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XINMIN

SECONDARY VIRTUAL CLONING


SCHOOL

Entry for Create2010 | Nimnix3: Collins Jaise Abraham,


Niruthavignesh Sundarajah, Koh Waiheng
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Virtual Cloning

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 1 The Current Scenario Pg.2

Section 2 Solution: Virtual Cloning Pg. 2

Section 3 Data Structure Pg. 3

Section 4 The Operation of Virtual Cloning Pg. 3

Section 5 The Algorithm Pg. 5

Section 6 Applications Pg. 8

Section 7 Limitations Pg. 9

Section 8 Feasibility: The Virtual Reality Pg. 10

Section 9 Changing the World: Our Future Pg 11

Section 10 References Pg. 13

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Section 1
The Current Scenario
1 What is the problem?

1.1 Man has reached the capability of creating remedies and solutions for himself but till
today he does not have the ability to predict whether these solutions will be applicable on
him personally and to what extent would it bring change to him as an individual with
specific characteristics. This arena of remedies and solutions for human beings can be
further developed by creating specificity and accuracy in the application of such pre-existing
systems. A simulation programme would be of great help to resolve this problem as it
would provide a good estimation or prediction regarding the state of our body if some
conditions are varied in our system. This would also facilitate drug researching programmes
as the result obtained is quite accurate though the usage of living organisms for tests can be
minimized greatly.

1.2 Drugs cannot be said to be fully functional in a person’s body as a cause of his specific
body conditions so there is a great need to first research on the body changes and counter-
reactions that may happen in a specific person due to his unique body standards. Therefore,
the presence of this system would be able to check in detail and project a simulation of one’s
body after the intake of certain drugs. Basically, the simulation would then give the user a
rough idea of the effect that the drug has on him.

1.3 In the field of gaming man has reached a lot of high standards but at the end of the day
what matters is how much strength or agility your virtual player and not you, so there is a
need for being original in the sense of having the same potential in the player on the screen
as the potential that one originally has. This need of specificity can be quenched by use of
our concept of virtual cloning. Be it a fist fight or a soccer match, the individual attributes of
the player will be taken into account, giving each of the players a more realistic feel.

1.4 In the field of predicting things for himself, man could make use of the virtual cloning
simulation program to accurately establish clear relations between him and the changes in
the environment. This in turn helps man to understand himself better.

1.5 Man has been able to clone the bodies of organism but it has been very tedious and often
subject to failure and public scrutiny and controversies.

Section 2

Solution: Virtual Cloning

2 What do we propose?

We propose a programme which will be able to simulate every individual in a virtual


environment. The conditions of the environment in this programme could be altered flexibly
to the requirement of every individual. The various conditions that can be altered are; but
not limited to; the biological conditions in the individual, external conditions such as
temperature and pressure. The biological conditions in an individual would be altered by
the introduction of new chemicals or the change in the normal composition of chemicals in
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the body. This programme would then be useful in many cases such as drug testing
whereby man will be able to test the effects of a certain drugs in an individual’s body. This
program also takes into account the muscular strength of a person. Therefore this piece of
data could be used in gaming for instance whereby players can actually face off with
another individual using the exact abilities that an individual possesses. This would also
serve as a simulation for many cases as it takes into account many data such as those stated
in Section 5. This simulator program will create a virtually living clone of the individual. The
user can test various conditions on this virtually living copy of the user before actually
doing it in real life. For example, when person A wants to go mountaineering, he can input
his 3D Cloned data into the simulator and provide the conditions of a low pressure and low
temperature to see the changes in his body standards and thereby have an estimate of what
would happen to him if he actually is that condition.

Section 3

3 Data Structure

3.1 Defining 3D Cloned Data: Components of the “3D Cloned Data” Structure:
This is the internal and external detailed data of the scanned person that contains
information of:

1. External 3D Points

2. Internal 3D Points

3. Detailed Standards of the Biological Measurements of the Body; for example;


BMR, Heart Rate, Blood Sugar, Hormonal Specifications, Blood Pressure etc.

