
.Allah then commanded two invisible angels to
carry it back into the midst of the camp of Israel,
who thereupon no longer hesitated to do fea1ty unto
&u1 as their king. .
AB soon as he was elected, Saul mustered the host
of Israel, and marched against the Phi1istines at the
head of seventy thousand men.
Dnring their mnrch through the wilderness, they
were one dn.y in want of water, so that a universaJ.
murmuring arose against Samuel and SauL Samuel,
who wns following Oltcr tho ark of tho covenant,
prayed to the Lord, and there sprung from out
the rocky ground a fountain of water, which was
as fresh as snow, as sweet as honey, and as white
as milk. &t when the soldiers came rushing to-
wards it, Samuel cried, "You have grievously sinned
agmnst your king and against your God by reason
of discontent and rebellion. . Forbear to touch this
water, that by abstmence you mayatone for your
Bin I"
But Samuel's words met with no regard. Only
three hundred and thirteen men,-as many as fought
in tho first engagement of the MUBBulmans against
the Infidels,-mastered their appetite, barely 1'0-
D "
162 DAVID.
freshing themselves, while a1l the rest of the army .
yielded to the temptation, and drank in fUU dmughts
from the fountain. .
when Talut beheldthis, he disbanded the whole
army, and, relying on the aid oE Allah, inarched
against the enemy" with the amall number of bis
men who bad conqucred their desire.
Among this little btmd were six sOns of 0. virtuous .
man whosenameo>VaB Isa. Do.vud [Do.vid];his seventh
son, bad remainecl o.t home to nurse hi aged f'ather.
But when for a o ~ time no engagement took
place betwecn Isrnel and the Philistines, since no
o ~ had ncceptcd the challenge to single combo.t
With Goliath, by which 0. general bo.ttle was to be
preceded, Isa sent also bis seventh son into the
camp, pa.rtly to ca.rry f'resh provisions to his brothers, .
and partly to bring him tidings oC their weltare.
OnohiS way he:heard 0. voice trom a pebble which
larin the midst of the :road, calling to him, "Lift
me up; Cor I am one oC the stories with which the
prophet Abraham drove Satan o.way when he would
h"'ve shaken his resolve to sacrifice bis son in obe-
dience to bis heavenly Vision." . 0
David placed the stone, which was oinscribed with
holy names, in the bag which he wore in bis uppel'
garment, for 110 was eimply drossod like a. tmvcUcr,
and not aB 0. soldier.
When he bad pi'ooeeded 0. little further, he again
heard 0. voice from another pebble crying: "Take me
with thee, for I &In the stone which the angel Gabriel
struck out from the ground with his foot, when he
caused a fountain to gush forth in the wilderness
for Ismll;el's
David took this stone also, o.nd lo.ying it beside the
6rst, went on his way. But soon hc heard the
following words from a third stone: "Lift
me up; for I sm the stone witb wbich J: acob fought
ngainst the angele wbicb bis, brother Esau sent
out against him."
David took this stone likewise, and continued bis
journey witbout interruption until he came to bis
brothers in the camp of Israel. On bis arrival
therej he heard how a herald proclaimed, "Whoever
puts the giant Goliath to death shnll becoine Saul's
8on-in-lo.w, and sueoeed hereafter bis throne. ".
Do.vid sought to bis brothers to venture
the combat with Goliath, not to beeome the king'i
son-in-law and suooessor, but to wipe off the reproach
that rested on their people.
But since courage and oonfidence falled them, he
went to So.ul, and ofFered to aOOept tbe giant's chal ..
lenge. Tho king had but littlo bopos indeed. that "
tender youtb, BU!)h as Do.vid then was, would defeat a
warrior like yet he permitted the combat
to take place, fOI'i'te believed that even if he should
fall, bis reproachful example would excite some othera
to imitate bis heroie conduct.
On tbc following mOl'ning, when Goliath, BI usuoJ,
D .5
challenged with proud speech the wamors 01 IsmeJ,
David, in bis tmvelling appo.re1, and with his bog
containing the three stones, stepped down into the
arena. Goliath la.nghed alond on 'seeing his youthful
a n t a g o ~ t and said to him, "Rather bie thee hOlDe
to play with lads of thine own . How wilt thou
fight 'with me, seeing t1mt thou a.rt even nnarmed? "
David replied, " Thou art as a dog unto me, whom
one may best drive away with a stone;" and before
Goliath was yet able todraw bis BWord from its scaJ>.
bard, he took the three stones from hisbag, pierced
the gio.nt with one 01 them, so that be inBtantly fell.
lifeless on tbe gronnd, and drove with the second tbe
right wing of the Phi1istines into ight, and their left
wing with tbe third.
But Sanl was jealou8 of 'David, whom all Israel
extolled as their greatest hero, and refused to give
him. hisdaughter, until he brougbt the beada of a
bundred giant8 as the mamage gifte But the greater
David'8 achievements were, the more rancorous grew
the envy of Saul, 80 that be even sought treacheronaly
to slay him. David defeated oll his plans; bot
be never revenged himae1f, and Sanl's hatred waxed
greater by reason of this very magnanimity.
One day be . viaited bis daughter in David's
absence, and threatened to put her to death, unlC88
she gave him a promise, and confirmed it by them08t
sacred oath8, that she would deliver her husband
unto him during the night.
When tbe latter returned bome, bis wife met him
in alarm, and reIated what bad happened between ber
and her father. David said to her, "Be faithful to tby
Otb, nnd open the door of my chamber to thy father
BS 800n ns I shall bo nslecp. .Allah will protect
even in my sleep, and give me tbe means of render-
ing Saul's sword harmless, even ns Abraham's weapon
was impotent against Ismael, who yielded bis neck
to the slaughter.
He then went into bis forge, and prepared a coat
of mail, which covered the whole upper part of bis
body from bis neck downwards. This coat was as fine
as a hair, and, clinging to bim like silk, resisted
every kind of weapon; for David bad been endowed,
as a special favour from Allah, with the power of
iron without fire, and of fashioning it like wax
for every conceivable purpose, with no instrument
but bis hand.
To him we are indebted for the ringed coat of
mail, for up to bis time armour consisted of simple
iron pIate&.
. David WBS wrapt in . the most peaceful slumber,
when Saul, guidcd by bis daughter, entered his
chamber; and it was not until his father-in-law hag-
gled the impenetrable mall with bis sword as with a
saw, bearing on it with all bis strength, that David
. awoke, tore the sword from bis band, and broke it in
pieces, 8 if it had been a morsel of bread.
But after tbis occurrcnce, he thought it uo longer
D 6
advisable to tany with SauI, and thcrefore reured
to the mountains, with a few of bis friends nd' ad-
herents. . Saul made use of this pretext tO have him
suspected of the peopIe, and at last, accusing him of
treason, marched against him at the head of one thou"'!
sand soldien. But David was so endeared to the in ..
habitlUlts of the mountain, and knew its hiding.pIaces
so weIl, that it was imp088ible for SanI to take hirn.
One night, while Saul was asleep, David 1eft a Cave
which was quite near to the king's encampmCint; and
t ~ the signet ring from bis finger,tOgether with his
anns and 0. standard wbich were lying by bis side. He
then' retreated through the cave, wbich had a double
entrance, and the next morning appeared on the
pinnacleof 0. mountain which the
camp' of the Israelites, having girt on Saul's huge
sword, . and waving bis standard. up imd down, and
stretching out his finger on wbich he had plaeed the
king's ring.
Saul, who could not understand how 0. thief could
have penetrated into the midst of his well-guarded
camp, reeognised David and the artieles which. had
been taken from bim. This new proof of bis.dex-
terity and magnanimous disposition overcame at last
tho king's envy and displeasure; he therefore dis-.
patched a messonger, w.ho in tM royal name beggcd
forgiveness for all the gt-ievances he bad inicted,
and invited David to return to his home.
David was overjoyed at 0. reconciliation withbis
lather-in-Iaw, and they iJow lived together . in peace'
and harmony until Saul was slain, in a dieastrotis en,.'
ga.gement with the Philistines.
After &ul's dcath, David waa unanimoualy eleoted
king of Israel, and by the hclp of Allah, he aoon *
conquered the Philistines, and extended the" bouri'll;
aries of his kingdom far and wide. ' : .
But DavidwaB not only a bravewa.rnor and a
wiae k i n ~ but likewiae a greo.t prophet. Allah re-
veo.1ed to 'hiui aeventy paalms, and endowed him with
a voice such as no mortol poB8eBBed before him. . h:
height and depth, in power and melody combined, no
human voiee ~ ever equalled it., He could imitate
the thundera of heaven and the roar of, the lion, ai
well aB the deliciousriotes of the nightingale; nor .waa
there any other musician or singer in Israel as long as
David lived, because no one who bad once heard him
could pleaaure in any other performance. Every
third day he prayed with the congregation, and sung
the psalms iil a chapel which was hewn out of the
mountain-rocks. Then not only oll men aisembled
to haar bim, but even beo.sts and birds came from afar;
nttmcted by his wondeii'ul song.
, One day, aB he waS on his return from prayer, he
heard two of bis subjects contending, which of the
two WaB the greater prophet, Abraham or himaelf.
" WaB not Abraham," said the one, "saved from the
buming pilo ?" "Haa not David," rcplied the other,
"swn the giant Djolut?" "But what ho.s David
acbieved," resumed the rst, "that might be com-
pared with Abraham's readineaa to aacrifice his
son? "
. AB soon as David came home, })e fell down helore
Allah and prayed:" Lord, who hast proved on the
pile, Abraham's fidelity and obedience, grant nnto
me too an opportunity to show nnto my people that
my love to thee withstnnds every temptntion."
David' prayer was heard: when three days alter-
wards he a8cended bis pu1pit, he perceived 80 birdof such
beautiful plumageJ. that it attracted his whole atten-
tion, and he followed it with bis eyes to every corner
of the' chapel, and to the trees and shrubs beyond.
He sung fewer psalms than he was wont to do; his
voice failed him as often as he lost sight of this
gracefu1 bird, and grew soft and playfu1 in the most
solemn parts of the worship whenever it re-appeared.
At the close of the prayers, wbich, to the astoniah-
ment of the who1e assemb1y, were concluded on tbis
occasion several hours sooner than usual, hefollowed
the bird,. wbich ftew from tree to tree, nntil he
fonnd himse1f, at sunset, on the margin of 80 litt1e
lake. The bird disappeared in the lake; but David
soon forgot it, for in its stead there rose up a femaJe
form, whose beauty dazz1ed him like the clearest mid-
day sun. He inquired her name: it was Snja, tho
daughter of J osu, the wife of U ria.h Ibn Haman,
who was with the army. David departed, and on bis
return commanded the chief of bis troops to appoint
U ria.h to the most dangerous post in the van-guard of
the army. His command was executed,and soon
afterwards the death of U ria.h was reported. . David
then wooed bis widow, and married her at the upira-
tion of the prescribed time.
On the day after bis marriage, there appeared, at
Allah's command, Gabriel and Michael in human
form before David, and Gabriel said -" The man
whom thou seest here befote thee. is the.owner of
ninety-nine sbeep, while I po88e88 an only one; never-
theless he pursues me withQut ceasing, and demands
that I should give up my only sheep to him."
" Thy demand is unreasonable," said David, "and
betmys an unbelieving haart, and a rude disposition.
But Gabriel interrupted him, saying, "Many a
noble and accomplished 6eliever permits himself more
unjust things than this.
David nowperceived this to beau allusion to bis con-
duct towards U riah; and filled with wrath, he grasped
bis sword-, and would have plunged it into Gabriel,
The Scripturea teach that David acknowledged hia Bin on
Natban'a rcproof. The wbole narrative ia 80 beaut.iful, that we
aubjoin it, D8 given in 2 Sam.:I.. 1-8, 18. .
And the Lord aent Nathan unto David. And he came unto
him, and aaid unto him, There were two men in one city; th.
one rieb, and the other poor. The rieb _. had exceeding
many ocks and herde: But the poor _ bad nothing, aave
one little ewe lamb, whieb he had bought and nouriahed up:
ud it grcw up together with him, ud with hiB children; it did
eat of hie own meat, ud drank of hia own cup, ud lay in hia
, ..
but Michael gavea loud la.ugh of BOOm, a.nd when
Ga.briel and hima81t ho.d asoonded above Da.vid'a hend
on their imge18' wings, he aaid to David, rc Thou hast
pronounced thine own aentence, and called thy act
tha.t of a barbarous infidel: Allah will therefore be-
stow upon thy Bon a portion of the power which he
had originally intended for thee. Thy gullt ia 80 much
the greater,since thou that thou mighteat be
led into temptation without having the power of
resisting it." . ,
. At theSe words the angels vanishedthrough the'
ceiling; but David felt.tbe whole burden of bis ain.
He tore the crown from his head, and the royal purple
from his bOdy, a.nd wa.ndered through the wildemese
wrapt in simple woollen garments, and pining with
remone, weeping 80 bitterly, that his skin fell froni
b08Om, . nd wai un10 him 81 a daughter. And there came a
traveller un10 the rieh man, and he apared 10 take othia own
lIoolt and ot his own herd, 10 dreaa tor the wayfaring man that
wu come un10 him; but took the poor man's lamb, and dreaaed
It tor the man that was come 10 him. And David'a anger wu
greatly klndled agaiDat tbo man; and he said 10 N athan, A,
the Lord liveth, theman that hath done thia tltiJlf! shall aurely
die; And he &hall rea10re lamb tourtold, because he did
this thing, and becauae he had po pity. And Nathan aaid 10
David, Thon art the man. 'l'hua aaith the Lord God ot Israel,
I anolnted thee king over Israel and I delivered thee out of the
IIILnd of Saul; And I gava tbee tby master'a houae, aDlI tby
muter'. wlvea into thy boaom, and gave thee the houae of
Israel and of Judah; and if 11IaI lur.d befR too little, I would
moreover have given unto thee auch and auch things.
"And David .aid unto N athan, I lIave sinned againat the
his face, and that the angels in heaven bad oompassion
on him, and implored . for him the mercy of Allah .
