03
AE1222Workbook 2013  Problems and Solutions  mod (version 1.02)
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Module name: Aerospace Design & Syst. Eng. Elements I
Module code: AE1222II (workbook problems & solutions)
Date: September 2012
TU Delft
Faculty, L&R
Ir. B.T.C. Zandbergen
AE1222 Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions I
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
REMARKS
The purpose of the workbook is to provide students with a collection of problems representative for
questions posed at examinations of the course ae1222II, Aerospace Design & Syst. Eng. Elements I.
However, the examinations are not limited to the question subjects of this workbook.
The workbook consists of a problems and a solutions part. Students are advised to first try solving the
problems before looking up the solutions.
Sometimes an answer may not be given, or only the numerical value of the answer is given and not how
this numerical value was arrived at. This is to stimulate students to come up with their own solutions and
to find their own ways of making sure the answer is correct (for instance by checking the units, the order of
magnitude, etc.). An alternative method is to exercise using the Maple TA system. Most questions (roughly
7080%) contained in the workbook are now also available via the Maple TA system. In addition, the
Maple TA system holds many more questions that are not available otherwise.
Contributions to this workbook have been made by Dr. ir. W. J ongkind, Dr. Q.P. Chu, ir. J .J . Wijker, ir. A.
Kamp and ir. B.T.C. Zandbergen.
Mail your comments and/or suggestions for improvement to b.t.c.zandbergen@tudelft.nl
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions II
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Revision record
Revision Date Changes
1.00 Feb. 2010 Initial release (adapted from AE2S02 workbook); Total page count is 72 pages.
1.01 J uly 2010 Various problems not covered by the lecture material have been removed. Total
page count is 62 pages.
1.02 Oct. 2011 Font size has been changed from 12 to 10.5. Also 9 problems no longer covered
by the material presented have been removed; Total page count is 58 pages.
1.03 Feb. 2013 Revision record added
Various questions removed dealing with collecting historic data as basis for
making design estimations. These questions are now covered in AE2100.
A number of missing solutions/answers have been added and some problems
and solutions have been modified. Total page count is 59 pages.
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions III
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part I  Problems ........................................................................................................................................... 1
1 Bus design ............................................................................................................................................. 2
1.1 Mission Elements ......................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Basic Engineering Steps ............................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Requirements generation .............................................................................................................. 2
1.3.1 Types of requirements ......................................................................................................... 2
1.3.2 Criteria for proper requirements .......................................................................................... 2
1.3.3 SMART Requirements ........................................................................................................ 2
1.3.4 Payload Derived Requirement ............................................................................................. 3
1.3.5 Launcher Derived Requirements ......................................................................................... 3
1.3.6 Stationkeeping and Manoeuvring Derived Requirements (V Budget) ............................ 4
1.3.7 Environmental Hazards ....................................................................................................... 4
1.3.8 Other Requirements ............................................................................................................. 4
1.4 Perform Vehicle Level Sizing ...................................................................................................... 4
1.4.1 S/C Mass Estimation ........................................................................................................... 4
1.4.2 Mass estimate (kick stages) ................................................................................................. 5
1.4.3 Power estimate ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.4.4 Cost Estimate ....................................................................................................................... 5
1.4.5 Life Cycle ............................................................................................................................ 5
1.4.6 Reliability (General) ............................................................................................................ 5
1.4.7 Reliability Estimate ............................................................................................................. 6
1.4.8 Risk Assessment Background ............................................................................................. 6
1.4.9 Visualization of HighRisk Items ........................................................................................ 6
1.5 Spacecraft Bus Subsystems .......................................................................................................... 6
1.6 Budgeting ..................................................................................................................................... 6
1.6.1 Mass budgeting .................................................................................................................... 6
1.6.2 Power Estimation and Budgeting ........................................................................................ 7
1.6.3 Reliability Budgeting ........................................................................................................... 7
1.7 Spacecraft Mass and Size Properties Estimation .......................................................................... 8
2 Structures & mechanisms ................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 Functions ...................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Launch loads ................................................................................................................................. 9
2.3 Design Process .............................................................................................................................. 9
2.4 Materials used and their properties ............................................................................................... 9
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2.5 Natural Frequency (launch direction only) ................................................................................... 9
2.6 Natural frequency ......................................................................................................................... 9
2.7 Tensile Strength .......................................................................................................................... 10
3 Thermal control ................................................................................................................................. 11
3.1 Earth Flux Density ...................................................................................................................... 11
3.2 Solar Flux ................................................................................................................................... 11
3.3 Absorption/Emission .................................................................................................................. 11
3.4 Heat Balance ............................................................................................................................... 12
3.5 Heater System Sizing .................................................................................................................. 12
3.6 Conductions ................................................................................................................................ 12
3.7 DelfiC
3
Thermal Control ........................................................................................................... 13
4 Power System ..................................................................................................................................... 14
4.1 Power system functions and functional requirements ................................................................ 14
4.2 Options ....................................................................................................................................... 14
4.3 Solar intensity ............................................................................................................................. 14
4.4 EPS ............................................................................................................................................. 14
4.5 PhotoVoltaic (PV) System Sizing ............................................................................................. 14
4.6 Fuel Cell System sizing .............................................................................................................. 15
4.7 Battery system sizing .................................................................................................................. 15
5 Command & Data Handling ............................................................................................................. 16
5.1 C&DH System Design ................................................................................................................ 16
5.2 TM Data Rate ............................................................................................................................. 16
6 Telecommand and Telecommunication ........................................................................................... 17
6.1 TT&C functions .......................................................................................................................... 17
6.2 Bandwidth and spectrum utilization ........................................................................................... 17
6.3 Communication bands ................................................................................................................ 17
6.4 Wave length and Frequency ....................................................................................................... 17
6.5 TT&C system ............................................................................................................................. 18
6.6 E
b
/N
o
Ratio ................................................................................................................................. 18
7 Attitude Determination and Control System .................................................................................. 19
7.1 General ....................................................................................................................................... 19
7.2 Quantifying the Disturbance Environment ................................................................................. 19
7.3 Attitude dynamics ....................................................................................................................... 20
7.4 Control Modes ............................................................................................................................ 20
7.5 Types of Attitude Control (options)............................................................................................ 20
7.6 Types of Sensors and Actuators (options) .................................................................................. 20
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Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
7.7 ADCS Main Elements ................................................................................................................ 20
7.8 Spinners (including dualspin and momentum stabilization) ..................................................... 20
7.8.1 Existing systems ................................................................................................................ 20
7.8.2 Angular momentum ........................................................................................................... 20
7.8.3 Spinup Manoeuvre ........................................................................................................... 21
7.9 Actuator Design .......................................................................................................................... 21
7.9.1 Reaction Wheels ................................................................................................................ 21
7.9.2 Thrusters ............................................................................................................................ 22
7.9.3 Magnetic torquer/torque rods ............................................................................................ 22
8 Space Propulsion ................................................................................................................................ 24
8.1 Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 24
8.2 Rocket Fundamentals ................................................................................................................. 24
8.2.1 Total impulse (constant mass) ........................................................................................... 24
8.2.2 Total impulse (variable mass) ............................................................................................ 25
8.2.3 Types of rocket propulsion systems (Options) .................................................................. 25
8.2.4 Rocket Analysis ................................................................................................................. 25
8.3 System Sizing and Dimensioning ............................................................................................... 25
8.3.1 System design .................................................................................................................... 25
8.3.2 Propellant Mass Estimation and Budgeting ....................................................................... 26
8.3.3 Propellant mass .................................................................................................................. 26
8.3.4 Solid Rocket Motor Sizing ................................................................................................ 26
8.3.5 NonChemical Rocket System Sizing ............................................................................... 27
Part II  Answers ......................................................................................................................................... 28
1 Bus design ........................................................................................................................................... 29
1.1 Mission Elements ....................................................................................................................... 29
1.2 Basic engineering steps............................................................................................................... 29
1.3 Requirements generation ............................................................................................................ 30
1.3.1 Types of Requirements ...................................................................................................... 30
1.3.2 Criteria for proper requirements ........................................................................................ 30
1.3.3 SMART Requirements ...................................................................................................... 30
1.3.4 Payload derived requirements ........................................................................................... 31
1.3.5 Launcher derived requirements ......................................................................................... 32
1.3.6 Stationkeeping and manoeuvring requirements ............................................................... 33
1.3.7 Environmental Hazards ..................................................................................................... 33
1.3.8 Other Requirements ........................................................................................................... 33
1.4 Perform Vehicle Level Sizing .................................................................................................... 33
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1.4.1 S/C mass estimation .......................................................................................................... 33
1.4.2 Mass estimate (kick stages) ............................................................................................... 33
1.4.3 Power Estimate .................................................................................................................. 33
1.4.4 Cost Estimate ..................................................................................................................... 33
1.4.5 Life Estimate (life cycle) ................................................................................................... 34
1.4.6 Reliability (general) ........................................................................................................... 34
1.4.7 Reliability Estimate ........................................................................................................... 34
1.4.8 Risk Assessment Background ........................................................................................... 34
1.4.9 Visualization of high risk items ......................................................................................... 34
1.5 Spacecraft Bus Subsystems ........................................................................................................ 35
1.6 Budgeting ................................................................................................................................... 35
1.6.1 Spacecraft Mass Budgeting ............................................................................................... 35
1.6.2 Power Budgeting ............................................................................................................... 36
1.6.3 Reliability Budgeting ......................................................................................................... 36
1.7 Spacecraft Mass and Size Properties .......................................................................................... 37
2 Space structures ................................................................................................................................. 38
2.1 Functions .................................................................................................................................... 38
2.2 Launch Loads ............................................................................................................................. 38
2.3 Space structures general knowledge ........................................................................................... 38
2.4 Materials used and their properties ............................................................................................. 38
2.5 Natural frequency ....................................................................................................................... 38
2.6 Natural frequency ....................................................................................................................... 38
2.7 Tensile strength ........................................................................................................................... 39
3 Thermal control ................................................................................................................................. 40
3.1 Earth Flux Density ...................................................................................................................... 40
3.2 Solar flux .................................................................................................................................... 40
3.3 Absorption/Emission .................................................................................................................. 40
3.4 Heat Balance ............................................................................................................................... 40
3.5 Heater System Sizing .................................................................................................................. 40
3.6 Conductions ................................................................................................................................ 41
3.7 DelfiC3 Thermal Control .......................................................................................................... 41
4 Power System ..................................................................................................................................... 42
4.1 Power system functions and functional requirements ................................................................ 42
4.2 Options ....................................................................................................................................... 42
4.3 Solar intensity ............................................................................................................................. 42
4.4 EPS ............................................................................................................................................. 42
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Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
4.5 Solar Array Sizing ...................................................................................................................... 42
4.6 Fuel Cell Mass ............................................................................................................................ 43
4.7 Battery System Sizing ................................................................................................................ 43
5 Command and Data Handling .......................................................................................................... 44
5.1 C&DH System Design ................................................................................................................ 44
5.2 TM Data Rate ............................................................................................................................. 45
6 Telecommand and Telecommunication ........................................................................................... 46
6.1 TT&C functions .......................................................................................................................... 46
6.2 Bandwidth and spectrum utilization ........................................................................................... 46
6.3 Communication bands ................................................................................................................ 46
6.4 Wave length and Frequency ....................................................................................................... 46
6.5 TT&C system ............................................................................................................................. 46
6.6 Signal to noise ratio .................................................................................................................... 47
7 Attitude Control System .................................................................................................................... 48
7.1 General ....................................................................................................................................... 48
7.2 Quantifying the Disturbance Environment ................................................................................. 48
7.3 Attitude dynamics ....................................................................................................................... 49
7.4 Control modes............................................................................................................................. 49
7.5 Types of Attitude Control ........................................................................................................... 49
7.6 Types of Sensors and Actuators ................................................................................................. 50
7.7 ADCS Main Elements ................................................................................................................ 50
7.8 Spinners ...................................................................................................................................... 50
7.8.1 Existing systems ................................................................................................................ 50
7.8.2 Angular momentum ........................................................................................................... 51
7.8.3 Spinup Manoeuvre ........................................................................................................... 51
7.9 Actuator design ........................................................................................................................... 51
7.9.1 Reaction wheels ................................................................................................................. 51
7.9.2 Thrusters ............................................................................................................................ 52
7.9.3 Magnetic torquer ............................................................................................................... 52
8 Propulsion ........................................................................................................................................... 53
8.1 Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 53
8.2 Rocket Fundamentals ................................................................................................................. 54
8.2.1 Total impulse (constant mass) ........................................................................................... 54
8.2.2 Total impulse (variable mass):........................................................................................... 54
8.2.3 Types of rocket propulsion systems (options) ................................................................... 54
8.2.4 Rocket analysis .................................................................................................................. 55
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Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
8.3 System Sizing and Dimensioning ............................................................................................... 55
8.3.1 System design .................................................................................................................... 55
8.3.2 Propellant Mass Estimation and Budgeting ....................................................................... 56
8.3.3 Propellant mass .................................................................................................................. 57
8.3.4 Solid Rocket Motor Sizing ................................................................................................ 57
8.3.5 NonChemical Rocket System Sizing ............................................................................... 59
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Part I  Problems
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions 2
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
1 BUS DESIGN
1.1 Mission Elements
List the various elements/segments of the mission that your spacecraft interacts with and discuss the
role/functions of these elements (see AE1110II).
