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# Solution to Tutorial 7

1.

Assuming only quantum noise on the signal, the SNR at the receiver is given
by :
Po
S

N
2hfB
Po

S 2hfB
S 2hcB 10 4 2 6.626 10 34 2.998 10 8 10 6 30

N
N
0.7 0.9 10 6

189.2nW or 37.2dBm

2.

## a) The mean photocurrent may be obtained using :

P e P e 0.65 5 10 6 1.602 10 19 0.8 10 6
Ip o o

2.01A
hf
hc
6.626 10 34 2.998 10 8

b) Assuming the quantum noise is shot noise, the quantum noise current is

i s2 3.59nA

S
2.01 10 6
20 log10
55.0dB
N
3.59 10 9

3.

## a) The minimum load resistance may be obtained :

B

1
2R L C d

RL

1
1

994.7
2BC d
2 20 10 6 8 10 12

i

3.31 10 16 A 2
RL
994.7

2
t

## Hence the rms thermal noise :

it2 18.19nA

c) The mean square noise current resulting from the dark current in the
device :

2
t

## i 2eBI d 2 1.602 10 19 2 10 6 1 10 9 64.1 10 22 A 2

Hence the rms noise current due to dark current is :

it2 80 pA

## The SNR resulting from the illumination given in Problem 2 is :

S
20 log 10
N
20 log10

Ip

i s2 i d2 it2
2.01 10 6
8 10 11 18.19 10 9

3.59 10 9
2.01 10 6
20 log10
21.86 10 9
39.3dB

4.

## a) The minimum resistance seen by the photodiode in order to maintain the

20MHz bandwidth is :
B

1
1

2RTL CT
2RTL (C d C a )

RTL

1
1

530.5
2B (C d C a ) 2 20 10 6 15 10 12

## The amplifier input resistance Ra may be obtained using :

RTL

R L Ra
Ra R L

R L Ra RTL Ra RTL R L
Ra

b)

RTL R L
530.5 994.7

1.137k
R L RTL 994.7 530.5

## The SNR where the detector dark current is neglected :

S

I p2
4 KTBFn
2eBI p
RTL

I p2 2eB(

4 KTBFn S
S
)I p
( ) 0
N
RTL
N

S
) 2 1.602 10 19 20 10 6 10 5 64.08 10 8
N
4 KTBFn S
4 1.381 10 23 298 20 10 6 10 5
( )
62.06 10 12
RTL
N
530.5

2eB(

I p2 64.08 10 8 I p 62.06 10 12 0
64.08 10 8 (64.08 10 12 ) 2 (4 62.06 10 12 )
2
8
6
64.08 10 15.77 10
Ip
2
Ip

## The positive solution, Ip = 8.21A

The minimum optical power which gives in SNR of 50dB :

Po

5.

I p hf

I p hc

## 8.21 10 6 6.626 10 34 2.998 10 8

19.58W
0.65 0.8 10 6 1.602 10 19

## The SNR for the shot noise limited receiver :

I p2
S

N
2eB( I p I d )
I p RPo
RPo
S
(0.6 10 6 ) 2

N
2eB( RPo I d ) 2 1.602 10 19 10 8 (0.6 10 6 0.5 10 6 )
S
1.02 10 4 or 40.1dB
N

6.

## The bandwidth without equalization is :

B

1
2RL C d

RL

1
1

3.183k
2BC d
2 25 10 6 2 10 12

## The minimum optical power to give a particular SNR at optimum

avalanche multiplication factor, Assuming Id = 0
2.3
M op

Ip

4 KT
xeRL I p

4 KT
2.3
xeRL M op

## SNR for APD detector when M = Mop is :

S

2
M op
I p2
2 .3
2eBI p M op

4 KTB
RL
2

4 KT
M
2 .3
xeRL M opt
S

N
4 KT 4 KTB
2 .3
2eBM opt

2 .3
RL
xeR L M opt
2
opt

4 KT
2.6

M opt
xeR
S
L

2eB 4 KT 4 KTB
N

xeRL
RL
2

4 KT 1
M 2.6

R xe
S
L
2B
N
B
x
2

2.6
M op

4 KT 1
R L xe

S 2

B( ) 1
N x

M op

4 KT 1 2 2.6

R L xe

S 2

B( ) 1

N x

4 KT
4 1.381 10 23 290

503.3 10 26
3
RL
3.183 10
2

1
1

38
xe 0.3 1.602 10 19 4.329 10
S 2

B ( ) 1 25 10 6 199.5
1 3.824 1010
N x

0.3

Hence, M op

67.47

3.824 1010

## The photocurrent may be obtained from :

Ip

4 KT
4 1.381 10 23 290

6.50nA
2.3
xeR L M opt
0.3 1.602 10 19 3.183 10 3 (67.47) 2.3

Po

hfI p
e

hcI p
e

## 6.626 10 34 2.998 10 8 6.50 10 9

1.602 10 19 0.95 0.9 10 6
9.43nW or - 50.3dBm

7.