But it was not until he bad spent three full yeUs "in
ponitcnce an<! oontrition, that he heard 0. voice from
heo.ven, whlch announced to hlm that tbe .A.ll-compas-
monate .Allah bad at length opened the gate of
mercy. ' Pacified and strengthened by these words of
oonsola.tion, David soon reoovered bis physical powere
and bis blooining appeamnce; so that on bis return to :
Palestine no one o.bserved in him tbe sligbtest change;
But during' the king's long absence many of the
rabble, whom be bad banished, gatbered round his
80n Absalom, and made hiJn king over He
was therefore oompelled, as Absalom would not
renounce the throne, to make war against bim. But
no engagement took place, for wben the prince was '
about to join bis forces, Allah commanded the Angel
of Death to take' himfrom bis borae and bang bim
on a trae by' bis long bm, that to all future time
rebellious sons migbt take warning by bis fate. Ab- :
wom remained banging there until one of David's
cbieftains passcd by and alew bim witb the
nut altbough David 800n to be cstoemed and
beloved by hili people as before, yet, mindful of what
bad taken place with tbe two angels, he ventured not
agam to e.xecute judgment. He bad already nomi-
nated a ko.dhi, wbo was to adjust in' bis stead, all
l1iSJ.lutcs timt migbt ariso, when tho angel Gabriel
brought bim an iron tube with a',bcll, and said:--
u .Allah has bebeId thy diffidence with pleasure, and
therorore sends tboo. this tubo ud bell, by moans of
which it will be easy thee to maintain the law in
Israel,. and never to pronounce an unjust sentence.
Suspend this tube in thy hall of judgment, and bang
. the; bell in the midst tbereof: place tbe accuser on
one aide of it, nnd tbe accuscd on the other, and olways
pronounce judgment in mvour of him, who on touch-
ing the tube elicits asound from the bell. David
was greatly delighted at this gift, by means of which
be who was in the right was sure to triumph: s that
800n no one dared to commit any injustice, since he
was certain to be detecte<l by the bell.
One day, however, thero two men beroro tho
judgment-seat, one of whom maintained that he bad
given a pea.rl into the keeping of tOO other, who now
refused to restore it. Tbe defendant on the other band
swore that he had olready given it back. AB usuaJ,
David compe11ed both, one after the other, to
touch the tube; but the bell uttered no sound, so that
he did not know which of the two spoke truth, aud
was inclined to doubt the further virtue of the bell.
But when he bad repeatedly directed both to touch
the he observed . tbat as orten as the accused
was to pass the ordeal, he gave bis sta.iF to be
holden by his DQ.vid now took tho stafF
in bis own band, lind sent the nooused once more
to touch the tube, when instantly the bell began
. to ring aloud. David then ca.used tbe sta.ft' to
be inspected, and bebold it was bollow, and tbe
pearl in question was concealed within it. . But on
a.ccount oE bis thus doubting tbe value oE the tube
which Allah had. {liven hirn, it wns again re-
moved to heaven: 80 that David frequently erred in
bis decisions, until Solornon, whom his wife &ja,
the daughter oE J osu, had. borne bim, . mded him
with bis counseL In bim David placed implicit
confidence, and was guided by him in the most diffi.-
cult questions, for he had heard. in the night of bis
birth the angel Gabriel exclaim - ce Satan's domi-
nion is drawing to its close, for tbis night a child is
born, to wbom Iblis and all bis hosts, together with
all bis descendants &hall be subject. The earth, air, and
water, with all the creatures that live therein, &hall
be bis servants : he shall bo gifted with nine-tenths
of all the wisdom and knowledge which Allah has
gmnted unto ma.nkind, and understand not only all
tbe languages of men, but tbose also of beasts and of
One day-Solomon was tben scarcely thirteenyears
of age-thera nppeared two men before tbe tribunal,
the novclty oE Wh08Q caso cxeitcd the utonishment
of all present, and even greatly confounded David.
Tbe accuser ho.d bought some property of the other,
and in clearing out a cellar, bad found a treasnre.
He now demanded that the accused should give up
the trcasurc, &ince ho bad bought tho propeny with-
out it: while the other maintained that the accuser
pssessed no right to the' treasure, since he 'had
known nothing olit, o.rid had sold the proportywith nJI
that it oontained.' .After long meditation, David
judged that ,the treasure: sho'uld be. divided between
them.: . But. Solomon inqUired 01 the a.ccuser whether
h, bad .. son, II.nd when he replied that he had a son,
he inquired oE the. othor iE he bad 0. daughter, and ho
also answering in the o.ffi.nnative, Solomon snid, "If
you.will adjust your sO as not to do injustice the unite your children in marriage,
aild give thein this trea8ureas their dowry."
On another occasion, there came a husbandman and
oocused 0. sbepherd wbose flock had pastUred on the
gmin oE his field. Do.vid sentenoed the shepherd to
give part of his Hock in restitution to the husband-
milD; but Solomon disapproved oE this judgment,
and said. "Let tbe shepherd give up to the husband-
rimn the. use of. his flock,' their work, their milk.
n.nd their young ones. Q.ntil the Geld sha1l be restored
to tbe condition in which it WII.8 o.t the time of the
flock's breo.king in. wben the sheep shaIl onoe more
retum'to their owner."
David.'.however, one day observed tbo.t the high
tribuilnJ over which' he presidod beheId with dis-
pleo.suro tho interference 01 Sololl1on in their trons-
I\Otions, altbough tboy wore obliged to confcsstlll\t
his views were always better than their own. Tbe
king therefore demanded oE thEim to examine Solomon
in thefo.ce oE all the greatand noblemen of hiskingdom,
: ,
in all te doctrines and laws of M08es. '. "If .you have
satisfied yourselves," he added, "that my son knows
. these perfectly, and consequently never pronounces
0.11 uujust judglllent, you must not slight him by
reason of his youth, if bis views regarding the appli-
cation of the law often difFer {rom mine and yours.
AllahbestOws wisdom on wholllsoover he pleaseth."
. The lawyers were, indeed; 'or
erudition;' neverthelessj hoping to confound him by
all manner of subtle questions, and thus to increase
their own importance, theyaccepted David's proposal,
and made arrangements for a publio examination.
But their expectations were disappointed; tor Wore
the last word of any question put. to . Solomon was' yet
pronouneed, he bad already given !J,striking answer, 80
thnt al1 prescnt firmly bolioved tImt tho w holo matter
bad been ruTIUlged beforehand with hisjudges, and
this cmmination was institutcd by David mcrcly to re-
commend Solomonas his worthy successorto the throne.
But Solomon at onee effaced this suspicion when 'at
the close of this examination he &rose, and said to bis
judges, "Y ou have exhausted yourse1ves in subtleties
in tho hope of manifesting your superiority over me
before this great assembly; permit me now, also, to
put to you a few very simple questions, the solution
of wbich. needs no ruanner or- study, but only a liitle
inte11ect and understanding. Tell me what is Every-
thing, and what is Nothing. Who is Something, and
who is less thau Nothing." . Solomon long;
and when the judge whom he bad addressed was not
Ablo to answer, 110 said, " Allab, tbo Crca.tor, is
thing, but the world, the oreature, is N othing. Tbe
believer is Something, but the hypoeriie is 'lees than
N othing." Tuming to another, Solomon inquired,
"Whieh are the most in number, and which the
fowcst? What ia swcetcst, rmd what most bitter?" but
as the aecond judge also was unable to fiud a pl'Opor
Bnswer to these questions, Solomon said, "Tbe most
numerous are the doubters, Bnd they who possess a
perfeet assuranee of faith are the fewest in number.
The sweetest is the pOBBeBBion oC B virtuous wife,
cellent ehildren, and a respeemble competeney; but a
wioked wife, undutiCul children, and poverty are the
most bitter." Finally, Solomon put the
tions to a third judge. H 'VVhleh is the vilest. and wleh
the . most beautiful? What the most certain, and
what. the least so?". But these questions also
remained unanswered, until Solomon said, "Tbe
vilest thing is when a believer apostatises, and the most
beautiCul when a sinner repents. The most certain
thing iiJ Death and the Last J udgment, and the most
uncertain, Life Bnd the Fate of the Soul after tlie
resurrootion. "Y ou perooive," he then continued, "it
ia not tbe oldcst rmd most learned that Me alWBYS
the wiest. True wisdom is neithcr of years nor of
learned books, but only of Allah, the
Solomon excited by his :words the greatest astonish-
ment in 0.11 tbat wero present; and tbe heads oC tbe
people . exclaimed with one voice, ce Blessed be the
Lord, who has given to our king a son who in
wisdom sUrpaBSes all the men of bis time, and who
is wortby ono day to sit on the throne of his father I "
David, in Iike manner, tbanked Allah ror the gmoe
wbich he had shown to him in Solomon, nnd now only
desired, berore bis dooth, to meet with bis future
companion in Paradise.
ce Thy request is gnmted I" cried a fl'()m
hooven j rr but thou must go and seek him alone; and,
in order to reach bis presence, thou must renounce
thy earthly pomp, and wander OB a poor pilgrim
through the world."
The next day David nominated Solomon as his ...
presentative, laid aside bis royal robes, wrapped
solf round with a simplo woollcn garment, put on hia
sandals, took a staft' in bis hand, and left bis palaoe.
He now wandered from city to city, and from village
to vi11age, inquiring every where Cor such of the in-
habitants OB were most distinguisbed ror piety, and,
endoovouring to make their acquaintance; but for
many wceka he found no one whom he had reason to
coDsidcl' 88 bis dcstinod oompanion in the lifo to come.
One day, on reaching a village on the shores of the
Mediterranean ocean, there arnved at tbe same time
with bim a poorly clad aged nian, wbo was ca.r-
rying a hoovy burden of wood on bis head. Tbe
appearanoo of tbe hoary man was 80 venerable, that
David followed hlm, to see where he Iived. But he
. entered into no house at all, amd sold hia woocl to a.
morchant who stood at tho door of his wn.rchou&O,
then a poor man who begged him for a1ms
tlie half 01 the little money which .he bad. earned,
bought with the rast a smallloaf of bread, of which
also he gave a large portion to a blind woman, who
implorcd tho compnssion of tho faithful, and thon
retumed on his way to the mountain from whence he
bad oome. "Thia mari," thought David,." might weIl
be . my companion in Paradise; for his venerable
appearance and his actions which I have just wit-
nessed, testify to a rare piety. I ml;lst. therefore
seek to become better acquainted with him." He
then followed the aged man o.t some diistance, until,
after a march of several hours over steep mountains,
erossed by deep ravines, the 13tter entered into a cave,
which admitted the light of heaven through a crevice
of the rock. David remained standing at the en-
trance of the cava, and hoord how tha harinit prafcd
fervently, and then re8d the law and the psalm&,
until the SUD had set. He then lit a lnmp, and pro-
noUDced the evening prayer, drew from hia. bag
the bread which he bad bought, and consumed about
half thereof.
David, who had hitherto not ventured to disturb
the man in hisde"otions, now steppcd into tbo cavo,
and greeted him.
"Who art thou?" said the other, after having
retumed the salutation; "for, save the GOD-fearing
Matalbn"JUhaDna, king David's' future Cottlpanion
in Paradise, I never saw uy human being in these
regions." ..
David gavc his name, and bcggcd for further par-
ticularsrespecting Mata. .
But the hermit replied, "I am not permitted t
point out to thee his dwelling; but tbou searchest
this mountain withattention, it cannot escape thee.'?
David now wandered up and .down for a long
without fincfuig any traces of Mata. He was on the
point of returning to the hermit, in hopesof obtain-
ing hetter direetionB, on :an emineooe, in the
midst of tbe rocky gllOund, he discovered a apot
wbicb was quite moist and soft. ce How singular,"
thougbt be, cethatjust bare, on tbis
tain, tbo ground should tlw8 be moistenedl' Surely
there can be no fountain here I " While he was thUB
standing absorbed in thought respeeting thls
able pbenomenon, theredescended' on the other side
of tbe mountain a man who was more like an angel
than a humanbeing; bis looks were cast down to the
earth, so that he did not observe David; but on the
moistcned spot he stood still, and pmyed with such
fe"ency that bis tears gushed likestreams from bis
ayes. David now understood how it came to pass
that the earth was 150 soaked, and thougbt-
man wbo thus worsbips bis God may well bo my
colllptUlion in Po.mdiso." nut he presumed not to
addreSB him till he hcard how, among other things,
'170 EAm 01' D VID.
he prayed, "My'God,pardonthe sin ofking David,
and presene him f'rom further transgression I Be
merciful to him tor my sake, sinoe thou hast dei-
tined nie to be' his companion in Para.dise."
David now want towards him, but on reaching bis
presence, he was dead.
, He dug up the soft ea.rth with bis stafF, wuhed
him . with the water that remained in his bottle,
buried him, and pronounced over' him the pmyer 01
aeath. He then returned to bis capital, ud lound in
bis harem the Angel 01 Death; who received him with
the words, " Allah hBS granted unto thee thy request,
but now thy life is ended. "
Je God's will be done!" replied David, ud fell
lifeless to the earth.
. Gabriel then descended' to comfort Solomon, and
to bring him a heavenly robe, in wbich he was to wrap
bis father. All Israel followed bis remains to the
entrmice 01 the cave where Abraham lies buried.,
AF'l'EB Solomon had paid the last honours' to his
fBtber, ha was resting in a valley, between Hebron
and Jeruaalem, when suddenly' he s\yooned .. a.way.