1.2 Basic Engineering Steps
List the basic steps in engineering and discuss their importance.
Hint: Consider the meaning of the acronym DESACME/I
1.3 Requirements generation
1.3.1 Types of requirements
Describe the types of requirements that can be distinguished and explain their role in spacecraft design.
1.3.2 Criteria for proper requirements
List and explain at least 4 criteria for proper requirements
Hint: Consider the meaning of the acronym SMART
1.3.3 SMART Requirements
Indicate which of the requirements given in the table below you consider to be defined SMART(ly).
Explain your reasoning.
Requirement SMART Not SMART
The spacecraft shall allow for accommodating a payload with a
mass not exceeding 100 kg and with dimensions smaller than
100 x 150 x 300 mm
3
The spacecraft shall be launched in LEO
The mission costs shall be minimized
The spacecraft shall be launched by Ariane 4
The spacecraft shall be impervious to failure
Ground station antennas, rotators and cabling shall be designed
for operation in the temperature range between 30C and 65C.
The spacecraft development time shall be less than 2 months
All parameters shall be expressed in SI units
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions 3
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1.3.4 Payload Derived Requirement
You aim to develop an Earth Observation (EO) satellite carrying on board
the Ball Aerospace High Resolution Camera (BHRC) 60, see figure. Using
the payload description as given in the syllabus, annex G, try to establish
numerical values for the parameters listed in the below table given that we
aim for a 400 km orbital altitude. Use only basic instruments. Options are
not included. Note that solving this problem might not be an easy thing to do
right at the start of the lectures on spacecraft design, but once you have finished this course, you should be
better equipped.
ID Category / parameter Value
1 Payload mass (including options) to be accommodated for by s/c bus
2 Maximum payload volume
3 Bus design life
4 Peak power consumption
5 Average power consumption
6 Camera pointing
7 Max data rate generated on board
8 Max. data rate for transmission down to ground
9 Data storage capability
Please note that in the payload description mrad should be read as microrad! Also note that to determine
some values you may need to make some assumptions. Because of this answers may vary depending on
the assumptions made.
Hint: For the calculation of the maximum data rate generated on board as well as the average power
consumption you should consider ground sample distance, ground velocity as well as the data rate that
needs to be transmitted to ground.
1.3.5 Launcher Derived Requirements
You have been assigned the task of designing a GEO spacecraft that is to be launched using Ariane 5G as
the launch vehicle into GTO using a single launch approach. Determine for this launch vehicle the total
spacecraft mass, payload usable volume, the size of the launcher adaptor ring, and the launch cost. Also
determine nominal payload separation velocity and rotational rate.
Hint: Use ESA Launch Vehicle Catalogue or International Reference Guide to Space Launch Systems,
Steven J . Isakowitz (both are available in LR Library). ESA Launch Vehicle Catalogue is also available on
the Blackboard.
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1.3.6 Stationkeeping and Manoeuvring Derived Requirements (V Budget)
You are designing a large geostationary communications satellite with a mass of about 3000 kg and an
expected life of 15 years. As candidate launcher you have selected the Proton M/Briz M (or Breeze M)
launcher, which can bring 5500 kg into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). After injection into GTO,
the propulsion subsystem of the spacecraft has to take over and ensure that the spacecraft arrives on station
and stays there throughout the mission. The tasks that should be accomplished by the spacecraft's
propulsion subsystem are:
a) Apogee kick maneuver;
b) NorthSouth and EastWest stationkeeping;
c) Momentum wheel unloading;
d) End of life disposal.
You are asked to come up with a first estimate of a delta v (v) budget. For this you may use the v data
listed in the syllabus (annex B).
1.3.7 Environmental Hazards
Give an account of the potential environmental hazards encountered by a spacecraft (see ae1110II):
(i) during the prelaunch phase;
(ii) during the launch and
(iii) during the orbital mission phase.
Indicate the methods used to reduce their effects.
1.3.8 Other Requirements
Generate a list of other requirements as you think fit for the spacecraft to be designed. Consider such
requirements as cost, etc.
1.4 Perform Vehicle Level Sizing
This section contains problems dealing with the estimation of various important spacecraft parameters
using historic data. Problems deal with collecting characteristic data for selected spacecraft. From these
data then a set of relations is developed relating payload mass/power/size/cost/reliability to S/C
mass/power/ As a final step, these relations are used to estimate spacecraft mass, power, size, etc.
1.4.1 S/C Mass Estimation
You are designing a spacecraft capable of carrying a payload
mass of 150 kg.
1. Select arbitrarily 6 S/C from the table on the right and
determine for this selection the average payload mass to on
station mass ratio and the sample standard deviation (SSD).
2. Use the data obtained to estimate the onstation mass of your
spacecraft
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions 5
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
1.4.2 Mass estimate (kick stages)
Given the data in the next table, determine average dry mass to propellant mass ratio and SSD as well as a
linear regression line, R
2
and SSE.
1.4.3 Power estimate
You are designing a microsatellite to carry a payload that requires an electrical power of 5.0 W. To allow
for a very first power estimate of the spacecraft, you have collected for a number of comparable small
spacecraft data on payload power versus total power. These data are summarized in the next table.
Using the data given in the table, you are asked to determine the total spacecraft power to be generated on
board to allow for successful operation of the spacecraft.
1.4.4 Cost Estimate
In the annex B of the syllabus, some typical cost data are given for a number of microsatellites. Based on
these data, you are to come up with an estimate of the average (FY 2000 US$) cost of a microsatellite
weighing 40 kg. Also determine a high and a low estimate for the cost of this spacecraft.
1.4.5 Life Cycle
List various EarthObservation satellites and give an overview of their life. If possible, distinguish between
operational and storage life. Give an account of the spacecraft/satellite life cycle and explain the
importance of design reviews and an iterative design approach.
1.4.6 Reliability (General)
Give an account of the general problem of reliability encountered in spacecraft.
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions 6
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
1.4.7 Reliability Estimate
You are to design a spacecraft with a reliability of 0.8 over the mission duration of 4 year. The payloads
demonstrated reliability is 0.7 over a period of 10 year. Determine for this spacecraft the required bus
reliability. You may assume a constant failure rate, i.e. exponential lifetime distribution.
1.4.8 Risk Assessment Background
Explain what is understood by risk?
1.4.9 Visualization of HighRisk Items
Explain what you understand by a risk matrix?
1.5 Spacecraft Bus Subsystems
Give an account of the 8 traditional spacecraft bus systems of a spacecraft, identifying the main functions
provided by each.
1.6 Budgeting
This section presents problems related to the generation of first rough budgets to steer S/C (sub) systems
design.
1.6.1 Mass budgeting
You are involved in the design of a small satellite with a total mass at launch of 145 kg. Satellite dry mass
is 95 kg including payload and the subsystems structures, thermal, power, TT&C, ADCS, propulsion,
harness (cabling), and C&DH.
As one of the first steps in the design of this spacecraft you have collected mass data from various
spacecraft and determined the dry mass percentage contributions of the various subsystems, see table.
Table: Dry mass distribution for selected small satellites. All values in % of S/C dry mass.
S/C name Payload Structures Thermal Power TT&C ADCS Propulsion Harness C&DH
Orsted 22.9 28.8 0.9 16.9 10.3 7.3 N.A
1)
5.5 7.5
Freya 33.7 22.5 2.4 18.7 2.6 5.9 8.2 0.0 6.0
SAMPEX 32.5 23.1 2.5 20.0 3.1 6.3 N.A. 5.0 7.5
ANS 33.2 29.4 0.9 8.7 5.4 13.5 N.A. 0.0 6.0
Viking 16.8 16.1 2.7 6.9 3.1 3.5 5.8 0.0 0.0
Bird 30.0 25.9 8.2 14.7 2.4 9.3 N.A 0.0 0.9
NATO III 22.1 19.3 6.5 34.7 7.5 6.3 2.4 0.0 0.0
Gurwin II 14.0 36.0 0.0 12.3 4.9 7.3 N.A. 3.4 22.1
Temisat 25.8 19.8 0.0 36.8 0.0 1.7 N.A. 9.1 6.9
ORBCOMM 19.4 15.3 1.9 22.5 0.0 6.8 4.0 0.0 6.8
PoSAT1 12.2 13.7 0.0 32.9 11.2 20.9 N.A. 3.0 6.2
Average (arithmetic) 23.9 22.7 2.4 20.5 4.6 8.1 5.1 2.4 6.4
1) N.A. means Not Applicable (no propulsion system on board)
This table is also available in Excel format on the course Blackboard site (see under the Assignments tab,
folder: Workbook Spacecraft Design).
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
Workbook Problems & Solutions 7
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Using the tabulated data, you are to determine:
1. A mass budget for this satellite without taking into account margins
2. A mass margin to be taken into account based on a maximum probability of 2.5% for the
spacecraft mass to be in excess of the 95 kg indicated above as the limit mass. Hint: Use the 68
9599.7 rule, see also appendix E.
3. A revised mass budget taking into account a mass margin of 20% of the total spacecraft dry mass.
1.6.2 Power Estimation and Budgeting
Consider a communications spacecraft. For this spacecraft you have determined a total input power of 7.8
kW. Determine for this spacecraft the distribution of the input power over the various subsystems and the
payload using the data as given in the next table.
Table: Average power distribution (in Watt, EOL) for several large geostationary telecommunications
(Comms) satellites (Data from MediaGlobe study, SpaceTech 19891999, TopTech Studies, TUDelft)
Satellite Comms
Payload
TT&C AOCS Thermal Propulsion Power
Management
&
Distribution.
Charging Total
Load
ANIK E 3000.0 42.0 28.0 100.0 ? 25.0 287.0 3482.0
Arabsat (not 2) 990.5 38.3 125.1 90.5 ? 18.2 99.2 1361.8
Astra 1B 2136.0 43.0 28.0 105.0 ? 68.0 410.0 2790.0
DFS
Kopernikus
896.0 28.0 39.0 235.0 ? 46.0 168.0 1412.0
Fordsat 2461.0 51.3 130.1 92.0 ? 41.0 335.8 3109.8
HS 601 2660.0 80.0 70.0 280.0 ? 30.0 230.0 3350.0
Intelsat VII 2580.0 38.0 226.0 263.0 6.0 83.0 373.0 3569.0
Intelsat VIIA 3612.0 28.0 226.0 222.0 6.0 53.0 420.0 4567.0
OLYMPUS 2150.0 46.1 116.6 287.0 ? 32.5 200.0 2832.2
SATCOM K3 2570.7 42.6 28.3 95.0 ? 51.4 362.0 3150.0
TELSTAR 4 4816.5 98.0 76.0 137.0 ? 38.0 507.4 5672.9
This table is also available in Excel format on the course Blackboard site (see under the Assignments tab,
folder: Workbook Spacecraft Design).
1.6.3 Reliability Budgeting
You are designing a microsatellite bus, which consists of the subsystems: Communications, Guidance and
Navigation, Electric Power, Command & Data Handling, Thermal, and Structure. You are asked to
develop a reliability budget for this bus ensuring a total bus reliability of 0.80 (a) assuming that all
subsystems contribute equally to total (bus) reliability and (b) based on the following failure data:
Communications: 33.6% (failures out of all subsystem failures)
Guidance and Navigation: 18.6%
Electric Power: 18.0%
AE1222II Workbook issue 1.03
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Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Command & Data Handling: 12.4%
Thermal: 7.6%
Propulsion: 5.0%
Structure: 4.8%
1.7 Spacecraft Mass and Size Properties Estimation
You are designing a space probe targeted for Venus. Using data on similar probes you have estimated a
total vehicle mass of 300 kg and a maximum power need from the solar panels of 600 W at 1 AU. Given a
total on station solar array power requirement of 600 W and a total vehicle mass of 300 kg you are asked to
estimate for this vehicle:
1. Mass moment of inertia of S/C before deploying the panels
2. Mass moment of inertia of solar panels about y axis, see figure.
Using:
Vehicle mass density as computed from comparable vehicles: 200
kg/m
3
Vehicle has a cubic shaped body with 2 solar panels directly
attached (one on each side) to the S/C body
Solar panel side attached to the body is equal to body linear dimension
Solar incidence angle on solar panel is 90 deg.