4. The normal rate of the physiology of his body which can be simulated on the
program

This information of the internal and external detailed environment can be simulated as a
“virtually living” model person on the program. This means that the program gives the
factors of the environment to the model and simulates the virtual living model accordingly.

For example, when person A’s detailed 3D Cloned Data is simulated, the program can state
the temperature, pressure of his external environment and chemicals moving into his body
through food in his internal environment and see the changing results in simulated virtually
living person A. This virtually living model of the person on the simulator is referred to as
3D Cloned Data.

Section 4

4 The Operation of Virtual Cloning

4.1 How does Virtual Cloning work?

A detailed 3D Cloned Model will first be created based on the original body. Variables and
factors will be input into the simulator.
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The simulator uses the 3D Cloned Data of the specific person as the input Processing begins
once the user enters the conditions that he wants to test the virtual clone in. The program
processes the input using the pre-defined algorithm that suits the conditions provided or in
simpler terms the change in the internal or external environment stated by the user. The
output is the result that the program gives after processing the 3D Cloned Data based on the
conditions provided by the user.

Through means of different algorithms, relation between and within the body and
observations that are recorded, a relatively accurate prediction of the resultant body can be
obtained to consider the effects of the input factors on the body.

Conceptually, it is no different than the current simulation of solid physical bodies that we
have right now. However, with this program, it has been brought to a new level as more
advanced and complex relations between each part of the body are being calculated and this
makes for a more sophisticated process.

For instance, in the case of calories entering the body of person A, the body of person A is
the input data, the calories added to his body is the condition and the change in the weight/
behaviour of person A is the output data.

The algorithm includes definitions for what the impacts of calories, force, temperature,
chemicals and pressure over a body can be over a specific time period while also considering
factors of body metabolism rate, stress, physical exercise etc which is estimated from the
input data and conditions.

The program therefore runs in a simple three fold method- whereby:

3D CLONED DATA CHANGE IN CONDITION

ALGORITHM: THE FORMULA

(Processing…..)

OUTPUT: THE
P RESULT

Therefore, now the person can just try out a particular P environment or any chemical intake
even before he actually does it. We could predict from our simulated models what can be
expected of our real models if the same is implemented in our real life. For example, a
mountaineer can try out his virtual body simulated in an environment of low pressure and
temperature and thereby see the reactions of his body virtually. By this, he knows what to
do for himself in his real life by expecting the virtual model to be close to reality.

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Section 5

5 The Algorithm

The program has defined in itself all of these aspects as conditions for the input data but not
limited to:

5.1 Calories and Nutritional Organic Substances: These are some of the factors; all these
but not limited to; that affect the calories that enter a body:

5.1.1 Burning Calories: BMR: The amount of calories that your body needs just to exist is
considered your BMR which accounts for 60 to 70 percent of your total daily energy
expenditure (TDEE).

Thermic Effect of Food: The calories burned from biting, chewing, swallowing and digesting
are considered to be a result of the thermic effect of food and account for about 10 percent of
your TDEE.

Activity Level: Amount of calories your body burns accounts for 15 to 50 percent of your
TDEE.

Harris Benedict Equation: Using the Harris Benedict Equation, a sedentary person would
multiply his BMR by 1.2 to estimate the amount of calories burned from daily activities, such
as yard work, driving and sitting. But someone who exercises vigorously would multiply his
BMR by 1.9.