On reviving there appeared to himeight angels, each
of whom had immeasurable wings of every colour
and . form, and thrice they bowed down to him.
ce Who are you ?" demanded Solomon, while:his eyeat
were yet ha,lfcl..osed. They replied, ceW e are: tbe
angele set ovar the eight winds. Allah,ourCreator
'and thine, sends us to swear fealty, and to surrender
to thee. t ~ e power .over us and the eight winds whicb
are at our command. Aceording to thy pleasure and
designs they shall either be tempestuoU8 or gentle,
and . ehall blow from that quarter to which . thou
. h l ~ turn thy back; and at thy demand they ahall
rise' out of the earthto bear thee up, and to raise
thee above the loftiest mountains." The most exaJ.ted
of the eight angela then presented to him a jewel with
this . inseriptiOD: .. U To Allah belong greatness and
might :" and said, ce Ir thou hast need of us, raise
this atona towards hcaven, and we shallappear' to
serve thee." AB 800n as these angela bad 10ft hiw-J
I 2
there eame, four others, dift'ering from each other Ur
form n.nd name. One of them resembled an immense
whale; the other, an eagle; the third, 0. lion j and the-
fourth, 0. serpent. "W e are the lords of all creatura.
living in earth and water, "they:said, bowing profoundly
to Solomon, "and- appear betore thee at the command
of our Lord to do faalty unto t h ~ Disposo of us at
thy pleasure. W c grant to thee 'and to thy' frlends all
tbe good and pleasant things with which the' CreatOr
has endowed us, but use all the nonous that is in our
power against thy foes." ,Tbe angel who represented
the kingdom of birds then gave him ,0. jewcl with the
inscrlption "All crea.ted things pralse thc Lord;" and
said, "by virtue of this stone, which thou needest
onIy to raise above thy head, thou mayest call 11S at
any moment, and impart to 'Us thy commands. 'Solo:-
Mon did 80 instantly, and commanded them to bring
a. pair of every kind of anima! that live in the water,
the earth, and the air, and to present them to h i m ~
Tbc angele departed quick as lightning, and in thc
twinkling of an eye there were standing before him
every imaginable creature, from the la.rgest. eIephant
downto thc stnallest 'worm; also all kinds 'of fiBh
Rnd birds. Solomon oo.used of them to describe
its wholo mlmnor of lifo - ho listened to their coml.
plaints, and o.bolished many of theh: abuses. But
he conversed longest with tbe birds, both on account
of their delicious language, which he knew as weIl
as bis own, as also for thc beautiful proverbs that
ai'e eurrent among them. 'The 8Qng of the peaoock,
translated into human, means, "AB thou
judgest, 80 shalt thou be judged." The song of the
nightingalo signi1i.cs, "Contentmcnt is the groatest
ho.ppiness. " The turtle-dove singe, "It ware better
for many-a ereature had it never been hom." 'The
hoopo, ce Re that shows no merey shall not obtain
mercy." The bird syrdak, ce Turn to .Allah, 0 yesin-
ners." The swallow:J ce De good, for you shall ,he
rew-arded' hereafter." The' peliCan, "Blessed be
Allah in heaven' and earth :1 " 'Xhe do-ve, ce.Al1
things pass away: Allah None Tbc
kata, Whosoever can keep silence goes through life
mostsoourely." The eagle, .ce Let our life be ever 80
long, yet it must end in death." The raven, {C The
furtbor from mankind the pleosnnior." The cook,
ce Ye thoughtless men, remember your Creator." .
Solomon ehose thecook and the hoopo for his oon-
staut attendants. Tbe one, on aooount of bis moni-
tory sentence, and the othar, inasmuch as his eyes,
piereing as they' do through the earth as if it were
erystal, enabled him during the travee of tho JdDg to
point out tho plaoos whare fountains of water wero
hid, '80 that water nevel' failed Solomon, either to
queneh bis thirst, or to perform the prescribed ablu-
tions before prayer. But after baving stroked the
heads of the doves, he commanded them to appoint
unto theil' young the temple whieh he was ahout to
erect, as their habitation. (This pigeon pair had, in
I 3
17.-' TlDIl. EXTEN'R'. 01" SOLOKOJl'S DOJrIIlOON';.
the COUl'8e' oe a few years, increased 80 much, through:
bleased touch, that al1 who. viaited the teDr.
pIe. walked. from the, remoteat quarter of the city
of their wings.).
When &lomon was again alone, there appeared an.
whose upper part looked like earth,. and whose.
l()wer like. wnter. Ho down. towards tho ..
earth, anc1sald, "I am created by Allah to manifl!lt his.
will both to- the dry land and to the _; but he baa
P1.ace4 me at thy disposal,.and thou.mayest
through .me, over earth and aea: thy will the
l}ighest shalt disappear, an,d others rise
Qut. the ground;. rivers and seas. ahall dry up,
and fmitful countries be turned iBtO seDS or oceans."
. .
He.. then to him before he vanished a jewel,.
with. the. inscription, and euth are the ser-
vantB of Allah." .
Finally;. another angel bro1:lght to. him. a fourth
jewel,. bore the inscription, "There is no GOD
but. one, and Mohamed is bis "By
of this stone," sald the angel, . "thon
the dominion over the kingdom of spirits,. which ja
greatr: of man and beasts, and :6Ils
up the whole space between the earth and heaven.,
Part of these spirits," continued the angel, "believe
in the only GOD,. and pmy to him; but otbers. are
unbelitWing. Some adore the :&.re; others. the sun;
othera again. the different stars; and many even. the
water.. The:&.rst continually hover round th
, ..
to. preserve. them from every evil sjn;
tbe. latter. seek in every. pBBible. manuer to
o.nd to. aeduce them, which they do the mOle. eaaiIi
themselvea invisible, or aaaume Bi!lY
form they pleaae. Solomon desired in see the gell
in. their. original. form. The augel rushed llke ...
oolUmD. of :6re through the air, and 800n returned with
0. host of demona and genii; whose
ance :6lled Solomon, spite of bis. dominion' them,
aninward shudder. He hacl bad n8 idea that
ware such miBBhapen o.nd frightful beings in the
He aaw. human on necks of honea, with
aases' feet; the winga. of on. the. droQledary.'s
back; and the horns. of the gazelle on the head.of the
peacock. at thia singular
the. angel. to oxplain it 19 him, sinco Djan, {roIn whom
all t11e. gen. were bad only a simple
" This. is the oonsequence," replied the. ange1, "-.of
their wicked lives and iDtereourse with
men, beasta, o.nd birda: for. their. deairea know no
bounda, and the more they multiply tbe mOre
When 'Solomon returned bome, he commanded the
four jewe1s wbich the angels had given him to be
set in a signet ring, in order that b8. might be, ... ble
at any to rule over spirits a.nd .l!oJlimals,
and over wind and water. His first -care to. sub:-
due the domoDs and gen. He ca.used them all to
.come before bim, aave tbe mighty Sachr, who kept
I ,
him8elf coneealed in an unknOWn. island of the o c e n ~
and !blis, the master of all evll spirits, to whom God
Jaad prorpised the most perfect independenee till the
day of, judgment. When they were assembled, be
.tamped bis signet ring on each of their :necke, to
mark ,tbem as bis slaves. " He ob1iged the male
genii to erect various public buildings; omong others,
also a temple after the plan of that at Mecca, which
he had onee seen during bis travels to Arabia. Tbe
female gen he obliged to cOok, to hake, to wash, 't;o.
,weave, to spin, to cany' water, and to perf'orm other
domestic labours. Thestuft's they produced, Solomon
diatributed among the poor'; ancJIthe food which the,
prepared, was placcd on tables of two leagae& square,
for the daily consumption amounted to thirty thousand
oxen, and as many sheep, with a great WlIlber of
fowls,and fish,of wmch he could obtain uma1iy'as
',he' chose' by Viriue of bis ring, notwithstanding bis
remoteneBB from the o c n ~ Tbe genii and demons
sat at iron tables, the poor at tables of wood, thc chiefs
of the people ond of the al'my at tables of silver;
but the leamed and eminently pious at golden ones,
and tbe latter were waited on by Solomon bimselr.
, One day, when .u the spirits, men, bensts, and
birds, badriscn, satis1ied, from their VarioU8 tables,
Solomon prayed to .Allah that he might permit him
to entertain all tbe creatures of the earth.
~ Thon demandest an unpoBBibility,*replied Allah;
,Ie, but make a beginning to-morrow with the inbabit"
ants of the seL"
Solomon; thereupon, commanded the gen io load
with corn one hundred thousand camels, and aa'OOy
mules, aud to 100 them to the sea-shore. He himselt
followcd and cried, f' Come hithar, ye inhabitants 01
the sea, that I may eatisfy your hunger." Theil came
all kineJs of fish to the surf'ace of the SeB. Solomon
llung corn unto them, till they were eatisfied, and
dived down again. On a sudden, a whale protruded bis
hood, rcsombling 0. mighty mountain. Solomon made
his llyiDg spirits to pour one sack 01 corn . after the
other into its jaws; but it continued its demand tor
more, until not a single was left. Then it
bellowed .aloud, "Feed Me, Solomon, lor 1 ,never
suffered 80 much from hunger aa ~ y .
Solomon inquired 01 it - ce Whether there were
more fish 01 the kind in the sea?"
: ~ There are 01 my species alone," replied the whale,
"Beventy thoueand kinds, the least 01 which is 80
!arge, that thou wouldst appea.r in its body like a 01 sand in the wilderness."
, Solomon threw himself' on the gJ:Ound, and ,'began,
10 weep, and besought the Lord 10 pardon bis, sense-
less demo.nd.
, "My kingdom," cried Allah 10 him, "is still
greater tha.n thine: arise, and bebold 'but one 01 th08e
creatures whose rule I cannot confide 10 ma.n."' ,
. Then the sea began 10 rage and 10 storm, aa all
tho oight winds had set it in motion o.t onco; and
there rose up 0., 80 hnge, that it could
I 5
eaaily have swallowed aeventy thousand llke tl18 :rat.
whiob Solomon WI\8 not able. to satiaf'y. IU1d. oried
with a. .voice like the most terrible thunder - "Praised
be Allah, who alone has the power to ave me from.
ata.rva.tion1 "
.. Wlien. SoIomon Was returning to J eruaalem.
lte hcn.rd BUch a noise, proceeding from tho
oe the. genii who were oooupied with the
huilding ofthe.temple, that the inhabitants of Jeru-.
aalem were no longer ahle to oonveme with eaoh
other. He .therefore oommanded the spirits to Bua-
pend :their Iabeurs, and inquired whether none.
o! them. was aoquainted with a means by which the.
MOUS metals might be wrought without producing.
such a cla.mour. Then there stepped out one from
among them, and .n This is known only to the
mighty Sachr; but he bas hitherto. suooeeded in
escaping {reIn thr dominion."
"Is, thon, this Sachr utterly inaccetsible?"
quired Solomon.
Cf. Sachr," replied: tho genius, "is stronger. than al1
ef 11& .put together, and ja as much our superior in
.-ewiftness as in power. Still, I know that he. drinks.
lrom .. fountain in the provinceof Hidjr onoe every
Perhaps thou . mayest :succeed, 0. wise.
king I to aubdue him there to thy. sceptre." .
Solomon oommanded. forthwit4 a. division of bis
8Wift.;ying genii to empty the fOU;1ltain, and fiU it
with intoxicating liquor. Some. of them he then
ordered to lipger in its viclnity, until they should see,
Sachr approaching, and then instantly to retum and
bring. bim word. A few weeka afterwarda, when
Solomon W8 stanwog on tho 'tormco 01 his palnce, ho,
boheld a geniua ying from the direction 01 Hidjr
swifte:r than the wind. Tbe 'king mquired of 'him if
he .brought news "l'e8pectingSachl'o
ce Sachr is lying overcome with wine at the brink
er the fountain," replied the 'genius, "and we haye
bound him with chaineas massive as the pillars of
thy temple ;but . he will burst them as the
hair of a virgin when he has slept off hii wine."
Solomon then mounted hastily the winged geniue,
and in le88 than an hour was home to the fountain.. It,
was high time, for Sachr had already'opened bis eyea
agam i but his hands ud feet were still chained, 80
tbat Solomon set the eignet on bis neck without any
hindrance. Sachr uttered such a ery of woe that the
wholo earth quaked; but Solomon said to him, "Fear
not, mighty genius I I will restore thee to liberty 8
soon as thou shalt indicate the means whereby l may
work the hardest metals without noise."
ce I myself know 01 no suob," replicd "but
the .raven willbest be able to adTise .thee. Take only
the egge. from a raven's nest, and cover them with a
erysta! bowl, and thou shalt see hGW the mother-bird
shall' euHt througb." .
. Solomon followed SaChr's advice. A raven carne
and ew about the bowl; but finding that sbe could.
I 6
not get tO tho egge, sbe flew away, aila afew
bouraaf'terwards re-appeared with a stone in"her
beak,' Qalled Samur;' which. had no sooner touched
the bowl than it fell in',two haIves.:
';,"f :Wb.ence hast thou ,tbis stone?" inquired Solo-
mon' ofthe raven..
"From a mountain in tho disto.nt west," replied
theraven. ..
. : .:SOloolOn ,then oommanded, some of the genii to
follow, the'ravento the' mountain, and to prooure
more of tbes,e stones. 'But Sacbr :heset,
according . to: bis ,promise. Whenthe chains ware
tRokan {rom him, he sbouted with exultation; but bis
joy sounded in Solomori'iI ear' like the laughter' of
scom.' Assoon RB t}ieapiritsretumed with the So.-
mur'stones, he caused himseli to be to,
JeruSalem by ODe of.m, ahd divided the stones
among' t'he genii, w'ho oould now continue their la-
boura without mnking the slightest noise;
'Solomon then constructed a palace for 'himself,
with a p.ri>fusion of gold, sver; and precious stones,
tho like ot wmch no king Ilad ever possessed before
him. Mny , of its halls had, crystal flOors and ceU-
iJW!, and he, erected a throne of sandal-wood covered
with gold and embOssedwith the most costly jewe1s.
WhUe the building of bis 'pala.ce was in progress, he
made a joumey to' the ancient' city of, DamasCus,
whoee 'environs .are :reckoned among tbe four earthly
....... TBEANTS. ::: ...
The genis on whomhe rode pursued the strig"ht-
eat course, and :.ew over the valley of which ia
surrounded .by lofty cliffs and deep impaaaable
ravines that no man had been able to it before.
Solomon was much Stoniehed to see beneath him
a host of ante, which were as large as wolves, and,
which, owing totheir grey eyes and feet, appeared at
a distimce like a c1oud.
But, on the other hand, the queen 01 theants, whioL
had ne.ver seen a human being, was in no amall
trouble on perceiving .the king, and cried to her sub-
jecte," Retire quickly to your cavei'nsl." .
. But Allah aaid to her; "Asaemble all thy vassala,
and do homage to SolomoD.J who ia king of the
whole creation."
Solomon, to whom the winds bad wafted thesc
words, then, at a distance of.aix leaguea, descended
to the queen, andin a short time thewhole valley
was covered with ants as far as bis eye could reach.
Solomon then asked the queen, who was standing at
their head, "Why fearest thou me, aince thy hOBts
Are 80 numeroua that they could lay waste the whole
earth?" .
" I fear none but Alla.h," replied the queen; "tor
my subjects which thou now beholdeat ware threa.t-
ened with danger, seventytimea their number would
appear at. a single nod from me.
ce Why, thon, dielst tltou command thy ants to
retire while I was passing above :thee ?" .