Power density and specific mass of solar array at 1 AU is 150 W/m
2
and 50 W/kg, respectively
Mass moment of inertia of cube about centre of mass is 1/6 M*L
2
with M is body mass and L is length
of sides of cube.
Mass moment of inertia about centre of mass of thin rectangular panel =1/12 * M * (l
2
+w
2
) with M
is panel mass and l and w are panel length and width, respectively.
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2 STRUCTURES & MECHANISMS
2.1 Functions
Give an account of the main functions of the structures and mechanism subsystem
2.2 Launch loads
You have been assigned the task of designing the structure of a spacecraft that is to be launched using
Ariane 5G as the launch vehicle.
a) Determine for this launch vehicle the fundamental frequencies in the longitudinal direction
b) Determine the dimensioning loads the spacecraft should be able to withstand.
c) During launch the electronic boxes in a spacecraft are exposed to stochastic (random) vibrations.
Describe the origin of these loads?
2.3 Design Process
a) Explain why to use safety factors in the design process.
b) Explain the importance of the stiffness of the mechanical mount between the spacecraft and the
launcher.
c) What is the definition of the Margin of Safety?
2.4 Materials used and their properties
Give an account of the main structural materials used for spacecraft and list some important properties of
these materials.
2.5 Natural Frequency (launch direction only)
The primary structure of a spacecraft is a cylinder of 5 m length and 1 m diameter. On top of this cylinder
the payload is concentrated as a point mass of 250 kg.
Compute the required wall thickness for this structure to meet the requirement f
1
>35 Hz in axial direction,
with the following input data:
Structure Youngs modulus, E =70 GPa
Maximum axial acceleration is 6 g (launch load)
Mass of the cylindrical structure may be considered negligible
2.6 Natural frequency
You are designing the structure of a S/C with a mass of 2000 kg. The S/C dimensions are 2 x 2 x 3 m
3
.
Maximum gload is 6G. You have selected a central cylinder as the main load carrying structure. Complete
the next table given a cylinder wall thickness of 3 mm, a Youngs modulus of 70 GPa and that the mass is
uniformly distributed.
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Diameter Area Area moment of
inertia
Lateral natural freq. Axial natural
frequency
[m]
[m
2
] [m
4
]
[Hz] [Hz]
0.5 4.7E3 147E6 7.73
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.7 Tensile Strength
The primary structure of a spacecraft is a cylinder of 5 m length, 1 m diameter and a wall thickness of 0.5
mm. On top of this cylinder the payload is concentrated with a mass of 250 kg. Given:
Structure material Youngs modulus E =70 GPa,
Ultimate tensile strength
ultimate
=400 MPa,
QSL: Maximum axial =6 g (compression only), maximum lateral =+1.5 g,
Design Factor of Safety is 1.25.
Calculate the maximum stress in this cylindrical structure for tensile strength (compression or tension).
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3 THERMAL CONTROL
3.1 Earth Flux Density
Given that:
The Earth is a black body with an effective temperature of T =255 K
Earth mean radius R =6371 km
Calculate the Earth radiant flux density in an orbit at 200 km altitude.
3.2 Solar Flux
Calculate the value of the solar flux at Earth, Mercury, Mars, J upiter and Pluto and generate a graph
showing the solar flux versus the distance measure in Astronomical Units (AU).
3.3 Absorption/Emission
Assume a body at constant room temperature with a thermal coating with a simplified absorption spectrum
as shown in the figure.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Wavelength (micron)
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
a
n
c
e
(
%
)
You are asked to:
 Calculate the absorption coefficient
s
for the solar spectrum, assuming the solar spectrum has a
constant value of 1360 W/m
2
between 0 and 1 m and a value of 0 W/m
2
beyond 1 m.
 Calculate the emissivity of the coating assuming the infrared radiation is 0 W/m
2
below 4 m and
beyond 20 m.
Figure: Spectral absorptance of
coating
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3.4 Heat Balance
A panel shaped spacecraft has two identical sides of A m
2
each. The following data are given:
One and the same side is permanently pointing to the Sun (perpendicular incidence); the other one
is permanently in shade.
The external side of both sides is coated with OSRs with thermooptical properties:
S
/ =
0.10/0.80.
The solar flux amounts to S=1400 W/m
2
,
any other environmental heat input can be neglected.
Internal equipment dissipation 165 W.
1. Establish the heat balance of the S/C.
2. Compute the required radiator area A when the maximum allowed temperature of the radiators is T
max
=33 C (T
4
=500 W/m
2
).
3.5 Heater System Sizing
The spacecraft from the Heat Balance problem above, in the same external environment and with the
radiator areas as computed, suffers from a failure case. All equipment is switched off. A heater system
onboard has to control the temperatures above the minimum allowable temperature of 30 C. You are
asked to:
Compute the heater power demand to keep T
min
30 C (T
4
=200 W/m
2
) in survival mode.
Determine how you could use the incident Sun on the radiators to keep T >T
min
in case
insufficient heater power is available?
3.6 Conductions
A spacecraft with an average temperature T
S/C
=25 C is equipped with several aluminum booms, see
Figure. This analysis concerns one of these booms with
the following properties:
Average boom temperature T
Boom
=125 C
Boom length L=4 m, base to tip
Coefficient of conductivity of boom material:
k =120 W/(mK)
Boom is a hollow tube with diameter =20 mm
and wall thickness d =1 mm
You are to:
Compute the heat leak [W] between spacecraft and boom, assuming that the average boom
temperature lies halfway the boom.
Discuss how certain you are about the heat leak computed and why?
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3.7 DelfiC
3
Thermal Control
One of the objectives of the Universitys DelfiC
3
nanosatellite, see figure, is to test experimental solar
cells that are attached on thin titanium film.
Some general data valid for the experiment are given in the table below.
Parameter Value
Solar intensity 1425 W/m
2
Earthshine 258 W/m
2
Thin film cells front side
s
/ 0.72/0.85
Thin film cells maximum allowable temperature T
max
80 (C)
Thin film cell area (2 off) 4 x 8 cm
2
each
You are asked to:
a) Determine the maximum temperature that the cells will attain in case the thin film cells are mounted
directly on to the satellite surface. Hint: Establish the heat balance of the cells given that any heat
exchange between the satellite and the rear side of the film is negligible and that the solar and
earthshine flux incident perpendicularly on the cells.
To lower the cell temperature to below the maximum allowable one, the designers selected deployable
solar arrays for DelfiC
3
, so that they are tilted from the satellite surface (see main picture). The
experimental thin film cells are mounted at the tip of each wing. (The rest of the wing is covered with
conventional solar cells to provide power to the satellite and is not included in this analysis).
b) What thermooptical properties (
s
/) should the rear side of the film have to lower the temperature,
assuming the sun may incident either on the cell side or on the rear side of the film? (J ustify, but do
not calculate!).
c) Which coating(s) is(are) most suitable?
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4 POWER SYSTEM
4.1 Power system functions and functional requirements
Give an account of the main functions of the electrical power generation system (EPS) and discuss the
main requirements of importance for the design of the EPS.
4.2 Options
Give an account of the different types of electrical power generation system that are available for
spacecraft, indicating the relative merits and limitations of each type and identifying space missions that
might use each type.
4.3 Solar intensity
A typical external energy source is the Sun with a practically unlimited energy. However, it is not so much
the amount of energy that is important, but the available power (energy per unit of time) and more specific
the power per unit of area (solar flux). Calculate the value of the solar flux at Earth, Mercury, Mars, J upiter
and Pluto given a total power output of the Sun of 3.8 x 10
26
W and generate a graph showing the solar
flux versus the distance measure in Astronomical Units (AU). Hint: See problems on thermal control.
4.4 EPS
Give an account of the overall spacecraft power system for the case of a solar cell powered satellite,
showing the need for, and function provided by, each part.
4.5 PhotoVoltaic (PV) System Sizing
A communications satellite in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) requires 4.75 kW of electrical power.
Given are:
 Solar array specific power: 40 W/kg
 Array power density: 50 W/m
2
 System specific power: 15 W/kg
 Cylindrical spacecraft body (3axis stabilized): 3 m x 4 m
 Effects of life degradation, temperature effects, and solar angle may be neglected.
Calculate for this spacecraft:
a) Array area and size considering that the cylinder axis is pointed along the NorthSouth direction and
that the maximum height of a solar wing is limited by the height of the vehicle
b) Array mass
c) System mass
d) Sketch a PV panel configuration and discuss its (dis)advantages over other configurations
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4.6 Fuel Cell System sizing
Two of the Space Shuttle electrical power subsystems are the Power Reactant Storage System and the Fuel
Cell Power Plant. The electric power is generated by the fuel cell power plant using the cryogenically
stored oxygen and hydrogen from the Power Reactant Storage System. It is required that the power plant
supplies on average 15 kW to the Space Shuttle electrical system to support flight for 18 days maximum.
The consumption rate of hydrogenoxygen is 0.6 kg/kWh. Total empty mass of the hydrogenoxygen tank
system is 1800 kg. The specific power of the fuel cell power plant is 100 W
e
/kg.
Calculate:
a) The combined minimum mass of the fuel, storage system and power plant at the start of its
operational life.
b) The liters of water produced during an 18 day flight?
4.7 Battery system sizing
A battery system has been selected to provide 620 W of power for a period of 35 minutes. Due to the
cyclic use of the battery, the battery is only capable of using 12% of its capacity. In addition, because of
high discharge rates the battery is only 80% efficient. Given that the specific energy of the battery selected
is 35 Wh/kg and the specific energy density 100 Wh/l, calculate for the battery system:
a) Battery storage capacity (in Wh)
b) Total mass, and
c) Volume
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5 COMMAND & DATA HANDLING
5.1 C&DH System Design
We are designing the C&DH system of a spacecraft producing 1 Mbps of science data. For housekeeping
500 parameters are measured at a rate of 1 Hz and 12 bits accuracy +another 50 at a rate of 10 Hz and 16
bits accuracy. Given that this S/C on average has 3 times a day contact with the ground station for a period
of 10 minutes, you are asked to calculate:
a) On board storage capacity given that the contact times are evenly distributed over the day
b) Data transmission speed required when in contact with ground.
c) Mass of C&DH system (harness +OBC +data handling system) given that average length of signal
lines is 4 m and that 4 Mbps is equivalent to 1 MIPS.
5.2 TM Data Rate
Consider a satellite in GEO collecting a mixture of housekeeping and experimental data. The data consists
of:
 10 temperature signals. Each of the temperature signals is digitized with a maximum quantization error
of 1% and a minimum sampling rate of 10 samples per second.
 10 voltage signals. Each of the voltage signals has to be known with a maximum quantization error of
0.1% and a sampling rate of 1 sample per second.
 One experiment signal. The experimental information has to be known on Earth with a maximum
quantization error of 0.01%, the maximum frequency of sampling is 440 Hz.
What is the minimum data rate generated for the combined telemetry signal?
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6 TELECOMMAND AND TELECOMMUNICATION
6.1 TT&C functions
Give an account of the main TT&C functions and explain the importance of these functions for the
spacecraft.
6.2 Bandwidth and spectrum utilization
Explain the importance of frequency bands, bandwidth and spectrum utilization for the design of a
spacecraft.
6.3 Communication bands
Define the frequency range for the communication bands given in the table.
6.4 Wave length and Frequency
Complete the following table.
Frequency Wavelength
150 MHz
400 MHz
1.75 GHz
0.15 m
0.05 m
0.02 m
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6.5 TT&C system
Describe a typical satellite communication system that permits both commanding of satellite systems with
simultaneous monitoring of satellite system functions from the ground station. How can such a system be
used to help in monitoring the satellites location.
6.6 E
b
/N
o
Ratio
Consider a satellite in geostationary orbit. Downlink data rate is 6410 bits per second. This data is
multiplexed and send to Earth. The on board satellite transmitter has an RF power of 30 Watt.
a) Given a spectrum utilization of 0.5, determine the required bandwidth (in kHz).
b) Calculate the received power flux density (in W/m
2
) at a distance of 36,000 km from the transmitter
(transmit antenna gain is 1 and line losses may be neglected).
c) Same question, but now in case we use a transmit antenna with an antenna gain of 3000
d) Calculate the power (in W) received by an antenna of 1 m diameter and an antenna efficiency of 60%.
e) In case we have a noise temperature of 300 K, determine the noise spectral density (in W/Hz).
f) Calculate the energy per bit to noise spectral density ratio.
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7 ATTITUDE DETERMINATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 General
The orientation of a spacecraft is controlled by an attitude determination and control system.
a) Describe what is meant by the attitude of a spacecraft?
b) Describe the function of the attitude determination system of a spacecraft?
c) Describe the function of the attitude control system of a spacecraft?
7.2 Quantifying the Disturbance Environment
You are considering the attitude control of a 3axis attitude controlled spacecraft, see figure. This
spacecraft is in orbit about Earth at an orbital altitude of 700 km (circular orbit). Its mass is 175 kg, and its
Mass Moments Of Inertia (MMOI) are: I
x
=I
z
=75 kgm
2
and I
y
=45 kgm
2
.