Hormonal Changes: Calorie Restriction carried out for 10 to 15 years in adult rhesus
monkeys has been shown to result in sustained alteration in glycogen metabolism, despite
apparent retention of normal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, normal glucose tolerance
and normal fasting glucose and insulin levels. Considering all the factors as well as their
relative importance is significant to create a conclusion about the particular specifications of
the body and the factors help in creating the “virtually living” model of the person scanned.
(Chapman, 2009)

5.1.2 The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT): A prospective population study on the
change in body mass index and its impact on blood pressure recorded that an increase in
Body mass index (BMI) and a decrease in BMI were significantly associated with increased
and decreased systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, compared
to a stable BMI in both genders and all age groups. So at the end of the day the algorithm
formulates an assumption about calories stating something that may seem like:

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3D CLONED DATA CALORIES ADDED

BMR + activity level + Harris Benedict


equation + internal/ external
metabolism = Energy stored

CHANGE IN WEIGHT = OUTPUT

5.2 Temperature and Muscle Metabolism: There are many factors that can affect the
temperature of the body some being; but not limited to;

5.2.1 Effect of Alcohol: A series of five experiments was undertaken in order to characterize
the pharmacological effects of alcohol on the body temperature of the unrestrained rat. The
following observations were made: (1) at laboratory room temperature of 22 degrees C,
alcohol produced a dose-dependent decline in colonic temperature. (2) exposure for one
hour to either a warm (36 degrees C) or cold (8 degrees C) ambient temperature beginning at
the time of the intra-gastric gavage with alcohol, the body temperature decreased or
increased, respectively and (3) either a high or low ambient temperature elevated or lowered
the colonic temperature of the rat at an identical rate and magnitude.”” (Bull, 1981)

5.2.2 Effects of Temperature on Muscle Metabolism: By a study in the quadriceps muscle


of man by combining biochemical analyses of metabolites in needle biopsy samples, it has
been seen that fatigue may be due to a reduction in the rate of regeneration of ATP from
anaerobic glycolysis. (R.H.T. Edwards, 1972) Hence at the end of the day what the algorithm
may assume would look like-

3D CLONED DATA NEW TEMPERATURE

Heat Absorbed or Released from


the body

New temperature of the body

Considering this result the simulator can then estimate as to what the changes in the body
standards and structural differences in the model would be.

5.3 Pressure: The normal blood pressure of the person simulated is put against the
atmospheric pressure and then the simulator gives an estimate of the change in the blood

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pressure, heartbeats and metabolic patterns thereby giving a clear idea of what can be
expected from that body under the specified condition.

5.4 Force: The muscular and skeletal ability of the person can be estimated from the physical
3D Model and when this is put against the condition of a particular force, it can be reflected
on the simulator what will be the condition of the body under that circumstance. This can be
put to use in games where the simulator would simulate two or more persons
simultaneously so as to create a virtual reality of theirs. Gaming is getting a new revolution
when the person actually uses his own virtual replica to fight and game with his counterpart
and not a computer character. Also, it can be used in virtual crash test where the force of the
hitting of the car that has to be tested can be inputted as a condition giving the results of
what would be the changes in the person’s body.

5.5 Chemicals

5.5.1 The Job/Action suits your body or not? Petroleum based chemicals are being found to
cause significant attrition effects to the nervous system and immune system after prolonged
exposure. (Pressinger) Exposure to radioactive materials has been seen to cause a content of
the radioactive substance in the body of the person. Smoking builds up thousands of
unwanted and potentially hazardous chemicals in the body. Hence by bringing in the
condition of the chemical that the person wants to be exposed to, he can see on the virtual
environment what would be cumulative effect of all of those chemicals on his body. For
example, to convince person A that smoking is injurious to him, the estimate of the
chemicals he intakes from 1 cigarette each day can be virtually simulated on his body for a
particular period, whereby person A could see for himself on his “virtually living” model
what would be the cumulative effect of the chemical and thereby decide on whether to take
in the chemical or not.