I feared I_ they might look alter thee,
and thue forget their Creator for amoment."
any 'faTour that I may show thee ere I
inquired Solomon..
". I Imow of none: but mther let me advise thee so
. .
to that thou mayst not be asbamed of thy name,
which signiea 'The Immaculate; t beware also oE
ever giving away thy ring without first aaying, 'In.
the. name of .Allah the All-merciful.' ".
onoo: more exclaimed, "Lord, thy king-
dom, is greater than: mine I" and took leave(;lf
queen of ants.
On his return he comma.nded the genius to fty into
anothor direction, 80 ,as, not to disturb the dovotion.
of the queen and her subjects.
On arriving at the frontiers of Paleatine he l;1eard
how same one pra.yed.:
.. "My.'God, who hast'chosen to be thy.
friend, redeem me soOn froJQ this woeful emtenee I "
Solomon descended to Mm, and beheld an
man bowed down with, anc1 Wembling in all biS
" Who an thou P"
I BIn an Ismelite of the tribe of Judah."
Cf. How old an thou P tt
" Allah alono. knoWs.. J counted up to my. tbree
hundredth year, and since that time fun fifty or sixty.
more. must bave passed away." .
rc How cameat thou to 80 great an age, which,
TUE TREE. Oll' LIFE. 183;
since Abraham'a time, no bwa:um lIeing has at-:
ce I once saw a shooting star in the night of Al-.
Kadr, ud exprC880d the acnsclC88 wish that I might
meet with the mighticat prophet beCore I died."
n Thou hast now reached the goa1 of thy expecta-
tiODB:' prepare, thyself' to die" for I am the JUng and
prophet Solomon, to whom Allah has granted a
power such as no mortal before me ever possessed."
Scarcely bad, he finished these, words, the Angel
of Death descended in human lorm, and took
of the aged, man .
n Thou must have been quite close,t& me, since.
thon camest so promptly," said Solomon to the,
rc How great is thy mistak,e I. 1;)e it to
theo,' 0 king 1 .that .stand on the shoulders of '8D.
angel whose head reaehes ten thousand years beyond
the. heaven, whose feet are live hundred
years belo\'{ the earth, and withal, is so, power-
ful that .Allah .permitted it, he . could swallow the
earth, and all that it contains, without the slightest
n Ho it is who pointl out to me when, where, ancl
how. I must take a souL. His gaze is :fixed on the
treo Sidrat Almuntaha, which bears as many leaves
inscribed with names as there are men living on the
n At ooch birth 110 now loaf, hearing tho name oe
the newly born, bursts forth; and when any one baa.
184 TUB
reached the end 01 bis life, bis 1e.f' withere imd talla
off, and o.t tho same instant I am with him to rccoivo
his 80ul.'" ,',,:
"How dost thou proceed in, tbis, matter, and'
whither takest thou the souls at death ?"
"AB orten as a believer dies, Gabriel attende me
and wraps his soul in 0.. green sUken abeet, Blld then
breathes it 0. green bird whieb feede in
unill the clay of the resurrection. But the. soul. of
the sinner,.1 take Mone, and having it in
a coa.rse pitch-covered woollen cloth, I carry it to the
gates of hell, where it wandere among abominable
npours untU the laat day."
Solomon tho.nked tbe angel for his information,
and. besought him, when he one daycome to
take his soul, 10 conceal his death om all men and
. . ' He then washed the body of tbe decoosed, buried
him, and having prayed tor soul, begged tor a
mitigation ofbis bodily pains at tho trial he was to
undergo:before thenngels Ankir and Munkir. .
Tbis journey bad fatigued Solomon so lUuch, that
he orderecl the genD,'on;hisretum to Jerusalem, to
weave strong silken carpets, ."hieb. might conWn him
. Those two angela mako inqulry 01 the dcad concerniDg bis
God .nd bis faitb, and torment him if bo be not ablo to annrer
, Simllar things are aaid in the " Chibut hakebar " (knockiDg at
the tomb) of the Rabbis. - Compare Maracciua, Prodrom. i.
and bis" followers together with all the requisite uten,;;
siJs an,d equipages for travelling. Whenever he
desired thereaf'ter to mue a joumey,. he eaused" one
of tb080 . carpots oE l\ !arger or smollcr eize, IIOOOrd-
ing to the number of bis attendants, to be spread out
before the city, imd as 800n as all that he required was
plaoed upon it, he gave a signal to. the eight winds to
ra.ise it up. He than seated lmself on bis throne,
and guided them into whatever" direction neo pleased,
evan as a man guides bis horses with bit and reine. ..
. One night Abraham appeared to him in a drea.m,
and said, "Allah has distinguished thee above all other
men by thy wooom and power. He has subjected to
ihy rule the geD, who are ereeting a temple at "thy
oommand, the like of whieh the earth has never bOrne
bcforo; and thou ridest on the winds ns I onoe rodo
on Borak, who shall dwell in Paradise until the birth
of :M:ohamed. Show thyself grateful therefore unto
the oni1 God" and taking advantage of the aase with
whieh t h ~ eaDBt travel {rom place to place, -viSit the
eities of J athrib -, where the g.reatest oF prophets shall
one day find shelter and proteetion, and of Meoca, the
placo of bis birth, where now the holy temple stands
wbieh I and Diy 80n Iimael (peace be on him I) re-
built after the 1l00d."
"The naxt morning, o l o ~ o n proclaimed that he
would undertake a pilgrimage to" Mecca, and that
The ancient Dame of MediDa, ",ben Mobamecl died. ~
each. and every Israellte would. be permitted to ac-
him. There immediate1y appllcd so many.
pilgrims,. tUt. Solomon . obliged to. have a new.
ciU'pet. WMeD. by the spirits, two leagues in length.
and two in breadth.
The. empty space whieb remained he :filled with.
camela, oxen and smaUer cattle, wleh he designed to
aacrmce at. Mecca, and to divide among the poor .
For J:mself he bad a throne erected, whieh was 80;
studded with bri1liant jewela, tut no one.could raiae.
eyes. tO bim. Tbe of distingniahedpiety
QOOUpied golden seats near the throne: tli.e learned
were aeated on silver, aJldpart of tbe common people
on, wooe!. Tbe genii and dcmons' were commanded
to.6y before him, for he trusted: them 80 llttle, that
he desired to have tbem eonatantly in bis presence,
always drank out of crystal cups 80 aB
never to lose .sight. of them, even wben he was com-
peUed to satiery. bis thirst. Hut the birds he directed
to6y.above the carpet in elose army, to protect the
tmve1lers from the. sun.
When .. tbe arrangements were complete, and men,
spirits, birda and heasts were assembled, com ...
manded tho eight winds to up the carpet with
all tImt it conto.incd, and to carry it to Mcc:lina. In
tbe vicinity of that city,. he made a signal to the
birds to.lower their winga: whereupon the winds gra-
dually abated, until the carpet rested on the earth.
But .no one was permitted to leave the carpet, for
Medina was. then inhabited by worebippers of
with.whom theJcing would not lider bill lIubjecm to.
Solomon went unattended to. the spot where, in!
mter times,. erected bis fil'IIt moaque, it
was then a burial-ground, - performed hiII mid-day
devotioDs,and then l'eturned to thecarpet., Tbe
at hiII nod. IIpread. their wiDgll, .. the wind!! bQre.
up, and swept on with it to Mecca. This.
city was then governed by the. Djorhamidea, who
migrated there from the Southem .A.rabia, and were
at that time worshippers of the only God, keeping
the Kaaba as pure from idolatry as it was in. the.
daYII of Abraham and of Illmael. Solomon therefore
entered it, with a11. bis attendants, performed the .
. obligatory on pilgrims, .. nd when be bad
slain the victims wbich ho brought with. him (rom,.
J erusalem, he in the Kaaba a long die-
course,. in wbich he predicted the future birth Q(
Mohamed, and exhorted all hiII haarers to enforoe
Caith in him upon their children. and deacendants.
Aftera stay of three days,. king Solomon resolved
to roturn again to Jerusalem. nut when tJto birda
bad unfolded. their wiDgs, .and the carpet was already.
in motion, he' suddenly discovered a ray of light
I!triking upon it, whence he ooncluded that ODe,of
his birds haclleft im post.
He therefore. summoned the eagle, and dirccted him
to. call ovar tho namos 01 .all the birds, and to report
188 TBlD 8001"0.'
whioh was absent. eagle obeyed, and 1IOOn eame
bAck with the anawer that the hoopo was wanting.
The king grew enraged; the more so because he
needed the hoopo during the journey, since no other
bird poasessed its powere to descry the hidden fount-
ains of the desert.
, "Soar aloft," he cricd harshly:to tho eagle; "searoh
for tbe hoopo, aud hither, that i may pluok
oft' its feathers, and expose it naked to the 8OOrohing
11Ul, until the worms shall have oonsumed it. "
The eagle soared heavenwards, until the earth be-
neath him appeared like an inverted bowle Ho then
halted, and looked into every direotion to discover
the 'trumt Bubjeot. .A.s 800n as he spied it ooming
from tbe 8Outh, he plunged doWn, and would have
l8ized it in bis talons, but the hoopo adjured him by
Solomon to forbear.
ce Darest thon to invoke the k:ing's protootion 11
replied the eagle. " WeIl may thy mother weep for
thee. The king is enraged, for he has di.scoVered
thy absence, and sworn to punish it terribly."
" Lead me to him," rejoined the other. "I know
that he will 8xouse my absence when he hears where
I havs been, and what I have to report of my ex-
" Tbo eagle Iod him to the 'king, who was sitting on
his judgment-throne w.ith w.rathful oountenance, and
initaUtly drew the delinquent violently towards him.
The hoopo trembled in every limb, and hungdown
his plumllgO, in token of Bubmi8Bion. But when So-
TUE 18(}
lomon would have grasped him still more tightly, he
eried, "Remember, 0 prophet of Allah I thou,
too, shalt one day give an account unto the Lord:
let mo thorefol'c not bo condemned unheo.rd."
"How canst thou excuse thy absenting thyselt'
without my permission ? "
" I bring information respecting a country and y.
queen whose names thou hast not even heard of:
the country of Saba, and queen Balkis."
"These names are indeed quite strange to Me.
Who has informed thee of them? "
" A hoopo from those regions, whom I met during
one of my ehort excuraions. In the course of our
conversation I: spoke to him bf thee, and thy exten-
sive dominions, and 'he was astoniehed that thy fame
should not yet have reached 'bis home. He
me thexefore toaccompany him there, and' convmce
myselt' that it would be worth thy while to subject
the land of Saba. unto thy sceptre.
" On our way he related to me the whole bistory of
that country down to it& present queen, who rules
over 80 large an army, that ehe requires
thousand captains 'to command it."
Solomon relinquished bis hold of the hoopo, and
commanded him to recount all that he had heard o.f
that country, nd its history ; whereupon the bird
began as follows : -" Most mighty king and prophet I
he it known to thco tImt Saba is the capitoJ of' an
extensive country in the 80uth of Ambia, and wa,s
founded by king Bahn, Ibn Jashab, Ibn Sarab, Ibn
'190 'SADA..
Iraootai1. His' name 'was properly Abd Shoms (the
eervant 01 the Sun); but he bad roooived tbo' BUr-
naDle 01 Saba (one who takes captive), by reason' 01
his numerous conquests. "
. Saba 'was' the largest and most superb' city ever
constructed by the band of man, and at the same time
'so strongly fortified, tho.t it might have defied tho
united armies 01 the world.
But that which especially diatinguished 'this city
01 maible were the magnificent gardens in the
centre of which it stood.
, For King Saba had, in complia.nce with 'the
'cowisela of the wise Lockma.D,' conatructoo vast dykea
and numeroua cana,ls, both to guard the people from
inundation du ring the miny sea.son, and also
want oi water in time 01 drOught.
, Tha it'to pass, that this country,whieb'is
80' Vast that a good horseman woUId require a 'month
to travene it,' rapidly' the riebest and most
fertile 01 the whole ea.rth. It was covered with the
fineat trees in every' direction, ao tha.t' ita travellen
knew nothing of the soorching 'SUD. Ite Ur too'was
so pure and refreahing, and its, Bky so',
~ the inhabitimts livoo' to .. very grea.t tage, in' the
'enjoyment 01 pertect health.
TJie land 01 Saba was, 8 it ware, .. diadem on' the
, brow 01 the univene. '
Thia ata,te oi felicit,. endured 'as long as it pleased
'.Allah. King Saba, ita founder, died, and waa auc-
Ceeded 'by' otber kings, wbo enjoyed the fruits; of
Lockman's laboUl'S, without thinking of prese"ing
tbem: - ~ u t time' was busy with tbeir destruction.
Tbe torrcnts plunging from' tbe adjacent mountains
gradually undermined tbe dyke whieb bad been con-
structed ~ restrain and to distribute them, into the
various ca.nals, 80 that it fell in at last, and the' wbole
oountry was, in consequence, laid waste by a fe&rrul
flood. 'Tbe first precurson of an approa:cIng clliaster
ebowed the,mselves in tbe reign ofking m r u ~ 'ID
bis time'it was that the priestess Dbarifa beheId in-a .
dream 0. vast dark e1oud, wbieb, bursting alnid tei-rific
'tbunderings,' pbured destruction upon' tbe land. She
told her dream. to the king; and made no secret oE her
fears' respecting the welfare of bis' empire; but the
king and bis courtiers endeavoured to silcmce her, and
oontinued, as before, their beedl_ careless course ..
, One day, 'however, while Amru was in a grove i:n
dalliance with two maidens, the priestess stepped
'before bim with disbevelled hair and ruftled counte-
nance, and predicted anew the epeedy desolationof .
the' oountry. '
Tbe king' dism.issed his oompanions; .m.d having
seated the priestess beside bim, inquired of her what
riew omen foreboded this evil. '" On my way'hlthv;"
replled Dharifa" "I have met crim80n rats sta.nding
erect, and wiping their eyes with' tbeir feet;' and '0.
turtle, whieb, lo.y on its back, struggllng in vain 60
rise: - these certain signa oE a flood, whieb sha1l
reduce tbis country to the BOd condition in wbich
it was in QJlcicnt timos."