Given that the spacecraft has a residual
dipole of 1 Am
2
, a reflectance factor of 0.6,
a surface area of 1.4 x 1.4 m
2
, a drag
coefficient of 2.5, and a maximum offset
from the centre of mass of 0.3 m for both
solar radiation pressure and aerodynamic
drag and a maximum deviation of the Zaxis
from the local vertical of 30 degrees, you are
asked to:
a) Calculate for this spacecraft the disturbance torque due to gravity gradient, solar radiation,
magnetic field (see ae1110II and set latitude equal to zero) and aerodynamic forces.
b) Determine how each of the disturbance torques varies with satellite altitude and indicate in what
altitude regime each is significant.
To inject the spacecraft into its target orbit a single 50 N thruster provides a final kick. This motor is
installed with the thrust directed along the xaxis of the spacecraft.
c) Calculate the disturbance torque generated by this engine in case due to thrust misalignment the
work line of the thruster is 1 mm above the CoM (with thrust still direction along body xaxis).
How does the calculated value compare with the earlier calculated disturbance torques?
d) Same question, but now for the case that the thrust line makes an angle of 3 degrees with the
body xaxis?
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7.3 Attitude dynamics
A cubical S/C with MMOI of 1000 kgm
2
about one of its axis experiences a constant (in magnitude and
direction) disturbance torque about this axis of 0.01 Nm. Calculate for the motion of this spacecraft about
the axis considered:
a) Angular acceleration (in rad/s
2
)
b) Angular velocity (in deg/s) attained in 1 hour
c) Angle over which the spacecraft rotates in 1 hour
d) Angular momentum gained/lost in 1 hour
7.4 Control Modes
Describe what is meant by mode of operation of the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS)
and explain some typical modes as they occur in practice.
7.5 Types of Attitude Control (options)
What are the main spacecraft stabilization systems used? Identify which space applications they are most
suited for and why.
7.6 Types of Sensors and Actuators (options)
What different types of sensors can be used to sense the attitude of a spacecraft and describe the different
actuators used to change the attitude of a spacecraft?
7.7 ADCS Main Elements
Describe the main elements that you need for the attitude control system of a threeaxis stabilized and earth
pointing spacecraft?
7.8 Spinners (including dualspin and momentum stabilization)
7.8.1 Existing systems
Identify existing or planned spin/dual spin/momentum stabilized S/C and list in a table pointing accuracy
achieved, rotational rate (in rpm), MMOI of spinning part, and total momentum contained.
7.8.2 Angular momentum
Consider a vehicle with a constant mass, M, of 1000 kg and a mass density of 250 kg/m
3
.
Given that the vehicle is of a cubical shape with the CoM in the geometric centre and that the mass is
homogeneously distributed, determine the MMOI about the principal axis of the system.
What must be the rotational rate of the S/C in case we would like to obtain an angular momentum of
3000 Nms.
In case we decide to use a momentum wheel of 10 kg and diameter of 20 cm to provide for this
angular momentum, calculate the rotational rate (in rpm) that this wheel should attain.
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7.8.3 Spinup Manoeuvre
Consider a vehicle with a constant mass, M, of 1000 kg. Calculate for this vehicle the thrust level required
in case we perform a spinup maneuver from 0 to 60 rpm in 10 seconds. You may use a moment arm, r, of
2 m, and assume that the vehicle has a cylindrical shape (spin axis identical to axis of symmetry) with a 2
meter radius, a uniform mass distribution, and a constant angular acceleration, .
7.9 Actuator Design
7.9.1 Reaction Wheels
You are considering the attitude control of the 3axis controlled Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO)
spacecraft as depicted in the next figure.
The MPO is in orbit about Mercury at an altitude of 1000 km (circular orbit). Its mass is 360 kg and its
Mass Moments Of Inertia (MOI) are: I
x
=I
z
=300 kgm
2
and I
y
=180 kgm
2
.
The spacecrafts attitude control requirements are:
Pointing accuracy =0.0015
Slew manoeuvre =30
Slew Rate <0.1/sec
You have decided to use reaction wheels to control the spacecraft. For this system answer the following
questions:
a) How many reaction wheels needed to perform 3axis attitude control?
b) Same question as above, but now considering that failure of a reaction wheel is very likely (it is a
complex rotating mechanism)?
c) Calculate the slew torque needed to allow performing the 30 deg slew manoeuvre in 600 seconds
given that you may neglecting the effect of disturbance torques on the spacecraft. Consider that for
this manoeuvre we have 300 seconds for acceleration and 300 seconds for deceleration. This way
we obtain lowest thrust value needed to realize the manoeuvre.
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Consider next that the MPO experiences a constant disturbance torque of 0.01 Nm about all three axes.
d) Determine the maximum angular momentum storage capacity required for a single wheel to
ensure that only once a day it must be unloaded?
e) What is the wheel maximum rpm in case the mass moment of inertia of the wheel is 0.01 kgm
2
?
f) What is the wheel mass in case the wheel diameter is limited to 10 cm?
g) Compare wheel parameters with real values. What do you conclude?
To unload the wheels you consider using torque rods.
h) Determine the torque delivered by the torque rods in case the rods are perfectly aligned with
magnetic field and unloading of reaction wheels takes not more than 20 minute.
7.9.2 Thrusters
a) How many thrusters needed to perform pure 3axis attitude control?
b) Same question, but now if we consider failure of a thruster highly likely (it is a complex
mechanism and it needs to operate over a long time)?
A cubical S/C with MMOI of 1000 kgm
2
(all three axes) experiences a constant disturbance torque of 0.01
Nm. Moment arm of each thruster is 1m.
c) What thrust needed per thruster to compensate for the disturbance torque?
d) How much propellant is needed if we select an RCS with an I
sp
of 60 sec to allow for 5 year
operation of the S/C?
e) Discuss the measures that can be taken to reduce the propellant mass.
7.9.3 Magnetic torquer/torque rods
You are designing a torque rod to produce a (maximum) torque of 0.036 Nm. Earths Magnetic field is
4.5E5 Tesla (1 T =1 kg/(As
2
)). The torque rod is designed for 10V and uses maximum 8 W. To limit the
size of the rod, you have set a maximum coil diameter of 5 cm.
Calculate:
a) Magnetic dipole moment D (in Am
2
) to be delivered by the torque rod
b) Electric current running through the coil.
c) Number of turns of coils.
d) Same question as under c, but now we use ferromagnetic core material to enhance the magnetic
field by a factor 4000 (is this realistic?)
The following table provides data applicable for torque rods.
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Table: Characteristic data of some torque rods
e) Determine a linear regression curve that relates torque rod mass to dipole moment and dipole
moment to power.
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8 SPACE PROPULSION
8.1 Requirements
1. Explain why we need a space propulsion system. What are its main functions?
2. Identify the forces that disturb the motion of a spacecraft and indicate where each is
significant.
3. You are designing a bus for a large geostationary communications satellite with a dry mass of 3000
kg and an expected life of 15 years. This spacecraft is injected into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO)
by a Proton M launcher. After GTO injection, the spacecrafts own propulsion subsystem takes over
and ensures that the spacecraft arrives on station and stays there throughout the mission. Its tasks are:
1. Apogee kick maneuver (to circularize the orbit when the craft reaches its destination);
2. NorthSouth and EastWest stationkeeping;
3. Momentum wheel unloading;
4. End of life disposal.
Using the data given in the annex A of the syllabus AE1222II, part Spacecraft Design and Sizing,
determine a delta v (v) budget for this mission.
4. A cubical spacecraft in circular low Earth orbit (400 km altitude) experiences drag causing decay in
orbital altitude. Estimate for this S/C the drag force in case the spacecraft has a mass of 1000 kg, a
drag coefficient of 2.0, and a mass density of 250 kg/m
3
, and given a mass density of the atmosphere at
the orbital altitude of 400 km of 7.55 x 10
12
kg/m
3
.
5. A spacecraft in low Earth orbit experiences a drag force of 25.2 N, which leads to a decay in orbital
altitude. To ensure that the spacecraft remains at altitude, you are asked to determine the thrust needed
for this spacecraft in case we require that drag makeup is performed (a) continuous and (b) during only
5% of the orbital period.
6. Consider a 2 m diameter spherical shaped spacecraft covered with thermal protection material with a
reflectivity of 0.8 at a distance of 0.5 AU from the Sun. Determine for this spacecraft the force due to
solar radiation. You may assume the S/C to be in full sunlight.
8.2 Rocket Fundamentals
8.2.1 Total impulse (constant mass)
Consider a vehicle with a constant mass, M, of 1000 kg. You are asked to give the vehicle a velocity
change V of 10 km/s (about the velocity change required to escape the solar system). Calculate the total
impulse I required, given that velocity increment losses due to gravity, drag, etc. can be considered
negligible.
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8.2.2 Total impulse (variable mass)
A vehicle of initial 1500 kg mass is accelerated through a V of 10 km/s. Final mass of the vehicle is 1000
kg. Given that vehicle mass decreases linearly (e.g. through mass expulsion at constant mass flow rate)
from 1500 kg to 1000 kg with increasing velocity, and that losses due to gravity, drag, etc. are negligible,
calculate total impulse, I, required.
8.2.3 Types of rocket propulsion systems (Options)
a) What are the basic elements of a rocket propulsion system?
b) Outline the different rocket types of rocket propulsion used for propelling spacecraft in space.
c) Generate a comparison table showing the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of rocket
propulsion. You should at least make a distinction between chemical and electrical propulsion.
d) Identify the various rocket propulsion options available that are capable of fulfilling the following
requirements:
a. Works independent from the environment;
b. Specific impulse >300s;
c. Thrusttoweight ratio >5;
d. Noncryogenic (storable) propellants;
e. Restartable.
8.2.4 Rocket Analysis
A 16 kN vacuum thrust rocket engine has a vacuum specific impulse of 850s and a thrust efficiency of
80%. Engine mass is 2000 kg. Calculate for this engine:
a. J et power
b. Required input power
c. Specific power
d. Propellant mass flow
8.3 System Sizing and Dimensioning
8.3.1 System design
A propulsion system is designed to perform a maneuver of size V is 3.94 km/s. Given a maximum
acceleration of 1g
o
, an effective exhaust velocity of 3000 m/s and a constant thrust level, calculate:
 What mass of propellant should be loaded into the upper stage given that the empty mass of the upper
stage is 100 kg and the satellite mass (carried on top of the stage) is 1000 kg?
 Maximum achievable thrust.
 Minimum operation time.
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8.3.2 Propellant Mass Estimation and Budgeting
For the spacecraft described in the problem 8.1.3, you have selected a conventional and very reliable
apogee kick motor with a relatively moderate exhaust velocity of 3000 m/s and a monopropellant
hydrazine system with an even more moderate exhaust velocity of 2000 m/s for station keeping,
momentum wheel unloading and disposal purposes. Using the v budget derived in the problem 8.1.3,
calculate the total propellant mass required.
8.3.3 Propellant mass
You are member of a design team designing the propulsion subsystem of a minisatellite with an empty
mass of 100 kg. This satellite is placed in a geostationary transfer orbit (600 km / 36000 km) after which
thrust is applied to put the satellite into a low earth orbit (LEO). You are considering the use of a high
thrust chemical rocket propulsion system capable of providing an overall speed increment of 395 m/s. Part
of this speed increment is for 2 large maneuvers (primary propulsion, v of total 325 m/s):
 1st maneuver: braking phase v =75 m/s. This mission is realized in several phases: first,
gradually decreasing of the altitude of perigee to about 100 km by successive impulses at apogee;
then a natural braking in the atmosphere takes place leading to a gradual lowering of the apogee.
 2nd maneuver: final orbit injection: The perigee is raised to 800 km by a number of (large) pulses
providing a v of total 250 m/s.
The remaining part is for finetuning the orbit (20 m/s) and for orbit maintenance and attitude control (50
m/s).
You have selected as primary propulsion system a chemical rocket motor with an effective vacuum
specific impulse (I
sp
) of 300 s, and as secondary propulsion system four small thrusters with an effective
vacuum specific impulse of 150 s.
Calculate for this system the propellant mass needed to perform the mission.
8.3.4 Solid Rocket Motor Sizing
You are member of a design team designing a GEO spacecraft with a launch mass of 6000 kg. Ariane 5G
is selected to launch this satellite into a geostationary transfer orbit. A propulsion system is needed to
perform final orbit injection into GTO. As an option, the team is considering a chemical rocket system.
The main propulsive requirement for the propulsion system is to provide a V change of 1840 m/s,
whereas the acceleration load is limited to maximum 3 g
o
.
For your design you have selected a high performance chemical propellant with a specific impulse of 300
sec and a propellant density of 1750 kg/m
3
.