5.5.2 Examples of Certain Chemical Behaviours

5.5.2.1 Nitric Oxide: A team of scientists based at the new British Heart Foundation (BHF)
Laboratories at UCL first identified ADMA as a naturally occurring substance that blocks
the production of a gas made by the body - Nitric Oxide. Nitric Oxide has been known to
scientists as an important signalling molecule playing a major role in blood pressure
regulation and clotting implicating it strongly in the mechanisms behind heart attack and
strokes. (Edwards, 2002) Keeping track of the content of such chemicals can curb, predict or
diagnose diseases.

5.5.2.2 Nicotine: After entering the body, nicotine flows through the bloodstream and across
the blood brain barrier. Levels of the stimulating hormone adrenaline increase, as do blood
sugar levels, respiration rates, blood pressure, and heart rate, induce muscle relaxation,
decrease one's appetite, speedup metabolism, and increase levels of dopamine, a mood-
altering chemical in the brain that induces feelings of pleasure. (Mosby, 1998)
This would enable a person with greater vulnerability to certain environments to avoid that
specific environment or be suggestive of danger to a person who is unknowingly exposed to
such an environment or knowingly in-taking these chemicals in any form. The simulator
would hence have the algorithm that would define a relationship between a known
chemical and the changes that it brings to the body standards; example- blood pressure,
hormone levels; thereby it would be able to predict what would exactly happen to a person
with specific reactions to a chemical after a given amount of exposure to that chemical.
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Section 6

6 Applications

6.1 Healthcare: Essentially, this idea works best in the healthcare field. The introduction of
this programme will fundamentally reduce the risk of deaths during medical procedure. In
other words, this invention could be proving to be a live-saving invention. In cases of
operations, the surgeons can have a higher level of probability of the success of the surgery.
This is because the surgeons can conduct the operation on a virtual platform well before it is
actually conducted on the patient. Hence the results of the surgery or any drug intake can be
predicted on a virtual environment using the specific conditions of the body of the patient
itself and hence resulting in much better actual results. For example, when the simulator
program would demonstrate the operation of the different organ systems in the specific
person’s body it would show the particular standards of that person’s internal and external
environment. By this, the user (virtual surgeon) simply needs to introduce the new
condition into the person’s environment which would act accordingly as per the instructions
that are defined in the simulator software (like introduction of nicotine would increase the
blood pressure of the operating model of the person.) After the program shows the changes
brought about in the person the surgeon may know precisely what is required for that
person in particular and can undergo the same in the actual operation of the person. In cases
of dietician services, the dietician or probably the person himself who is in need of the
dietician would be able to use this simulation program to introduce conditions or feed in the
results that he wants within a period of time. For example, when the person wants to reduce
weight by 10 kg in the next month- he can feed it into the simulation which by its pre-
defined nature would give results on what type of dietary changes can bring about the
change in that particular body with those specific conditions. This would eliminate the lack
of accuracy in the dietary trends that would be beneficial to a person and thereby help
individuals largely on how to adjust their lifestyle.

6.2 Gaming: Today people game on the computers with a character representing them on
the screen which is actually incapable of what the real player can do and capable of what the
real player cannot perform. (Little children playing Counter Strike can lift up heavy guns).
Using the simulator program, when one has generated a virtually “alive” model of himself
on the screen he has actually defined all that he is capable of (for example, Muscular
strength). This would be more original as this virtual clone can be simulated to play the
games and find the real results. (Players can train themselves on National Basketball
Association (NBA) by using their own real model with their own real muscular strength and
have an estimate of the results in their next real match. Thereby, at every step man would be
able to anticipate the changes that could occur in him or assess his potential on the virtual
environment well before he does the same in reality.

6.3 Travelling and Trekking: An individual can keep the conditions that prevail at the spot
that he is travelling to and notice and anticipate the change that would occur in the
standards of the model of his body on the simulator program. This way people can be more
certain of their actions and be prepared for what they would need in cases of physical

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changes in their environment. This can be done by varying the external conditions in the
simulator to obtain information regarding the internal conditions in the simulator.