.. ce What proof givest thou me of the truth of thy
statement?" inquired Amru.
ce Go to tbe dyke, and thine OWD eyes shall con-
vince t hee. "
The king went, but speedily came back to tbo grove
with distracted countenance. "I have seen a drea.d-
ful sight," be cried. " Three rats aB 1a.rge aB poreu-
. pines were gnawing the dykes with their teeth, and
tea.ring oft'. pieces of rock wbich My men would not
bave been able to move."
Dharifa then gave him still other signa; and he
bimself bad a dream, in wbich be sa.w tbo tops of the
loftiest trees covered with sand - an evident
of the approaching 110od; - so that be resolved to
l1y from bis country. .
Yet, in. order to dispose of bis. castles and posses-
mODS to advantage, he concealed what he ha.d seen and
beard, . and invented the following r pretext for bis
One day he gave a grand banquet to his bighest
officers oE state and the chiefs of bis army; but arrang-
ed with bis son beforehand timt be should strike bim
in the face during l\ discunion. Wben this l\Ccord-
ingly took place at the publio table, the king sprang
up, drew bis sword, and feigned to slay bis son; but,
aB he bad foreseen, bis guests rushed in between
them, and hurried away the prinoe. Amru then
SABA. '193
swore thai he ,would no longer remain in a countty
. when>:\he bad suft'ered BUch a disgrace. But when all
'bis estates were sold, he avowed th true motive of bis
emiglution'; and many tribes joincd themsclves 10 him.
800n after his departure, the predicted calamities
100k place, for the inhabitarits of Saba, or Mareb, as
tbis city is sometimes called, listened neither' to the
warnings of Dharifa nor the admonition' of a prophet
whom .Allah bad sent" thein. The strong dyke 'fell
in, and the waters pouring from .the' mountain .. de-
vastated the city and the entire vicinity. "Aa, how-
ever, the men of Saba" continued the Hoopo in his
narrative before king Solomon, "who bad ed' in10
the mountain were improved by their misfortune,
and repented, they 800n BuOOeeded, with the help of
Allah, in OODStruCting new dams,' and in reBtoring
their country 10 a high degree oE power arid pros-
perlty, which went on increasiDg under the succeeding
kings, though the old Vices 100 re-appeared, and, in-
stead ofthe Creator of Heaven and Earlh, they even
worshipped the SUD." The last king of Saba,named
Shamhbil, was a monBter of tyranny. He bad a
vizicr desccnded from the ancicnt royal house of the
Himiarites, who was BO handsome, that he fomid fa-
vour in theeyes of thedaughters of the genii, and they
often placed themselves in, his way in the shape of ga-
zelles, merely 10 gaze upon him. ODe of them, whoso
nnme Will Umohu, folt so nrdent p.n ttachmont for
tlie vizier, that Bho completely forgot the diBtinction
between men andgenii, and one day, while he was
followiDg the.chaae, in the form of a beautiful
~ and oft'ered bim her. band, on n i t i o n that he
:would follow her, and never demand an account 9f
an,. of her action&. Tbe vizieJ' thought- the daughter
of the gen 80 far eulted.above I;lll human beauty,
that:be lost bis self-oommand, and consentod, witbout
reection, to all tbat ahe proposed. U men. then
jotirneyed with bim to .the island where he lived,
and married him. Within. a yearls time ehe bore a
daughter, whomsbe called Balkis; but 8008 ~ t
ahe lett her hnaband, becarise he (as Moses bad done
with Alkidhr) bad repeatedly inquired into her mo-
tiveB when unable to comprehend her action&. Tbe
vizierthenretumed with BalkiBto 00 native country,
. and .concealed himBelf in ODe 01 its valIeYB at a diB-
tance from the capital: thare BaIkiB grew np like the
fairest fiower of Yemen, but ahe was obliged 10 live
in .greater retirement the older ahe became, lor her
father feared leBt. Sharabbil might. hear oE her, and
treat her as remorseleBBly as the other maidena 01 Saba.
Neverthe1eB8,.Heaven bad decreed that.all 00 pre-
caUtiOUB should be abortive j.for the king, in order
10 leam the condition ,of '00 empire, and the secret
sentiments 01 00 .mbjectB, once made a joumey on
foot, diaguised like a beggar, .throughout the land.
When he came 10 the Tegion whare the vwer lived,
he heard both bim and biB daughter' much apoken of,
because no one knew who he wal, uor whence he bad
oome, nor why he lived in such obscurity. The king
tberefore O&used bisresidence to be ,pointed
he reached it at tbe moment whenthe viZierandbis
daugbtor were scatcd at table. His first glance -fell
on Balkis,who was then in her fourteenth year, and
beautifullike a houri,of Paradise, for, withtb!! grace
and loveliness oE woman, , ehe .combined .trans-
parent complexion and:themajesty of.tbe genii. But
how great was bis .when,fixing his:eye
on her fatber, he recognised bis -former' vizier, .w.ho
bad 80 suddenly disappear;ed, and whose fate .had
remained unknownr
JJ soon as the vizier observed that .tbe king bad
recognised him, he fell down at bis feet, imploring bis
favour, and relating al1 that, bad befallen him during
bi8 absence. SharahbU pardoned him .from love,.to
Balkis, but demanded tut he 8hould resume bi8
former function8, and at the same time pre8ented him
with a palacein the finest situation uearhie capital.
Buta fewweeke had ecarcely elapeed whcn .tbe
vizier one. morning returned {rom tbe city with a
heavily,clouded brow, and said to Balkis, "My.feare
are now realized I The king has wed thy hand, and
I could not refuee without endangering my life, .&1.
though I would rather see' tbee laid in tby grave
than in tbe l'Dl8 of thie tyrant."
"Diemie8 your feare, my Cather," replied BaUds;
"I shall' free me and my whole sex from tbis aban-
man.' 'Only puton a cheerful brow, thftt he
196 SiBA.
may not any a.nd 1'equeat bf hirn,
aB the only favour I dcmand, that our nuptials be
sole"mnised herein prlvacy."
'The king cheerfullyagreed to the wish of his
bride, and repaired on the following moming, accom-
panied bya few servante, to the vizier's palace, where
ho was ontcrtained with royal mngniccnco. After
\ ihe repast, the vizier rctircd with his gueate, and
Balkis remained with the king. But on a given
'signal her female slaves appeared: one of "them
another played on the harp, a third danced before
thern, and a fourth presented wine in golden cups.
. by Balkis's 'directions, eapecially active,
'so that the kmg," whom she urged by' every art to
partake of the strongest winea, soon fell back lifeless
on Balkis now drew foltb a dagger from
beneath her robe, and plunged it so deeply inte> the
"haart of Sharahbil, thnt bis soul rushed instantiy
to' hell.' She then called her father, and pointing to
the corpse before said, " To-morrow moming let
the most in:uential men of the city, and also some
chiefs of . the army, be" commanded, in the king's
name, to send hirn their daughters. This will produce
arevolt, which we shall improve toour advantage."
" Balkis was not mistakcn in her conjecture; for tho
men, whose daughters were threatened with infamy,
oolled theirkinsmen together, and in the
. eveniJig to tlte :palace of the vizier, threa.tening to se't
it on re unless the king should be delivered up to
Balkis then cut oft' the king's head, and llung. it
through the window to the aesembled insurgent&.
stantly tbere arose the loud exultatione of
tude, tbc city W8 festivaly illumincd, and Bolide, 8
protectrcee of her W8 proclaimed queen of Sab8o.
ce This queen," conciuded the Hoopo, "hae been reign':'.
ing there since many yeare in great wiedom and pru-
dence, and juetice . prevails througbout hernow
flouriehing empire. ,Sho aeeists 80t oll the councils
ofher viziers; conceoJed from the gaze of men by a fine
curtain, and' seated on a lofty throne of most skilful
workmuehip, and adomed with jewele. But, like
many of.the kings of that country before.her, she is
a worshipper of the sun." '.
" We ehaJl see," said when the' Hoopo.
had concluded the account of. hie joumey,,'" whether
thou haet spoken the truth, or art to be
amonget deceivere. " .
He then caused a fountain to be pointed out by the
Hoopo, performed hie ablutions, and, when he had.
pmyed, wrote the following linee: -" From Solo-.
mon, the son of David and eervant of Allah, to
B"lkis, queen of Saba. In tho Dl\m0 of Allah the
All-mcrciful and Gmcious, bleseed they who
follow _the guidance of fate I follow thou my invita-
tion, . and present hefore me a.s a believer."
This note he sea.led with musk, stmnped hie signet
on it, and ga.vo it to tho 1I00po, with tbo words, "Tako
this letter to Queen Dalkis; then retire, but not so
. Jt 3
far OS to pmude thee ftOm hea.ring what she shall
n.d\tise with- her viZiers respecting it. tJ '
The Hoop, with the letter- in bis bill, darted away ,
liJce: arrow;- and amved The
queen wa,nurrounded by all her councillors:, when he
stepped int> her hall of' state, imd dropped the letter-
iilto her ln.p; Shc Btarted os BOon llB Bhe behcld Solo-
monts mighty'signet, opeDedthe letterhurriedly, and,
havfug first it to herself, communieated it to her-
oounsellors:, amongwhom were also highest'chief-
, tains; and ei;ltrea\ed their on- this important
-Butthey replied with one voice,- "You may rel)'
on our power lind courage, and net nccording to your
good! pleasure and wisdom." .
"Before,- then:, I engage 'in war," said BaIkis,'
"wliich alwaYBentails much' suft'ering and
upon a I will Bend Bome presents to kiDg
Solbmon:, and see how he will receive my ambas-
BadOrs. Ir he suft'ers bimset!' to be bribed, he is no
more t1wr otlier kings who ,have fallen before our
power; hut he' reject my presents, then is he a
ti-iie prophet, wlioS'e' fith Wo embrace:'J'
, , She then dressed- five' hundred youthslike maidens,
and ai many maidenS' like young men" and com-
manded the' former to beoove in the preBence of So-
lomon like girls; and the Th.ttedike' ])oY8o She then
bad a earpets prepared wrought with' gold
and silver, a crown eomposed of the fineat pearls and
hyacinthB, and many loads of mUBk, amber, aloes,'
and other' pmoue produete of South. Ambra. To
these ehe IIdded a cloeed= casket containing' an: un .. :
porforatcd pearl; a dirunond intricatoly piOrood,. nd
n goblet of eryBtal. . .
ce.A a trtte prophet," eJle wrote to him, " thou
wilt no doubt be ableto distinguieh theyouthB hom
the maidens,. tC:i the: contentB" of tlie cloeed.
casket, to perforate tlie tC> thread diamond,
and to fill: the goblet witb. 1Vat'er' tliat hae: neither
dropped from the cloude nor guahed forth from the
.All these pl'e8entB and her letter ehe sent to bim by'
experienced and iJ;itelligent men"to whom ehe' eaid at:
tlieir cc'lf' Solomon; meet you with pride'
n.nd harelmeee, 00' not cast for these are' indica--
tions of human weakn:eee; hut itlie' teceive you: with,
kindneBB' and condeeceneion, (be on your' guard, for
you then have to do with a prophet."
Tbe Hoopo heard all tbiB, fr he bad kept clo8e
to the queen: imtil the' ambaBBador bad depart;ed.
He then ew tu a direct line, withoulI reeting; to the'
tcnt of' Solomon; to whQm be reported what lic bad'
The' king then commartded the genii to pro-
a carpet which ehould cover the Bpace of nine
parasa.ngs, and' to epread it out at' the &tops oE biS-
throne toWardB the 8OUth' 1'0 the eastward, where
the carpet ceased, he caused a lofty golden wall to
be erccted; and to the of silver. " On
both eides of the carpet he mnged the mrest foreign
animals. and 0.11 kinds of genii and demons.
" Tbe ambassadors" were greatly eonfused on ar-
riving in Solomon's encampment, whare 0." splendour
and magnieence was displayed such" as they had
never eoneeived of before. The first thing thcy did
on beholding the immense carpet. whieb their eye8
were unableto survey. was to ing away their thou-
sand earpets. whieh they had brougbt as 0. present for
the king. Tbe nearer tbey came the greater waxed
their perplexity, on account of tbe many singular
birds, and heasts. andspirits through whose ranks
they bad. to pass in approaching Solomon ; but their
hearts were" as soon as tliey. stood before
him,"for he greeted with kindness, and inquired
with smiling lips what bad brought them to him ?
"We are tbe bearera of a letter from queen"
Balkis," replied the" most eioquent of the embassy,
while he presented the letter.
" "I know its contents." replied Solomon, "without
opening it, as weIl as those of the casket whieh you
have "bl'Ought with you; and I shall, by the help of
.Allah, perfomte your pearl, and cause your
to be threaded. But I will {irst of all ll your goblet
with water, which has not fallen from tbc elouds, nor
gushed from the earth, and distinguish tbe beardless
youths from the virgins who accompany you." He
then caueed one thousand silver bowls and basins to be.
brougbt, and commanded the male and female slaves
to wash tbemselves. Tbe former immediately put
their hands, on wbich the water was poured, to tbeir"
faces; but the latter first emptied it into, their rigbt
hancls as it owed from the bowl into thcir laft, and
then wasbed tbeir faces witb both tbeir bands.' Bere-'
upon Solomon readily discovered . tbe sexes' of tbe
slaves, to tbe great astonishment of tbe ambassadors..