For this propulsion system, determine/estimate the following characteristics:
 Propellant mass (add a margin of 8% to the calculated mass);
 Dry motor mass (loaded mass of motor propellant mass);
 Motor (maximum) thrust given a constant thrust during flight and burn (thrust) time;
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 Propellant volume;
 Motor volume using; a motor casetopropellant volume ratio of 1.25;
 Motor dimensions using a motor lengthtodiameter ratio of 2 (value has been obtained from
comparison with other kick motors).
8.3.5 NonChemical Rocket System Sizing
An advanced (nonchemical) rocket system is used to deliver a velocity increment of 4 km/s to a spacecraft
with a mass of 2000 kg. Specific impulse of this advanced system is 3000 s, which gives a propellant mass
of about 254 kg. This system requires you to take on board a separate power source producing the required
energy. Given that this power source has a specific power of 1 kW/kg and a thruster efficiency of 80%
calculate the mass of the power source and the thrust time given a thrust level of 10 N.
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Part II  Answers
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1 BUS DESIGN
1.1 Mission Elements
The mission elements and their function are:
 Subject: The thing that interacts with or is sensed by the space payload.
 Payload: The hard and software that senses or interacts with the subject.
 Launch system: The launch facility, launch vehicle and any upper stage to place the spacecraft in
orbit, as well as interfaces, payload fairing and associated groundsupport equipment.
 Orbit: The spacecrafts trajectory or path.
 Communications architecture: The arrangement of components which satisfy the missions
communication, command and control (C
3
) requirements.
 Ground system: Fixed and mobile ground stations around the globe connected by various data
links.
 Mission operations: The people occupying the ground and space segment.
1.2 Basic engineering steps
The basic steps in engineering are:
1. Define problem/objectives to be reached
2. Establish requirements (needs)/requirements generation
3. Set up options
4. Analyze options
5. Compare options
6. Make choice
7. Implement/Iterate
Step 2 is needed as requirements provide direction to the design and allow for design verification. Step 3 is
to ensure that we do not forget any options. Step 4 is to quickly remove those options that are not feasible
within the constraints (time, budget, schedule, law, and ethics) as listed in the requirements, to allow
identifying the most promising ones. Step 5 is to actually compare the remaining options in terms of
performance, but also in terms of cost, schedule, availability, reliability, etc. Step 7 is to ensure that we
document the results, so they can be communicated to others for further detailing of the design.
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1.3 Requirements generation
1.3.1 Types of Requirements
Spacecraft requirements can be distinguished in relation to the element in the space system where they
originate. As such we may distinguish payload requirements, launcher requirements, orbit requirements, C
3
requirements, etc.
Another distinction is in functional requirements and nonfunctional requirements. Operations
requirements form part of the latter type of requirements. See syllabus for more details.
1.3.2 Criteria for proper requirements
Requirements shall be:
Specific
Measurable
Acceptable
Realistic
Traceable/time bound
For further details, see the syllabus.
1.3.3 SMART Requirements
Req. ID Requirement Good Bad
1 The spacecraft shall allow for accommodating a
payload with a mass not exceeding 100 kg and with
dimensions smaller than 100 x 150 x 300 mm
3
X
2 The spacecraft shall be launched in LEO X
3 The mission costs shall be minimized X
4 The spacecraft shall be launched by Ariane 4 X
5 The spacecraft shall be impervious to failure X
6 Ground station antennas, rotators and cabling shall be
designed for operation in the temperature range
between 30C and 65C.
X
7 The spacecraft development time shall be less than 2
months
X
8 All parameters shall be expressed in SI units X
The following explanation is offered:
Requirement 1 is not good as it is not specific. It clearly is about two different things (mass and
dimensions).
Req. 2 is not good as LEO is not clearly defined. When the orbit is defined in terms of the 6 Kepler
elements the orbit is well defined. Note that LEO implicitly indicates that we are dealing with an Earth
mission.
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Req. 3 is bad as it will be very hard to verify that we have really achieved minimum costs. It is much
better to set a cost limit.
Req. 4 is a good requirement as Ariane 4 is well defined. Of course there are various versions, but
whatever version we select, it is still an Ariane 4.
Req. 5 is not considered a good requirement as it is the nature of things that there will come a time that
they will fail. It is much better to include here a value for the reliability of the spacecraft that should be
attained over the mission duration.
Req. 6 is considered a good required. It is specific; it is verifiable and so on.
Req. 7 is considered a good requirement as it is specific, verifiable, and so on. However 2 months
development time might not be realistic. This should be judged in relation to the complexity of the
spacecraft and the advancements needed.
Req. 8 is considered a good requirement as the SI unit system is well defined.
Note that the preceding information is somewhat subjective. In the real world, such requirements are
subject of further investigation and in the end might be updated in agreement with the customer.
1.3.4 Payload derived requirements
The BHRC has several optional items. None of them are considered here
1. Bus must facilitate telescope size of 115 x 141 x 195 cm
3
2. Bus must facilitate telescope mass of 296 kg
3. Bust must have a life of at least 5 year (same as payload). It does not make sense to design for much
longer as the payload will no longer function. Also designing for a shorter life does not make much
sense as in that case the bus will no longer be operational, whereas the camera might still be as good as
new.
4. Payload power:
a. Peak: 792 W (when imaging)
b. Average: 25 W (nonimaging, orbital average)
Based on the assumption that the imager is active 30% of the orbit, we find that the imager requires an
(orbit averaged) power of 0.3*792W +0.7*25 W =255.1 W. Note that this value is of importance for
the design of a photovoltaic power system.
5. Data rate (see also section on Command & Data handling)
The data rate generated depends on the number of pixels, the read out frequency and the level of data
compression achieved. From the given data, it follows for the number of pixels:
a. Pan: 2.12 deg/1.37 rad gives 27,715 pixels cross track (~14 km a 0.5 m gives 28,000
pixels cross track).
b. NVIR (4): 2.12 deg/5.47 rad =6764 pixels cross track per colour (14 km a 2 m gives
7000 pixels per colour so again 28,000 in total) or about 27,000 in total.
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So the number of pixels are (per square image): 27715 x 27715 +4 x 7664 x 6764 =951.1 Mpixels
The read out frequency can be determined from the orbital altitude. From this we can determine the
ground velocity (assuming the spacecraft is in circular orbit). Setting the orbital altitude equal to 400
km, it follows a ground velocity of 7216 m/s. For an image of size 14 km along track, this would mean
that we have on average 7216/14000 =0.515 image per second. Total bit rate generated in that case is
0.515 images x 951.1 Mpixels/image x 11 bit/pixel = 5.39 Gbps. Taking into account data
compression, this reduces to 0.98 Gbps. To handle all this data a fast processor is needed. Typically
we need a processor that is capable of handling at least 250 MIPS, but preferably somewhat more.
6. Data transmission rate. The data generated needs to be transmitted to ground. This would require a
transmission bandwidth of roughly 1 GHz, depending on the telecommunications technology that we
select. However, the optional 320 Mbps transmitter suggests that the camera is not 100% of the time
active. It looks like that on average it is 30% of the time active, thereby thus reducing the actual data
rate. This data also suggests, as of limited contact times with a ground station, that possibly a data
relay satellite is used to transmit the data more or less continuously to ground. So this would bring as a
requirement for the satellite that it should be able to communicate with the data relay system.
7. Data storage. In case of data storage on board we need for 100 images roughly 100 Gbit or 12.5
GByte. Of course we can store more data on board, but then also we should take this into account
when designing the communications link.
1.3.5 Launcher derived requirements
From ESAs LVC we learn that:
1. Launch mass limited to maximum 6640 kg in case of a nominal GTO orbit. If other orbit is
required this mass may be reduced somewhat.
2. Payload usable volume: 200 m
3
for largest fairing (other volumes are possible allowing for more
mass into orbit)
a. Maximum S/C diameter: 4.57 m.
b. Maximum height: 10.04 m (cylindrical part); Some more room is available on top, but
shape becomes complicated.
3. Size of launcher adapter ring: 2624 mm.
4. Launch cost is 137 MEuro (1999). Value needs to be updated in accordance with 2010 economic
conditions. Launch cost together with spacecraft cost, operations cost and insurance cost form the
major cost factors of a space mission. Total cost should be within budget.
5. Nominal payload separation velocity: 0.5 m/s.
6. Nominal rotational rate: 5 rpm.
All data for now are provisional and need to be checked with the launch provider. This checking usually
occurs once more data on the project are available.
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1.3.6 Stationkeeping and manoeuvring requirements
The v values for the tasks to be accomplished are:
 Apogee kick manoeuvre: 1800 m/s
 Station keeping (15 x 55 m/s/year): 825 m/s
 Momentum wheel unloading (15 x 6 m/s/year): 80 m/s
 End of life disposal (assumption): 100 m/s
1.3.7 Environmental Hazards
Environmental hazards include:
I. Handling loads, humidity, contamination
II. Launch loads (sound, shock, vibrations, accelerations)
III. Radiation, debris, atomic oxygen
1.3.8 Other Requirements
Other requirements may include requirements from the other mission elements, like the communications
frequencies to be used, and the maximum allowed data rates, but also requirements relating to the date
when operation starts, financial budget, reliability, and availability of service.
1.4 Perform Vehicle Level Sizing
1.4.1 S/C mass estimation
a) Taking the average of the 5 lowest ratios we find an average value of 19.2%, whereas we get a value
of 38.7% in case we take the 5 highest values.
1.4.2 Mass estimate (kick stages)
M
dry
=0.1369 M
propellant
+305.33 [in kg]
1.4.3 Power Estimate
From the data in the table we determine the payload power to total power ratio. It follows 11.1%, 19.4%,
47.2%, 35.8%, 43.4% and 14.3 %, respectively for Delfi C
3
up to Saga. This gives an average of 28.5 %
with an SSD of 13.6%. Based on the 5.0 W of power we find for the spacecraft total power a value of 17.5
W (MLE). With a probability of 65%, the spacecraft power is in the range 11.9 W to 33.6 W.
1.4.4 Cost Estimate
From the data in the syllabus, we learn that spacecraft specific cost range from about US$ 10,000/kg to
300,000/kg. The data have also been plotted in a figure, see figure in syllabus, annex D, and a regression
curve has been determined. Based on this curve, it is estimated a spacecraft cost of US 7.8 M$ (FY2000).
To determine a high and a low estimate, we should determine for this curve the SEE and than decide
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whether we would like to be pretty sure (65% probability), very sure (95% probability) or even more sure
(99% probability).
A word of caution; Given that the number of very small spacecraft in the data table is fairly limited, it is
well possible that real cost are quite different. The one spacecraft in the range of 40 kg has a cost of 3.7
M$, so it might well be possible that actual costs are lower. This moreover so, when considering that such
small spacecraft generally are designed with simplicity in mind.
1.4.5 Life Estimate (life cycle)
To Be Added
1.4.6 Reliability (general)
The problem of reliability is that 100% reliability even over a very short time period is impossible to attain.
This will mean that the problem actually is the problem of failure. Such failures may have benign
consequences, but may also lead to complete mission failure.
1.4.7 Reliability Estimate
Based on the given payload reliability over a period of 10 years, we can compute a payload failure rate of
0.0357 failure/yr. For a 4yr period, this gives a payload reliability of 0.867. Given that the spacecraft
reliability over this 4yr period must be 0.8, this leads to a bus or service platform reliability over this 4yr
period of 0.923 (0.923 x 0.867 =0.8).
1.4.8 Risk Assessment Background
Risk depends both on the probability of failure and the consequence of this failure. Level of risk is
determined from the product of the probability of failure (F =1  R) and the consequence of failure.
Technology development risk is than the risk that the technology development does not go as planned. The
probability of development failure is highest in case the technology development status is low. The
consequence of development failing can for instance be a severe setback in terms of schedule and/or
additional expensed to make up for lost time.
1.4.9 Visualization of high risk items
A risk matrix is a graphical way of depicting high risk items. A simple risk matrix can be of size 3 x 3
where in the horizontal direction the probability of failure is plotted and in the vertical direction the
severity of the consequence of failure. In a 3 x 3 matrix 3 levels are distinguished for probability (high, low
and intermediate) just like for the severity of the consequence. In the matrix than the various components
are placed according to their development status and the perceived severity of the consequence of the
development failure.
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1.5 Spacecraft Bus Subsystems
See table in syllabus ae1222II, or see lecture notes ae1110II.
1.6 Budgeting
1.6.1 Spacecraft Mass Budgeting
From the problem statement we obtain a spacecraft dry mass of 95 kg. This mass includes the payload and
the spacecraft bus subsystems, but is excluding the propellant.
1. To determine a mass budget, we can use the average percentage distribution as given in the table. First
however, we must determine the 100%distribution. To this end, we divide the % given by (1  mass %
of propulsion system/100%) The resulting distribution is given in the table below (column 3). The
resulting budget is given in column 4.