6.4 Personal Actions: Virtual Cloning brings convenience into the life of the users enabling
users to identify the effects of certain actions, example: in diets on his appearance or state, in
the effects brought by his environment etc. By having access to such information, the user in
turn will be able to take personal actions. In a larger scale this programme would be able to
reduce the dependence on doctors and will thus be useful. It will transform into a home
based doctor and dietician while letting the user decide what is best for him once he inputs
the data and the conditions that he wants to test himself on.

Section 7

7 Limitations

The program like any other innovation has its own limitations as per the current level of
human outreach to technology but all of it would be subject to improvement once the
simulator program comes into feasibility. Some of the limitations currently seen are:

7.1 Some applications of the simulator need to take into account the specific DNA of the
person in question and since the level of DNA. Testing available today hinders the program
to be very strong in predicting results from conditions while considering the specific genes /
DNA.

7.2 The input data of the person in question, being very specific and comprehensive to an
extremely detailed level of precision, would be of quite a large size which would probably
be hard to be run on normal computers for the start but there are chances of creating a
smaller compressed version of the data or maybe improving the compatibility of today’s
computers by the use of advanced holographic data storage which is still to develop to its
significant potential.

7.3 The simulator would be possibly cover many of the conditions that are in the internal
and external environment of a person but it may not be possibly take into account the
personal behaviour or emotional/ mental aspect of the person which may also probably
affect the changes brought in the body standards by the given conditions.

7.4 Some of the aspects in the body that needs to be saved in the input data are not yet
perfectly accessible or predictable by current day technology. This would mean that some
part of the data would be an estimate rather than an accurate value due to which the results
given would also be an estimate and not exactly or very close to the accurate prediction. This
is subject to technology in the field of medical sciences and it is subject to improvement from
the present day status.

7.5 It is very hard to make people believe the claims of the simulator as it is a new
technology that needs a lot of effort for improvement. Yet, gradually with the development
of the program and the more accurate results given by it, the simulator would be regarded
as a dependable “predictor”.

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Section 8

8 Feasibility: The Virtual Reality

8.1 How feasible is it? Proximity to 2010

The current day technological advancement in 2009 gives us examples of simulators and 3D
Models of people being generated. Three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction is feasible
just for instance, MRI scanners offer isotropic, or near isotropic, resolution, display of images
does not need to be restricted to the conventional axial images. Instead, it is possible for a
software program to build a volume by 'stacking' the individual slices one on top of the
other. The program may then display the volume in an alternative manner. (Magnetic
Resonance Imaging, 2009) Today we can also scan the human body to create near-to-perfect
standards for specific people. We are also aware of many effects brought about on the
internal and external environments of the body by certain known phenomena like
temperature, force, pressure, chemicals etc. Therefore, all that it takes is to compile all the
information that we know about these factors that can affect the human body in any way
and also compile the complete near-to-perfect data of the person under question. We need to
create pre-defined relationships between these external and internal factors and the human
body of a specific person and then we need to let in values of these factors into the simulator
and let the simulator do the job for us by manipulating and predicting the implications on
the body by taking into account the standards of the human body and the specific factors in
scenario.

Therefore, we strongly believe that the 2010 that we have seen is not a year far off but just
the year after 2009, just as it really is. So, the days are not afar, and it is not a far-fledged idea
that would take shape in the next millennium or so! The power of technology in our hands,
with the vision of a call for change in the world and faith in the outreach of mankind, truly
that is all that it takes to start to create or maybe acquire Virtual Cloning in 2010!

8.2 How 2009 contributes in creating 2010?

Present day status in technology gives us enough provision to extract data of a person’s
body standards to a considerable level of accuracy and display it on a 3D Environment.