Tbis being done, be commanded a taU and corpulent
slave to iQ.ount on a young and fiery horse,and to
ride through the camp at the top of. bis speed, and to
instantly to him. When the slave returned'
witb the steed . to Solomon, there poured from bim
whole tQrrents" of perspiration, 80 that tbe crysta
goblet was immediately filled. ". , '.
c. Here," saidSolomon to tbe ambassadors,
water whieb has noithor como out "of tho eartli
from heaven." The. pearl be perfomted .with the
stone, for tbe knowledge of wbich bo was indebted to
Sachr and the raven; but tho threading of the dia-
inond,in WbOBO opening there was every poBBible curve,
puzzled bim, until ademon brougbt him a worin,
whieb crept tbrough thejewel, leaving a silken thread
behind; Solomoninquired of the worm how he might
reward him for tbis great service, 'by whlch he bad
bis dignity as a propbet. Tbe worm requested
that a fino fruit tree should be appointed to bim as
dwelling. Solomon gave him tbe mulberry-tree,
Jt lS
which' from tha.t time' aft'ords a &heIter arid nourish-
met to the ailkworm for ever. '
ce' You: have seen now," said Solomon' to the am-
ba:8aadonr,. ce I have suooes8fully paised all the
trWs' 'yom" qu:eeri has imposed on me. " Re-
ititn 'td her, together with' the preaents destined
tor' me, of which I do' not stand in" need, "and
ten her that if she do not !lCOOpt my faith,' and do
homage ll'nto ure, I ahall invade her country with an
armt, whieh no' human power' shaU be able to reBist"
and dtag lier' & wretched eaptive' to my eapital.'"
aoibllBBadors 18ft" Solomon wider the' fulIest
oonviction of his might, "and mission as a prophet;
and their report "reapeeting all that Iwl paesed be-
tween them ud the king made the same impression
" " Soloinon' is a 'mighty prophet," said she to' the
1tiziei'it who sUrrounded her, arid: had listened to- the
narrative of the ambassadors': "tbe best plan I ea.n
adopt" is to journey to hiin' with the' leaders of
my ai'Diy, in order to' 8BCertain what he" demands of
fis. w She then colJl'1D8.nded the necessary preparationa
lor' the journey fu be' made'; IRld befre' l1erdepanure
up' her" thl'One, which ehe left" with the
greate8t reluctanoo:. in a ball wbi9h it was impossible
to without finit stepplng through aix other closed
fuilla :aild all theo Beven 1ia1ls were in the innermoat
of' the 86ven apartments or' which the pa.lace,
guarded by her most faitlul servante, consisted.
Whan: Queen Balkis, attended by her twelve thou ..
sand oaptains,. each. oE whom commanded eevera1
tJiousana men,. bad come withln a parasang of Solo-
monrs encam.pment, he said t;o. bis hoat;g, u'Wbich of
you will bring me the throne of Queen Balkis' before
she come to me as 0. believer, that. I may rightfully
appropriate tbis: cunous piece ot art while yet in the
poesession oE an infidel?"
Hereupoll' amisshapen demon (who was aB' Jarge
as a mountain) said,. ~ . I will bring it to thee before
noon, ere: thou dismiss thy counciL I am not wanting
in power' for the acbievement, and thou eil ..
trust me with the throne without any apprehension."
But Solomon bad not BO' much time left, . for' he
already perceived at. a distanc8' the; clouds oE dust
raised by the a:rmyoE Sah&.
er Thon," Baid bis vizler, A88IIof,. th6 BOO . 01 Bumhja,
who, by reason 01. bis acquaintance with the holy
names of Allah, found nothing too diJlicult,. er raise
thy eyes towards heaven, and before thou shalt
be able. to cast them down again. to the earth, the
throne oE the queen. of Saba sJiaJl stand hare before
thee." .
Solomon gazed heavenward, and Assaf called Allah
by bis hollest name, praying that he might send him
the throne of Balkis. Then, in the twin1ding of an
eye, the throne rolled through. the boweIs of the
earth until it came to the throne.of Solomon, and
rose up through the opening ground, whereupoo
Jt 6
Solomon exclaimed, "How great is the goodneu' of
Allah! this was assuredly intended as a trial whether,
I ahould be grateful to him or not; but whosoever
aclmowledgeth the'goodneai or AUah, does it to him-'
self, and whoover denieth it, does no less 80. Allah,
haa no need of human gratitude 1 ",
After h:aving admired the throne, he said to one of
his servants, "Make some change on it, and let u's
see whether' Balkis will recognise it again." The
servante took sever8l parts of the throne to pieces,
and replaced them dHferently., But whenBalkis was'
asked whether her throne was like it? aha replied,
"It seems R8 ifit were the same."
This, and other replies of the queen convinced Solo-
mon of her 'superior understanding, for ahe had un-
doubtedly reoognised her throne; but her, aDswer
wal so equivooal, that it did not sound either 're-
proa.chful o:r suspieious. But before he w o u ~ enter
into more intimate relations with her, he desired to
olear up a certain point respecting her, and to see
whether ahe actually had cloven feet, as several ofbis
demons would haver him to believe; o ~ whether they
had only invented the defcet from fear lest he might
marry her, and beget: ohildren, who, as descendants
01 the genii, would be' oven more Plighty than him..;
seIt. He therefore causcd her to be oonductcd through
a hall, whose ftoor was of arystal, and undor which
;,ater, tenanted by every variety 01 fish, was ftowing.
Balkis, who bad never seen a erysta! floor, supposed
TUE CONVERT - TDE .Al'E8. 206'
that there was water to he passed throtigh, ud there--
fore raised her rohe elightly, when the king discovered,
to bis great joy, a. beautifully-shaped female foot..
When his eye was satisfied, he called to her: "Copie.
hitbor,thoro is no' water horo, hut only a CJystal
oor, a.nd confess thyeelf to the faith in one 001y:
GOD." Balkie approached the throne, wbich stood at
the end of the ball, ud in Solomon's presence ab-
jured the worship of the sun.
Solomon . then married Balkie, but reinstated her a.s
queen of Saba, and spant three days in every month
with her. '
On .one of his progresses from Jerusalem to
Marcb, he passed through a valley inhabited by apes;
which, however, dressed andJived like men, and bad
more eomfortable dwellinga than other, apes;' ud even
bore all kinds of weapons. He deacended from bis
jing carpct, and IIlII.i'chod intothc valley with a few
of bis troops. The apes' hurried together to drive
him back, but one of their eIden etellped forward
and said: "Let UB mther &eek safety. in submission,
for our foe is a holy prophet. Three apes were
immediatelY chsen aB ambassadon to negotiate with
Solomon. He received them kindly,' and inquired.
to which class of apes they belonged, and how it to pass that they were so skilled in all human:
arte? . Tbe a m ~ o r s replied: "Be not astoniahed
nt us, tor wo arc desccndcd from mon, and are the
remnant of a Jewish community, wbich, notwith-
atanding an. admonitioD,: ooniinued to desecrate the,
Sabbath, until Allah, C'I11'8ed them, and turnod them
into apeL- Solomon was moved to oompa.eaion; and,.
to protect them from' all further anim08ity on the pari
of 'mau, gave, thm' a parclunent,. in which he securecl
tQ them for. ever- the undisturl?ed possesaion of this:
[At, the- time of the ca1ifOmar, there'came. .. di ..
vision of troops into this: valley; but when they.
would have; ra.ised their tenta to occupy it, there
came,.a.u,.aied ape,. with a: soroll of pa.rcbment in his.
hands, and prcsented it to the leader of the soldiem:
Yet"as no one was able to read it, they"sent it to Omar
at Medinli., to whom it was explaincd by .. J ew, who
ha.c:t been converted to Islam. He sent it back forth ..
with, n ~ oommanded the troops to evacuate- the
, Mea.nwhile 1:lalkis soon found .. dangero1lB: riyal in
Djarada, the daughter of king N ubara, who governed
one 01 the finest isla.nds in the Indian ocean. This
king was .. fearf'ul tyrant, and forced all bis subjects
to worehip him as a God
s IOOD as Solomon. heard 01 i1, he marched
'agaIn.t him w i ~ aB man,. iroops as his1a.rgest oarpet .
oould oontain, oonquered the island, and slew the
king with, his own band. When ho was on the point
ot leaving the paIaoe 01' Nubara, there stept before
.. 140hamed mootlODI thia in the Koran aa a (Mt.
a virgin who rar 8UrpBS8ed in 'beauty' and gra.ce
the whole harem of Solomon, not even the' queen 01
Saba excepted. He commanded her to be led to bis
carpet, and, her with death, foreed hel'
to nccept his raith li.nd his band.
But Djarada BaW in Solomon only the murderer 01
her father, and replied to bis careaaea with Bighs
and team
Solomon hoped that time would haal her' wounda,
and reconcile her' W' her But when At, tha' Ue
piration of a whole year her haart still
cloacd againat love' and joy, . he overwhelmed her
with repfOa9liea, and' inquired how he niight asauage
her grief. , ' '
" AB it is not in thy power," replied'
rccall my father to life, 88Dd a Ce;;- genii 1;0 my hotne;
lot them bring bis statue, and pla.ce, it in: my
chamber. Perhaps the sight of his itnage will
ptooure me some' COnsolatioD."
'Solomon was weak enough to compl,. with ha
requeat, to defile bis pala.oe with the bbage of' a
ttlan who- bad dei1ied hii:nself, and to whom even
DjIU'Bda secretly payed divine honours. This idol
worship bad lasted forty days when Assaf was in-
fornied ot it. He therefore mounted the rostrum"
and, before the whole assembled people, pronounced
a discourse, in: which he deacribed the pure and God-
devoted life of all tho prophets, from Adam until
I>avid.: In passing to Solomon, he pmised the
wisdom and piety of tho rat years of bis reign, hut
regrettec1 that hia Jater counea ehowed .. ot the-
trae rear o( God.
1.. lOOIl .. 801omon bad learned the conteota ot
thit dieeoarBe, he anmmoned A-r. and inquired ot
bim whereby he bad, deaerved to be thue eeusored
betore the whole people?
AMal replicd, If Thon hast permittec1 thy paaaion
10 blind thee, and mft'ered idolatry in thy palace. "
" &lomon hutened 10 the apartments of Djarada,
whom he {ound proetrate in prayer before the image
01 her tather, and exclaimed,
"We belong unto Allah, and shaU one day return
10 111m I " he ehivered tho idol to piecce, and punished
tho princoee. 110 thon put on new rohes, whieb nono
but puro virgine bad touebed, etrewed ashes on bis
h_l, went into tho desert, ,and implored Allah fQr
. Allah pardoned his ein; but he was to atone tor it
during torty daye. On returning home in the v n ~
lng, luwing sivon his signet into t.he keeping oE one
l hl. WiV08 until ho Bhould return from an unclean
pIAOO, BRehr aiBumod his form, and obtained f r o ~ her
tho ring.' $oon after, Solomon himBelf elaimed it;
but ho WRI laughod at and dorided, for the light of
prophooy bAd doparted trom' bim, 80 that no one re.
00;nl.0(1 hlm RI king, I\Dd ho was <lrivon from bis
pall\OO 1\1 1\ dooolvor and impostor. He now wandorcd
up ant! down tbe oountry; and wherever he gave bis
namo ha WIUI mookod R8 IL madman, and shainefully
ontroatod. 'In thl. mlUDer he lived nine-and-thirty
. . -
BACHR. 209.
day!!, sometimes begging; sometimes Jiving on herbe..
On the fottieth day he entered into the service of a'
fisherman, who promised. him as his
fisbos, one of whicb ho bopod to exchange fOE:
But on that day the power of &chr Im;
end. '
For this wicked spirit 1md, notwithstanding, bis,
external resemblance _,to Solomon, and his possession'
of the signet ring, by which he had power
over spirits, men, , and animals, excited suspicion, by
his ungodly and his senseless and un-:
lawful ordinances.
The elders of Israel came daily to preferring:
new charges against the king; but Assaf' constR.l:ltly
(ound the doors of the palace closed .against bilD.' '
But when, finally, on the day" .the
wives of Solomon came and complained the king
no longer obsened any of the prescnbed rules of
purification, AIIBI, by some doctors of
the law, 'who were reading aloud in the Thora, forced ..
,his way, spite' of the gate-keepers and aentinels,
wbo would have hindered bim, into tho 'of state, ,
wbore Saohr sojourned. 'No sooner did he hear the
word of God, which bad been revea1ed to Moses,
There ia an allusion here to the peculiar ideu which both
MobamedanB and J eWB attach to the recltation oe lICl'iptural 01"
imngincd ICl'Cd WOrdB and sentcncea.
Thcy believe their bare reoillrig or repetition valuable:-
than he shrunk back into bis native form, and flew
in haste to the shore ot the" Be&, where the signet ring
dropt trom him.
By the providenoe' 01 tb:e Lord: of the universe,
tlie riDg was caught up and swallowed bya 6ab, which
was 800n afterwards driven into the net of the fisher-
man whom Solomon servect Solomon rcceivcd this
fish as the. wages of bis labour, and when he ate it
in" the evening he' found bis
"He then" COJDJD8.nded the" winds to take him back"
10 JeiusaIem, where heassembled" around him all the
chiefs of men, birda,. beaata, and spirits, and related
to them" all that Iiad befallen him during the last
forty days, and how Allah bad, in a miraculoua man-
ner, reatored. the ring which Sachr bad wily uaurped.
He- then cau.sed. S&chr to be p'ur8ued, and forced.
rum into Bi oopper ftask, which he sealed with hiIr
signet, and: ffung 1)etween two rocka into the sea of
Tiberias, "wl}.ere he muat remain until the day ot the
Tlle government 01 Solomon, "which after thia
laaf.ed yet ten yea.ra. was not" elouded
lIgain by" miafortune:. Djarad"a, the" ca'o8e of bis"
calamity, never deaired to see agam, although ahe
1. Aa beiDg meritorioUi beton God, independent of an1 re-
_im whieh it ID&1 produce on their heut and undentanding.
"I. Becauae enry u lI1lJIPCIIII!d to pcaeII (cabIlistic)"
charm 1CtiDg. with resiatlesa power upoo spirits, and llYen upoo
the Lord himselt-B. T.
was now trul,r converted. But Queen BaUds he
visited regu1arly every month until the day of her
When she he caused her remmns to be taken
to the city of Tadmor, which ehe bad and;
buried her there. But her grave remamed unknown
until the of Calif Walle), when, inconsequence:
of long-continued rains, the walls of Tadinor fell in;
and a stone coffin . was , discovered sixty cubits'long
and forty this inscription :.,""': ,"
" Here is' the grave of the piowi Ba1kis, the ,queen
of Saba and consort of the prophet Solomon, the 80n
of David. She was converted to the troe, faith' in
the thirteenth yoo of Solomon's accession to' the'
throne, married him in, the'14th, and died on Mon-'
day, tho BOcond d" 01 Rabi;.Awwalj in the tliree-
and-twentieth year of bis reign."' ,
Tbe of' the calif caused tlie Ud of the coffin to:
be raised up, and discovered a female form, whicli was
as fresh and well' preserved as if it bad but just been. '
buried. He immediately made areport of it to his
father, inqulring what should: be done witb.;, the
comn. ",
W alld: commanded that ii ehould, be lett in tlie
place where it was found, and be so' built up with
marble stones that it ehould never be desecrated'
agam by human bands.