Payload/subsystem Mass (%) Mass (%) Mass (kg) Mass (kg)
Payload 23.9 24.9 23.7 18.9
Structures 22.7 23.7 22.5 18.0
Thermal 2.4 2.5 2.3 1.9
Power 20.5 21.3 20.2 16.2
TT&C 4.6 4.8 4.6 3.6
ADCS 8.1 8.4 8.0 6.4
Propulsion 5.1 5.3 5.0 4.0
Harness 2.4 2.5 2.4 1.9
C&DH 6.4 6.6 6.3 5.0
SUM 95.9 100.0 95 75.9
2. To determine a mass margin thereby ensuring only a 16% probability of exceeding the upper mass
limit, we first need to determine the sample standard deviation for each of our estimates. The results
are given in the next table expressed as a percentage of S/C dry mass.
Subsystem SSD (%) SSD (kg)
Payload 7.8 7.4
Structures 6.8 6.5
Thermal 2.7 2.6
Power 10.3 9.8
TT&C 3.8 3.6
ADCS 5.2 4.9
Propulsion 2.5 2.4
Harness 3.1 3.0
C&DH 6.0 5.7
Assuming that the mass estimation of the subsystems is uncorrelated, it follows for the standard
deviation of the summed masses: 17.7% = =
i i
STD STD . In case of only a 16% probability of
exceeding our mass estimate, we should take 1 STD as margin. This comes down to 17.7% of 95 kg =
16.2 kg.
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3. Taking a 20% margin on total allowable S/C mass, it follows a mass of 95 0.2 x 95 =95 19 =76
kg to be distributed among payload and the vehicle subsystems. The resulting budget is given in the
column 5 of the first table.
1.6.2 Power Budgeting
First we determine average contribution in the power budget of the various subsystems distinguished in the
table. The answers can be found in the syllabus, annex C, part Power data, table 1. Based on the given
payload power of 6.0 kW and the payload power to total power ratio of 77.4%, we estimate a total
spacecraft power of 7.8 kW. Taking into account the SSD (=STD) as given in the table it follows for the
SSD of the payload and the subsystems
Payload (6.37%): 525 W
TT&C (0.61%): 48 W
ADCS (2.66%): 207.5 W
Thermal (4.29%): 334.6 W
Propulsion (0.09%): 7.0 W
Power generation (0.81%): 63.2 W
Charging (2.42%): 189 W
Assuming estimates are independent, it follows for the SSD of the sum:
Including payload: 687.5 W
Excluding payload: 443.9 W
Depending on whether the payload power is accurately know or not we can select either the first or the
second value. Assuming payload power is known accurately, uncertainty is than only in the power
consumed by the subsystems. This is estimated at 1800 W. To be fairly certain that we do not get into
problems with our design, we add 1 SSD of 443.9 W to our power estimate, so we design for a total of
8.24 kW. In that case we have a margin of about 25% on the power estimated for the spacecraft bus
subsystems.
1.6.3 Reliability Budgeting
We assume that all bus subsystems work independently from each other and that all subsystem failures
lead to a bus failure (no redundancy between different subsystems).
(a) In case all subsystems contribute equally to total (bus) reliability of 0.80, we find that subsystem
reliability should be equal to 0.8
(1/7)
=0.968.
(b) Subsystem reliability is determined from failure rate data where overall failure rate of the bus follows
from the sum of the failure rate of the different subsystems. Taking an arbitrary lifetime of 1 year, we find
an overall failure rate of 0.223 failures per year. Of this number of failures, 33.6% is attributed to the
communications subsystem indicating a failure rate of 0.336 x 0.223 =0.075. This then gives a reliability
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over the earlier assumed lifetime of 1 year of 0.928. Applying the same method for all other subsystems,
we find:
Subsystem Failure rate Reliability
Communications 0.0749 0.928
Guidance and Navigation 0.0415 0.959
Electric Power 0.0401 0.961
Command & Data Handling 0.0276 0.973
Thermal 0.0169 0.983
Propulsion 0.0112 0.989
Structure 0.0107 0.989
Multiplication of all subsystem reliabilities then gives a reliability of 0.8 (verify!!).
1.7 Spacecraft Mass and Size Properties
Ad 1: Using given mass density and spacecraft mass it follows a body volume of 1.5 m
3
. This gives a
linear dimension of 1.145 m and a surface area of 1.31 m
2
. It follows for the mass moment of inertia of the
cubic body: I =65.6 kgm
2
.
Ad 2. To deliver 600 W, the array needs to have an area of 4 m
2
or 2 m
2
per panel. Given the linear
dimension of 1.145 m, it follows a panel length of 1.75 m.
Total mass of solar panels (two panels) is 600 W/50 W/kg =12.0 kg.
Mass moment of inertia of panels about yaxis is MMOI of panel about panel centre +contribution from
displacing the axis of rotation to yaxis:
Distance between panel centre and yaxis is L
a
=1.145/2 +1.75/2 =1.45 m.
I
ay
=2(1/12 * 6.0* (1.75
2
+1.145
2
)) =4.38 kgm
2
Using parallel axis theorem we get 2 * 6 * 1.45
2
=25.24 kgm
2
Total mass moment of inertia becomes 29.62 kgm
2
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2 SPACE STRUCTURES
2.1 Functions
See lecture notes/slides
2.2 Launch Loads
Answer to be taken from ESA Launch Vehicle Guide.
2.3 Space structures general knowledge
See section 8.4.5 from the course textbook Spacecraft Systems Engineering
2.4 Materials used and their properties
See e.g. the table 8.8 from the course textbook, see above.
2.5 Natural frequency
The following relation should hold:
0.160 35
nat
AE
f Hz
mL
=
With m =250 kg, L is 5 m and E =70 GPa, it follows cross sectional area >0.00086 m
2
.
With A = D t,
we find t 0.3 mm.
Note for further study: In case we need to design our structure such that also the lateral frequency is higher
than some given value, how would this affect our design?
2.6 Natural frequency
Diameter Area Area moment of
inertia
Lateral natural freq. Axial natural
frequency
[m]
[m
2
] [m
4
]
[Hz] [Hz]
0.5 4.7E3 147E6 7.73 58.6
1.0 9.4E3 118E5 21.9 82.9
1.5 1.4E2 397E5 40.2 101
2.0 1.9E2 942E5 61.9 117
Results show that with increasing diameter the structure stiffens and that the natural frequencies
increase.
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2.7 Tensile strength
Maximum stress is calculated using:
y
x
tot
g MLc
g M
I A
= +
First we compute the design loads. It follows:
In x direction Mgx =250*9.81*6 *1.25 =18394 [N]
In ydirection Mgy =250*9.81*1.5 =4598 [N]
About zaxis MLgy =250*9.81*5.0*1.5 =22992 [Nm]
Next we compute the crosssectional area and the second moment of inertia. It follows:
o Cross sectional area: A = x D x t =0.00157 m
2
, and
o Second moment of area: I = x r
3
x t =0.00020 m
4
Maximum Stress (compression):
=69.2 MPa =22992 Nm x 0.5 m/0.00020 m
4
+18394 N/0.00157m
2
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3 THERMAL CONTROL
3.1 Earth Flux Density
Earth Flux Density: 225.3 W/m
2
3.2 Solar flux
The value of the solar flux or the solar radiation intensity can be calculated using relation 12.1 from
Fortescue et al. This relation shows that the radiation intensity decreases with the distance from the Sun
squared. Fortescue et al provide values for the solar radiation intensity as a percentage of solar constant at
1 Astronomical Unit (AU). Using these data, we find for the solar radiation intensity at:
 Earth: 1371 W/m
2
5 W/m
2
with a 3.4% seasonal variation caused by varying EarthSun distance
 Mercury: 9145 W/m
2
 Mars: 591 W/m
2
 J upiter: 50.6 W/m
2
 Pluto: 0.9 W/m
2
Details on the orbit of the various planets can be taken from Fortescue et al (p.339, 2
nd
edition or p.358 3
rd
edition).
3.3 Absorption/Emission
Absorption:
S
= 0.4
Emission: = 0.6
3.4 Heat Balance
The required radiator area A when T
max
=33 C (T
4
=500 W/m
2
) is: 0.25 m
2
each.
The heat balance can be written as:
Q
in
+Q
internal
=Q
out
Q
in
= x S x A =0.1 * 1,400 * A
Q
internal
=165 W
Q
out
=2 x e x 5.67E8 x (T
panel
)
4
=2 x 0.8 x 5.67E8 * (306.15)
4
.
Filling in the respective heat into the heat balance gives a single equation in the unknown area A.
Solving for the unknown area A gives: A = 0.251 m
2
.
3.5 Heater System Sizing
The heater power demand to keep T
min
30 C (T
4
=200 W/m
2
) in survival mode is 45 W.
First we calculate Q
in
(absorbed heat) =49 W
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Next we calculate Q
out
(emitted heat) =94 W.
Difference is heater power required =45 W.
If insufficient heater power would be available during the design phase it might be possible to paint the
shaded radiator (partially) black and change the orientation during a failure case such that the sun
illuminates this radiator.
3.6 Conductions
The heat leak W between spacecraft and boom, assuming that the average boom temperature lies halfway
the boom is 0.4 W. High uncertainty is caused by the fact that the designer does not know where the boom
has its average temperature.
3.7 DelfiC3 Thermal Control
1a) In =Out
4
4
0.72 1425 0.85 258 0.85 128
s
o
A S A E A T
A A A T T C
+ =
+ = =
This is far beyond the maximum allowable temperature of 80
o
[C].
Note that the first term on the right gives the solar energy absorbed by the spacecraft, whereas the second
term gives the IR energy absorbed by the spacecraft. That we use emissivity here is just to illustrate that
the absorption factor of the spacecraft in the IR wavelength regime is identical to the emissivity of the
spacecraft (also in the IR) wavelength regime.
1b) The temperature can be lowered by a low, high coating on the rear side; e.g. white paint or SSM
tape.
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4 POWER SYSTEM
4.1 Power system functions and functional requirements

4.2 Options
Typical energy sources used on launchers are batteries and fuel cells. On Spacecraft, solar photovoltaics
are used most often except when these spacecraft orbit far away from the Sun. In that case radioisotope
and/or nuclear generators may be used.
Energy density of some energy sources can be obtained from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density
4.3 Solar intensity
Total power provided by the Sun is 3.8 x 10
26
W. The power flux (in units of power per unit area) at some
distance R from the Sun is the total power divided by the surface area of a sphere with diameter D, where
D =2R. It follows for the available solar flux @ Earth orbit:
3.8 x 10
26
W/(4*149.5 x 10
9
m
2
) =1353 W/m
2
.
So to determine the available solar flux at Mercury, Mars and Pluto, we should first determine the distance
from these planets to the Sun. This information can be obtained from e.g. Wikepedia and is left for you to
explore yourself.
4.4 EPS

4.5 Solar Array Sizing
Array area: 4750/50 =95 m
2
Array dimensions are (2 wings): 4 x 11.875 m
2
; Here the height of the array is limited by the height of the
S/C.
Array mass: 4750/40 =118.754 kg
EPS mass =4750/15 =316.7 kg
Sketch: To Be Added
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4.6 Fuel Cell Mass
The mass of the empty tank system is 1800 kg
The mass of the fuel consumed is: E*(M
fuelspecific
)
(15 kW*18 days*24 hours)*(0.6 kg/kWh)=3888 kg=3888 litres of water (at standard conditions)
The mass of the fuel cell is 15 kW/100We/kg=150 kg
Total mass=1800 kg +3888 kg +150 kg=5838 kg
4.7 Battery System Sizing
P
bat
=P
e
=620 W
Storage capacity
bat e
P t 620*35
E 3.8kWh
DOD 0.12*0.80*60
= = =
bat
sp
bat
E 3014
M 107 kg
E 35
E 3014
V 381 liter
E 100
= = =
= = =
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5 COMMAND AND DATA HANDLING
5.1 C&DH System Design
Number of bits generated is 500 x 1 x 12 +50 x 10 x 16 =14kbps. To this we should add the 1 Mbps of
science data. This gives a total data rate of 1.014 Mbps. In 8 hours this is 29.2 Gbit of data or 3.65 GByte
(=29.2 Mbit/(8bit/Byte)).
Data transmission speed when in contact with ground is simply 29.2 Gbit/(10min x 60 s) =48.7 Mbps.
The mass of the system consists of the mass contributions of the data handling system itself, the OBC with
encoders/decoders, the data storage device (not considered here) and the harness.
The mass of the data handling system is determined using that is given in the syllabus that specific mass is
on average 2.75 kg/100 channels. This then leads to a mass of the data handling system of 15.1 kg.