8.2.1 Computed Axial Tomography (CAT or CT) Scan:

(CAT Scan (CT)- Body, 2009)


(X- Ray computed tomography, 2009)

8.2.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan:

(Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2009)

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8.2.3 Dimensional Rendering:

Surface rendering and Volume rendering technologies pre-exist today and can be put into
use to display the simulated data in 3D environment in the program.
(Nave), (Three Dimensional Imaging)

8.2.4 Ultrasound

(Ultrasound- General , 2009)

8.2.5 Input Data:

Holographic data storage is a potential replacement technology in the area of high-capacity


data storage currently dominated by magnetic and conventional optical data storage.
(Bonsor, 2008)

Section 9

9 Changing the World: Our Future

9.1 How to bring it to our lives?

The 3D Cloned Data of each individual could well be stored in ID cards. This valuable piece
of information is storable in ID cards and accessed in any ID card readers that have the
software pre installed in it. This would be an extra piece of information which could be
stored for every individual. This piece of information has many uses. For instance, it could
be used as security information. The key data points (the 3D data found in the virtual clone)
of every individual could work as a password. Besides that, this information could also well
be used in online shopping for clothing. The 3D data stored in an ID card could be accessed
through using a reader. This could even be used by parents to view and know more about a
mother’s foetus when the mother’s scanned 3D data is inputted in the simulator at a home
based personal computer.

Using the key 3D data points and the conditions of a person, in an automobile industry, the
car could adapt itself to the liking of the driver. Probably if the driver is small sized, the seat
could readjust itself to accommodate the driver. If the driver is usually warm in terms of
body temperature, it could provide better ventilation to the driver automatically. In other
words, it is able to change the conditions inside the car according to that of the driver. This
information could also be emailed as computer data and accessed to design custom made
apparel. This is new in our lives and could save our time from measuring the old school way
and the 3D data points would be more accurate and precise, negating all possible human
errors present during measurement.

To incorporate this invention into our daily lives, the data would first need to be updated
from time to time because the biological condition in human do not remain constant every
time. For instance if one individual were to contract a long term-disease such as Acquired
Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), his body system would not function the same way it
did before he falls ill; even small changes in blood pressure or sugar level may affect the
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physiology rate of metabolism which may in turn cause for differences in the results yielded
by the program. Therefore updating the information is crucial for this programme in order
for it to yield accurate results and also for it to be an effective invention in our daily lives. In
the beginning the data could be updated in hospitals as hospitals are well equipped with the
scanners. In the future however, the scanners could well be simplified enabling updating to
be done from stations made nationwide.

This virtual cloning simulator could also be made as a self diagnose tool. Since this
programme is very important and effective in predicting the state of health of a person it
should be made into a programme whereby it is available to all. This programme would be
able to also predict the causes of any changes or diseases in an individual. The application
could be programmed such that it will be able to rectify the causes of problem in an
individual. This programme if developed further would be able to suggest ways or means to
prevent diseases or overcome the changes in the normal functioning of the body. For
instance in the case of gall stones weaknesses in the body, this system would be able to
suggest ways to the user on how to prevent this problem and precautions that can be taken
to overcome the problem. If for instance the user has updated his data and he finds that his
updated data is different than that of the previous data, the system would be able to state
the causes of the change. For example, it tells you that 2 gram nicotine will give you cancer
but later after further development, it will be able to tell you that you got cancer probably
because of nicotine.

After further development, the program will also be able to predict the rate of aging of a
person because it will be able to predict the accurate loss of genes. A possible invention is a
programme online which could possibly reduce the reliance on doctors in the future as it
could well serve as a self-diagnose platform online which would be available universally.
The person would just need to connect his ID card that has the data on it and simulate it on
an online tool probably called Google Doctor. With further development, this programme
could be made to diagnose up to the DNA level and provide even more accurate results. The
potential of the program goes a long way in becoming the part and parcel of the future in
taking the role of “Google Doctor”, “Virtual Reality Games”, “Airlines Security System”,
“Customized Cars”, “Customized Clothes”, “Personal Predictor” and go on to change the
world.

We have envisioned the concept of Virtual Cloning changing the world.


Have you?

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Section 10

References:

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