Tbis command WM oboyod; and notwithetanding
the many devo.statioDS and changes which the city ot
Tadmar and her walls bnve suft'ercd, no tmccs havo
been found of tho toinb oE Queen Dn.lkis.
A few months .rter the death orthe queen of Saba, .
tbe Angel of DeOoth IloPpeared unto Solomon withsix
faces :, one to' the right, and one to the 16ft; one
in front, and ono behind; one above his head, and
one below it. The king, who had never seen him in
was startled" Oond what this six-
fold visage signified? '
; .' ".With, the faoe to the rlght," replied the Angel of
Death," I fetoh the souls from thc east; with timt to
the left thesouls from tlle west; with that abovc,
tbe souls of the inhabitants of heaven; with tImt
below, the demons from the depths of the earth;
with thOot behind, tbe souls of the people of Mad-
judj and Jadjudj (Gog and Jdagog); but with that
in, front, those oE the Faithful, to whom also' tby
soul belongs.".
. "Must, then, even the Oongels (lie?"
. " All that lives becomes the prey of deOoth, soon
as . &ball bave blown the trum pet the second
time. Then I shall put to death even GOobrlel and
Michael, and immediately after that !Dust myself die,
at the command of Allah. Then God alone remains,
Ijond exelaims, 'WhOBO, tbo world?' but tllere
shall not a living creature be left to answer him I
And forty years must elOopse, when Israfi.l shall be
to life; that he mOoY blow bis trumpet 00 third
time, to wake all the dead." ... .
"And omen sh&n rise :6rst' from the
grave'" , 0 0 , ,
"Mohamed, the prophet, who shall m: mter times
sl>ring from tho dosoondo.nts of Ismni1. 0
o "Ismfil himself nnd Gnbriel, togethcr with other an-
gela, shall oomc to his grave at Medina, and cry, 'Thou
purest IloDd noblest of souls I return to thy im-
macula.te body, IloDd revive' Then sball he
rise from his glave, and shake the dust from bis head.
Gabriel greets him, IloDd points to the wingedBorak,
who sto.nds prepared tor him, IloDd to a sto.ndard IloDda
crown whichAllah sends him from Pa.radise. The
then says to him; 'Come to thy Lord,
mine, thou eleet among all crea.tures I The gardens
or Eden are festively adomed for thee; the hourls
n.wait thee with impatienoe.' He then lifte him upon
Borak, pla.ces the heavenly 0 sto.ndard in bis hand, and
the crown upon bis head, IloDd leads him into Para-
mae. Thereupon the rest of mankind shall be
called to life. They 0 shall all be brought to Pa-
lestine, where the gren.t tribunal shall 0 be held,
nnd wbcro no othor intorcossion than that of ,Maho-
mcd is n.ccepted. Thn.t will be 0. fcarfUl day, when
every one shall think only or himself. Adam will
o ery, ' 0 Lord, save my soul only I I care not for Eve,
nor for Abel.' 0 Noah will exelaim, '0 Lord, pro-
serve me fl'Om hell, IloDd do with Ham Rnd Sheni llo8
thou pleo.scst I' Abraham sballMY, 'I pray neithor
tor Ismncl nor IsaaC, but for 'my own anf'oty only.'
Even Moses mall forget bis brother Aaron, and
Christ bis mother, 80 greatly shlill they be oonoorned
for themselves. None but Mohamed shaU implore
the merey of God for all the faithful of his people.
They that risen will then be conducted over the
bridge Sirat, which is composed of Beven bridges,
each of which isthreo thousand yoars longe This
bridge is as sharp as a swor4, and aB fine as a hror
. . One th4'd of it is an ascent, one third is even, and
,one is .a He &lone whopasses all
.these bridges with suooess can ,be admitted into Pa-
.radise. The unbelievers fall into heU .fromthe first
bridge; the prayerless, !rom the second; the uncha-
ritable, from the third; whoever has eaten in .Ramad-
.. han, .from the fourth; whoever has neglected the pU-
grimage, from tbe.fif'th; whoever hath not commended
the ,good, !rom :the sixth; andwhoso hath notpre-
fromthe seventh."
" When sball tbe resurrection be?"
" That is known only to Allah; but assuredly not
'before the advent of the of all pro-
p\ 'Previoqsly to it .tbe prophet ,Isa (Christ),
Bpl1lug {rom thy own family,shaUpreach the tl1J.e
:faith,shalJ be lifted up byAllah,:and be born ogain.
The ;nations of J acljudj and Madjudj shaJI bunt the
:wall . behindwbich .A1.oxander has ponfined thcm
. ne eun lilhall rise in the west, and many other filigns
and .wondere sball precede."
" me to live until tbe coPlpletic:m of-my
temple, for 80t my death the gen and dem01l8 will
cease their labour."
" Thy hour-glase has run out, and it ie not in my
powor to pl'Olong t11y lifo l\11othor 8Ocond."
" 1.'hen follow me to my eryeta! hall I "
The Angel of Death accompanied Solomon unto
the haU, whoee waJJewere entirely of There
Solomon prayed; and leaning upon hieetaff, re-
quested the angel ,to take hie 8() tbat p<leitioq.
Tbe angel' co1l8ented; and, bie death was thue oon-
cea1ed from :the demone a whole year, till thetemple
was :6nisbed. It was not until the .eta.fF, when da-
etroyod;by worme, broke down :with him,. that bis death
was ob8!lrved by the spirits, who, ,in order to :revilllge
themeelve8, .concea1ed all kinde ot magical .bpok.e
undor hie throne, 80 'that ~ y ,believo1'8 t h o ~ g h t
Solomon bad been a 8Orcorer. But he a. pwe
and divine prophet, as it iewntton in the X;Ort\l.l,
"Solomon was ,no infidel, but the demonewere,'un-
. believere, apd taught all manner otsorcenee." Wben
the king waslfo.1g on the ground, ,the angele ca.rried
him, together with bis, eignet-ring,to a cave, where
, they ehall guard him until the OOy ot the reeurrection.
TREU onoo lived in Palestine a man named Am-
ram Ibn Mathan, who bad attained to a. great
age, without being bleslied with posterity. Shortly
before bis death bis wife Hanna prayed tO the Lord
'that He might not sutFer her to die childless.Her
prayer was heard, and when she was with child she
dedlcated her otFspring to the service of. the Lord.
But, contrary to her expectations, she gave birth to
adaughter, whom ahe" named Mariam (Mary), and was
naturally in doubt if her child would be accepted as a
"servlint in the temple, until an angel cried to her,
"Allah luls accepted thy V:ow; although he knew be-
forehand that thou shouldst not give birth to a son.
~ has .. moreovcr sallctified thy daughter, as well as
the man-child that shall be born of her, and will pre-
serve him from the touch of Satan, who randen every
other child susooptibie of sin from itS birth(on.w.hich
a.ccount, also, a.ll children cry aloud when theyare
These words comforted Hanna, whoso husband bad
died during her pregnancy. As soon as she had reco-
vered from her childbed, she carried her infant daughter
to J erusalem, and presented her to the priests, as a
child dedicated,to 'Allah. Za.chariah, a priest Wh08e
wife was related to Hanns., was desirOU8 of taking
the child horne with hirn; but the other priests, wbo
wcre 0.11 enger for this privilege, (for on o.ccount of his
piety, Amrarn bad stood in high repute among them,)
l)rotested ago.inst it, and forced him to cast lots with
them for the guardianship of Mary. They proceeded
therefore, twenty-nine in number, to the Jordan, and
flung *eir arrows into the, river, on the
ing timt he whose arrow should rise agam, and remmn
(In the water, should bring her up. By the will of
Allah, the lot decided in favour Za.ciliariah, wbo
then built a small chamber for Mary in the Temple,
to ",hieh no one bad a.ccess but himself. But when
'he brought her some food, she was aJready supplied,
und thoughit was in winter, the choicest SUmmer fruits
were standing before her. ' To his inquirywhence she
had obtained it all, ahe replied, "From Allah,. who
satisfieth every one according to bis own pleasure,
"nd giveth no a.ccount of bis proceedings." When
The general defection or the Church had, long berore
ltIohamed'l time, apread into Arabi., where Christianity had
been early and extenaive1y planted. .
Mnny bereaiea respecting the Trinityand the Baviour, the
worahip or saint. and images, errora on the future atat.e or the
1Oul, &0., had 10 complete1y overrun the nominal cburch 'or that
country, tbat it ia diicult to 8&y wbether one particle or truth
WRB lcft in it. :More eapecially the worabip or Mary RB the
Muth"r ofGod, wllonl tbc Marianitca conaidcred RB a Divinit)-,
AIIII to whom Collyridiana cvcn oll'ored a ltated eaori4co, W&I in

Zachariah saw tbis, he pmyed to Allah to perf'onn a
miracle cven in his oase, and to ble8fi him with a. son,
notwithstanding bis advanced Then Gabriel
called to him, "Allah will give thee a son, who shall
be called Jabja. (John), and bear testimony to the
W ord of God" (Christ). Zacbariah went down to
bis houso filled with joy, nnd rclatecl to his wifo what
t11e angel had announced to him; but as ehe was
already ninety-and-eight 100m of age, and her bus-
band one hundred and twenty, she laughOO him,
80 that at length he bimself began to doubt the ful-
filment of the promise, and askOO a sign from .Allah. .
'" As the punishmcnt of thy unbelief," cried G ...
briel unto him, "thou shnlt bc spccchlcss for three
days, and let this serve thee as the sign thou hast
. t On the following morning Zachariah, as usual,
desir.ed to lead in pmyer, but was unable to utter 0.
single sound until the fourth day, when his tongue
was 100sOO, and he besought .Allah to pardon him and
his wife.
, Thcn there eame 0. voiee from hooven, whieh said,
" Y our sin is forgiven, and .Allah will give you a
son, shall surpass in purity and holiuess all
the men of his time. Dlc88ed bo ho in thc day
of his birtb, as weIl as in thos of his dooth and
resurrcction. "
general Afohamed; and it is ai curiOUl 81 it
ia sad to thia idolatry affccted him.-E. T.
MAKY. 219
'Vithin a year's time, Zachariah became the father
of a child which, even at .its birth, bad a. holy and
venerable appearance. He no\v divided his time'
botween bim n.nd MIl1'Y: andJohn in the bon8O
of his father, and Mary in the up
like two fair owers, "to the joy of all
daily increasing in wisdorn and piety.
'Vhen Mary had grown to womanho9<l. there ap-
peared to her one day, wbile she was alone in her
cell, Gabriel, in fnll human form.
Mary hastily covered hersolf with her veil, and
cried," "Most Mercifnll assist roe aglJoinst" this
But GlI.briel, "Fear not hing from me: I am
the llle88eugor of thy Lord, who has exalted thee
auove all the wornen of emh, and am corne to make
known to thee bis will. Thon shalt bear a son,' and
caU hirn Isa., the Blessed one. He shall speak earlier
than all otl1er children, honoured both in this
world and in the world to come I"
"How sllaH I beo.r a. son," replied Mary, nf-
frighted, "since I have not known a man? "
" It is even so," replied Gabriel. "Did not Allah
oreate Adam without either father 01' mother, merely
by bis word, 'Be thon creatcd.' Thy son shall be
sign of His omnipotcncc, and ns His prophet, restore
the sons of Israel to thc }lath of righ-
tcousness. "
,. :I
Wbcn 'Gabriel had thUB spoken, he raised with biB
finger Mar,'. robe from her bosom, ud breathed upon
Thoreupon ahe ran into the f i e d ~ ud bad scaroely
time to support herself on the withered trunk of a
date tree, before sho was delivered of a son. Then
cried she, "Oh that I bad died, and heen forgotten
long ere tbis, rather than that the suspicion of having
einned ehould faU upon me I " .
Gabriel appeared again to her, and said, "Fear
nothing, Mo.ry. DehoId, the Lord causes a fountain
"f fl'ellh wa.ter to gush forth from thc earth o.t thy
foet, nnd tho trunk on which thon lCtl.est is bloB80m-
ing even now, and fresh dates are covering itB withered
lwanohe8, Eat ud drink, and when thou art satis-
ftod, return to thy people; and if any one shall inquire
of thoo rospooting thy ehild, be thou sileht, and Ieave
tby defonco to hirn,"
Mury plueked a few dates, which tasted like
t'ruit from PlU'l\dise, dmnk from tbe fountain, whose
wator was oven like milk, and then went, with
her ahild in lier arms, unto her family; but all the
pOOlllo oried out to her, "Mary, what hast thou
,luno? Thy father was so pio\ls, Rnd thy mother 80
Mau'y, illtltoud of l'OllIying, poilltcd to tbe child.
'fhon Baid bor relations, " Shall thie new-born child
nnswer UI?"
nut J OBUS Bl\id. "Do not sin, in suspecting my
HIRACLE8 . 221
blothet. Allah bas created me by bis word, and has
chosen me to be bis servant and prophet."
But, notwitbstAnding all tbese wondere, the sou
ol Iuael would not heUeve in Christ when at the
age of manhood, he proclaimed to them the Gospel
wbieh Allah bad revealed to him.. He ",as derided
and despised, because he called himself "the Word
cmd the Spirit of Allah," and WDS challenged to per-
form new mirac1es in the sight of the whole ~ p l e .
Christ then created, at the will of Allah, varioue
kiJids of birds out of clay, wbieh he animated with
.hii breath, so that theyate and. drank, and Bew up
and down, like natural birds. He healed in one
.day by his prayer fif\y thousand blind and leprous
persona, whoee eure the best phyeiclans of those times
bad been unable to eft'ect. He reoovered many dead,
who, o.fter he bad recalled them to e married again,
and bad. children, and even raised up Sam, the son of
.Noah, who, however, died again immediately. But
he not only revived men, but even i80lated parts and
limba. During bis wanderings, he one day found a
skull near the Dead' Sea, and bis disciples DBked him
. In the original, it is eaid, Christ WH able to teil the people
wh. tood they bad taken, and what proviaionl they had laid up
in store. This whole legend shOWI how painfully deceived
Mohamed. WH by thoae who lpoke to hiID of the Lord JelUl
Christ; but if, even with hil knowledge, hc belicved lIim to
have becn great prophet, would 110 not llavc believed in hi
. Divinitl if he had read the goapeIa P
'222 , 'tHE SKULL.