a) Id = 0 and Fn = 1 so that,
S

M 2 I p2
2eBI p M 2 x

4 KTB
RL

## 2eBI p M 2.3 2 1.602 10 19 25 10 6 6.50 10 9 (33.74) 2.3 1.703 10 15

4 KTB 4 1.381 10 23 290 25 10 6

1.258 10 16
3
RL
3.183 10
S
(33.74) 2 (6.5 10 9 ) 2

26.30 or 14.2dB
N
(1.703 0.126) 10 15

## b) When SNR is restored to 23dB :

M 2 I p2 2eBM 2.3 (
I p2 2eBM 0.3 (

S
4 KTB S
)I p
( ) 0
N
RL
N

S
4 KTB S
)I p
( ) 0
N
RL M 2 N

S
) 2 1.602 10 19 25 10 6 (33.74) 0.3 199.5 4.592 10 9
N
4 KTB S
4 1.381 10 23 290 25 10 6 199.5
(
)

2.205 10 17
RL M 2 N
3.183 10 3 (33.74) 2

2eBM 0.3 (

I p2 4.592 10 9 I p 2.205 10 17 0
Ip

## 4.592 10 9 ( 4.592 10 9 ) 2 4 2.205 10 17

2

Ip = 7.52nA
The incident optical power required to restore the SNR to 23dB :
Po

8.

hfI p
e

hcI p
e

## 6.626 10 34 2.998 10 8 7.52 10 9

10.91nW or - 49.6dBm
1.602 10 19 0.95 0.9 10 6

## The maximum load resistance :

RL

1
1

94.7
2BC d
2 560 10 6 3 10 12

## The optimum avalanche multiplication factor where Fn = 1 is :

3
M op

4 KT
4 1.381 10 23 250

910.3
xeRL ( I p I d ) 1.602 10 19 94.7 10 10 7

M op 9.69

## The maximum SNR :

M 2 I p2
2eB ( I p I d ) M 3

4 KTB
RL

## 2eB ( I p I d ) M 3 1 1.602 10 19 560 10 6 10 10 7 910.3 1.633 10 13

4 KTB 4 1.381 10 23 250 560 10 6

8.166 10 14
RL
94.7
S
(9.69) 2 (8 10 7 ) 2

245.3 or 23.9dB
N
2.450 10 13

9.

## The maximum permitted load resistance without equalization :

RL

1
1

47.4
2B(C d C a ) 2 560 10 6 6 10 12

## The new avalanche multiplication factor is :

3
M op

4 KTFn
4 1.381 10 23 250 2

3.637 10 3
xeRL ( I p I d ) 1.602 10 19 47.4 10 10 7

M op 15.38

## The new maximum SNR may be obtained :

M 2 I p2
S

N
2eB ( I p I d ) M 3 4 KTBFn
2eB( I p I d ) M 3 2 1.602 10 19 560 10 6 10 10 7 3.637 10 3 6.526 10 13
4 KTBFn
4 1.381 10 23 250 560 10 6 2

3.263 10 13
RL
47.4
S
(15.38) 2 (8 10 7 ) 2

154.7 or 21.9dB
N
9.789 10 12

10.

## The SNR for pin photodiode is given by :

S

I p2
2eB ( I p I d )

4 KTB
Rf

4 KTB S
S
S
)I p
( ) 2eBI d ( ) 0
N
N
N
Rf
5.5
5
55dB 10 3.162 10
I p2 2eB(

2eB(

S
) 2 1.602 10 19 10 7 3.162 10 5 1.013 10 7
N

4 KTB S
4 1.381 10 23 295 10 7 3.162 10 5
( )
1.030 10 12
Rf
N
50 10 3
2eBI d (

S
) 2 1.602 10 19 10 7 0.5 10 9 3.162 10 5 5.066 10 16
N

The last term is far smaller than the term involving thermal noise and
hence is neglected.
I p2 1.013 10 6 I p 1.030 10 12 0
1.013 10 6 1.026 10 12 ( 4 1.030 10 12 )
I

p
Thus;
2
1.013 10 6 2.268 10 6

2
1.64 A

Po

I p hc

## 1.64 10 6 6.626 10 34 2.998 10 8

4.90 W or 23.1dBm
e
0.5 0.83 10 6 1.602 10 19

## The maximum permitted bandwidth without equalization :

B

G
32

14.56MHz
2R f CT
2 50 10 3 7 10 12