The mass of the OBC is estimated based on that we need 0.7 kg/MIPS. Based on the data transmission
speed and given that 14 Mbps is equivalent to 1 MIPs, we estimate 48.712.2 MIPS. At 0.7 kg/MIPS, this
gives an OBC and en/decoder mass of 34.18.5 kg.
Harness mass is estimated using a specific mass of 0.011 kg/m/signal. Given that we measure 550 signals
and taking an average line length of 4 m (an estimated value for a typical spacecraft), this gives a harness
mass of 24.2 kg.
Using the relationships from the syllabus, we find for the solid state recorder a mass of 24.3 kg.
It follows for the total C&DH system a mass value of roughly 100 kg.
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5.2 TM Data Rate
10 temperature signals are to be sampled with a maximum quantization error of 1%. This requires at least 6
bits per sample. Since all signals are sampled 10 times per second, we find a data rate of 10 signals x 10
samples/s x 6 bits is 600 bps.
10 voltage signals are to be sampled with a maximum quantization error of 0.1%. This requires 9 bits per
sample. Given the sampling rate of once per second, we obtain a data rate of 10 signals x 1 sample/s x 9 =
90 bps
To digitize the experiment signal, we need to sample at least 2.2 times 440 Hz is 968 samples every
second. Maximum quantization error requires at least 12 bits per sample. This then gives a bit rate of 968 x
12 =11616 bps.
Total bit rate now is 600 +90 +11616 =12306 bps or 12.306 kbps.
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6 TELECOMMAND AND TELECOMMUNICATION
6.1 TT&C functions
Consult the syllabus.
6.2 Bandwidth and spectrum utilization
Frequency band: A unit for designating a range of frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum. Satellite
communications most commonly use the CBand (6/4 GHz) or KuBand (14/11 and 14/12 GHz)
frequencies. Future satellite systems will make use of bands above 20 GHz to gain additional capacity and
to avoid congestion and interference with systems operating at lower frequencies.
Bandwidth: A means of capacity that indicates the range of frequencies available for signaling. Services
requiring bandwidth greater than 200 KHz are known as broadband. Those requiring less capacity are
narrowband.
Spectrum Utilization: Measure for number of bits transmitted per unit of frequency (roughly between 0.22
bits per Hz).
6.3 Communication bands
See for instance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_spectrum and consider the table of IEEE bands or see
Table 34 from the syllabus.
6.4 Wave length and Frequency
Use the relation c = x f to complete the table with c being the velocity of light (300,000 km/s)
6.5 TT&C system
A typical TT&C system is shown in the figure 64 in the syllabus. It consists of two transponders that are
each capable of receiving and transmitting. The reason that there are 2 is that one is intended as a backup
for the other as the transmitter and receiver are vital for the success of the mission. Included in the figure
are also two decoders (sometimes the decoders are considered as part of the C&DH system) again for
reasons of redundancy.
The system can be used to help in monitoring the satellites location as it allows for ranging, i.e.
determining the distance between the spacecraft and the ground station. Multiple measurements allows for
tracking and orbit reconstruction. See also the syllabus, section on navigation.
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6.6 Signal to noise ratio
Consider a satellite in geostationary orbit. Downlink data rate R is 6410 bits per second. This data is send
to Earth. The on board satellite transmitter has an RF output power of 30 Watt.
a) Given a spectrum utilization of 0.5, the required bandwidth (in kHz) is 12.820 kHz.
b) The received power flux density (in W/m
2
) at a distance of 36,000 km from the transmitter is 1.84 E
15 W/m
2
.
Notice that here the antenna gain has been taken equal to 1.
c) In case we use a transmit antenna with an antenna gain of 3000 the received power flux density
increases to 5.53 E12 W/m
2
.
d) The power received by an antenna of 1 m diameter and an antenna efficiency of 60% is 2.61 E12 W.
e) The noise spectral density (in W/Hz) at a noise temperature of 300 K is 4.14 E21 W/Hz.
f) The energy per bit to noise power ratio is ~98x10
3
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7 ATTITUDE CONTROL SYSTEM
7.1 General
The attitude of a spacecraft is referring to how the spacecraft is oriented in space.
The function of the attitude determination system of a spacecraft is to measure vehicle attitude with respect
to a reference frame defined in space.
The function of the spacecraft attitude control system is to establish a certain attitude of the spacecraft with
respect to a reference frame defined in space.
7.2 Quantifying the Disturbance Environment
a) Disturbance torques
( )
14
5 o
g yaw min 3 6 3
3 3(3.986x10 )
T I I 30 5.29x10 N m ( 30 )
R (7.078x10 )
= = = =
( ) [ ]
( ) Nm 10 x 26 . 4 ) 3 . 0 (
10 x 3
0 cos ) 6 . 1 ( ) 4 . 1 ( 1358
c c
c
i cos q 1 A F
T
6 
8
2
g ps
s s
sp
= =
+
=
Nm 10 x 49 . 4
) 10 x 078 . 7 (
) 10 x 96 . 7 )( 1 ( 2
R
DM 2
T
5 
3 6
15
3
M
= = =
( ) Nm 10 x 13 . 1 ) 3 . 0 ( ) 3 . 7504 ( ) 4 . 1 )( 5 . 2 )( 10 x 73 . 2 ( 5 . 0 c c AV C 5 . 0 T
5  2 2 13
g ps
2
d a
= = =
It follows for the maximum single contribution to the disturbance torque a value of 4.5 x 10
5
Nm. For
design purposes, we generally assume that all the disturbance torques act in the same direction! (This
is a much exaggerated assumption, but this will give a reasonable margin for our design). It follows a
total disturbance torque, T
D
, of 10.4 x 10
5
Nm.
b) In the vicinity of earth we find that:
Aerodynamic disturbance torque decreases with increasing altitude as the density of the air decreases
with altitude.
Magnetic disturbance torque and gravity gradient vary with 1/r
3
, meaning that they decrease with
increasing altitude.
Solar disturbance torque is independent from altitude
c) T
D
=50 x 0.001 is 0.05 Nm. This value is about a factor 1000 larger than the earlier calculated
disturbance torques?
d) Cannot be answered. Need to know the point through which the thrust acts.
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7.3 Attitude dynamics
A cubical S/C with MMOI of 1000 kgm
2
about one of its principal axes experiences a constant (in
magnitude and direction) disturbance torque (T) about this axis of 0.01 Nm. It follows:
a) Angular acceleration =T/MMOI =0.01/1000 =10
5
rad/s
2
(5.7 x 10
4
deg/s
2
)
b) Angular velocity (in deg/s) attained in 1 hour is 5.7 x10
4
deg/s
2
3600 =2.1 deg/s (=0.0367 rad/s)
c) Angle over which the spacecraft rotates in 1 hour =0.5 x 5.7 10
4
deg/s
2
(3600s)
2
=3712 deg or about
10 full revolutions.
d) Angular momentum gained/lost in 1 hour =1000 kgm
2
x 0.0367 rad/s =36.7 Nms
7.4 Control modes
Some typical control modes include:
Control Modes Explanation
Launch
Detumble Reduce rotation rates to near zero (e.g. after separation or fault)
Spinup Acquisition of stability through spinup manoeuvre
Attitude Acquisition Find Sun, Earth, Stars, etc. by sweeping
Normal Normal operation such as pointing for science
Thrusting Propulsive manoeuvre; wrong pointing of thrust vector may induce too high a
gravity loss
Communication Periodic pointing of antenna to ground or relay station
Safe Stand by mode in case of a major malfunction
7.5 Types of Attitude Control
Type Application Remarks
3Axis stabilized Most spacecraft requiring fine pointing
(remote sensing S/C and high power
communications S/C
Fine control, but complex and expensive
Spin stabilized Meteorology satellites (spinning motion is
used to scan the environment)
Low to medium accuracy, simple
Dual spin
stabilized
GEO communications satellites Low to medium accuracy; spun part
provides stability, despun part allows for
antenna pointing to Earth
Gravity gradient
stabilized
Earth pointing satellites Coarse control; simple
Solar radiation
stabilized
Solar observatories Coarse control; simple
Magnetic
stabilization
LEO (works best in near equatorial orbits) Coarse control; simple
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7.6 Types of Sensors and Actuators
Item Type Advantages Disadvantages
Sensor Star sensor High accuracy Complex, expensive
Sun sensor Bright target, unambiguous Not visible all the time
Limited accuracy,
Horizon sensor Less bright target Limited accuracy, due to
presence of atmosphere
Inertial sensor No external inputs, orbit
independent, high accuracy
short term
Drift on long term, senses
changes only, reliability
concerns
GPS Robust Only for LEO
Magnetometers Cheap, reliable, low mass,
low power
Limited accuracy due to
inaccurate knowledge of
magnetic field. Magnetic
field not available for all
planets
Actuators Thrusters
Momentum devices
Solar sails Small forces only
Nutation dampers
7.7 ADCS Main Elements
Controlling vehicle attitude requires sensors to measure vehicle attitude, actuators to apply the torques
needed to reorient the vehicle to a desired attitude, and algorithms to command the actuators based on (1)
sensor measurements of the current attitude and (2) specification of a desired attitude.
7.8 Spinners
Stabilization is accomplished by rotating the spacecraft mass, thus using gyroscopic action as the
stabilizing mechanism. Thrusters are fired to make desired changes in the spinstabilized attitude. Spin
stabilized spacecraft provide a continuous sweeping desirable for fields and particle instruments, but they
may require complicated systems to despin antennas or optical instruments which must be pointed at
targets.
7.8.1 Existing systems
Typical spinstabilized spacecraft include the Meteosat and MSG spacecraft and the Boeing 376
telecommunications spacecraft. Other spacecraft include the IMAGE spacecraft. The latter spacecraft
measures 2.25 meters in diameter and 1.52 meters in height and weighs 494 kg. It has a nominal spin
period of 2 minutes (=a spin rate of 0.5 0.01 rpm); its spin axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. Spin
rate and spinaxis orientation are controlled and maintained by a single magnetic torque rod according to
attitude information provided by a sun sensor and star tracker. Attitude knowledge is accurate to within 0.1
degree. Other existing systems are left for you to explore for yourself.
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7.8.2 Angular momentum
Consider a vehicle with a constant mass, M, of 1000 kg and a mass density of 250 kg/m
3
.
Given that the vehicle is of a cubical shape with the CoM in the geometric centre and that the mass is
homogeneously distributed, it follows for the MMOI about the principal axes of the system: MMOI =
1/6 M x L
2
, where L follows from the volume of the S/C (1000 kg/ 250 kg/m
3
=4 m
3
). It follows L =
1.587 m and MMOI =420 kgm
2
.
The rotational rate of the S/C needed to obtain an angular momentum (H) of 3000 Nms follows from
the relation H =MMOI x . It follows =7.14 rad/s or about 2 rotations per second.
A momentum wheel of 10 kg and diameter of 20 cm represents a MMOI of M r
2
=0.1 kgm
2
. To
provide for an angular momentum of 3000 Nms, the rotational rate of the wheel is 30.000 rad/s or
about 4500 rotations per second or about 60 times more in case we express this value in rpm. The
result clearly shows that this is not realistic as the spinning wheel will disintegrate because of the high
centripetal acceleration it will experience. Hence spinning the complete spacecraft allows for high
angular momentum. This high angular momentum is considered advantageous to provide for a stable
platform.
7.8.3 Spinup Manoeuvre
Solve using required change in angular momentum: H
02
H
01
=F * r* t.
With H
0
=I
0
it follows that:
H
01
= 0 since
1
=0.
Assuming the vehicle has a cylindrical shape with a radius, r, of 2 meters and a uniform mass distribution,
we find:
2000 2 1000
2
1
Mr
2
1
I
2 2
0
= = = kgm
2
And
2 0
10 3 , 6
10 2
2 2000
t r
I
F =
=
N
1
7.9 Actuator design
7.9.1 Reaction wheels
a) 3
b) 3 +1
c) Slew torque needed to allow performing the slew manoeuvre:
1
Note: In case, we opt for pure torques only, see also a later problem; it requires two thrusters thrusting in
opposing directions on opposing sides of the spacecraft, but with half the above calculated thrust.
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Nm
) )( (
t
I
T
3
2 2
10 * 7 . 1
600
300 6 / 4 4
= =
=
d) Angular momentum storage capacity needed: H =T x t =0.01 Nm x 24 hrx 3600 s/s =432 Nms.
e) Wheel maximum rpm in case the mass moment of inertia of the wheel is 0.01 kgm
2
: Angular velocity
is H/I
RW
=432/0.01 =43200 rad/s =6827 rpm
f) Wheel mass in case wheel diameter is limited to 10 cm (r =5 cm). I =0.01 =0.5 mr
2
=0.5 m (0.05)
2
=>Wheel mass is 8 kg
g) Answer to Be Added
h) Torque to be produced is 432 Nms/1200s =0.36 Nm. (torque increases with reduced time for
unloading).