, to' recaU it to life. Christ pl'ayCd to Allnh, antI then,
turlling to the skulI, sl\id, "Livo, by tho will of
the Lord, and tell us how thou hast found death, the
gmve, and the future state."
'rhe skull then ,assumed the form of a living 'head,
, ,and, said; "Know thou, 0 prophet of,Alla.h I that
'foul' thousand yean ago, after taking a bath, l' fell
into 0. fever, whieh, notwithstanding aU the
.eines wbieh were given me, continued seYen days.
On the eighth day I was so entirely, exhausted,
that all my limbS trembled, and my tongue cleaved
to the roof of my mouth. Then there came to me the
Angel of Death in a terrible shape. Bis head touoooo
: the sky, while bis feet stood in tbo lowest depths of
tbe elu1}l. He held a sword in bis right band, and a
cup in bis left, and there were ten other angels with
,him, whom 1 took to be bis servantB. I would have
so, loudly 'at their Bight, tho.t the inhabit-
antB of heaven and of earth must have been petrified ;
,hut the, angels fell on Me, and held my tongue, and
Bome of them proesed my veina, 80 as to force out
,my spul. Then aaid I, "Exalted 'spirits, I will give
.. -U; that I, poesees for .my life." But one 01 them
,struck me in the faoe, and almoatshattered my jaw-
bone, aaying; 'Enemy of Allah, He acceptB no rau-
'BOm.' The Angel of Death then placed bis sword
upon my throat, and gave me the cup, wbiOO I was
fQi:oed to enipty' to the drega, and tbiB was my death.
My coneciousnees now 108t, I waa waahed, Wra:ppecHn
'0. shroud, and interred; but when my pve was
eovered with earth, my soul returned to my body,
and I was sorely afraid in my solitude. But soon
there oome two angels, with a pnrchmont in their
hands, and told unto me till the good and till the
. bad that I bad done while living in the body, and
I was compelled to write it down with myown hand,
and to attest it by my own signature: whereupon
thcy 8uspended the scroll on my neck, and vanished.
There then appeared two,other dark blue angele, each
with 0. oohnnn oE me in bis }land, one single spark
oE whieh, it bad dropt on the earth, would have eon-
8umed it. They ealled to me, in a voioe like thunder,
C Who is thy Lord?' Overcome with fright, I lost my
sense8, and said 8hudderingly, C You are my 'lords ;'
but thtly criod, C Thou liest, encmy of .Allah,' and
8truck me 0. .blow with the eolumn of me, that sent
me down to the seventh earth; but as soonae I
returned again to my gravc, they said, C Oh Earth I
punieh the man who hn.s been rebellious against his
.Lord. ' lnetantly the ea.rth crushed me, so that my
bones were almost ground to powder; and ehe said,
'Enemy of God I I hatod thee whilc thou didet tread
my 8Urfaoe, but, by the glory of Allah, I will avenge:
me now, while thou an lying in my bowels.' The
angele then opened one of the gatewaY8 of hell, and
cried, C Take thie sinner, who did not belleve in
Allah, boil and burn him.' Thercupon I was dmgged
into the centre of hell by a chain which was seventy
224 . TBE BULt..
cuhitiJ in length, and as often RB the ames consumed
ruy skin I receivcd "f'reah one, hut only to suft'er anew
the tonnen ta of . At the same time, I was
'so hungry, that I prayed. for' food. But I only ob.
tained the putrified fruit of the tree Sakum, which not
roy hunger, but even caused thi
most horrid, and 'violent thint; and when' I
Mked for. something to drink, nothing but boiling
water was given me. At last they urged one :end
of the. chain with such violenee into ruy. mouth,
that it eame out through' iny back, ud chained' me
hand and foot."
When Christ'heard this, he wept with oompasaionj
but : demanded of the skull to describe hell more
" Know, then," continued the skull, "Oprophet o(
Allah 1 tha* hell consists of Beven :oors, one below the
other. - The uppennoBt is for hypocrites, the second
for J ews, the third tor ChriBtiana; the, fourth for the
Magi, the fifth for those wno call the prophets Hars,
the sixth for idolaters, and the seventh for the. trin-
ners of the people. of: the prophet Mohamed, who
BmU appear in later timeB. Tbe .
"bode is' tcrriblc, and sinners 0.1'0 savcd from it
through tho, intcrce8sion ,Mohamed; but in the
othors tbe and AgOny arc so gJ.'Cat, tb at if
tliou, 0 prophet of Allah I, 'shouldst but see it, thou
wouldeBt weep with compa8aion as a woilllLn who hu
l?st her only child. ' The '9uter . part of hell is of
oopper, and the inner part of lead. Its :oor is pu-
nishment, .. nd the wrath of the Alniighty its ceilmg.
Tbe walls are oE fire, not clear and luminous, but fire, and diflUsing a close disgusting stench,
heing fed with men and idols."
Christ wept long; and then inquired of the skull to
which famUy he belonged during lifetimc.
He replied, "I am .. descendant of the prophet
Eliasr" .
" And what desirest thou now? " .
" That' Allah would recall me to life, that I might
&erve hirn with my whole heart, 80 as one day to be
worthy of Para.dise I "
Christ prayed to Allah, "0 Lord I thou knowest
this man and me better than we know ourselves, an"-
nrt omnipotent."
Then Allah said to hUn, "I bad long ago resolved
upon . that which he desires; since, indeed, he bad
many excellencies, and WDS especially benevolent
to the poor, he may return to the world thl'Qugb
thy intercession; and if he &erve me henceforward
faithfully, all bis sin88hnll be forgiven."
Christ cried unto tbo skull, ,i Bo again a pertect
man, thl'Qugh the omnipotence of God;" and while the .'
words were still on his lips, there rosa up .. man who
looked more blooming than in bis former life j and
cried, "I confess that there is but one God, and
that Abmhanl WRB his frlond; Moscs saw him faco
to face, Isa ia bis spirit and word, and Mobamed
,shall be'his last o.nd greateet messenger. I confess,
mor,eover, thRt the resurrcction is as eertain as,
and that hell and paradise do rea1ly exist."
Thie man lived sixty-and.eix yeare after his reeusoi-
tation, and spent his days fasting, and his nighte in
prayer, nol' did he alienate a single moment from
the service of the Lord until he died.
But the more wondere Christ hefore the
eyes of the people, the greater was their unbellef:
for all that they ware not able to comprehend, they "
helieved to be sorcery o.nd delusion, instead of per ..
eeiving therein a proof of his divinc mieeion. ,Even
thc Apostles whom be had chosen to propa-
gate the new doetrine, were not steMast in the faith.
and asked of him one day, that, he might cause Ho
tabIe, covered with viands, to deecend fromheaven I
, ce A table shall be' given you," said a voiee
heaven, "but whosoever sball thereafter continue in
unbelief sha1l suffer severe punishment."
, . ,Thereupon there deecended two ciouds, with a
golden table, on which there stood a covered dish of
&ilver. "
, ,Many oe the Israelites who were present ex-
claimed, "Dehold the sorccrer I wbat new dell1sioll
bl\8 he wrought?" But these scoftcrs were instantly
changed into swine. And on seeing it, Christ
prayed : Lord, let this table lead us to sal-
vation and not to ruin I" ,Then said he to the
Apostles, "Let him who is the greatest among you
rise li.nd uncover this dish." But Simonj the oldest
apostle, said, "Lord, tbou art tbe most wortby
to bebold this hoo.venly food first." Christ then
wnshed bis hands, removed the cover, and said:
"In the name of Allah I" and behold there became
visible a large baked fieh, with neither bones nor seales,
and dift'used a fragrance around like. the fruits of
Paradise. Round the Ssb there lo.y five small
loaves, and on it salt, pepper, and other spices.
Spirit of Allah," said Simon, "are these viands -
from this world or from the Qther?" But Christ
.replied, " Are not both worlds, nd nJl tbat they con-
Wn, the work of theLord ? Receive whtever he
has given with grateful haarts, and ask not whence
it comc,ll But if tbo nppclU'DQC of this fieh be not
suffiQientIy miraculous to you, you sholl bebold a still
greater sign." Then, turning to, the fieh, he said,
." Live I by the will of the Lord." The fish then
began to stir and to move, so that the Apostles
fled with faar. But Christ called them back, and
aaid,. . f' Why do you flee from that which you have
tlcsircdP" Ho thon callod to tho Bo ngain
'what thou wast before I " and immediatelyit lay
there as it had come down from heaven. The
disciples then prayed Christ that he might eat oe
it first; but he replied, "I have not lusted tor. it.:
ho tImt hns lustcd for rt, lot bim oo.t of it now." But
'whcn t110 disciplcs rofusod to et of it, thoy
now aaw that their requeat bad been ainf'ul, Christ
ealled many aged man - many deal, siek, blind, and
lame, ud invited them to eat of the &ab. There now
. came thirteen hundred, which ate or the fiab, ud were
aatdied. But whenever one piece waa cut oft' from
the fish uother grew agam in ita place; 80 that it still
lay there entire as if no one Iwl touched it. The gnesta
were not only satisfied, but even healed of all their
dieeaSes. Tbe aged became yoong, the blind aaw, the
deaf heard, the dumb spoke, ud. the lame regained
their vigorouslimbs. When the Apostles aaw this, they
regretted that they bad not eaten ; nd whoever beheld
the menthat h&d been cured and invigorated thereby,
regretted in like manner not to have shared in ihe
repast. When, therefore, at the prayer of Christ,
a similar table again from heaven, the
whole people, rieh ud poor, young ud old, siek
arid whole, came. to be' refreshed by these heavenly
. viands. This lasted during forty daye. At. the
dawn of day the borne on the clouds, descended
in the face of the sons of Israel; and before .sunset
it gradually rose up again, until it vanished behind
the elouds. But as, notwithstanding this, many still
doubted whether it really came from beaven, Christ
prayed no longer for its return, ud tbreatened the
unbelievera with tho puniahment of the Lord. Nover-
theless in the hearts oE the Apostles every doubt .
respeoting the miuion of their Lord was removed,
they t!!,velled partIy in his company,. partly
alone, through the whole of Palestine, preaching ~ h
faith in .Alla.h and his prophet Christ; and, according
to the new' revelation, permitting the eating of many
thiugs wbieb bad been prohibited to tbo SOO8' 'of
IaraeL But when he would bave aent them to. teach'
bis gospel even in distant eountrica, tbey exeuaed
. themaelves with their ignorance 01 foreign tonguea.
Christ oomplained of their diaobedience before the
Lord; and behold, on thc following' day hia diaeiples
had forgotten their own Ia.nguage, and every one
knew only' the language or the people unto which
Christ desired to send him, so that they bad no longer
any reaaon to disobey hia oommanda. .
But while the true faith found many lollowera
abroad, the hatred of the sone of Israel, but especially.
of the prieste and the heada' of the people, towarda
Christ, daily waxed in ranoour until 80t last, when he
had attained the age or thirty-and-tJn:ee yeara, they
sougbt to take hislife; butAllah overthrew their plans,
anel mised him to heaven unto himaelf, while anoiher
lllau, whom Allah had cauaed to a. perfeet resem ...
blanee to hirn, WRS put to death in his stead.
The further particulara of the last momente of
this prophet are vnriously narmtoo by the learned.
But most of them run as folIows: - On the evening
. before the passover fcast, the J ews took Christ captive,
together witlt his Apostlea, and ahut them up in a
hoosc, with thc intention of puttil1g Cbrist publicly
to death on the following lDornibg. But in the night
230 LAST noUBS.
AUah revealed to him, "Thou sbalt receive death
from mo, but immediatelyalterwarda bc raiaed up to
heaven, and be delivered from the power of the 11D:"
believen. " Christ gave up bis spirit, and remained
dead for the space of three hours. . In the fourth
hour the Angel Gabriet appeared, and nised him un
Ilerceivcd by uy through a window into heaven. But
an unbelieving Jew, who bad stolen iilto tbe house
to wateb Christ that he might by no means escape,
became so like him that even the Apostles them-
selves took him to be their prophet. He it was
who, as soon as the day dawned, was chained by
the J ews and Ied through the streets of J erusalem ;
every body crying to him, "Hast thou not revived
the dead I Why shouldest thou not be able to break
thy fetten 1" Many pricked hirn with rode of thom,
othen spit in bis face, until he at last Arrived at
the p1ace of exeeution, w ~ he was crucified, for
no one would beIievc that he was not the Christ.
But when Mary bad well-nigh succumbed from
gricf at the shameful deatb of her suppoeed son, Christ
appeared 10 her from heaven, and said, ":Moum
not for Me, for Allah has taken me to lrlmself, ud
we shall be re-united in the day of the resurrection.
Comfort my <1isciplcs, and tell thorn timt it is well with
lDe in heavcn, ud tbat thcy sball obtain a placc
beside me, they continue steadfast in the faith.
Hereafter, at the aI'proach of the last day, I &hall
be sent agam upon .the earth, wben I shall s)ay
the false prophet DadjaJ. and the wild 'boar, (both
of which causa similar distress in the earth), and
such astate ot peace and unity shall ensue that
tbc lrunb and. the hyena shall feod like brothers
beside each other. I skall then burn the Gospel,
,oMeh has been falsified b!J ungodl!J priesu, and the
el'osses whieh tlte'!l ',ave worshipped as Gods, and eub-
ject the whole earth to the doctrines of Mohamed,
",ho sltall be sent in later times." When Christ had
tlms spoken, he was onoe more lifted on a cloud to
heaven. But Mary lived yet six years in the faith of
. Allah, and of Christ her son, and of the prophet
Mohruned, whom both Christ as weil as Moses before
hirn had proclaimed.
The peaoo of Allah be upon them all I
l'rlnted bl A.
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GOLD8MITH-THE POITICAL WORKI OF OLIVER COLDSMITH. .. 104 _, Wood K ..... I.p. 1..- tu 0011 .... 810. W. Cope. A.R.o"\" ...
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TlIItBOOK 0' '8ALM8, 1nII.1at!'1 .. wI&II Noto., .. ,Ioutorr .. d .. ltI I.
41b Bdl,I.I. _ 120. cIO ...

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Wlth Chuacterlltle Sketeh 1 1\1 chief Clll ... nd 8e= Cellectetlla. Oeneral Tuu,
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