7.9.2 Thrusters
a) 4 per axis, so in total twelve.
b) 12 +12
c) Thrust needed is 0.01 Nm/1 m/2 =5 mN per thruster
d) Angular acceleration =E5 rad/s
2
. Total angular momentum exchanged is 1576800 Nms. Given a
thruster arm of 1 m, it follows that the total impulse to be delivered is 1576800 Ns =M
p
U
e
. since U
e
=
600 m/s it follows a propellant mass of 2628 kg. Since we have 3 axis, the total amount of propellant
increases to 3 x 2628 kg =7884 kg
e) To Be Added
7.9.3 Magnetic torquer
a) D x B =0.036 Nm =>D =800 Am
2
=n I A
b) 8 W/10 V =>0.8 A
c) Coil diameter =5 cm =>n =509,296 turns (clearly not a realistic number).
d) Enhancing the magnetic field by a factor 4000 (realistic values are in the range 20006000) reduces the
number of turns to 127128 turns.
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8 PROPULSION
8.1 Requirements
1. Typical propulsive functions are:
 Primary propulsion
o Booster propulsion
o Sustainer propulsion
o Apogee / perigee kick
 Secondary propulsion
o Drag compensation
o Station keeping (NorthSouth, EastWest)
o Attitude control
2. The forces of importance are those due to drag, solar radiation pressure and gravity.
3. The v values for the tasks to be accomplished are:
 Apogee kick manoeuvre: 1800 m/s
 Station keeping (15 x 55 m/s/year): 825 m/s
 Momentum wheel unloading (15 x 6 m/s/year): 80 m/s
 End of life disposal (assumption): 100 m/s
4. Linear dimension of the S/C is 1.587 m. Surface area of 1 panel is 2.52 m
2
. Maximum mass density at
the orbital altitude of 400 km =7.55 x 10
12
kg/m
3
, and orbital velocity is 7.426 km/s. It follows for the
drag: D =2 x 0.5 x 7.55 x 10
12
kg/m
3
x (7669m/s)
2
x 2.52 m
2
=1118.8 mN
5. Drag compensation
a. 25. 2 N
b. 504.2 N
6. @ 0.5 AU, solar intensity I
s
=3.856 x 10
26
W /(4 x (0.5 x 150 E9 m)
2
=5455 W/m
2
. This gives for
the solar radiation pressure P
s
=18.2 x 10
6
N/ m
2
. This gives for the force due to solar radiation
pressure:
F
s
=(1 +K) P
s
S =(1 +0.8) 18.2 x 10
6
N/m
2
x /4 (2 m)
2
F
s
=0.103 mN
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8.2 Rocket Fundamentals
8.2.1 Total impulse (constant mass)
Total impulse required: I =MV =1000 kg10
4
m/s =10
7
Ns.
8.2.2 Total impulse (variable mass)
2
:
Total impulse can be written as:
I =
dv ) v ( M
With:
( )
0
0
( ) 1500 0.05 ( )
= =
e
o o
e o
M M
M v M v v v v
v v
Integration gives:
I = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
10000
2
7
0
0
1500 0.05 0.025 1500 1.25 10 = + =
o o
v v dv v v v v Ns
Note that the total impulse has increased as compared to the earlier problem. Can you explain this?
8.2.3 Types of rocket propulsion systems (options)
Types of rocket propulsion systems can be distinguished after how the propellant is accelerated to obtain a
high exhaust velocity. Typical acceleration technologies include:
Cold gas propulsion, wherein a high pressure inert gas is accelerated to a high velocity by
allowing the gas to expand in a specially shaped channel or nozzle.
Thermochemical propulsion: Chemical energy is used to heat up a propellant which is than
accelerated to a high velocity in a nozzle. As propellants are generally used a combination of fuel
and oxidizer that react to free up the required chemical energy. Compared to cold gas propulsion,
this has the advantage of adding thermal energy to the flow, thereby providing for the capability of
a much higher exhaust velocity
Thermal propulsion (arcjet, resistojet, thermonuclear): A hot propellant is accelerated to a high
exhaust velocity in a nozzle. Main difference with chemical propulsion is that the energy for
heating the propellant does not stem from a chemical reaction but from a nuclear reactor or from
an electric generator. Compared to chemical propulsion it allows for selecting light (in terms of
molar mass) propellants, thereby increasing the attainable exhaust velocity.
2
Note that the assumption that mass varies linearly with velocity change is just a theoretical case. For instance,
we could also have assumed a quadratic relation.
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Ion propulsion, wherein electrical energy is used to accelerate ions to a high exhaust velocity.
Electrostatic ion thrusters use the Coulomb force and accelerate the ions in the direction of the
electric field. Electromagnetic ion thrusters use the Lorentz force to accelerate the ions. Some
neutralizer is needed to neutralize the beam and prevent the vehicle from charging.
Plasma propulsion, which uses the Lorentz force (a force resulting from the interaction between a
magnetic field and an electric current) to accelerate a plasma, thereby generating thrust.
The main difference between chemical rockets and the other types of rockets is that for chemical rockets
the energy needed to produce the rocket thrust is included in the propellants, whereas for the other systems
the energy needs to be obtained from some power source. The mass of this power source must also be
taken into account when comparing chemical versus nonchemical rocket propulsion.
8.2.4 Rocket analysis
a) The jet power is equal to: P
j
=1/2 mw
2
=1/2 F w =(0.5)(16000)(8339)=66.7 MW
b) Input power P
in
=P
j
/ =66.7/0,8 =83.4 MW
c) The specific power of the system is found by dividing the input power by the propulsion system mass:
83.4 MW / 2000 kg 41.7 kW/kg.
d) Propellant mass flow rate is F/w =16000/8339 =1.92 kg/s
8.3 System Sizing and Dimensioning
8.3.1 System design
a) Propellant mass
First determine final mass of upper stage plus payload at end of burn:
kg 1100 kg 1000 kg 100 M M M M
e u c e
= + = + =
Determine initial mass of upper stage using Tsiolkowskys rocket equation:
kg 4090 M e kg 1100 M
e M M
M
M
ln w v
o
s / m 3000
s / m 3940
o
w
v
e o
e
o
= =
=
Solve for mass of propellant needed by subtracting final mass:
kg 2990 kg 1100 kg 4090 M
M M M
prop
e o prop
= =
=
This shows that 67% of initial stage (vehicle) mass is made up of propellant.
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b) Maximum allowed thrust
If the maximum allowable acceleration is 1g
o
, and assuming constant thrust and no gravitational losses, the
maximum thrust is determined by the empty vehicle mass:
F =M
e
x a =1100 x 9.81 =10.8 kN.
However, if we include throttling in the design, allowing the thrust to be decreased as to ensure that we do
not exceed the limit acceleration of 1 go, it follows for the maximum allowed thrust:
F =M
o
x a =4090 x 9.81 =40.1 kN.
Notice that the latter option requires for the thrusters to have some means to control the thrust magnitude
down to about 25% of the initial thrust.
c) Minimum operating time
o In case of constant thrust, the propellant mass flow, m, can be calculated by dividing the earlier
calculated maximum thrust level by the exhaust velocity. It follows:
m =10.8 kN / 3000 m/s =3.60 kg/s.
It then follows for the operation time:
t =2990 kg / 3.60 kg/s =830.6 seconds.
o In case of the variable thrust option, we can keep acceleration constant throughout the thrust phase.
The time that the system is active can now be calculated from the constant acceleration level and the
velocity change to be accomplished:
t =(3940 m/s) / (9.80665 m/s
2
) =401.8 seconds
This roughly means a halving of the operating time compared to the constant thrust case.
8.3.2 Propellant Mass Estimation and Budgeting
The v values for the tasks to be accomplished are given in the problem 8.1.3. Since the dry mass is given,
the propellant mass should be calculated by first calculating the propellant mass needed for the hydrazine
system and then for the apogee kick motor.
For the given dry mass of 3000 kg, we find that the propellant required by the monopropellant hydrazine
system is:
This gives a hydrazine propellant mass of about 1960 kg.
The propellant mass needed for the apogee kick motor is calculated from:
v
w o
o e
e
1005m/s
2000m/s
o o
M
v w ln M M e
M
M 3000kg e M 4958.5 kg
= =
= =
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This leads to a propellant mass for the apogee kick motor of 4076 kg.
Notice that if we change the order of the calculations, the propellant masses will differ. In general when
dry mass is given, we start the calculation of the propellant mass by considering the last manoeuvres first.
In case the wet mass is given, the order is just the other way around.
8.3.3 Propellant mass
Propellant mass required (no margin included)
Manoeuvre v
(m/s)
Propulsion
system
Effective exhaust
velocity (m/s)
Initial to
final mass
ratio
Final mass
(kg)
Initial
mass
(kg)
Non
pulsed
mode
Pulsed mode
Orbit fine tuning 20
Secondary 2000 1500
Orbit & attitude control 50
v sum 70 1.048 100 104.8
Orbit injection 250
Primary 3000 NA
Braking 75
v sum 325 1.114 104.8 116.8
From the table, we find that total propellant mass is 16.8 kg of which 4.8 kg is used for orbit finetuning
and orbit & attitude control and 12 kg is for orbit injection and braking. Notice that in the table a
distinction is made between orbit fine tuning and orbit & attitude control. The v assigned to these
activities is arbitrary and does not follow from the problem statement. It is included here just to illustrate
that in practice usually v values are given per task.
8.3.4 Solid Rocket Motor Sizing
Propellant mass is estimated using the rocket equation. It follows:
With M
f
is final mass of spacecraft at end of apogee burn. It follows a propellant mass of 2789 kg. Taking
a margin of 8% gives a final propellant mass of 3012 kg.
kg 3211
f
M
s / m ) 81 . 9 300 (
s / m 1840
e
f
M 6000
w
v
e
f
M
o
M
f
M
o
M
ln w v
=
=
1800m/s
3000m/s
o o
M 4958.5kg e M 9035 kg
= =
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Total motor mass is estimated using data on net mass fraction of solid rocket motors. Typical data
collected in the lecture notes indicate a value in the range 0.050.08. Selecting an intermediate value of
0.065, we find for the total motor mass a value of 1/(1 0.065) x 3012 =3221 kg. This value of the net
mass fraction is, however, somewhat arbitrary. We find that the motor mass may be any value in between
3171 3274 kg. For now we continue with the Most Likely Estimate (MLE) of 3221 kg.
Motor dry mass can now be estimated by subtracting the propellant mass from the total motor mass. This
gives a value of 3221 3012 =209 kg (range in between 159262 kg).
Maximum motor thrust is (60002789) x 3 x 9.81 =94.5 kN.
Burn time is calculated from expelled mass and mass flow rate.
Option 1: Assuming constant thrust, and using the given specific impulse we find a mass flow rate of 32.1
kg/s. This leads to a burn time of 2789/32.1 =86.9 sec.
Option 2: In case we select a constant acceleration level of 3 g
o
we find a thrust level at start of burn of 176.6
kN. This thrust then should decrease (linearly) to 94.5 kN at end of flight. Mass flow decreases from 60.1 kg/s to
32.1 kg/s. The burn time follows from the given velocity increment and the acceleration level. It follows a burn
time of 1840/(3 x 9.81) ~62.5 sec. In this case, however, some means of thrust control or thrust programming is
required.
Propellant volume is estimated based on propellant mass and propellant mass density. Based on the data
given in the lecture notes a propellant mass density of 1750 kg/m
3
(range 1600 1800 kg/m
3
) seems
feasible. We find a propellant volume of 3012/1750 =1.72 m
3
.
Motor volume follows by taking into account shell volume ratio, i.e. volume of propellant to total motor
volume. Using a conservative estimate of 0.80 (range =0.80 till 0.95) leads to a case volume of 2.15 m
3
.
Motor size typically follows from the shape of the motor case and the shell volume. Based on comparable
motors, see table Solid Rocket Upper Stage Motors (SRUMs), we select a motor length to diameter ratio of
2. From the given case volume, it now follows: Motor diameter =1.11 m and length =2.22 m. These
values now form an envelope defining the size of the motor.
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8.3.5 NonChemical Rocket System Sizing
The J et power of the system is 0.5 F w =0.5 x 10N x 3000m/s x 9.81 m/s
2
=147 kW. Input power then is
147kW/0.8 =184 kW. Given that this power source has a specific power of 1 kW/kg it follows a mass of
the power source of 184 kg.
Additionally, we may calculate total operation time. Total operation time follows from the given propellant
mass (254 kg) and the propellant mass flow rate. The latter follows using m = F/w = 10N/(3000s x 9.81 m/s
2
) =
0.340 g/s. For the operation time we find 254kg/0.340g/s = 747522s = 207.8 hr or 89 days. Note that when
using chemical propulsion, it is possible to perform the asked for manoeuvre in less than a day. This then
reduces the operational cost of the mission.